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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213645/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-modulates-neuronal-networks-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Anna Sotnikova, Cornelia Soff, Enzo Tagliazucchi, Katja Becker, Michael Siniatchkin
Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex has been repeatedly shown to improve working memory (WM). Since patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by both underactivation of the prefrontal cortex and deficits in WM, the modulation of prefrontal activity with tDCS in ADHD patients may increase their WM performance as well as improve the activation and connectivity of the WM network. In the present study, this hypothesis was tested using a double-blind sham-controlled experimental design...
February 17, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213111/childhood-maltreatment-is-associated-with-alteration-in-global-network-fiber-tract-architecture-independent-of-history-of-depression-and-anxiety
#2
Kyoko Ohashi, Carl M Anderson, Elizabeth A Bolger, Alaptagin Khan, Cynthia E McGreenery, Martin H Teicher
Childhood maltreatment is a major risk factor for psychopathology. It is also associated with alterations in the network architecture of the brain, which we hypothesized may play a significant role in the development of psychopathology. In this study, we analyzed the global network architecture of physically healthy unmedicated 18-25 year old subjects (n=262) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) MRI and tractography. Anatomical networks were constructed from fiber streams interconnecting 90 cortical or subcortical regions for subjects with no-to-low (n=122) versus moderate-to-high (n=140) exposure to maltreatment...
February 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212375/epilepsy-associated-gene-nedd4-2-mediates-neuronal-activity-and-seizure-susceptibility-through-ampa-receptors
#3
Jiuhe Zhu, Kwan Young Lee, Kathryn A Jewett, Heng-Ye Man, Hee Jung Chung, Nien-Pei Tsai
The neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated gene 4-2, Nedd4-2, is an epilepsy-associated gene with at least three missense mutations identified in epileptic patients. Nedd4-2 encodes a ubiquitin E3 ligase that has high affinity toward binding and ubiquitinating membrane proteins. It is currently unknown how Nedd4-2 mediates neuronal circuit activity and how its dysfunction leads to seizures or epilepsies. In this study, we provide evidence to show that Nedd4-2 mediates neuronal activity and seizure susceptibility through ubiquitination of GluA1 subunit of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor, (AMPAR)...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209979/fractionating-impulsivity-neuropsychiatric-implications
#4
REVIEW
Jeffrey W Dalley, Trevor W Robbins
The ability to make decisions and act quickly without hesitation can be advantageous in many settings. However, when persistently expressed, impulsive decisions and actions are considered risky, maladaptive and symptomatic of such diverse brain disorders as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, drug addiction and affective disorders. Over the past decade, rapid progress has been made in the identification of discrete neural networks that underlie different forms of impulsivity - from impaired response inhibition and risky decision making to a profound intolerance of delayed rewards...
February 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209774/methyl-donor-supplementation-alters-cognitive-performance-and-motivation-in-female-offspring-from-high-fat-diet-fed-dams
#5
Sarah E McKee, Nicola M Grissom, Christopher T Herdt, Teresa M Reyes
During gestation, fetal nutrition is entirely dependent on maternal diet. Maternal consumption of excess fat during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of neurologic disorders in offspring, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia. In a mouse model, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed offspring have cognitive and executive function deficits as well as whole-genome DNA and promoter-specific hypomethylation in multiple brain regions. Dietary methyl donor supplementation during pregnancy or adulthood has been used to alter DNA methylation and behavior...
February 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199306/kicstor-recruits-gator1-to-the-lysosome-and-is-necessary-for-nutrients-to-regulate-mtorc1
#6
Rachel L Wolfson, Lynne Chantranupong, Gregory A Wyant, Xin Gu, Jose M Orozco, Kuang Shen, Kendall J Condon, Sabrina Petri, Jibril Kedir, Sonia M Scaria, Monther Abu-Remaileh, Wayne N Frankel, David M Sabatini
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central regulator of cell growth that responds to diverse environmental signals and is deregulated in many human diseases, including cancer and epilepsy. Amino acids are a key input to this system, and act through the Rag GTPases to promote the translocation of mTORC1 to the lysosomal surface, its site of activation. Multiple protein complexes regulate the Rag GTPases in response to amino acids, including GATOR1, a GTPase activating protein for RAGA, and GATOR2, a positive regulator of unknown molecular function...
February 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187187/widespread-signatures-of-positive-selection-in-common-risk-alleles-associated-to-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Renato Polimanti, Joel Gelernter
The human brain is the outcome of innumerable evolutionary processes; the systems genetics of psychiatric disorders could bear their signatures. On this basis, we analyzed five psychiatric disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia (SCZ), using GWAS summary statistics from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Machine learning-derived scores were used to investigate two natural-selection scenarios: complete selection (loci where a selected allele reached fixation) and incomplete selection (loci where a selected allele has not yet reached fixation)...
February 10, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179817/the-placenta-and-neurodevelopment-sex-differences-in-prenatal-vulnerability
#8
Tracy L Bale
Prenatal insults, such as maternal stress, are associated with an increased neurodevelopmental disease risk and impact males significantly more than females, including increased rates of autism, mental retardation, stuttering, dyslexia, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sex differences in the placenta, which begin with sex chromosomes, are likely to produce sex-specific transplacental signals to the developing brain. Our studies and others have identified X-linked genes that are expressed at higher levels in the female placenta...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176663/gsk3%C3%AE-5-flanking-dna-methylation-and-expression-in-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#9
Vincenzina Nicolia, Viviana Ciraci, Rosaria A Cavallaro, Isidre Ferrer, Sigfrido Scarpa, Andrea Fuso
BACKGROUND: The GSK3β has been associated to pathological functions in neurodegenerative diseases. This kinase is involved in hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated tau protein, leading to aggregation andformation of NFTs.It has clearly been shown that GSK3β is regulated at post-translational level: phosphorylation at Tyr216 activates kinase while phosphorylation at Ser9 is essential to inhibit its activity. OBJECTIVES: At present, there are contradictory findings about the possibility that GSK3β may be regulated at gene level...
February 3, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176434/network-level-assessment-of-reward-related-activation-in-patients-with-adhd-and-healthy-individuals
#10
Daniel von Rhein, Christian F Beckmann, Barbara Franke, Jaap Oosterlaan, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Pieter J Hoekstra, Catharina A Hartman, Marjolein Luman, Stephen V Faraone, Roshan Cools, Jan K Buitelaar, Maarten Mennes
INTRODUCTION: Reward processing is a key aspect of cognitive control processes, putatively instantiated by mesolimbic and mesocortical brain circuits. Deficient signaling within these circuits has been associated with psychopathology. We applied a network discovery approach to assess specific functional networks associated with reward processing in participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: To describe task-related processes in terms of integrated functional networks, we applied independent component analysis (ICA) to task response maps of 60 healthy participants who performed a monetary incentive delay (MID) task...
February 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176268/no-genetic-association-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-and-parkinson-s-disease-in-nine-adhd-candidate-snps
#11
Julia M Geissler, Marcel Romanos, Manfred Gerlach, Daniela Berg, Claudia Schulte
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) involve pathological changes in brain structures such as the basal ganglia, which are essential for the control of motor and cognitive behavior and impulsivity. The cause of ADHD and PD remains unknown, but there is increasing evidence that both seem to result from a complicated interplay of genetic and environmental factors affecting numerous cellular processes and brain regions. To explore the possibility of common genetic pathways within the respective pathophysiologies, nine ADHD candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven genes were tested for association with PD in 5333 cases and 12,019 healthy controls: one variant, respectively, in the genes coding for synaptosomal-associated protein 25 k (SNAP25), the dopamine (DA) transporter (SLC6A3; DAT1), DA receptor D4 (DRD4), serotonin receptor 1B (HTR1B), tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), the norepinephrine transporter SLC6A2 and three SNPs in cadherin 13 (CDH13)...
February 7, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174127/altered-functional-connectivity-in-default-mode-network-in-internet-gaming-disorder-influence-of-childhood-adhd
#12
Deokjong Lee, Junghan Lee, Jung Eun Lee, Young-Chul Jung
OBJECTIVE: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a type of behavioral addiction characterized by abnormal executive control, leading to loss of control over excessive gaming. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common comorbid disorders in IGD, involving delayed development of the executive control system, which could predispose individuals to gaming addiction. We investigated the influence of childhood ADHD on neural network features of IGD. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis was performed on 44 young, male IGD subjects with and without childhood ADHD and 19 age-matched, healthy male controls...
February 5, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173729/structural-and-functional-abnormalities-in-children-with-adhd-a-focus-on-subgenual-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#13
Chenyang Zhan, Yuhong Liu, Kai Wu, Yu Gao, Xiaobo Li
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), characterized by developmentally inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, or a combination of both, is a major public health problem. Neuroimaging studies have revealed associations of these cognitive impairments with structural and functional deficits all over the brain. Existing findings are not fully consistent due to the heterogeneity of study samples and diversity of research techniques. In the current study, we propose to utilize a multi-modal MRI approach to study the structural and functional brain networks in children with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) with a focus on the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC)...
February 7, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168960/sex-specific-neurodevelopmental-programming-by-placental-insulin-receptors-on-stress-reactivity-and-sensorimotor-gating
#14
Stefanie L Bronson, Jennifer C Chan, Tracy L Bale
BACKGROUND: Diabetes, obesity, and overweight are prevalent pregnancy complications that predispose offspring to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Although male individuals are three to four times more likely than female individuals to develop these disorders, the mechanisms driving the sex specificity of disease vulnerability remain unclear. Because defective placental insulin receptor (InsR) signaling is a hallmark of pregnancy metabolic dysfunction, we hypothesized that it may be an important contributor and novel mechanistic link to sex-specific neurodevelopmental changes underlying disease risk...
December 30, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167839/new-murine-niemann-pick-type-c-models-bearing-a-pseudoexon-generating-mutation-recapitulate-the-main-neurobehavioural-and-molecular-features-of-the-disease
#15
Marta Gómez-Grau, Júlia Albaigès, Josefina Casas, Carme Auladell, Mara Dierssen, Lluïsa Vilageliu, Daniel Grinberg
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare neurovisceral disease caused mainly by mutations in the NPC1 gene. This autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder is characterised by the defective lysosomal secretion of cholesterol and sphingolipids. No effective therapy exists for the disease. We previously described a deep intronic point mutation (c.1554-1009 G > A) in NPC1 that generated a pseudoexon, which could be corrected at the cellular level using antisense oligonucleotides. Here, we describe the generation of two mouse models bearing this mutation, one in homozygosity and the other in compound heterozygosity with the c...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163158/neuron-subset-specific-pten-deletion-induces-abnormal-skeletal-activity-in-mice
#16
Joaquin N Lugo, Marjorie H Thompson, Philippe Huber, Gregory Smith, Ronald Y Kwon
Individuals with a history of epilepsy are at higher risk for bone fractures compared to the general population. Although clinical studies support an association between low bone mineral density (BMD) and anti-seizure medications, little is known on whether a history of seizures is linked to altered bone health. Therefore, in this study we tested the hypothesis that bone mass, morphology, and bone mineralization are altered by seizures in genetically epileptic animals and in animals subjected to an episode of status epilepticus...
February 2, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161248/how-is-chronic-pain-related-to-sympathetic-dysfunction-and-autonomic-dysreflexia-following-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Edgar T Walters
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) and neuropathic pain occur after severe injury to higher levels of the spinal cord. Mechanisms underlying these problems have rarely been integrated in proposed models of spinal cord injury (SCI). Several parallels suggest significant overlap of these mechanisms, although the relationships between sympathetic function (dysregulated in AD) and nociceptive function (dysregulated in neuropathic pain) are complex. One general mechanism likely to be shared is central sensitization - enhanced responsiveness and synaptic reorganization of spinal circuits that mediate sympathetic reflexes or that process and relay pain-related information to the brain...
January 27, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159610/brain-imaging-genetics-in-adhd-and-beyond-mapping-pathways-from-gene-to-disorder-at-different-levels-of-complexity
#18
REVIEW
Marieke Klein, Marten Onnink, Marjolein van Donkelaar, Thomas Wolfers, Benjamin Harich, Yan Shi, Janneke Dammers, Alejandro Arias-Va Squez, Martine Hoogman, Barbara Franke
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and often persistent neurodevelopmental disorder. Beyond gene-finding, neurobiological parameters, such as brain structure, connectivity, and function, have been used to link genetic variation to ADHD symptomatology. We performed a systematic review of brain imaging genetics studies involving 62 ADHD candidate genes in childhood and adult ADHD cohorts. Fifty-one eligible research articles described studies of 13 ADHD candidate genes. Almost exclusively, single genetic variants were studied, mostly focussing on dopamine-related genes...
January 31, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154539/temporal-association-of-certain-neuropsychiatric-disorders-following-vaccination-of-children-and-adolescents-a-pilot-case-control-study
#19
Douglas L Leslie, Robert A Kobre, Brian J Richmand, Selin Aktan Guloksuz, James F Leckman
BACKGROUND: Although the association of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine with autism spectrum disorder has been convincingly disproven, the onset of certain brain-related autoimmune and inflammatory disorders has been found to be temporally associated with the antecedent administration of various vaccines. This study examines whether antecedent vaccinations are associated with increased incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anorexia nervosa (AN), anxiety disorder, chronic tic disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder in a national sample of privately insured children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150698/gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Mary M Robertson, Valsamma Eapen, Harvey S Singer, Davide Martino, Jeremiah M Scharf, Peristera Paschou, Veit Roessner, Douglas W Woods, Marwan Hariz, Carol A Mathews, Rudi Črnčec, James F Leckman
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by several motor and phonic tics. Tics usually develop before 10 years of age, exhibit a waxing and waning course and typically improve with increasing age. A prevalence of approximately 1% is estimated in children and adolescents. The condition can result in considerable social stigma and poor quality of life, especially when tics are severe (for example, with coprolalia (swearing tics) and self-injurious behaviours) or when GTS is accompanied by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder or another neuropsychiatric disorder...
February 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
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