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Early social communication

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097516/are-event-related-potentials-to-dynamic-facial-expressions-of-emotion-related-to-individual-differences-in-the-accuracy-of-processing-facial-expressions-and-identity
#1
Guillermo Recio, Oliver Wilhelm, Werner Sommer, Andrea Hildebrandt
Despite a wealth of knowledge about the neural mechanisms behind emotional facial expression processing, little is known about how they relate to individual differences in social cognition abilities. We studied individual differences in the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by dynamic facial expressions. First, we assessed the latent structure of the ERPs, reflecting structural face processing in the N170, and the allocation of processing resources and reflexive attention to emotionally salient stimuli, in the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive complex (LPC)...
January 17, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089766/males-with-mecp2-c-terminal-related-atypical-rett-syndromes-and-their-carrier-mothers
#2
Gabriel M Ronen, Lauren I Brady, Mark A Tarnopolsky
BACKGROUND: This communication examines the expanding phenotypes of the MECP2 C-terminal atypical Rett syndromes in males and their affected carrier mothers. DESCRIPTIONS: We describe three males with normal karyotypes who presented with congenital evolving complex neurodevelopmental encephalopathies with multifaceted symptomatology of hypotonia, epilepsy, ataxia, spasticity, movement disorders, behavioral issues, severe intellectual impairment, and communication skills, and a protracted regression phase followed by stabilization...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079875/early-postnatal-illness-severity-scores-predict-neurodevelopmental-impairments-at-10-years-of-age-in-children-born-extremely-preterm
#3
J W Logan, O Dammann, E N Allred, C Dammann, K Beam, R M Joseph, T M O'Shea, A Leviton, K C K Kuban
OBJECTIVE: A neonatal illness severity score, The Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-II (SNAP-II), predicts neurodevelopmental impairments at two years of age among children born extremely preterm. We sought to evaluate to what extent SNAP-II is predictive of cognitive and other neurodevelopmental impairments at 10 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: In a cohort of 874 children born before 28 weeks of gestation, we prospectively collected clinical, physiologic and laboratory data to calculate SNAP-II for each infant...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075089/autism-spectrum-disorder-primary-care-principles
#4
Kristian E Sanchack, Craig A Thomas
Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., created an umbrella diagnosis that includes several previously separate conditions: autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for autism spectrum disorder in children 18 to 30 months of age in whom the disorder is not suspected; however, there is a growing body of evidence that early intensive behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis improves cognitive ability, language, and adaptive skills...
December 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074357/the-longitudinal-effects-of-parenting-on-adaptive-behavior-in-children-with-fragile-x-syndrome
#5
Steven F Warren, Nancy Brady, Kandace K Fleming, Laura J Hahn
Several studies have reported declines in adaptive behavior amongst children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) starting in middle childhood. We examined the effects of maternal responsivity on adaptive behavior in 55 children with FXS visited 5-6 times in their homes from early through middle childhood. Our analyses indicated that sustained maternal responsivity had a significant positive impact on the trajectories of communication and to a lesser extent other adaptive behavior domains through middle childhood with many effects remaining significant after controlling for autism symptoms and developmental level...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073727/psychosocial-vulnerability-and-hiv-aids-epidemiological-situation-among-people-with-hearing-disabilities-in-four-towns-in-cameroon
#6
C P Mboua, A Touko
The scientific literature about disabled people has stressed their high exposure to social exclusion and marginalization, linked to ways of thinking and representations about them. In the area of HIV/AIDS, this marginalization, which results in higher levels of self-stigmatization and especially in inequalities in prevention, continues to put disabled people at high risk of HIV infection. The current study, conducted with a socioepidemiological and behavioral approach, included 317 people with hearing disabilities, recruited through purposive sampling combined with a snowball approach...
November 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072832/objectively-assessed-exercise-behavior-in-chinese-patients-with-early-stage-cancer-a-predictor-of-perceived-benefits-communication-with-doctors-medical-coping-modes-depression-and-quality-of-life
#7
Zhunzhun Liu, Lanfeng Zhang, Songsong Shi, Wenkai Xia
This study sought to identify factors associated with objectively assessed exercise behavior in Chinese patients with early-stage cancer. Three hundred and fifty one cancer patients were recruited from the Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical College and the Nantong Tumor Hospital. One-way ANOVA, Pearson Chi-square tests and regression analysis were employed to identify the correlations between physical exercise and the measured factors. The results showed that occupation type (χ2 = 14...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062515/joint-attention-and-brain-functional-connectivity-in-infants-and-toddlers
#8
Adam T Eggebrecht, Jed T Elison, Eric Feczko, Alexandre Todorov, Jason J Wolff, Sridhar Kandala, Chloe M Adams, Abraham Z Snyder, John D Lewis, Annette M Estes, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Kelly N Botteron, Robert C McKinstry, John N Constantino, Alan Evans, Heather C Hazlett, Stephen Dager, Sarah J Paterson, Robert T Schultz, Martin A Styner, Guido Gerig, Samir Das, Penelope Kostopoulos, Bradley L Schlaggar, Steven E Petersen, Joseph Piven, John R Pruett
Initiating joint attention (IJA), the behavioral instigation of coordinated focus of 2 people on an object, emerges over the first 2 years of life and supports social-communicative functioning related to the healthy development of aspects of language, empathy, and theory of mind. Deficits in IJA provide strong early indicators for autism spectrum disorder, and therapies targeting joint attention have shown tremendous promise. However, the brain systems underlying IJA in early childhood are poorly understood, due in part to significant methodological challenges in imaging localized brain function that supports social behaviors during the first 2 years of life...
January 6, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059570/understanding-associations-between-information-seeking-and-scanning-and-health-risk-behaviors-an-early-test-of-the-structural-influence-model
#9
Elisabeth Bigsby, Shelly R Hovick
This study examined proposed direct and mediating relationships in the Structural Influence Model (SIM) of Communication within the chronic disease context. Using data from the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey (N = 14,472), we tested the potential mediating roles of information seeking, information scanning, and social capital between social determinants of health and four chronic disease risk behaviors: exercise level, fruit and vegetable intake, cigarette smoking, and excessive alcohol use...
January 6, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058104/severe-lower-limb-ischemia-by-massive-arterial-thrombosis-revealing-an-acute-myeloid-leukemia-needing-for-leg-amputation-clinical-and-emotional-aspects-related-to-the-communication-with-the-patient-and-his-family
#10
Paolo D'Angelo, Calogero Taormina, Clara Mosa, Floriana Di Marco, Fabrizio Valentino, Angela Trizzino, Paola Guadagna, Francesco Talarico
Large vessel thrombosis is a very rare clinical presentation of acute leukemia, generally associated with coagulopathy, usually characteristic of acute promyelocytic leukemia. A 13- year-old boy with a previously undiagnosed acute myeloid leukemia was referred to our hospital with acute ischemia of the right lower limb due to occlusion of the right external iliac artery, treated with emergency double surgical thromboembolectomy and chemotherapy. The thrombotic complication resulted in leg amputation. Now the boy is well in complete remission, with a good social integration and quality of life, 30 months after completing treatment...
November 17, 2016: Pediatric Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056078/early-life-social-isolation-influences-mouse-ultrasonic-vocalizations-during-male-male-social-encounters
#11
Sarah M Keesom, Caitlyn J Finton, Gabrielle L Sell, Laura M Hurley
Early-life social isolation has profound effects on adult social competence. This is often expressed as increased aggression or inappropriate displays of courtship-related behaviors. The social incompetence exhibited by isolated animals could be in part due to an altered ability to participate in communicatory exchanges. House mice (Mus musculus) present an excellent model for exploring this idea, because social isolation has a well-established influence on their social behavior, and mice engage in communication via multiple sensory modalities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054806/early-amygdala-or-hippocampus-damage-influences-adolescent-female-social-behavior-during-group-formation
#12
Gilda Moadab, Eliza Bliss-Moreau, Melissa D Bauman, David G Amaral
This study continues a longitudinal analysis of rhesus macaque social behavior following bilateral neonatal ibotenic acid lesions of the amygdala or hippocampus, or sham operations. The social behavior of female subjects was evaluated at a critical developmental time point-the transition to adulthood. At approximately 4 years of age, female subjects were housed in small groups with other female subjects and reproductively viable adult males. As compared with neurologically intact control animals and animals with early amygdala damage, animals with early hippocampal damage were more social with their female peers...
January 5, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044064/asd-and-schizophrenia-show-distinct-developmental-profiles-in-common-genetic-overlap-with-population-based-social-communication-difficulties
#13
B St Pourcain, E B Robinson, V Anttila, B B Sullivan, J Maller, J Golding, D Skuse, S Ring, D M Evans, S Zammit, S E Fisher, B M Neale, R J L Anney, S Ripke, M V Hollegaard, T Werge, A Ronald, J Grove, D M Hougaard, A D Børglum, P B Mortensen, M J Daly, G Davey Smith
Difficulties in social communication are part of the phenotypic overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. Both conditions follow, however, distinct developmental patterns. Symptoms of ASD typically occur during early childhood, whereas most symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia do not appear before early adulthood. We investigated whether overlap in common genetic influences between these clinical conditions and impairments in social communication depends on the developmental stage of the assessed trait...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044047/parental-obesity-and-early-childhood-development
#14
Edwina H Yeung, Rajeshwari Sundaram, Akhgar Ghassabian, Yunlong Xie, Germaine Buck Louis
BACKGROUND: Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. METHODS: Upstate KIDS (2008-2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation...
January 2, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042228/predictions-from-early-adolescent-emotional-repair-abilities-to-functioning-in-future-relationships
#15
Elenda T Hessel, Emily L Loeb, David E Szwedo, Joseph P Allen
This study examined adolescents' ability to utilize emotional repair-to actively change negative moods to more positive moods-as a predictor of the quality of their developing peer and romantic relationships over time. Utilizing observational data and partners' reports, adolescents (N = 184), their close peers, and their romantic partners were followed from ages 15-19. Adolescents with initially stronger emotional repair abilities were rated as increasingly socially competent over time, and both displayed and experienced increasingly positive interactive behaviors with close peers over time...
December 2016: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036004/sensing-technologies-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-screening-and-intervention
#16
John-John Cabibihan, Hifza Javed, Mohammed Aldosari, Thomas W Frazier, Haitham Elbashir
This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in sensing technologies that are relevant for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) screening and therapy. This disorder is characterized by difficulties in social communication, social interactions, and repetitive behaviors. It is diagnosed during the first three years of life. Early and intensive interventions have been shown to improve the developmental trajectory of the affected children. The earlier the diagnosis, the sooner the intervention therapy can begin, thus, making early diagnosis an important research goal...
December 27, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034801/testing-the-correlation-between-experimentally-induced-hypothyroidism-during-pregnancy-and-autistic-like-symptoms-in-the-rat-offspring
#17
Francesca Melancia, Michela Servadio, Sara Schiavi, Patrizia Campolongo, Alexandre Giusti-Paiva, Viviana Trezza
Thyroid hormones are important for the development of the central nervous system. Since the fetal thyroid gland is not functioning until mid-gestation, transport of maternal thyroid hormones across the placenta is essential during the early phases of gestation. Maternal thyroid deficiency has been associated with a higher incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders in the newborns. The relationship between maternal hypothyroidism and the onset of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring, however, is still debated...
December 26, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032470/a-look-at-uganda-s-early-hiv-prevention-strategies-through-a-moderate-african-communitarian-lens
#18
Jane Wathuta
This paper seeks to highlight the benefits of prioritizing moderate African communitarian principles as partly demonstrated in the HIV prevention strategies implemented in Uganda in the late 1980s. Pertinent lessons could be drawn so as to achieve the HIV prevention targets envisioned in the post-2015 development era. Communitarianism emphasizes the importance of communities as part of healthy human existence. Its core ethical values include the virtues of generosity, compassion, and solidarity. Persuasion through communication, consensus through dialogue, and the awareness and commitment to responsibilities towards other members of the community, are chief practices relied upon to achieve appropriate social behaviour...
December 28, 2016: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017854/the-effects-of-neonatal-amygdala-or-hippocampus-lesions-on-adult-social-behavior
#19
Eliza Bliss-Moreau, Gilda Moadab, Anthony Santistevan, David G Amaral
The present report details the final phase of a longitudinal evaluation of the social behavior in a cohort of adult rhesus monkeys that received bilateral neurotoxic lesions of the amygdala or hippocampus, or sham operations at 2 weeks of age. Results were compared to previous studies in which adult animals received amygdala lesions and were tested in a similar fashion. Social testing with four novel interaction partners occurred when the animals were between 7 and 8 years of age. Experimental animals interacted with two male and two female partners in two conditions - one in which physical access was restricted (the constrained social access condition) and a second in which physical access was unrestricted (the unconstrained social access condition)...
December 22, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008576/-barriers-to-addressing-pregnant-patients-cigarette-and-alcohol-use-a-focus-group-study-with-gynecologists
#20
A Stiegler, L Bieber, K Karacay, F Wernz, A Batra
Objectives/Purpose: Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking pose high health risks for the unborn child. Even though routine testing during the course of pregnancy facilitates early intervention, addressing substance use in pregnancy seems to be more difficult. The aim of the study was to identify barriers to addressing pregnant patients' cigarette and alcohol use. Methods: 2 focus groups (in total N=10 participants) were conducted with gynaecologists. The transcripts of the discussions were analysed using Mayring's approach of qualitative text analysis...
December 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
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