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Early social communication

Ye Bai, Shuang Qiu, Yan Li, Yong Li, Weijing Zhong, Meijuan Shi, Xiaojuan Zhu, Huiyi Jiang, Yaqin Yu, Yi Cheng, Yawen Liu
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as one of early-onset neurodevelopmental disorders, is characterized by the following symptoms, including repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, impairments in social interaction, and dysfunctions in communication. ASD afflicts ∼1.5% of children aged 8 years in America and ∼4.5‰ of children aged 0-6 years in China. Existing studies suggest that SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains protein 2 (SHANK2) is implicated in ASD. However, associations between SNPs in SHANK2 introns and ASD risk have been less investigated...
June 22, 2018: IUBMB Life
Lu Tang, Bijie Bie, Degui Zhi
BACKGROUND: The public increasingly uses social media not only to look for information about emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), but also to share opinions, emotions, and coping strategies. Identifying the frames used in social media discussion about EIDs will allow public health agencies to assess public opinions and sentiments. METHOD: This study examined how the public discussed measles during the measles outbreak in the United States during early 2015 that originated in Disneyland Park in Anaheim, CA, through a semantic network analysis of the content of around 1 million tweets using KH coder...
June 18, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
J Peter Cegielski
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) emerged shortly after introduction of rifamycins in the 1960s; isoniazid resistance had already emerged by the mid-1950s. Without these two drugs, tuberculosis is very difficult and costly to treat, with unacceptably high rates of treatment failure, death, loss to follow-up, and no known preventive treatment. Global attention first focused on MDR TB in the early 1990s when nosocomial outbreaks with high case fatality rates were reported in many countries. Prevalence data for MDR TB on a global scale first became available in 1997...
January 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Amanda C Kentner, Urma Khan, M MacRae, Scot E Dowd, Siyang Yan
Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to infection during early development increases the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders associated with symptoms such as a decreased desire to engage in social interactions. This disruption in social behavior can be modelled in animals by administering bacterial mimetics such as liposaccharide (LPS). However, when evaluating social interactions in the laboratory, attention is rarely directed on the reciprocal relationship as a whole, which is important as peers may drive social withdrawal...
June 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Edgar Jesús Zitle-García, Alma Lucila Sauceda-Valenzuela, Iván de Jesús Ascencio-Montiel, Jesús García-Paredes
Background: Cancer represents an important issue in health, with the economic impact that it takes. The aim of this paper is to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of a population with social security who was diagnosed with some type of cancer and required a disability pension. Methods: Observational study, retrolective cohort type, carried out at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) with IMSS beneficiaries ruled with a state of disability due to malignancy during the period 2006 to 2012...
March 2018: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
Ayako Senju, Masayuki Shimono, Mayumi Tsuji, Reiko Suga, Eiji Shibata, Yoshihisa Fujino, Toshihiro Kawamoto, Koichi Kusuhara
BACKGROUND: During routine health screenings, pediatricians may note that some infants cannot maintain the prone position with an extended arm support at 6 months. However, little is known regarding the development of full-term infants with this developmental deviation. We investigated the developmental course of infants exhibiting this characteristic. METHODS: We included 2020 full-term infants from a regional center for the Japan Environment and Children's Study...
June 14, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Jeanine Elise Aune, Lynn Lundy Evans, Nancy Boury
The nature of science (NOS) is a foundational framework for understanding scientific ideas and concepts. This framework includes scientific methodology, the process of revising and interpreting data, and the ways in which science is a social endeavor. Nature of science literature treats science as a way of knowing that is based on observable phenomenon. While discipline-specific coursework teaches the factual information of science, it may fall short on teaching scientific literacy, a key component of which is understanding NOS...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Jack T H Wang, Cheryl J Power, Charlene M Kahler, Dena Lyras, Paul R Young, Jonathan Iredell, Roy Robins-Browne
Science communication is a skill set to be developed through ongoing interactions with different stakeholders across a variety of platforms. Opportunities to engage the general public are typically reserved for senior scientists, but the use of social media in science communication allows all scientists to instantaneously disseminate their findings and interact with online users. The Communication Ambassador program is a social media initiative launched by the Australian Society for Microbiology to expand the online presence and science communication portfolios of early-career scientists...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Dheeraj Rai, Iryna Culpin, Hein Heuvelman, Cecilia M K Magnusson, Peter Carpenter, Hannah J Jones, Alan M Emond, Stanley Zammit, Jean Golding, Rebecca M Pearson
Importance: Population-based studies following trajectories of depression in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from childhood into early adulthood are rare. The role of genetic confounding and of potential environmental intermediaries, such as bullying, in any associations is unclear. Objectives: To compare trajectories of depressive symptoms from ages 10 to 18 years for children with or without ASD and autistic traits, to assess associations between ASD and autistic traits and an International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) depression diagnosis at age 18 years, and to explore the importance of genetic confounding and bullying...
June 13, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Péter Osváth, Attila Kovács, Adrienn Boda-Jörg, Tamás Tényi, Sándor Fekete, Viktor Vörös
Modern information and communication tools have increasingly become an indispensable part of our everyday life. Research data demonstrate that it can be used effectively to preserve and restore health, not just among young people but also among the elderly, as for nowadays the use of the internet is widespread among the elderly, but healthcare applications are less well-known. This supports the significance of our project since it is important to develop and introduce disease-specific healthcare applications...
June 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Jaume Sastre-Juan
This article analyzes the changing politics of hands-on display at the New York Museum of Science and Industry by following its urban deambulation within Midtown Manhattan, which went hand in hand with sharp shifts in promoters, narrative, and exhibition techniques. The museum was inaugurated in 1927 as the Museum of the Peaceful Arts on the 7th and 8th floors of the Scientific American Building. It changed its name in 1930 to the New York Museum of Science and Industry while on the 4th floor of the Daily News Building, and it was close to being renamed the Science Center when it finally moved in 1936 to the ground floor of the Rockefeller Center...
June 1, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
Justin J Sanders, Kimberly S Johnson, Kimberly Cannady, Joanna Paladino, Dee W Ford, Susan D Block, Katherine R Sterba
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore multiple perspectives regarding barriers to and facilitators of advance care planning (ACP) among African Americans to identify similarities or differences that might have clinical implications. METHOD: Qualitative study with health disparities experts (n = 5), community members (n = 9), and seriously ill African American patients and caregivers (n = 11). Using template analysis, interviews were coded to identify intrapersonal, interpersonal, and systems-level themes in accordance with a social ecological framework...
June 5, 2018: Palliative & Supportive Care
Monica Hedenbro, Per-Anders Rydelius
AIM: Studies of children's early ability to communicate have mainly focused on mother-child dyads. That is why this study analysed the long-term effects of triadic interactions involving both parents. METHOD: This prospective pilot-study monitored child-mother-father communication in 19 families from the general population in Sweden using the standardised Lausanne Triologue Play method in a video studio. The families and their first-born child were initially followed from three months to 48 months of age...
June 4, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Alan R Harvey
Over tens of thousands of years of human genetic and cultural evolution, many types and varieties of music and language have emerged; however, the fundamental components of each of these modes of communication seem to be common to all human cultures and social groups. In this brief review, rather than focusing on the development of different musical techniques and practices over time, the main issues addressed here concern: (i) when, and speculations as to why, modern Homo sapiens evolved musical behaviors, (ii) the evolutionary relationship between music and language, and (iii) why humans, perhaps unique among all living species, universally continue to possess two complementary but distinct communication streams...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Adrienne Katrina Nelson, Ann C Miller, Maribel Munoz, Nancy Rumaldo, Betsy Kammerer, Martha Vibbert, Shannon Lundy, Guadalupe Soplapuco, Leonid Lecca, Alicia Condeso, Yesica Valdivia, Sidney A Atwood, Sonya S Shin
Objective: To determine whether the 3-month, community-based early stimulation coaching and social support intervention 'CASITA', delivered by community health workers, could improve early child development and caregiver-child interaction in a resource-limited district in Lima, Peru. Design: A controlled two-arm proof-of-concept study. Setting: Six neighbourhood health posts in Carabayllo, a mixed rural/urban district in Lima. Sessions were held in homes and community centres...
2018: BMJ Paediatrics Open
Orsola Gawronski, Christopher Parshuram, Corrado Cecchetti, Emanuela Tiozzo, Marta Luisa Ciofi Degli Atti, Immacolata Dall'Oglio, Gianna Scarselletta, Caterina Offidani, Massimiliano Raponi, Jos M Latour
Background: System-level interventions including rapid response teams and paediatric early warning scores have been designed to support escalation of care and prevent severe adverse events in hospital wards. Barriers and facilitators to escalation of care have been rarely explored in paediatric settings. Aim: This study explores the experiences of parents and healthcare professionals of in-hospital paediatric clinical deterioration events to identify factors associated with escalation of care...
2018: BMJ Paediatrics Open
Lucas de Oliveira Pereira Ribeiro, Pedro Vargas-Pinilla, Djenifer B Kappel, Danae Longo, Josiane Ranzan, Michele Michelin Becker, Rudimar Dos Santos Riesgo, Lavinia Schuler-Faccini, Tatiana Roman, Jaqueline Bohrer Schuch
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an early-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social behaviors and communication. Oxytocin and its signaling pathway are related to a range of human behaviors, from facial expression recognition to aggressive behaviors, and have been suggested as involved in the etiology of ASD. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of two polymorphisms (rs1042778, rs53576) at the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) on ASD diagnosis and on specific ASD-related clinical symptoms (seizures, panic, and aggressive behaviors)...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
D A Blank
Compared to solitary species, social ungulates benefit from living in groups not only because of the "many eyes effect", when each individual devotes less time to vigilance and spends more time foraging and engaged in other activities, or of the "dilution effect", when the probability that any specific individual will be caught decreases with herd size, but also because of early alarm signals produced by conspecifics that provide enough time for a successful escape from predator attack. These signals can contain multiple messages about the category of the predator and the degree of risk...
May 18, 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
(no author information available yet)
Large vestibular aqueduct syndrome is one of the common non-syndromic hearing impairment. It is one of the most common inner ear abnormalities that cause hearing loss in children.The main performance is gradual or fluctuant hearing loss, from basic normal to extremely severe. Frequently seen in high frequencies hearing loss. The air-bone conduction gaps present in pure tone audiometry test with low frequencies. There were some inducements of intracranial pressure increases before premorbid. Some patients could be accompanied by vertigo or instability...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
J Paynter, D Trembath, A Lane
BACKGROUND: The finding of positive outcomes at the group level for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who complete comprehensive early intervention programmes often masks considerable individual variability. We therefore aimed to identify subgroups of children based on their response to intervention and to compare outcome variables between groups at two points in time. METHOD: We used model-based cluster analysis to explore response to intervention using a longitudinal design for 210 children with ASD who had completed an early intervention programme...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
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