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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906484/the-contributions-of-diet-genes-and-physical-activity-to-the-etiology-of-obesity-contrary-evidence-and-consilience
#1
REVIEW
Edward Archer, Carl J Lavie, James O Hill
The debate on the relative contributions of presumptive etiologic factors in the development of obesity is becoming increasingly speculative, insular, and partisan. As the global prevalence of obesity continues to rise, the sheer volume of unfounded conjecture threatens to obscure well-established evidence. We posit that the failure to distinguish between causal factors and mere statistical associations engendered the proliferation of misleading and demonstrably false research programs and failed public health initiatives...
June 12, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905790/characterization-of-the-tissue-and-stromal-cell-components-of-micro-superficial-enhanced-fluid-fat-injection-micro-seffi-for-facial-aging-treatment
#2
Martina Rossi, Barbara Roda, Silvia Zia, Ilaria Vigliotta, Chiara Zannini, Francesco Alviano, Laura Bonsi, Andrea Zattoni, Pierluigi Reschiglian, Alessandro Gennai
Background: New microfat preparations provide material suitable for use as a regenerative filler for different facial areas. To support the development of new robust techniques for regenerative purposes, the cellular content of the sample should be considered. Objectives: To evaluate the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cell components of micro-superficial enhanced fluid fat injection (SEFFI) samples via a technique to harvest re-injectable tissue with minimum manipulation...
June 14, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905054/-research-of-acellular-xenogeneic-nerve-combined-with-adipose-derived-stem-cells-and-platelet-rich-plasma-in-repair-of-rabbit-facial-nerve-injury
#3
Yanna Sun, Rongming Zhang, Xu Mao, Mengshu Zhang
Objective: To investigate the early effects of acellular xenogeneic nerve combined with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and platelet rich plasma (PRP) in repairing facial nerve injury in rabbits. Methods: The bilateral sciatic nerves of 15 3-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were harvested and decellularized as xenografts. The allogeneic ADSCs were extracted from the neck and back fat pad of healthy adult New Zealand rabbits with a method of digestion by collagenase type Ⅰ and the autologous PRP was prepared by two step centrifugation...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905053/-effect-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-on-pressure-ulcer-healing-in-mouse
#4
Chengliang Deng, Zhiyuan Liu, Yuanzhen Yao, Ruichi Liu, Zairong Wei, Dali Wang
Objective: To investigate the effect of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) on pressure ulcers in mouse. Methods: The subcutaneous adipose tissue from voluntary donation was harvested. Then the hADSCs were isolated and cultured by mechanical isolation combined with typeⅠcollagenase digestion. The 3rd generation cells were identified by osteogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic differentiations and flow cytometry. The platelet rich plasma (PRP) from peripheral blood donated by healthy volunteers was prepared by centrifugation...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904911/metabolic-syndrome-and-risk-of-incident-psoriasis-prospective-data-from-the-hunt-study-norway
#5
I Snekvik, T I L Nilsen, P R Romundstad, M Saunes
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome has been associated with psoriasis in cross-sectional studies, but data from prospective studies are sparse. OBJECTIVES: To prospectively examine whether metabolic syndrome and its components are associated with risk of incident psoriasis in a large population-based study using objective measurements of cardiovascular disease risk factors. METHODS: We used data from two consecutive surveys of the HUNT Study, Norway (HUNT2, 1995-1997, and HUNT3, 2006-08)...
June 14, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904777/science-behind-the-cardio-metabolic-benefits-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-biochemical-effects-vs-clinical-outcomes
#6
REVIEW
Rohith N Thota, Jessica J A Ferguson, Kylie A Abbott, Cintia B Dias, Manohar L Garg
Lower incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Greenland Inuit, Northern Canada and Japan has been attributed to their consumption of seafood rich in long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA). While a large majority of pre-clinical and intervention trials have demonstrated heart health benefits of LCn-3PUFA, some studies have shown no effects or even negative effects. LCn-3PUFA have been shown to favourably modulate blood lipid levels, particularly a reduction in circulating levels of triglycerides...
June 15, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904569/the-rs2167270-polymorphism-of-leptin-gene-is-associated-with-atopic-dermatitis
#7
Saleem A Banihani, Rawan A Elmadhoun, Omar F Khabour, Karem H Alzoubi
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that arises because of complex environmental, immunological, and genetic interactions. Adipokines are bioactive mediators secreted from adipocytes of white adipose tissue and are known to have a role in body metabolism and regulation of immune responses. Leptin is a proinflammatory adipokine that functions mainly to regulate food intake and energy expenditure. Few studies have implicated adipokines in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. In this study, we investigated the association of three leptin gene polymorphisms: -2548G>A (rs7799039), -188 C/A (rs791620), and A19G (rs2167270), with the incidence of atopic dermatitis...
2018: Dermato-endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904432/breast-panniculitis-with-liquefactive-fat-necrosis-a-case-report
#8
Yongfeng Zhang, Xuhua Shi, Yuewu Lu
Panniculitis is a group of heterogeneous disorders characterized by inflammation of the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Panniculitis of breast tissue as the initial manifestation has rarely been reported and is often misdiagnosed. Breast panniculitis may cause substantial morbidity and early diagnosis and treatment are important for the prognosis of the disease. The present study has reported a case of panniculitis with inflammation of the mammary glands as the initial presentation and provided a detailed description of ultrasonography, X-ray, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and other imaging features of breast panniculitis...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904371/hypothalamic-mitochondrial-dysfunction-as-a-target-in-obesity-and-metabolic-disease
#9
REVIEW
Juan Cunarro, Sabela Casado, Javier Lugilde, Sulay Tovar
Mitochondria are important organelles for the adaptation to energy demand that play a central role in bioenergetics metabolism. The mitochondrial architecture and mitochondrial machinery exhibits a high degree of adaptation in relation to nutrient availability. On the other hand, its disruption markedly affects energy homeostasis. The brain, more specifically the hypothalamus, is the main hub that controls energy homeostasis. Nevertheless, until now, almost all studies in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction and energy metabolism have focused in peripheral tissues like brown adipose tissue, muscle, and pancreas...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904354/paracrine-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-human-monocytes
#10
Maria I Guillén, Julia Platas, María D Pérez Del Caz, Vicente Mirabet, Maria J Alcaraz
The inflammatory process is an essential phenomenon in the induction of immune responses. Monocytes are key effector cells during the inflammatory process. A wide range of evidence indicates that mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (ASC) are endowed with immunomodulatory capacity. However, the interaction between ASC and monocytes in the innate immune response is not well understood. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible paracrine anti-inflammatory effects of ASC in human monocytes. Monocytes were isolated from buffy coats and ASC from fat of non-obese patients...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904148/intra-individual-gene-expression-variability-of-histologically-normal-breast-tissue
#11
Xuezheng Sun, Yue Shan, Quefeng Li, Lynn Chollet-Hinton, Erin L Kirk, Gretchen L Gierach, Melissa A Troester
Several studies have sought to identify novel transcriptional biomarkers in normal breast or breast microenvironment to predict tumor risk and prognosis. However, systematic efforts to evaluate intra-individual variability of gene expression within normal breast have not been reported. This study analyzed the microarray gene expression data of 288 samples from 170 women in the Normal Breast Study (NBS), wherein multiple histologically normal breast samples were collected from different block regions and different sections at a given region...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904053/naoxintong-capsules-inhibit-the-development-of-diabetic-nephropathy-in-db-db-mice
#12
Shu Yang, Mengyang Liu, Yuanli Chen, Chuanrui Ma, Lipei Liu, Buchang Zhao, Yong Wang, Xiaoju Li, Yan Zhu, Xiumei Gao, Deling Kong, Yajun Duan, Jihong Han, Xiaoxiao Yang
NaoXinTong Capsule (NXT), a Chinese medicine, is currently used to treat patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Clinical observations indicate its anti-diabetic functions with unclear mechanisms. Herein, we report the effect of NXT on diabetic nephropathy (DN). Type 2 diabetic db/db mice were treated with NXT for 14 weeks. In the course of treatment, NXT reduced diabetes-increased glucose levels and improved renal functions. At the end of treatment, we found that NXT ameliorated serum lipid profiles and other biochemical parameters...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903737/inactivation-of-the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-idol-inducible-degrader-of-the-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-attenuates-diet-induced-obesity-and-metabolic-dysfunction-in-mice
#13
Nienke M van Loon, Roelof Ottenhoff, Sander Kooijman, Martina Moeton, Saskia Scheij, Reinout L P Roscam Abbing, Marion J J Gijbels, Johannes H M Levels, Vincenzo Sorrentino, Jimmy F P Berbée, Patrick C N Rensen, Noam Zelcer
OBJECTIVE: The E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL (inducible degrader of the LDLR [LDL (low-density lipoprotein) receptor]) is a post-transcriptional regulator of LDLR abundance. Model systems and human genetics support a role for IDOL in regulating circulating LDL levels. Whether IDOL plays a broader metabolic role and affects development of metabolic syndrome-associated comorbidities is unknown. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We studied WT (wild type) and Idol ( -/ - ) (Idol-KO) mice in 2 models: physiological aging and diet-induced obesity...
June 14, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903689/interplay-between-epicardial-adipose-tissue-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#14
Olga Bornachea, Angela Vea, Vicenta Llorente-Cortes
Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of death in obese and diabetic patients. In these groups of patients, the alterations of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) contribute to both vascular and myocardial dysfunction. Therefore, it is of clinical interest to determine the mechanisms by which EAT influences cardiovascular disease. Two key factors contribute to the tight intercommunication among EAT, coronary arteries and myocardium. One is the close anatomical proximity between these tissues. The other is the capacity of EAT to secrete cytokines and other molecules with paracrine and vasocrine effects on the cardiovascular system...
June 11, 2018: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903617/roles-for-gut-vagal-sensory-signals-in-determining-energy-availability-and-energy-expenditure
#15
REVIEW
Gary J Schwartz
The gut sensory vagus transmits a wide range of meal-related mechanical, chemical and gut peptide signals from gastrointestinal and hepatic tissues to the central nervous system at the level of the caudal brainstem. Results from studies using neurophysiological, behavioral physiological and metabolic approaches that challenge the integrity of this gut-brain axis support an important role for these gut signals in the negative feedback control of energy availability by limiting food intake during a meal. These experimental approaches have now been applied to identify important and unanticipated contributions of the vagal sensory gut-brain axis to the control of two additional effectors of overall energy balance: the feedback control of endogenous energy availability through hepatic glucose production and metabolism, and the control of energy expenditure through brown adipose tissue thermogenesis...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903366/adiposity-and-mortality-in-south-asians-challenges-to-the-existing-paradigm
#16
Darryl P Leong, Salim Yusuf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903222/-physical-development-and-the-age-of-fat-reunion-of-uygur-and-han-children-under-7-years-old-in-urumuqi-in-2015
#17
Zaoling Liu, Le Zhang, Adali Bieke
OBJECTIVE: To understand the physical development of Uygur and Han children under 7 years old in Urumuqi, and analyze the age of adiposity rebound. METHODS: Using stratified cluster sampling, 9682 Uygur and Han children under 7 years old were selected in 7 districts and 1 county in Urumqi in June 2015, measuring their heights, weights, sitting heights, head circumference and chest circumference; comparingthe differences of weight for height Z-score( WHZ), drawing WHZ curves, calculating the adiposity rebound ages of Uygur and Han nationality boys and girls...
January 2018: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903183/-effects-of-exercise-and-resveratrol-on-retinol-binding-protein-4-blood-glucose-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-aged-obese-rats
#18
Jiaqin Cui, Youping Bai, Lin Wu, Mingming Sun, Chan Lin, Haoyue Zhang, Min Su, Weiwei Song
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of exercise and resveratrol on retinol binding protein 4( RBP4) mRNA and protein expression in visceral adipose tissue, plasma RBP4 concentration and blood glucose and insulin sensitivity of aged obese rats. METHODS: To establish elderly obese SD rat model, 6 aged rats of natural growth were selected normal group, 24 obese rats were randomly divided into four groups: obesity control group, exercise group, resveratrol group, exercise combined with resveratrol group...
July 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902838/icariside-ii-promotes-the-differentiation-of-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-to-schwann-cells-to-preserve-erectile-function-after-cavernous-nerve-injury
#19
Tao Zheng, Tian-Biao Zhang, Chao-Liang Wang, Wei-Xing Zhang, Dong-Hui Jia, Fan Yang, Yang-Yang Sun, Xiao-Ju Ding, Rui Wang
Icariside II (ICA II) is used in erectile dysfunction treatment. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are efficient at improving erectile function. This study aimed to explore the action mechanism of ADSCs in improving erectile function. ADSCs were isolated from the adipose tissues of rats. Cell proliferation was determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The expressions of mRNA and protein were determined separately through qRT-PCR and western blot. The endogenous expressions of related genes were regulated using recombinant plasmids and cell transfection...
June 14, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902549/browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-induced-by-the-%C3%A3-3-agonist-cl-316-243-after-local-and-systemic-treatment-pk-pd-relationship
#20
Wojciech Danysz, Yan Han, Fugang Li, Jim Nicoll, Philipp Buch, Thomas Hengl, Maarten Ruitenberg, Chris Parsons
Transformation of white adipose tissue (WAT) to a brown adipose tissue-like (BAT-like) phenotype has emerged as an attractive approach against e.g. using g ß3 adrenergic receptor agonists. These could however, produce side-effects following systemic exposure. The present study explored the possibility of local use of CL-316,243 - a selective ß3 agonist - to circumvent this problem. Rats treated s.c. for 2 weeks (0.3 and 1 mg/kg) showed decreased inguinal fat pad (IFP) weight/volume, increased UCP-1 staining and expressed BAT-like features in H&E stained micrographs...
June 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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