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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822177/-berberine-regulates-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-related-with-insulin-resistance
#1
REVIEW
Cheng Li, Jin-Zhi He, Xue-Dong Zhou, Xin Xu
Insulin resistance (IR) is defined as a series of clinical manifestations for diminished effectiveness of insulin in lowering blood sugar levels caused by decreased sensitivity to insulin of liver, muscle and adipose tissue. IR is the major contributor to the etiology and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Berberine, a traditional Chinese herb extract, has been shown to be safe and effective in lowering blood sugar, alleviating insulin resistance and moderating type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821996/mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cell-separation-methods-concise-review
#2
REVIEW
Andreas Nicodemou, Lubos Danisovic
Mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (MSCs) possess unique biological characteristics such as plasticity, long term self-renewal, secretion of various bioactive molecules and ability of active migration to the diseased tissues that make them unique tool for regenerative medicine, nowadays. Until now MSCs were successfully derived from many tissue sources including bone marrow, umbilical cord, adipose tissue, dental pulp etc. The crucial step prior to their in vitro expansion, banking or potential clinical application is their separation...
August 18, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821868/dysmobility-syndrome-and-risk-of-mortality-for-community-dwelling-middle-aged-and-older-adults-the-nexus-of-aging-and-body-composition
#3
Wei-Ju Lee, Li-Kuo Liu, An-Chun Hwang, Li-Ning Peng, Ming-Hsien Lin, Liang-Kung Chen
Dysmobility syndrome is a newly proposed concept to comprehensively consider bone-muscle-adiposity as a whole to associate with mortality and other adverse outcomes in the older adults. Little was known in Asian populations since the body composition was highly related to ethnicity. The study aimed to evaluate the association between dysmobility syndrome and mortality and to explore the most optimal operational definition for dysmobility syndrome. The prevalence of dysmobility syndrome was 3.9-10.1% based on different operational definitions of adiposity and skeletal muscle index...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821853/visceral-adiposity-index-is-strongly-associated-with-hyperuricemia-independently-of-metabolic-health-and-obesity-phenotypes
#4
Huimin Dong, Yang Xu, Xiuzhi Zhang, Simiao Tian
Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a novel sex-specific index for visceral adipose function; however the association between VAI and hyperuricemia in China is unknown. We aimed to investigate this association, also whether it was independent of metabolic health and obesity phenotypes. 7632 adult subjects from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009 were retained. Subjects were categorized into four obesity phenotypes based on a cross-classification of BMI and metabolic health status by two representative criteria...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821713/evaluating-the-causal-relation-of-apoa-iv-with-disease-related-traits-a-bidirectional-two-sample-mendelian-randomization-study
#5
Salome Mack, Stefan Coassin, Julien Vaucher, Florian Kronenberg, Claudia Lamina
Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) has been observed to be associated with lipids, kidney function, adiposity- and diabetes-related parameters. To assess the causal relationship of apoA-IV with these phenotypes, we conducted bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses using publicly available summary-level datasets from GWAS consortia on apoA-IV concentrations (n = 13,813), kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), n = 133,413), lipid traits (HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, n = 188,577), adiposity-related traits (body-mass-index (n = 322,206), waist-hip-ratio (n = 210,088)) and fasting glucose (n = 133,010)...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821457/spontaneous-mutation-of-dock7-results-in-lower-trabecular-bone-mass-and-impaired-periosteal-expansion-in-aged-female-misty-mice
#6
Phuong T Le, Kathleen A Bishop, David E Maridas, Katherine J Motyl, Daniel J Brooks, Kenichi Nagano, Roland Baron, Mary L Bouxsein, Clifford J Rosen
Misty mice (m/m) have a loss of function mutation in Dock7 gene, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, resulting in low bone mineral density, uncoupled bone remodeling and reduced bone formation. Dock7 has been identified as a modulator of osteoblast number and in vitro osteogenic differentiation in calvarial osteoblast culture. In addition, m/m exhibit reduced preformed brown adipose tissue innervation and temperature as well as compensatory increase in beige adipocyte markers. While the low bone mineral density phenotype is in part due to higher sympathetic nervous system (SNS) drive in young mice, it is unclear what effect aging would have in mice homozygous for the mutation in the Dock7 gene...
August 15, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821441/in-situ-detection-of-the-activation-of-rac1-and-rala-small-gtpases-in-mouse-adipocytes-by-immunofluorescent-microscopy-following-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-insulin-stimulation
#7
Nobuyuki Takenaka, Yuma Nihata, Sho Ueda, Takaya Satoh
Rac1 has been implicated in insulin-dependent glucose uptake by mechanisms involving plasma membrane translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 in skeletal muscle. Although the uptake of glucose is also stimulated by insulin in adipose tissue, the role for Rac1 in adipocyte insulin signaling remains controversial. As a step to reveal the role for Rac1 in adipocytes, we aimed to establish immunofluorescent microscopy to detect the intracellular distribution of activated Rac1. The epitope-tagged Rac1-binding domain of a Rac1-specific target was utilized as a probe that specifically recognizes the activated form of Rac1...
August 15, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821417/single-species-versus-dual-species-probiotic-supplementation-as-an-emerging-therapeutic-strategy-for-obesity
#8
G Karimi, R Jamaluddin, N Mohtarrudin, Z Ahmad, H Khazaai, M Parvaneh
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent studies have reported beneficial effects of specific probiotics on obesity. However, the difference in the anti-obesity effects of probiotics as single species and dual species is still uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to compare the efficacy of single and dual species of bacteria on markers of obesity in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups of varying diets as follows: standard diet, high fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota, HFD supplemented with Bifidobacterium longum and HFD supplemented with a mixture of these two bacterial species...
July 8, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820999/absorption-tissue-distribution-metabolism-and-elimination-of-decabrominated-diphenyl-ether-bde-209-in-rats-after-multi-dose-oral-exposure
#9
Xiu-Bo Mi, Lian-Jun Bao, Chen-Chou Wu, Charles S Wong, Eddy Y Zeng
Human and ecological risks of BDE-209 have drawn much attention, particularly with growing e-waste recycling activities in developing countries. To further address the issue of BDE-209 biotransformation, a laboratory-controlled study was conducted. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed orally by gavage at a daily dose of 1 mg kg(-1) body weight for 7 d and a depuration period of 22 d, to characterize absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination dynamics of BDE-209 during multi-dose exposures simulating short-term oral exposure of e-waste workers...
August 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820677/comparing-measures-of-general-and-abdominal-adiposity-as-predictors-of-blood-pressure-in-college-students
#10
Demetrius A Abshire, Gia Mudd-Martin, Debra K Moser, Terry A Lennie
OBJECTIVE: To compare anthropometric measures of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) as predictors of blood pressure in college students. PARTICIPANTS: Students (N = 116) were recruited from November 2012 through May 2014 at an urban university and rural community colleges. METHODS: Students underwent a brief physical examination during which anthropometric measures were obtained and blood pressure was measured...
August 18, 2017: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820499/choline-supplementation-normalizes-fetal-adiposity-and-reduces-lipogenic-gene-expression-in-a-mouse-model-of-maternal-obesity
#11
Chauntelle Jack-Roberts, Yaelle Joselit, Khatia Nanobashvili, Rachel Bretter, Olga V Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Anjana Saxena, Kathleen Axen, Ahmed Gomaa, Xinyin Jiang
Maternal obesity increases fetal adiposity which may adversely affect metabolic health of the offspring. Choline regulates lipid metabolism and thus may influence adiposity. This study investigates the effect of maternal choline supplementation on fetal adiposity in a mouse model of maternal obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat (HF) diet or a control (NF) diet and received either 25 mM choline supplemented (CS) or control untreated (CO) drinking water for 6 weeks before timed-mating and throughout gestation...
August 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820426/burn-eschar-stimulates-fibroblast-and-adipose-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-proliferation-and-migration-but-inhibits-endothelial-cell-sprouting
#12
Hanneke N Monsuur, Lenie J van den Broek, Renushka L Jhingoerie, Adrianus F P M Vloemans, Susan Gibbs
The majority of full-thickness burn wounds heal with hypertrophic scar formation. Burn eschar most probably influences early burn wound healing, since granulation tissue only forms after escharotomy. In order to investigate the effect of burn eschar on delayed granulation tissue formation, burn wound extract (BWE) was isolated from the interface between non-viable eschar and viable tissue. The influence of BWE on the activity of endothelial cells derived from dermis and adipose tissue, dermal fibroblasts and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASC) was determined...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819366/paracrine-potential-of-the-human-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-to-modulate-balance-between-matrix-metalloproteinases-and-their-inhibitors-in-the-osteoarthritic-cartilage-in-vitro
#13
Jaroslav Denkovskij, Edvardas Bagdonas, Ilona Kusleviciute, Zygmunt Mackiewicz, Ausra Unguryte, Narunas Porvaneckas, Sandrine Fleury, Algirdas Venalis, Christian Jorgensen, Eiva Bernotiene
Adipose tissue represents an abundant source of stem cells. Along with anti-inflammatory effects, ASC secrete various factors that may modulate metabolism of extracellular matrix in osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage, suggesting that the presence of ASC could be advantageous for OA cartilage due to the recovery of homeostasis between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). To evaluate these effects, cartilage explants (CE) were cocultured with ASC for 3 and 7 days under stimulation with or without IL-1β...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819323/excessive-body-fat-linked-to-blunted-somatosensory-cortex-response-to-general-reward-in-adolescents
#14
J F Navas, A Barros-Loscertales, V Costumero-Ramos, J Verdejo-Román, R Vilar-López, A Verdejo-García
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The brain reward system is key to understanding adolescent obesity in the current obesogenic environment, rich in highly appetising stimuli, to which adolescents are particularly sensitive. We aimed to examine the association between body fat levels and brain reward system responsivity to general (monetary) rewards in male and female adolescents. METHOD: Sixty-eight adolescents (34 females; mean age [standard deviation]=16.56 [1.35]) were measured for body fat levels with bioelectric impedance, and underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan during the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819171/thyroid-function-and-ischemic-heart-disease-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#15
Jie V Zhao, C Mary Schooling
To clarify the role of thyroid function in ischemic heart disease (IHD) we assessed IHD risk and risk factors according to genetically predicted thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) positivity. Separate-sample instrumental variable analysis with genetic instruments (Mendelian randomization) was used in an extensively genotyped case (n = 64,374)-control (n = 130,681) study, CARDIoGRAMplusC4D. Associations with lipids, diabetes and adiposity were assessed using the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium Results (n = 196,475), the DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis case (n = 34,380)-control (n = 114,981) study, and the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (body mass index in 152,893 men and 171,977 women, waist-hip ratio in 93,480 men and 116,741 women)...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819169/cd206-m2-like-macrophages-regulate-systemic-glucose-metabolism-by-inhibiting-proliferation-of-adipocyte-progenitors
#16
Allah Nawaz, Aminuddin Aminuddin, Tomonobu Kado, Akiko Takikawa, Seiji Yamamoto, Koichi Tsuneyama, Yoshiko Igarashi, Masashi Ikutani, Yasuhiro Nishida, Yoshinori Nagai, Kiyoshi Takatsu, Johji Imura, Masakiyo Sasahara, Yukiko Okazaki, Kohjiro Ueki, Tadashi Okamura, Kumpei Tokuyama, Akira Ando, Michihiro Matsumoto, Hisashi Mori, Takashi Nakagawa, Norihiko Kobayashi, Kumiko Saeki, Isao Usui, Shiho Fujisaka, Kazuyuki Tobe
Adipose tissue resident macrophages have important roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and regulate insulin sensitivity for example by secreting pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we show that M2-like macrophages in adipose tissue regulate systemic glucose homeostasis by inhibiting adipocyte progenitor proliferation via the CD206/TGFβ signaling pathway. We show that adipose tissue CD206(+) cells are primarily M2-like macrophages, and ablation of CD206(+) M2-like macrophages improves systemic insulin sensitivity, which was associated with an increased number of smaller adipocytes...
August 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818979/incidental-brown-adipose-tissue-in-bone-marrow-biopsy
#17
Jennifer Chapman, Francisco Vega
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818783/development-of-a-porous-3d-graphene-pdms-scaffold-for-improved-osseointegration
#18
Jianfeng Li, Xiao Liu, Jeremy M Crook, Gordon G Wallace
Osseointegration in orthopedic surgery plays an important role for bone implantation success. Traditional treatment of implant surface aimed at improved osseointegration has limited capability for its poor performance in supporting cell growth and proliferation. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a widely used silicon-based organic polymer material with properties that are useful in cosmetics, domestic applications and mechanical engineering. In addition, the biocompatibility of PDMS, in part due to the high solubility of oxygen, makes it an ideal material for cell-based implants...
August 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818455/adipose-derived-stromal-cells-enhance-auditory-neuron-survival-in-an-animal-model-of-sensory-hearing-loss
#19
Philipp Schendzielorz, Maike Vollmer, Kristen Rak, Armin Wiegner, Nashwa Nada, Katrin Radeloff, Rudolf Hagen, Andreas Radeloff
BACKGROUND: A cochlear implant (CI) is an electronic prosthesis that can partially restore speech perception capabilities. Optimum information transfer from the cochlea to the central auditory system requires a proper functioning auditory nerve (AN) that is electrically stimulated by the device. In deafness, the lack of neurotrophic support, normally provided by the sensory cells of the inner ear, however, leads to gradual degeneration of auditory neurons with undesirable consequences for CI performance...
August 14, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818089/frequency-of-eating-home-cooked-meals-and-potential-benefits-for-diet-and-health-cross-sectional-analysis-of-a-population-based-cohort-study
#20
Susanna Mills, Heather Brown, Wendy Wrieden, Martin White, Jean Adams
BACKGROUND: Reported associations between preparing and eating home cooked food, and both diet and health, are inconsistent. Most previous research has focused on preparing, rather than eating, home cooked food; used small, non-population based samples; and studied markers of nutrient intake, rather than overall diet quality or health. We aimed to assess whether frequency of consuming home cooked meals was cross-sectionally associated with diet quality and cardio-metabolic health. METHODS: We used baseline data from a United Kingdom population-based cohort study of adults aged 29 to 64 years (n = 11,396)...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
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