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Bruno D Fonseca, Roni M Lahr, Christian K Damgaard, Tommy Alain, Andrea J Berman
The ribosome is an essential unit of all living organisms that commands protein synthesis, ultimately fuelling cell growth (accumulation of cell mass) and cell proliferation (increase in cell number). The eukaryotic ribosome consists of 4 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 80 ribosomal proteins (RPs). Despite its fundamental role in every living organism, our present understanding of how higher eukaryotes produce the various ribosome components is incomplete. Uncovering the mechanisms utilized by human cells to generate functional ribosomes will likely have far-reaching implications in human disease...
May 2, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Katheryn Bachmann, Kaitlin Sipos, Violette Lavender, Lisa L Hunter
BACKGROUND: The video head impulse test (vHIT) is a new tool being used in vestibular clinics to assess the function of all six semicircular canals (SCCs) by measuring the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in response to rapid head turns. Whereas vHIT has been validated in adults for all SCCs, there are few studies describing the normal response in children, particularly for stimulation of the vertical canals. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the normal vHIT response for all six SCCs in children aged 4-12 years...
May 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Guangwei Zhou, Cassandra Goutos, Sophie Lipson, Jacob Brodsky
OBJECTIVE: To examine peak head velocity in video head impulse testing of pediatric patients and its effect on vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Pediatric patients ages 3 to 18 years old who underwent video head impulse testing during clinical evaluation of dizziness and/or imbalance. INTERVENTION(S): Conducted video head impulse test (vHIT) in horizontal, left anterior-right posterior (LARP), and right anterior-left posterior (RALP) planes...
April 11, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Xiaomei Sui, Yana Sui, Yonghui Wang
The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased the past few decades, the most frequent type has been identified to be the papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Following thyroidectomy, radioiodine ablation treatment on PTC is routinely performed. However, many patients do not benefit from radioiodine therapy. Therefore, novel targeted therapies to suppress tumor growth and improve radioiodine uptake are required. La ribonucleoprotein domain family member (LARP)7 is a member of the LARP family and functions as a potential suppressor of the progression of carcinoma...
April 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Masabumi Funakoshi, Manabu Tsuda, Keigo Muramatsu, Hiroshi Hatsuda, Shinichi Morishita, Toshiro Aigaki
Regulation of cell and organ sizes is fundamental for all organisms, but its molecular basis is not fully understood. Here we performed a gain-of-function screen and identified larp4B whose overexpression reduces cell and organ sizes in Drosophila melanogaster. Larp4B is a member of La-related proteins (LARPs) containing an LA motif and an adjacent RNA recognition motif (RRM), and play diverse roles in RNA metabolism. However, the function of Larp4B has remained poorly characterized. We generated transgenic flies overexpressing wild-type Larp4B or a deletion variant lacking the LA and RRM domains, and demonstrated that the RNA-binding domains are essential for Larp4B to reduce cell and organ sizes...
March 4, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Angelika Borkowetz, Johannes Bruendl, Martin Drerup, Jonas Herrmann, Hendrik Isbarn, Burkhard Beyer
PURPOSE: Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) is recommended for patients with prostate cancer (PCa) and significant risk for nodal metastases. This study aimed to assess guideline adherence regarding PLND according to the German S3 guideline as example for a national but highly used guideline on prostate cancer and to compare the rate of complications different approaches for radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS: Patients undergoing open (RRP), laparoscopic (LARP) or robot-assisted (RARP) RP in six centers in Germany and Austria were included...
February 9, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Patrick Ho Yu Chung, Carol Wing Yan Wong, Kenneth Kak Yuen Wong, Paul Kwong Hang Tam
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to compare the long term manometric outcomes in patients with previous laparoscopic anorectoplasty (LARP) and posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP). METHODS: This is a single-centered retrospective study and the participants were born with various types of anorectal malformation. Manometric assessment was carried out with high-resolution anorectomanometry performed as a day procedure. In addition, a seven-itemed bowel function score (BFS) was utilized to assess the functional outcomes...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Jian Zhang, Ying Yang, Hui Deng, Umar Farooq, Xiaokun Yang, Jahangeer Khan, Jiang Tang, Haisheng Song
Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) of lead halide perovskite have recently received great attention owing to their remarkable performances in optoelectronic applications. However, their wide applications are hindered from toxic lead element, which is not environment- and consumer-friendly. Herein, we utilized heterovalent substitution of divalent lead (Pb(2+)) with trivalent antimony (Sb(3+)) to synthesize stable and brightly luminescent Cs3Sb2Br9 QDs. The lead-free, full-inorganic QDs were fabricated by a modified ligand-assisted reprecipitation strategy...
September 26, 2017: ACS Nano
Richard J Maraia, Sandy Mattijssen, Isabel Cruz-Gallardo, Maria R Conte
La was first identified as a polypeptide component of ribonucleic protein complexes targeted by antibodies in autoimmune patients and is now known to be a eukaryote cell-ubiquitous protein. Structure and function studies have shown that La binds to a common terminal motif, UUU-3'-OH, of nascent RNA polymerase III (RNAP III) transcripts and protects them from exonucleolytic decay. For precursor-tRNAs, the most diverse and abundant of these transcripts, La also functions as an RNA chaperone that helps to prevent their misfolding...
November 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
José M Castro, Daniel A Horn, Xinzhu Pu, Karen A Lewis
The RNA-binding proteins that comprise the La-related protein (LARP) superfamily have been implicated in a wide range of cellular functions, from tRNA maturation to regulation of protein synthesis. To more expansively characterize the biological function of the LARP6 subfamily, we have recombinantly expressed the full-length LARP6 proteins from two teleost fish, platyfish (Xiphophorus maculatus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). The yields of the recombinant proteins were enhanced to >2 mg/L using a tandem approach of an N-terminal His6 -SUMO tag and an iterative solubility screening assay to identify structurally stabilizing buffer components...
June 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
Ievgen Levchuk, Andres Osvet, Xiaofeng Tang, Marco Brandl, José Darío Perea, Florian Hoegl, Gebhard J Matt, Rainer Hock, Miroslaw Batentschuk, Christoph J Brabec
In the past few years, hybrid organic-inorganic and all-inorganic metal halide perovskite nanocrystals have become one of the most interesting materials for optoelectronic applications. Here, we report a facile and rapid room temperature synthesis of 15-25 nm formamidinium CH(NH2)2PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I, or mixed Cl/Br and Br/I) colloidal nanocrystals by ligand-assisted reprecipitation (LARP). The cubic and platelet-like nanocrystals with their emission in the range of 415-740 nm, full width at half-maximum (fwhm) of 20-44 nm, and radiative lifetimes of 5-166 ns enable band gap tuning by halide composition as well as by their thickness tailoring; they have a high photoluminescence quantum yield (up to 85%), colloidal and thermodynamic stability...
April 11, 2017: Nano Letters
Yi Zhang, Hong Xu
Mitochondria are generated by the expression of genes on both nuclear and mitochondrial genome. Mitochondrial biogenesis is highly plastic in response to cellular energy demand, developmental signals and environmental stimuli. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway regulates mitochondrial biogenesis to co-ordinate energy homeostasis with cell growth. The local translation of mitochondrial proteins on the outer membrane facilitates their efficient import and thereby allows prodigious mitochondrial biogenesis during rapid cell growth and proliferation...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
Lei Xu, Ren Kong, Jingyu Zhu, Huiyong Sun, Shan Chang
LARP7, a member of the La-related proteins (LARPs), shares a conserved La module comprising the La-motif (LAM) and the RNA-recognition motif (RRM1), binding exclusively to the non-coding RNA 7SK. LARP7 is a component of the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (7SKsnRNP) required for the stability and function of the RNA, and implicated in the transcription termination and regulation of translation. In the current work, molecular dynamics simulations were employed to investigate the recently determined crystal structures of the La module of LARP7 in complexs with a stretch of uridines at the 3'-end of 7SK in the presence and absence of RNA and two different mutants...
July 19, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Yi Zhang, Yong Chen, Marjan Gucek, Hong Xu
Early embryonic development features rapid nuclear DNA replication cycles, but lacks mtDNA replication. To meet the high-energy demands of embryogenesis, mature oocytes are furnished with vast amounts of mitochondria and mtDNA However, the cellular machinery driving massive mtDNA replication in ovaries remains unknown. Here, we describe a Drosophila AKAP protein, MDI that recruits a translation stimulator, La-related protein (Larp), to the mitochondrial outer membrane in ovaries. The MDI-Larp complex promotes the synthesis of a subset of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins by cytosolic ribosomes on the mitochondrial surface...
May 17, 2016: EMBO Journal
Dian-Fu Chen, Cheng Lin, Hong-Liang Wang, Li Zhang, Li Dai, Sheng-Nan Jia, Rong Zhou, Ran Li, Jin-Shu Yang, Fan Yang, James S Clegg, Hiromichi Nagasawa, Wei-Jun Yang
BACKGROUND: In eukaryotes, tRNA trafficking between the nucleus and cytoplasm is a complex process connected with cell cycle regulation. Such trafficking is therefore of fundamental importance in cell biology, and disruption of this process has grave consequences for cell viability and survival. To cope with harsh habitats, Artemia has evolved a special reproductive mode to release encysted embryos in which cell division can be maintained in a dormancy state for a long period. RESULTS: Using Artemia as a peculiar model of the cell cycle, an La-related protein from Artemia, named Ar-Larp, was found to bind to tRNA and accumulate in the nucleus, leading to cell cycle arrest and controlling the onset of diapause formation in Artemia...
March 3, 2016: BMC Biology
Leigh A McGarvie, Marta Martinez-Lopez, Ann M Burgess, Hamish G MacDougall, Ian S Curthoys
BACKGROUND/HYPOTHESIS: With the video head impulse test (vHIT), the vertical VOR gain is defined as (vertical eye velocity/vertical head velocity), but compensatory eye movements to vertical canal stimulation usually have a torsional component. To minimize the contribution of torsion to the eye movement measurement, the horizontal gaze direction should be directed 40° from straight ahead so it is in the plane of the stimulated canal plane pair. HYPOTHESIS: as gaze is systematically moved horizontally away from canal plane alignment, the measured vertical VOR gain should decrease...
2015: Frontiers in Neurology
Feng Zhang, Haizheng Zhong, Cheng Chen, Xian-gang Wu, Xiangmin Hu, Hailong Huang, Junbo Han, Bingsuo Zou, Yuping Dong
Organometal halide perovskites are inexpensive materials with desirable characteristics of color-tunable and narrow-band emissions for lighting and display technology, but they suffer from low photoluminescence quantum yields at low excitation fluencies. Here we developed a ligand-assisted reprecipitation strategy to fabricate brightly luminescent and color-tunable colloidal CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Br, I, Cl) quantum dots with absolute quantum yield up to 70% at room temperature and low excitation fluencies. To illustrate the photoluminescence enhancements in these quantum dots, we conducted comprehensive composition and surface characterizations and determined the time- and temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra...
April 28, 2015: ACS Nano
Luigi Martino, Simon Pennell, Geoff Kelly, Baptiste Busi, Paul Brown, R Andrew Atkinson, Nicholas J H Salisbury, Zi-Hao Ooi, Kang-Wei See, Stephen J Smerdon, Caterina Alfano, Tam T T Bui, Maria R Conte
The La-related proteins (LARPs) form a diverse group of RNA-binding proteins characterized by the possession of a composite RNA binding unit, the La module. The La module comprises two domains, the La motif (LaM) and the RRM1, which together recognize and bind to a wide array of RNA substrates. Structural information regarding the La module is at present restricted to the prototypic La protein, which acts as an RNA chaperone binding to 3' UUUOH sequences of nascent RNA polymerase III transcripts. In contrast, LARP6 is implicated in the regulation of collagen synthesis and interacts with a specific stem-loop within the 5' UTR of the collagen mRNA...
January 2015: Nucleic Acids Research
Samuel Deem, Cordell R Davis, James P Tierney
Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LARP) has been accepted as first line therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Complications have been low and outcomes are comparable to that of open surgery with potential benefits including shorter hospital stay, less pain and quicker return to normal activity. Unexplained paralysis following LARP is a rare entity with no reported cases in the current literature. We report a case of complete motor paralysis following LARP. An extensive multidisciplinary evaluation did not definitively establish a diagnosis...
2008: Journal of Robotic Surgery
Nathaniel H Thayer, Christina K Leverich, Matthew P Fitzgibbon, Zara W Nelson, Kiersten A Henderson, Philip R Gafken, Jessica J Hsu, Daniel E Gottschling
Long-lived proteins have been implicated in age-associated decline in metazoa, but they have only been identified in extracellular matrices or postmitotic cells. However, the aging process also occurs in dividing cells undergoing repeated asymmetric divisions. It was not clear whether long-lived proteins exist in asymmetrically dividing cells or whether they are involved in aging. Here we identify long-lived proteins in dividing cells during aging using the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast mother cells undergo a limited number of asymmetric divisions that define replicative lifespan...
September 30, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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