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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643814/-unresponsive-wakefulness-syndrome-clinical-predictors-of-late-recovery
#1
Gianfranco Lamberti, Elena Antoniono, Francesca Gozzerino, Donatella Giraudo
Patients affected by the outcomes of serious traumatic and/or non-traumatic brain injury may show progressive recovery characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical conditions, which are often not completely different, but of differing seriousness. The unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and minimally conscious state (MCS) are syndromes that may characterize progression from the coma state and may be temporary clinical conditions, or in some cases, the final outcome of acute brain injury. The eventual recovery of consciousness is a dynamic process, in constant progress following the acute event...
May 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640989/stimulant-treatment-trajectories-are-associated-with-neural-reward-processing-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
Lizanne J S Schweren, Annabeth Groenman, Daniel von Rhein, Wouter Weeda, Stephen F Faraone, Marjolein Luman, Hanneke van Ewijk, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Jaap Oosterlaan, Pieter J Hoekstra, Catharina A Hartman
OBJECTIVE: The past decades have seen a surge in stimulant prescriptions for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Stimulants acutely alleviate symptoms and cognitive deficits associated with ADHD by modulating striatal dopamine neurotransmission and induce therapeutic changes in brain activation patterns. Long-term functional changes after treatment are unknown, as long-term studies are scarce and have focused on brain structure. In this observational study (2009-2012), we investigated associations between lifetime stimulant treatment history and neural activity during reward processing...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640802/peroxisomal-biogenesis-is-genetically-and-biochemically-linked-to-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-drosophila-and-mouse
#3
Michael F Wangler, Yu-Hsin Chao, Vafa Bayat, Nikolaos Giagtzoglou, Abhijit Babaji Shinde, Nagireddy Putluri, Cristian Coarfa, Taraka Donti, Brett H Graham, Joseph E Faust, James A McNew, Ann Moser, Marco Sardiello, Myriam Baes, Hugo J Bellen
Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are a group of multi-system human diseases due to mutations in the PEX genes that are responsible for peroxisome assembly and function. These disorders lead to global defects in peroxisomal function and result in severe brain, liver, bone and kidney disease. In order to study their pathogenesis we undertook a systematic genetic and biochemical study of Drosophila pex16 and pex2 mutants. These mutants are short-lived with defects in locomotion and activity. Moreover these mutants exhibit severe morphologic and functional peroxisomal defects...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635543/anxiety-modulates-the-relation-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-severity-and-working-memory-related-brain-activity
#4
Dennis van der Meer, Pieter J Hoekstra, Daan van Rooij, Anderson M Winkler, Hanneke van Ewijk, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan, Stephen V Faraone, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Catharina A Hartman
OBJECTIVES: Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have heightened levels of anxiety, which has been associated with worse performance on working memory tasks. Knowledge of the neural pathways underlying the combined presence of ADHD and anxiety may aid in a better understanding of their co-occurrence. Therefore, we investigated how anxiety modulates the effect of ADHD severity on neural activity during a visuospatial working memory (VSWM) task. METHODS: Neuroimaging data were available for 371 adolescents and young adults participating in the multicentre cohort study NeuroIMAGE (average age 17...
March 1, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634439/inconsistency-in-abnormal-brain-activity-across-cohorts-of-adhd-200-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
Jian-Bao Wang, Li-Jun Zheng, Qing-Jiu Cao, Yu-Feng Wang, Li Sun, Yu-Feng Zang, Hang Zhang
Many papers have shown results from the multi-site dataset of resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a data-sharing project named ADHD-200. However, few studies have illustrated that to what extent the pooled findings were consistent across cohorts. The present study analyzed three voxel-wise whole-brain metrics, i.e., amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo), and degree centrality (DC) based on the pooled dataset as well as individual cohort of ADHD-200...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633952/chronic-methylphenidate-regulates-genes-and-proteins-mediating-neuroplasticity-in-the-juvenile-rat-brain
#6
Emmanuel Quansah, Tiziana Sgamma, Estabraq Jaddoa, Tyra S C Zetterström
Methylphenidate (MPH) is the front-line psychostimulant medication prescribed for alleviating the symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic MPH (2.0mg/kg, twice daily for 15 days) exposure to young rats (20-25days old at start of treatment) on the expression of genes and proteins associated with neuroplasticity, such as activity regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), insulin receptor substrate protein 53 (IRSp53), cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42), and actin-related protein 2 (Arp2)...
June 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632947/pimozide-reduces-toxic-forms-of-tau-in-tauc3-mice-via-ampk-mediated-autophagy
#7
YoungDoo Kim, Eun Il Jeong, Jihoon Nah, Seung-Min Yoo, WonJae Lee, Youbin Kim, Seowon Moon, Se-Hoon Hong, Yong-Keun Jung
In neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD), tau is hyperphosphorylated and forms aggregates and neurofibrillary tangles in affected neurons. Autophagy is critical to clear the aggregates of disease-associated proteins and is often altered in patients and animal models of AD. Because mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) negatively regulates autophagy and is hyperactive in the brains of patients with AD, mTOR is an attractive therapeutic target for AD. However, pharmacological strategies to increase autophagy by targeting mTOR inhibition cause various side effects...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630479/attention-cognitive-control-and-motivation-in-adhd-linking-event-related-brain-potentials-and-dna-methylation-patterns-in-boys-at-early-school-age
#8
Hartmut Heinrich, Juliane Grunitz, Valeska Stonawski, Stefan Frey, Simone Wahl, Björn Albrecht, Tamme W Goecke, Matthias W Beckmann, Johannes Kornhuber, Peter A Fasching, Gunther H Moll, Anna Eichler
In order to better understand the underpinnings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we targeted the relationship of attentional, cognitive control and motivational processes with DNA methylation patterns of 60 candidate genes in boys at early school age. Participants (6 to 8 years; N = 82) were selected from a German longitudinal cohort (FRANCES). ADHD-related behaviour was assessed via maternal ratings. Performance and event-related potential measures (inter alia Cue-P3 and Nogo-P3), which were recorded in a motivational go/nogo task, indicated diminished attentional orienting, reduced inhibitory response control and a larger motivational effect on performance in ADHD already at this relatively young age...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626421/divergent-metabolic-regulation-of-autophagy-and-mtorc1-early-events-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Mai A Shafei, Matthew Harris, Myra E Conway
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive disease associated with the production and deposition of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) aggregates and neurofibrillary tangles, which lead to synaptic and neuronal damage. Reduced autophagic flux has been widely associated with the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (AV), which has been proposed to contribute to aggregate build-up observed in AD. As such, targeting autophagy regulation has received wide review, where an understanding as to how this mechanism can be controlled will be important to neuronal health...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624505/deficiency-in-ep4-receptor-associated-protein-ameliorates-abnormal-anxiety-like-behavior-and-brain-inflammation-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-disease
#10
Risako Fujikawa, Sei Higuchi, Masato Nakatsuji, Mika Yasui, Taichi Ikedo, Manabu Nagata, Kosuke Hayashi, Masayuki Yokode, Manabu Minami
Microglia are thought to play key roles in the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD). Overactivated microglia produce proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, which appear to contribute to disease progression. Previously, we reported that prostaglandin E2 type 4 receptor-associated protein (EPRAP) promotes microglial activation. We crossed human amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice from strain J20(+/-) onto an EPRAP-deficient background to determine the role of EPRAP in AD. Behavioral tests were performed in 5-month-old male J20(+/-)EPRAP(+/+) and J20(+/-)EPRAP(-/-) mice...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620288/age-related-changes-in-resting-state-eeg-activity-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Katarzyna Giertuga, Marta Z Zakrzewska, Maksymilian Bielecki, Ewa Racicka-Pawlukiewicz, Malgorzata Kossut, Anita Cybulska-Klosowicz
Numerous studies indicate that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is related to some developmental trends, as its symptoms change widely over time. Nevertheless, the etiology of this phenomenon remains ambiguous. There is a disagreement whether ADHD is related to deviations in brain development or to a delay in brain maturation. The model of deviated brain development suggests that the ADHD brain matures in a fundamentally different way, and does not reach normal maturity at any developmental stage...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618856/psychosocial-stress-and-brain-function-in-adolescent-psychopathology
#12
Erin Burke Quinlan, Anna Cattrell, Tianye Jia, Eric Artiges, Tobias Banaschewski, Gareth Barker, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Rüdiger Brühl, Patricia J Conrod, Sylvane Desrivieres, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Jürgen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Luise Poustka, Michael N Smolka, Nora C Vetter, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Jeffrey C Glennon, Jan K Buitelaar, Francesca Happé, Eva Loth, Edward D Barker, Gunter Schumann
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to explore how conduct, hyperactivity/inattention, and emotional symptoms are associated with neural reactivity to social-emotional stimuli, and the extent to which psychosocial stress modulates these relationships. METHOD: Participants were community adolescents recruited as part of the European IMAGEN study. Bilateral amygdala regions of interest were used to assess the relationship between the three symptom domains and functional MRI neural reactivity during passive viewing of dynamic angry and neutral facial expressions...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617822/intronic-snp-in-esr1-encoding-human-estrogen-receptor-alpha-is-associated-with-brain-esr1-mrna-isoform-expression-and-behavioral-traits
#13
Julia K Pinsonneault, John T Frater, Benjamin Kompa, Roshan Mascarenhas, Danxin Wang, Wolfgang Sadee
Genetic variants of ESR1 have been implicated in multiple diseases, including behavioral disorders, but causative variants remain uncertain. We have searched for regulatory variants affecting ESR1 expression in human brain, measuring allelic ESR1 mRNA expression in human brain tissues with marker SNPs in exon4 representing ESR1-008 (or ESRα-36), and in the 3'UTR of ESR1-203, two main ESR1 isoforms in brain. In prefrontal cortex from subjects with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and controls (n = 35 each; Stanley Foundation brain bank), allelic ESR1 mRNA ratios deviated from unity up to tenfold at the exon4 marker SNP, with large allelic ratios observed primarily in bipolar and schizophrenic subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616095/acamprosate-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome-modulation-of-spontaneous-cortical-activity-erk1-2-activation-locomotor-behavior-and-anxiety
#14
Tori L Schaefer, Matthew H Davenport, Lindsay M Grainger, Chandler K Robinson, Anthony T Earnheart, Melinda S Stegman, Anna L Lang, Amy A Ashworth, Gemma Molinaro, Kimberly M Huber, Craig A Erickson
BACKGROUND: Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) occurs as a result of a silenced fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) and subsequent loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) expression. Loss of FMRP alters excitatory/inhibitory signaling balance, leading to increased neuronal hyperexcitability and altered behavior. Acamprosate (the calcium salt of N-acetylhomotaurinate), a drug FDA-approved for relapse prevention in the treatment of alcohol dependence in adults, is a novel agent with multiple mechanisms that may be beneficial for people with FXS...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612976/lithium-ameliorates-sleep-deprivation-induced-mania-like-behavior-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-axis-alterations-oxidative-stress-and-elevations-of-cytokine-concentrations-in-the-brain-and-serum-of-mice
#15
Samira S Valvassori, Wilson R Resende, Gustavo Dal-Pont, Heron Sangaletti-Pereira, Fernanda F Gava, Bruna R Peterle, Roger B Varela, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, João Quevedo
OBJECTIVES: The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of lithium administration on behavior, oxidative stress parameters and cytokine levels in the periphery and brain of mice subjected to an animal model of mania induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD). METHODS: Male C57 mice were treated with saline or lithium for 7 days. The sleep deprivation protocol started on the 5th day during for the last 36 hours of the treatment period. Immediately after the sleep deprivation protocol, animals locomotor activity was evaluated and serum and brain samples was extracted to evaluation of corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone circulating levels, oxidative stress parameters and citokynes levels...
June 14, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609587/chemogenetic-modulation-of-g-protein-coupled-receptor-signalling-in-visual-attention-research
#16
Søren H Jørgensen, Ciarán Martin Fitzpatrick, Ulrik Gether, David D P Woldbye, Andreas T Sørensen
Attention is a fundamental cognitive process involved in nearly all aspects of life. Abnormal attention control is a symptom of many neurological disorders, most notably recognized in ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Although attentional performance and its malfunction has been a major area of investigation, it has proven difficult to accurately associate specific neuronal projections, cell types, neurotransmitter systems and receptors with distinct phenotypes owing to its complexity. In this MiniReview, we present a recently invented technology known as Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs)...
June 13, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605634/atomoxetine-a-norepinephrine-reuptake-inhibitor-reduces-seizure-induced-respiratory-arrest
#17
Honghai Zhang, Haiting Zhao, Hua-Jun Feng
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a devastating epilepsy complication, and no effective preventive strategies are currently available for this fatal disorder. Clinical and animal studies of SUDEP demonstrate that seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) is the primary event leading to death after generalized seizures in many cases. Enhancing brain levels of serotonin reduces S-IRA in animal models relevant to SUDEP, including the DBA/1 mouse. Given that serotonin in the brain plays an important role in modulating respiration and arousal, these findings suggest that deficits in respiration and/or arousal may contribute to S-IRA...
June 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605373/modeling-fast-scan-cyclic-voltammetry-data-from-electrically-stimulated-dopamine-neurotransmission-data-using-qnsim1-0
#18
Rashed Harun, Christine M Grassi, Miranda J Munoz, Amy K Wagner
Central dopaminergic (DAergic) pathways have an important role in a wide range of functions, such as attention, motivation, and movement. Dopamine (DA) is implicated in diseases and disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Parkinson's disease, and traumatic brain injury. Thus, DA neurotransmission and the methods to study it are of intense scientific interest. In vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is a method that allows for selectively monitoring DA concentration changes with fine temporal and spatial resolution...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602816/neurobiological-correlates-of-impulsivity-in-healthy-adults-lower-prefrontal-gray-matter-volume-and-spontaneous-eye-blink-rate-but-greater-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical-circuitry
#19
Cole Korponay, Daniela Dentico, Tammi Kral, Martina Ly, Ayla Kruis, Robin Goldman, Antoine Lutz, Richard J Davidson
Studies consistently implicate aberrance of the brain's reward-processing and decision-making networks in disorders featuring high levels of impulsivity, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, substance use disorder, and psychopathy. However, less is known about the neurobiological determinants of individual differences in impulsivity in the general population. In this study of 105 healthy adults, we examined relationships between impulsivity and three neurobiological metrics - gray matter volume, resting-state functional connectivity, and spontaneous eye-blink rate, a physiological indicator of central dopaminergic activity...
June 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600528/overexpression-of-rasd1-inhibits-glioma-cell-migration-invasion-and-inactivates-the-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway
#20
Shangfeng Gao, Lei Jin, Guangping Liu, Peng Wang, Zonghan Sun, Yujia Cao, Hengliang Shi, Xuejiao Liu, Qiong Shi, Xiuping Zhou, Rutong Yu
The RAS signaling pathway is hyperactive in malignant glioma due to overexpression and/or increased activity. A previous study identified that RASD1, a member of the RAS superfamily of small G-proteins, is a significantly dysregulated gene in oligodendroglial tumors that responded to chemotherapy. However, the role and mechanism of RASD1 in the progression of human glioma remain largely unknown. In the present study, by analyzing a public genomics database, we found that high levels of RASD1 predicted good survival of astrocytoma patients...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
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