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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672866/the-development-of-autistic-social-traits-across-childhood-and-adolescence-in-males-and-females
#1
William Mandy, Liz Pellicano, Beate St Pourcain, David Skuse, Jon Heron
BACKGROUND: Autism is a dimensional condition, representing the extreme end of a continuum of social competence that extends throughout the general population. Currently, little is known about how autistic social traits (ASTs), measured across the full spectrum of severity, develop during childhood and adolescence, including whether there are developmental differences between boys and girls. Therefore, we sought to chart the trajectories of ASTs in the general population across childhood and adolescence, with a focus on gender differences...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668891/maternal-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-and-early-offspring-development
#2
Griffith A Bell, Rajeshwari Sundaram, Sunni L Mumford, Hyojun Park, James Mills, Erin M Bell, Miranda Broadney, Edwina H Yeung
STUDY QUESTION: Is maternal polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) associated with developmental delays in offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: Offspring of mothers with PCOS were at higher risk of failure on the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There is growing evidence that offspring of mothers with PCOS may be at higher risk for developmental disorders due to potential exposure to hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. Few studies exist regarding maternal PCOS and early childhood development in the USA...
April 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667739/maternal-depressive-symptoms-during-and-after-pregnancy-and-child-developmental-milestones
#3
Soile Tuovinen, Marius Lahti-Pulkkinen, Polina Girchenko, Jari Lipsanen, Jari Lahti, Kati Heinonen, Rebecca M Reynolds, Esa Hämäläinen, Eero Kajantie, Hannele Laivuori, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Pia M Villa, Katri Räikkönen
BACKGROUND: Maternal depressive symptoms during and after pregnancy predict poorer child neurodevelopment. The effects of timing, symptom severity, and additive influences remain unclear. METHODS: A total of 2,231 mothers of the Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale biweekly up to 14 times during pregnancy and twice up to 12 months after pregnancy...
April 18, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659032/at-with-and-beyond-risk-expectations-of-living-with-the-possibility-of-future-dementia
#4
Richard Milne, Ana Diaz, Shirlene Badger, Eline Bunnik, Karine Fauria, Katie Wells
Biomedical research aimed at the development of therapies for chronic and late-onset conditions increasingly concentrates on the early treatment of symptom-less disease. This broad trend is evidenced in prominent shifts in contemporary dementia research. Revised diagnostic criteria and new approaches to clinical trials propose a focus on earlier stages of disease and prompt concerns about the implications of communicating test results associated with the risk of developing dementia when no effective treatments are available...
April 16, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656094/social-interaction-with-a-tutor-modulates-responsiveness-of-specific-auditory-neurons-in-juvenile-zebra-finches
#5
Shin Yanagihara, Yoko Yazaki-Sugiyama
Behavioral states of animals, such as observing the behavior of a conspecific, modify signal perception and/or sensations that influence state-dependent higher cognitive behavior, such as learning. Recent studies have shown that neuronal responsiveness to sensory signals is modified when animals are engaged in social interactions with others or in locomotor activities. However, how these changes produce state-dependent differences in higher cognitive function is still largely unknown. Zebra finches, which have served as the premier songbird model, learn to sing from early auditory experiences with tutors...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649991/interpersonal-communication-regarding-pregnancy-related-services-friends-versus-health-professionals-as-conduits-for-information
#6
Leanne Dougherty, Emily Stammer, Thomas W Valente
BACKGROUND: Social network characteristics influence a wide range of health behaviors but few studies examine the relationship between social network characteristics and pregnancy-related outcomes. METHODS: Using a baseline survey from a behavior change pilot project in the Upper West region of Ghana, we examine four outcomes: (1) early antenatal care, (2) having at least four antenatal care visits, (3) skilled birth attendance, and (4) postpartum care. We collected demographic and network data from 1606 women of reproductive age who had a child in the five years preceding the survey...
April 12, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627160/tackling-socioeconomic-inequalities-and-non-communicable-diseases-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-under-the-sustainable-development-agenda
#7
REVIEW
Louis W Niessen, Diwakar Mohan, Jonathan K Akuoku, Andrew J Mirelman, Sayem Ahmed, Tracey P Koehlmoos, Antonio Trujillo, Jahangir Khan, David H Peters
Five Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set targets that relate to the reduction of health inequalities nationally and worldwide. These targets are poverty reduction, health and wellbeing for all, equitable education, gender equality, and reduction of inequalities within and between countries. The interaction between inequalities and health is complex: better economic and educational outcomes for households enhance health, low socioeconomic status leads to chronic ill health, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) reduce income status of households...
April 4, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621922/understanding-the-role-played-by-parents-culture-and-the-school-curriculum-in-socializing-young-women-on-sexual-health-issues-in-rural-south-african-communities
#8
Feziwe Mpondo, Robert A C Ruiter, Dilana Schaafsma, Bart van den Borne, Priscilla S Reddy
BACKGROUND: the decline in South Africa's HIV infection rates especially among young women is encouraging. However, studies show that the 15-24-year-old cohort remains vulnerable. As they still report early sexual debut, being involved in sexual partnerships with older men as well as having unprotected sex. These risky sexual behaviors may be linked to factors such as the parent-child sexual health communication and the timing of the first talk. The quality of sexual health information received in school may also be important for enhancing healthier sexual behaviors...
December 2018: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620388/using-linked-data-to-investigate-developmental-vulnerabilities-in-children-of-convicted-parents
#9
Megan F Bell, Donna M Bayliss, Rebecca Glauert, Jeneva L Ohan
There is evidence that children of incarcerated parents are at risk of poor developmental and educational outcomes. However, much of this evidence is limited by biased samples, as studies must rely on opt-in recruitment. Administrative data present an opportunity to overcome this challenge, as they capture information on all incarcerated individuals. This study used administrative data on convictions of the parents of 19,071 children aged 5-6 years in Western Australia. Records of parental convictions (starting from 1 year prior to the child's birth) were linked to children's scores on the Australian Early Development Census, which is a teacher-reported measure of children's physical, social, emotional, communicative, and cognitive development...
April 5, 2018: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616236/effects-of-water-quality-sanitation-handwashing-and-nutritional-interventions-on-child-development-in-rural-kenya-wash-benefits-kenya-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Christine P Stewart, Patricia Kariger, Lia Fernald, Amy J Pickering, Charles D Arnold, Benjamin F Arnold, Alan E Hubbard, Holly N Dentz, Audrie Lin, Theodora J Meerkerk, Erin Milner, Jenna Swarthout, John M Colford, Clair Null
Background: Poor nutrition and infectious diseases can prevent children from reaching their developmental potential. We aimed to assess the effects of improvements in water, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition on early child development in rural Kenya. Methods: In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, we enrolled pregnant women in their second or third trimester from three counties (Kakamega, Bungoma, and Vihiga) in Kenya's western region, with an average of 12 households per cluster...
April 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610407/the-diagnostic-odyssey-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Martine Lappé, Lynette Lau, Rebecca N Dudovitz, Bergen B Nelson, Elizabeth A Karp, Alice A Kuo
OBJECTIVES: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by challenges in social communication and interaction and restricted or repetitive behavior, interests, or activities. Although ASD symptoms generally manifest in early childhood, many individuals experience delays accessing an autism diagnosis and related services. In this study, we identify the individual, social, and structural factors that influence parents' experiences of children's ASD diagnosis...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609589/food-beliefs-and-practices-in-urban-poor-communities-in-accra-implications-for-health-interventions
#12
Sandra Boatemaa, Delali Margaret Badasu, Ama de-Graft Aikins
BACKGROUND: Poor communities in low and middle income countries are reported to experience a higher burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and nutrition-related NCDs. Interventions that build on lay perspectives of risk are recommended. The objective of this study was to examine lay understanding of healthy and unhealthy food practices, factors that influence food choices and the implications for developing population health interventions in three urban poor communities in Accra, Ghana...
April 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608153/use-of-a-video-scoring-anchor-for-rapid-serial-assessment-of-social-communication-in-toddlers
#13
Natasha Marrus, Stefanie Kennon-McGill, Brooke Harris, Yi Zhang, Anne L Glowinski, John N Constantino
Reciprocal social behavior (RSB), an early-emerging capacity to engage in social contingency-which is foundational for both social learning and social competency-is hypothesized to be disrupted in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The ability to quantify the full range of RSB during the toddler period, when core symptoms of ASD often arise, is pivotal for evaluating early risk for ASD, characterizing social development, and tracking response to early interventions. However, important parameters of variation in RSB-especially prior to the development of verbal language-can be nuanced and difficult to characterize using questionnaire-based methods...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600698/role-of-microbiota-in-the-autism-spectrum-disorders
#14
Daniela Campion, Paola Ponzo, Carlo Alessandria, Giorgio M Saracco, Federico Balzola
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) defines a set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction, along with repetitive patterns of behavior. Symptoms generally appear in the early developmental period and cause significant impairment in individual and social functioning. In recent years the increased prevalence of ASD, along with the evidence of a significant link between autism and gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances, raised a special interest in exploringì the reciprocal influences between gut and brain...
March 30, 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597197/brain-activation-patterns-in-response-to-conspecific-and-heterospecific-social-acoustic-signals-in-female-plainfin-midshipman-fish-porichthys-notatus
#15
Robert A Mohr, Yiran Chang, Ashwin A Bhandiwad, Paul M Forlano, Joseph A Sisneros
While the peripheral auditory system of fish has been well studied, less is known about how the fish's brain and central auditory system process complex social acoustic signals. The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, has become a good species for investigating the neural basis of acoustic communication because the production and reception of acoustic signals is paramount for this species' reproductive success. Nesting males produce long-duration advertisement calls that females detect and localize among the noise in the intertidal zone to successfully find mates and spawn...
March 29, 2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580218/education-and-employment-status-of-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-germany-a-cross-sectional-survey
#16
Fabian Frank, Martina Jablotschkin, Tobias Arthen, Andreas Riedel, Thomas Fangmeier, Lars P Hölzel, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
BACKGROUND: Adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience challenges in participating in the labour market and struggle to achieve and maintain appropriate professional positions, possibly due to impairments of communication and social interaction. Studies have shown high rates of unemployment as well as evidence of inadequate employment. As knowledge on the participation in the German labour market is scarce, the aim of our study was to examine employment status, type of occupation and inadequate employment in a sample of clinically mostly late-diagnosed and most likely not intellectually disabled adults with ASD in Germany...
March 27, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577529/quality-of-life-in-children-with-developmental-language-disorder
#17
Patricia Eadie, Laura Conway, Birgit Hallenstein, Fiona Mensah, Cristina McKean, Sheena Reilly
BACKGROUND: Developmental language disorder (DLD) is common in children, but little is known about its association with quality of life (QoL) in middle childhood. QoL is a complex construct, aligning with an individual's sense of well-being and is related to functional limitations associated with DLD. Biopsychosocial models of disability account for both the extent and functional limitations of the impairment; however, the DLD literature rarely reports on both aspects. Studies are required that detail QoL in children with and without DLD...
March 25, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573594/looking-but-not-seeing-increased-eye-fixations-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#18
Rosalind Hutchings, Romina Palermo, Jason Bruggemann, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Fiona Kumfor
Face processing plays a central role in human communication, with the eye region a particularly important cue for discriminating emotions. Indeed, reduced attention to the eyes has been argued to underlie social deficits in a number of clinical populations. Despite well-established impairments in facial affect recognition in behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia, whether these patients also have perturbed facial scanning is yet to be investigated. The current study employed eye tracking to record visual scanning of faces in 20 behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia patients and 21 controls...
February 27, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563236/parental-adverse-childhood-experiences-and-offspring-development-at-2-years-of-age
#19
Alonzo T Folger, Emily A Eismann, Nicole B Stephenson, Robert A Shapiro, Maurizio Macaluso, Maggie E Brownrigg, Robert J Gillespie
OBJECTIVES: The study objective was to determine if maternal and paternal exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have a significant association with negative offspring development at 24 months of age in a suburban pediatric primary care population. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 311 mother-child and 122 father-child dyads who attended a large pediatric primary care practice. Children were born from October 2012 to June 2014, and data were collected at the 2-, 4-, and 24-month well-child visits...
March 21, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559544/vitamin-d-is-crucial-for-maternal-care-and-offspring-social-behaviour-in-rats
#20
Nathanael J Yates, Dijana Tesic, Kirk W Feindel, Jeremy T Smith, Michael W Clarke, Celeste Wale, Rachael C Crew, Michaela D Wharfe, Andrew J O Whitehouse, Caitlin S Wyrwoll
Early life vitamin D plays a prominent role in neurodevelopment and subsequent brain function, including schizophrenic-like outcomes and increasing evidence for an association with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we investigate how early life vitamin D deficiency during rat pregnancy and lactation alters maternal care and influences neurodevelopment and affective, cognitive and social behaviours in male adult offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on either a vitamin D control (2195 IU/kg) or deficient diet (0 IU/kg) for five weeks before timed mating, and diet exposure was maintained until weaning of offspring on postnatal day (PND) 23...
May 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
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