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Early social communication

Ann Van der Jeugd, Rudi D'Hooge
Olfactory recognition deficits are suggested to be able to serve as clinical marker to differentiate Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects from healthy aging groups. For example, olfactory dysfunction in AD can present as impairment in olfactory recognition, emerging during early stages of the disease and worsening while the disease progresses. The social transmission of food preferences (STFP) task is based on a rudimentary form of communication between rodents concerning distant foods dependent on the transmission of olfactory cues...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Camila V Ventura, Liana O Ventura
Vision plays an important role in the development of communication, social interaction, spatial awareness, and the motor skills needed to explore the environment. In the past 2 years, researchers have described the broad spectrum of clinical features that comprise congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). The ocular manifestations are considered 1 important pillar of this new entity. The most characteristic ophthalmic findings include chorioretinal scars and focal pigmentary changes seen in the macular region. Since these findings were first reported, other researchers have validated and extended them, leading to a more complete picture of the spectrum of ocular manifestations related to CZS...
February 2018: Pediatrics
Mandreker Bahall, Katija Khan
BACKGROUND: Outcomes following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may result in death, increased morbidity, and change in quality of life (QOL). This study explores health-related QOL of first-time patients following AMI. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used a sample of patients with first-time AMI experienced between April 2011 and March 2015 at a tertiary health institution. Recruited patients belonged to different post-AMI periods: 2-10 weeks, 5-22 months, and > 22 months to 4 years post AMI...
February 13, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Manar D Samad, Norou Diawara, Jonna L Bobzien, John W Harrington, Megan A Witherow, Khan M Iftekharuddin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disability with atypical traits in behavioral and physiological responses. These atypical traits in individuals with ASD may be too subtle and subjective to measure visually using tedious methods of scoring. Alternatively, the use of intrusive sensors in the measurement of psychophysical responses in individuals with ASD may likely cause inhibition and bias. This paper proposes a novel experimental protocol for non-intrusive sensing and analysis of facial expression, visual scanning, and eye-hand coordination to investigate behavioral markers for ASD...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Bingrui Zhou, Qiong Xu, Huiping Li, Ying Zhang, Yi Wang, Sally J Rogers, Xiu Xu
To evaluate the effects of a 26-week, high-intensity, parent-implemented Early Start Denver Model (P-ESDM) intervention on developmental outcomes, severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and parental stress of ASD toddlers in China. Subjects in P-ESDM group (n = 23) were recruited from 1.5- to 2.5-year-old toddlers who were screened positive in Xuhui and Minhang Districts and were diagnosed with ASD. A community (comparison) group of age-matched toddlers with ASD (n = 20) was recruited from other areas...
February 7, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Nadège Bourvis, Magi Singer, Catherine Saint Georges, Nicolas Bodeau, Mohamed Chetouani, David Cohen, Ruth Feldman
Language has long been identified as a powerful communicative tool among humans. Yet, pre-linguistic communication, which is common in many species, is also used by human infants prior to the acquisition of language. The potential communicational value of pre-linguistic vocal interactions between human infants and mothers has been studied in the past decades. With 120 dyads (mothers and three- or six-month-old infants), we used the classical Still Face Paradigm (SFP) in which mothers interact freely with their infants, then refrain from communication (Still Face, SF), and finally resume play...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Devin P Merullo, Jeremy A Spool, Changjiu Zhao, Lauren V Riters
Animals communicate in distinct social contexts to convey information specific to those contexts, such as sexual or agonistic motivation. In seasonally-breeding male songbirds, seasonal changes in day length and increases in testosterone stimulate sexually-motivated song directed at females for courtship and reproduction. Dopamine and testosterone may act in the same brain regions to stimulate sexually-motivated singing. The neuropeptide neurotensin, acting at the neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1), can strongly influence dopamine transmission...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Tawny Tsang, Natsuki Atagi, Scott P Johnson
Infants increasingly attend to the mouths of others during the latter half of the first postnatal year, and individual differences in selective attention to talking mouths during infancy predict verbal skills during toddlerhood. There is some evidence suggesting that trajectories in mouth-looking vary by early language environment, in particular monolingual or bilingual language exposure, which may have differential consequences in developing sensitivity to the communicative and social affordances of the face...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
George Boon-Bee Goh, James Weiquan Li, Pik-Eu Chang, Khuan-Yew Chow, Chee-Kiat Tan
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and lethal cancers globally. With advances in therapy for chronic viral hepatitis, changing social circumstances, and increasing practice of HCC surveillance, the epidemiology of HCC is expected to change over time. We explored the temporal trends in HCC in Singapore, a multiethnic Asian country, over the last 3 decades. Patients with HCC were prospectively enrolled and stratified into two cohorts (C1, 1988-2002; C2, 2003-2016). Patient and tumor characteristics, management, and survival were compared between the two cohorts, and a survival census was performed on October 31, 2015...
August 2017: Hepatology Communications
Hanoof Al-Otaish, Laila Al-Ayadhi, Geir Bjørklund, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Mauricio A Urbina, Afaf El-Ansary
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental pathology characterized by an impairment in social interaction, communication difficulties, and repetitive behaviors. Glutamate signaling abnormalities are thought to be considered as major etiological mechanisms leading to ASD. The search for amino-acidic catabolytes related to glutamate in patients with different levels of ASD might help current research to clarify the mechanisms underlying glutamate signaling and its disorders, particularly in relation to ASD...
February 3, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Ali Alessa, Miad Faezipour
Early prediction of seasonal epidemics such as influenza may reduce their impact in daily lives. Nowadays, the web can be used for surveillance of diseases. Search engines and social networking sites can be used to track trends of different diseases seven to ten days faster than government agencies such as Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). CDC uses the Illness-Like Influenza Surveillance Network (ILINet), which is a program used to monitor Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) sent by thousands of health care providers in order to detect influenza outbreaks...
February 1, 2018: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
Nancy C Brady, Kandace Fleming, Rebecca Swinburne Romine, Alison Holbrook, Kristen Muller, Connie Kasari
Purpose: The Communication Complexity Scale (CCS; Brady et al., 2012) was created to fill a void in measures of expressive communication skills in individuals who communicate primarily with presymbolic or early symbolic means. CCS scores reflect expressive communication observed during interactive communication contexts. Method: Two studies were completed to examine the reliability and validity of the revised CCS scores. Participants in both studies had minimal verbal skills (i...
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Susanne Saal, Uta Kirchner-Heklau, Tobias Müller, Kai Wohlfarth, Farsin Hamzei, Melanie Müller, Susanne Strobel, Carsten Clewing
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors influencing the current transition practice and to generate aspects to improve transition. METHODS: Expert interviews and group discussions with health care professionals; a scoping review and a standardized interview with stroke patients 6 weeks after discharge via telephone. RESULTS: 14 expert interviews and 3 group discussions (n=18) were conducted. Factors influencing transition at home were communication of professionals between and within settings, social support and role behavior of stroke patients...
January 29, 2018: Die Rehabilitation
Falk Hillmann, Gillian Forbes, Silvia Novohradská, Iuliia Ferling, Konstantin Riege, Marco Groth, Martin Westermann, Manja Marz, Thomas Spaller, Thomas Winckler, Pauline Schaap, Gernot Glöckner
Establishment of multicellularity represents a major transition in eukaryote evolution. A subgroup of Amoebozoa, the dictyosteliids, has evolved a relatively simple aggregative multicellular stage resulting in a fruiting body supported by a stalk. Protosteloid amoeba, which are scattered throughout the amoebozoan tree, differ by producing only one or few single stalked spores. Thus, one obvious difference in the developmental cycle of protosteliids and dictyosteliids seems to be the establishment of multicellularity...
January 25, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Eric Rubenstein, Lisa D Wiggins, Laura A Schieve, Chyrise Bradley, Carolyn DiGuiseppi, Eric Moody, Juhi Pandey, Rebecca Edmondson Pretzel, Annie Green Howard, Andrew F Olshan, Brian W Pence, Julie Daniels
The autism spectrum disorder phenotype varies by social and communication ability and co-occurring developmental, behavioral, and medical conditions. Etiology is also diverse, with myriad potential genetic origins and environmental risk factors. Examining the influence of parental broader autism phenotype-a set of sub-clinical characteristics of autism spectrum disorder-on child autism spectrum disorder phenotypes may help reduce heterogeneity in potential genetic predisposition for autism spectrum disorder...
January 1, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Mary Sherman Mittelman, Panayiota Maria Papayannopoulou
Summary/Abstract Our experience evaluating a museum program for people with dementia together with their family members demonstrated benefits for all participants. We hypothesized that participation in a chorus would also have positive effects, giving them an opportunity to share a stimulating and social activity that could improve their quality of life. We inaugurated a chorus for people with dementia and their family caregivers in 2011, which rehearses and performs regularly. Each person with dementia must be accompanied by a friend or family member and must commit to attending all rehearsals and the concert that ensues...
January 29, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Denise Cummins, Donna Waters, Christina Aggar, Catherine C O'Connor
AIM: To ascertain whether community-based health care providers were collecting appropriate information to identify patients at risk of HIV associated neurocognitive disorder and whether related documentation was complete. BACKGROUND: HIV associated neurocognitive disorder is a treatable neurological condition that can affect more than 20% of those infected with the HIV. Signs and symptoms of cognitive impairment may be subtle; therefore, documentation of medical and social information could be beneficial in identifying those at risk DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive study...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Ilsu Choi, Dong Ho Lee, Yongkuk Kim
Objectives: The 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak in Korea caused major economic and social problems. The control intervention was conducted during the MERS-CoV outbreak in Korea immediately after the confirmation of the index case. This study investigates whether the early risk communication with the general public and mass media is an effective preventive strategy. Methods: The SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious, Recovered) model with estimated parameters for the time series data of the daily MERS-CoV incidence in Korea was considered from May to December 2015...
December 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
Simon Webb, Magdalena Janus, Eric Duku, Rob Raos, Marni Brownell, Barry Forer, Martin Guhn, Nazeem Muhajarine
The developmental health of young children is highly influenced by the socioeconomic conditions in which they are raised. How to accurately measure these conditions is a point of debate in the current literature on child development, health, and social determinants. We have evaluated four existing indices of socioeconomic status (SES) to determine the most relevant for the analysis of early childhood development (ECD) in Canada. Following a literature review of published SES indices which used 2006 Canadian Census data, four indices were chosen based on their relevance to ECD and the number of citations in subsequent articles...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
Tiago S Bara, Antonio C Farias, Erico Pg Felden, Mara L Cordeiro
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social, behavioral, and communication impairments with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 68 school-aged children. There is a need for objective and easily applicable instruments for early identification of autistic children to enable initiation of early interventions during a very sensitive period of brain development and, consequently, optimize prognosis. Here, we tested the utility of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Caregiver-Teacher's Report Form (C-TRF) scales for assessing ASD in Brazil, where ASD screening research is emergent...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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