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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909041/influenza-virus
#1
Edward C Hutchinson
This infographic briefly summarises the natural history, replication cycle, and pathogenesis of influenza viruses, the cause of seasonal influenza and of influenza pandemics. Influenza viruses infect many vertebrates, with Influenza A, B and C viruses (IAV, IBV, and ICV) infecting humans. High mutation rates allow the evasion of immunity. IAV from different host species can 'reassort' their segmented genomes, producing pandemic strains that are antigenically novel but otherwise well adapted to humans. The 'Great Influenza' pandemic of 1918 remains the worst outbreak of infectious disease in history...
June 13, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908366/g-d3-ganglioside-enriched-extracellular-vesicles-stimulate-melanocyte-migration
#2
Andreia Hanada Otake, Renata de Freitas Saito, Ana Paula Marques Duarte, Alexandre Ferreira Ramos, Roger Chammas
Melanomas often accumulate gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids found in the outer leaflet of plasma membranes, as disialoganglioside GD3 and its derivatives. Here, we have transfected the GD3 synthase gene (ST8Sia I) in a normal melanocyte cell line in order to evaluate changes in the biological behavior of non-transformed cells. GD3 -synthase expressing cells converted GM3 into GD3 and accumulated both GD3 and its acetylated form, 9-O-acetyl-GD3 . Melanocytes were rendered more migratory on laminin-1 surfaces...
June 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906542/expression-of-neu5ac%C3%AE-2-3gal-and-neu5ac%C3%AE-2-6gal-on-the-nasal-mucosa-of-patients-with-chronic-rhinosinusitis-and-its-possible-effect-on-bacterial-biofilm-formation
#3
Qinying Wang, Haihong Chen, Yang Yang, Bo Wang
OBJECTIVE: Adherence of pathogen to nasal mucosa and colonization is the first step of bacterial biofilm(BBF) formation in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS).Terminal sialic acids presenting on cell surface are potential targets for bacterial binding, thus may partly contribute to the pathogenesis of CRS. However, little has been published in this respect, the purpose of our study aimed to investigate the expression of sialic acids on the nasal mucosa in CRS patients and its possible effect on BBF formation...
June 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902539/advances-in-the-characterization-of-the-scorpaena-plumieri-cytolytic-toxin-sp-ctx
#4
Pedro F Malacarne, Thiago N Menezes, Cleciane W Martins, Gustavo B Naumann, Helena L Gomes, Rita G W Pires, Suely G Figueiredo, Fabiana V Campos
Proteins that account for the hemolytic activity found in scorpaeniform fish venoms are responsible for the majority of the effects observed upon envenomation, for instance, neurotoxic, cardiotoxic and inflammatory effects. These multifunctional toxins, described as protein lethal factors and referred to as cytolysins, are known to be extremely labile molecules. In the present work, we endeavored to overcome this constraint by determining optimal storage conditions for Sp-CTx, the major bioactive component from the scorpionfish Scorpaena plumieri venom...
June 11, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902433/cell-entry-of-influenza-a-viruses-sweet-talk-between-ha-and-ca-v-1-2
#5
Markus Hoffmann, Stefan Pöhlmann
Influenza A viruses attach to sialic acids on host cells. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Fujioka et al. (2018) show that binding to a specific sialylated cellular protein facilitates infection: engagement of sialic acids linked to the Ca2+ channel CaV 1.2 induces Ca2+ oscillations, which promote infectious entry.
June 13, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902282/lack-of-complex-type-n-glycans-lessens-aberrant-neuronal-properties
#6
M Kristen Hall, Douglas A Weidner, Austin A Whitman, Ruth A Schwalbe
Modifications in surface glycans attached to proteins via N-acetylglucosamine-β1-N-asparagine linkage have been linked to tumor development and progression. These modifications include complex N-glycans with high levels of branching, fucose and sialic acid residues. Previously, we silenced Mgat2 in neuroblastoma (NB) cells, which halted the conversion of hybrid type N-glycans to complex type, to generate a novel cell line, NB_1(-Mgat2). By comparing the aberrant cell properties of the NB_1(-Mgat2) cell line to the parental cell line (NB_1), we investigated the impact of eliminating complex type N-glycans on NB cell behavior...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894213/low-glycosylated-forms-of-both-fsh-and-lh-play-major-roles-in-the-natural-ovarian-stimulation
#7
Leif Wide, Karin Eriksson
BACKGROUND: The natural ovarian stimulation is mediated by four gonadotrophin glycoforms: FSHtri with three, FSHtetra with four, LHdi with two, and LHtri with three N-glycans. The aim of the study was to determine the serum concentrations of the four glycoforms and their contents of anionic monosaccharides (AMS), i.e. sialic acid (SA) and sulfonated N-acetylgalactosamine (SU) residues throughout the menstrual cycle. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 78 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles...
June 12, 2018: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892572/sialic-acid-metabolism-a-key-player-in-breast-cancer-metastasis-revealed-by-metabolomics
#8
Shao Thing Teoh, Martin P Ogrodzinski, Christina Ross, Kent W Hunter, Sophia Y Lunt
Metastatic breast cancer is currently incurable. It has recently emerged that different metabolic pathways support metastatic breast cancer. To further uncover metabolic pathways enabling breast cancer metastasis, we investigated metabolic differences in mouse tumors of differing metastatic propensities using mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. We found that sialic acid metabolism is upregulated in highly metastatic breast tumors. Knocking out a key gene in sialic acid metabolism, Cmas , inhibits synthesis of the activated form of sialic acid, cytidine monophosphate-sialic acid and decreases the formation of lung metastases in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886095/targeted-delivery-of-pixantrone-to-neutrophils-by-poly-sialic-acid-p-octadecylamine-conjugate-modified-liposomes-with-improved-antitumor-activity
#9
Xiang Luo, Mingqi Liu, Ling Hu, Qiujun Qiu, Xinrong Liu, Cong Li, Mei Lu, Yang Liu, Ting Zhang, Songlei Zhou, David Julian McClements, Xian Jia, Yihui Deng, Yanzhi Song
Based on the knowledge that poly(sialic acid) is a critical element for tumour development and that the receptors for its monomer are expressed on neutrophils, which play important roles in the progression and invasion of tumours, a poly(sialic acid)-p-octadecylamine conjugate (PSA-p-ODA) was synthesised and used to modify the surface of liposomal pixantrone (Pix-PSL) to improve the delivery of Pix to peripheral blood neutrophils (PBNs). The liposomes were fabricated using a remote loading technology via a pH gradient, and were then assessed for particle size, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release, in vitro cytotoxicity, and pharmacokinetics...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885577/mutual-promotion-of-electrochemical-localized-surface-plasmon-resonance-on-nanochip-for-sensitive-sialic-acid-detection
#10
Shuang Li, Jinglong Liu, Yanli Lu, Long Zhu, Candong Li, Lijiang Hu, Jun Li, Jing Jiang, Szeshin Low, Qingjun Liu
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) induced charge separation were concentrated on the metal nanoparticles surface, which made it sensitive to the surface refractive index changes during optical sensing. Similarly, electrochemical detection was based on the electron transformation on the electrode surface. Herein, we fabricated a nanochip by decorating a nanocone-array substrate with gold nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles for dynamic electro-optical spectroscopy. Mercaptophenyl boronic acid (MPBA) was immobilized firmly on the nanochip by the metal-S bond for sensitive sialic acid sensing...
June 1, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885004/sialylated-receptor-setting-influences-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-attachment-and-gliding-motility
#11
Caitlin R Williams, Li Chen, Ashley D Driver, Edward A Arnold, Edward S Sheppard, Jason Locklin, Duncan C Krause
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of human respiratory tract infections, including bronchitis and atypical pneumonia. M. pneumoniae binds glycoprotein receptors having terminal sialic acid residues via the P1 adhesin protein. Here we explored the impact of sialic acid presentation on M. pneumoniae adherence and gliding on surfaces coated with sialylated glycoproteins, or chemically functionalized with α-2,3- and α-2,6-sialyllactose ligated individually or in combination to a polymer scaffold in precisely controlled densities...
June 8, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875421/a-cross-sectional-quantitative-analysis-of-the-natural-history-of-free-sialic-acid-storage-disease-an-ultra-orphan-multisystemic-lysosomal-storage-disorder
#12
Matthias Zielonka, Sven F Garbade, Stefan Kölker, Georg F Hoffmann, Markus Ries
PURPOSE: Quantitative definition of the natural history of free sialic acid storage disease (SASD, OMIM 604369), an orphan disorder due to the deficiency of the proton-driven carrier SLC17A5. METHODS: Analysis of published cases with SASD (N = 116) respecting STROBE criteria. MAIN OUTCOME PARAMETERS: survival and diagnostic delay. Phenotype, phenotype-biomarker associations, and geographical patient distribution were explored. RESULTS: Median age at disease onset was 0...
June 6, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874880/polysialic-acid-in-human-plasma-can-compensate-the-cytotoxicity-of-histones
#13
Kristina Zlatina, Max Saftenberger, Andrea Kühnle, Christina E Galuska, Ulrich Gärtner, Alexander Rebl, Michael Oster, Andreas Vernunft, Sebastian P Galuska
The innate immune system has numerous mechanisms to fight against pathogens, including the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). By spreading out chromatin, antimicrobial peptides and enzymes, neutrophils efficiently trap pathogens like bacteria and facilitate their elimination. During this process, high concentrations of extracellular histones can be reached. Several researchers have demonstrated that the cytotoxic characteristics of these histones can trigger diseases like sepsis. Interestingly, the carbohydrate polysialic acid (polySia) can bind histones and reduce histone-mediated cytotoxicity in a chain length-dependent manner...
June 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867350/microglial-lectins-in-health-and-neurological-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Jian Jing Siew, Yijuang Chern
Microglia are the innate sentinels of the central nervous system (CNS) and are responsible for the homeostasis and immune defense of the CNS. Under the influence of the local environment and cell-cell interaction, microglia exhibit a multidimensional and context-dependent phenotypes that can be cytotoxic and neuroprotective. Recent studies suggest that microglia express multitudinous types of lectins, including galectins, Siglecs, mannose-binding lectins (MBLs) and other glycan binding proteins. Because most studies that examine lectins focus on the peripheral system, the functions of lectins have not been critically investigated in the CNS...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862060/protective-activity-of-erythropoyetine-in-the-cognition-of-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Ivonne Pedroso, Marité Garcia, Enrique Casabona, Lilia Morales, Maria Luisa Bringas, Leslie Pérez, Teresita Rodríguez, Ileana Sosa, Yordanka Ricardo, Arnoldo Padrón, Daniel Amaro
Introduction: Treatment strategies in Parkinson's disease (PD) can improve a patient's quality of life but cannot stop the progression of PD. We are looking for different alternatives that modify the natural course of the disease and recent research has demonstrated the neuroprotective properties of erythropoietin. In Cuba, the Center for Molecular Immunology (CIM) is a cutting edge scientific center where the recombinant form (EPOrh) and recombinant human erythropoietin with low sialic acid (NeuroEPO) are produced...
May 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847599/integration-of-genetic-and-metabolic-features-related-to-sialic-acid-metabolism-distinguishes-human-breast-cell-subtypes
#16
Christopher T Saeui, Alison V Nairn, Melina Galizzi, Christopher Douville, Prateek Gowda, Marian Park, Vrinda Dharmarha, Sagar R Shah, Amelia Clarke, Melissa Austin, Kelley W Moremen, Kevin J Yarema
In this report we use 'high-flux' tributanoyl-modified N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) analogs with natural N-acetyl as well as non-natural azido- and alkyne N-acyl groups (specifically, 1,3,4-O-Bu3ManNAc, 1,3,4-O-Bu3ManNAz, and 1,3,4-O-Bu3ManNAl respectively) to probe intracellular sialic acid metabolism in the near-normal MCF10A human breast cell line in comparison with earlier stage T-47D and more advanced stage MDA-MB-231 breast cancer lines. An integrated view of sialic acid metabolism was gained by measuring intracellular sialic acid production in tandem with transcriptional profiling of genes linked to sialic acid metabolism...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844375/induction-of-ganglioside-synthesis-in-drosophila-brain-accelerates-assembly-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein
#17
Yasutoyo Yamasaki, Leo Tsuda, Akemi Suzuki, Katsuhiko Yanagisawa
The assembly and deposition of amyloid β protein (Aβ) is a fundamental event during the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. A growing body of evidence indicates that gangliosides form a pathological platform for the generation of ganglioside-bound Aβ, which facilitates the assembly of soluble Aβs; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the binding of Aβ to gangliosides in the brain remain unclear due to the lack of an in vivo system that may address this issue...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844291/a-sensitive-and-rapid-method-to-determin-the-adhesion-capacity-of-probiotics-and-pathogenic-microorganisms-to-human-gastrointestinal-mucins
#18
Bélinda Ringot-Destrez, Zéa D'Alessandro, Jean-Marie Lacroix, Muriel Mercier-Bonin, Renaud Léonard, Catherine Robbe-Masselot
Mucus is the habitat for the microorganisms, bacteria and yeast that form the commensal flora. Mucins, the main macromolecules of mucus, and more specifically, the glycans that cover them, play essential roles in microbial gastrointestinal colonization. Probiotics and pathogens must also colonize mucus to have lasting positive or deleterious effects. The question of which mucin-harboured glycan motifs favour the adhesion of specific microorganisms remains very poorly studied. In the current study, a simple test based on the detection of fluorescent-labeled microorganisms raised against microgram amounts of mucins spotted on nitrocellulose was developed...
May 29, 2018: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29844237/a-novel-sialylation-site-on-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-lipooligosaccharide-links-heptose-ii-lactose-expression-with-pathogenicity
#19
Sanjay Ram, Sunita Gulati, Lisa A Lewis, Srinjoy Chakraborti, Bo Zheng, Rosane B DeOliveira, George W Reed, Andrew D Cox, Jianjun Li, Frank St Michael, Jacek Stupak, Xia-Hong Su, Sudeshna Saha, Corinna S Landig, Ajit Varki, Peter A Rice
Sialylation of lacto- N -neotetraose (LNnT) extending from heptose I (HepI) of gonococcal lipooligosaccharide (LOS) contributes to pathogenesis. Previously, gonococcal LOS sialyltransterase (Lst) was shown to sialylate LOS in Triton X-100 extracts of strain 15253, which expresses lactose from both HepI and HepII, the minimal structure required for mAb 2C7 binding. Ongoing work has shown that growth of 15253 in cytidine monophospho- N -acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac)-containing media enables binding to CD33/Siglec-3, a cell surface receptor that binds sialic acid, suggesting that lactose termini on LOS of intact gonococci can be sialylated...
May 29, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29806066/hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-in-the-separation-of-glycopeptides-and-their-isomers
#20
Petr Kozlik, Radoslav Goldman, Miloslav Sanda
The analysis of intact glycopeptides is a challenge because of the structural variety of the complex conjugates. In this work, we used separation involving hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography using a superficially porous particle HALO® penta-HILIC column with tandem mass spectrometric detection for the analysis of N-glycopeptides of hemopexin. We tested the effect of the mobile phase composition on retention and separation of the glycopeptides. The results indicated that the retention of the glycopeptides was the combination of partitioning and adsorption processes...
May 28, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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