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Sialic Acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453885/bacterial-neuraminidase-mediated-erythrocyte-desialylation-provokes-cell-surface-aminophospholipid-exposure
#1
Syed M Qadri, David A Donkor, Ishac Nazy, Donald R Branch, William P Sheffield
BACKGROUND: Surface desialylation is associated with erythrocyte aging and mediates phagocytic recognition and clearance of senescent erythrocytes. Neuraminidases, a family of glycohydrolytic enzymes, cleave the glycosidic linkages between sialic acid and mucopolysaccharides and have previously been implicated in erythrocyte dysfunction associated with sepsis. Erythrocytes in septic patients further display a phenotype of accelerated eryptosis characterized by membrane phospholipid scrambling resulting in phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization...
February 17, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451981/high-performance-anion-exchange-and-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-approaches-for-comprehensive-mass-spectrometry-based-characterization-of-the-n-glycome-of-a-recombinant-human-erythropoietin
#2
Zoltan Szabo, James R Thayer, Dietmar Reusch, Yury Agroskin, Rosa Viner, Jeff Rohrer, Sachin P Patil, Michael Krawitzky, Andreas Huhmer, Nebojsa Avdalovic, Shaheer H Khan, Yan Liu, Christopher Pohl
Comprehensive characterization of the N-glycome of a therapeutic is challenging because glycans may harbor numerous modifications (e.g. phosphorylation, sulfation, sialic acids with possible O-acetylation). The current report presents a comparison of two chromatographic platforms for the comprehensive characterization of a recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) N-glycome. The two platforms include a common workflow based on 2-AB-derivatization and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and a native N-linked glycan workflow employing high performance anion exchange (HPAE) chromatography...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445999/the-s190r-mutation-in-the-hemagglutinin-protein-of-pandemic-h1n1-2009-influenza-virus-increased-its-pathogenicity-in-mice
#3
Yongkun Chen, Tian Bai, Wenfei Zhu, Rongbao Gao, Zhihong Deng, Yi Shi, Shumei Zou, Yiwei Huang, Xiyan Li, Fangcai Li, Zhaomin Feng, Tao Chen, Jing Yang, Dayan Wang, Lidong Gao, Yuelong Shu
Human influenza viruses preferentially bind to sialic acid-α2,6-galactose (SAα2,6Gal) receptors, which are predominant in human upper respiratory epithelia, whereas avian influenza viruses preferentially bind to SAα2,3Gal receptors. However, variants with amino acid substitutions around the receptor-binding sites of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein can be selected after several passages of human influenza viruses from patients' respiratory samples in the allantoic cavities of embryonated chicken eggs. In this study, we detected an egg-adapted HA S190R mutation in the pandemic H1N1 virus 2009 (pdmH1N1), and evaluated the effects of this mutation on receptor binding affinity and pathogenicity in mice...
February 10, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445215/origin-evolution-and-distribution-of-the-molecular-machinery-for-biosynthesis-of-sialylated-lipooligosaccharide-structures-in-campylobacter-coli
#4
Alejandra Culebro, Miguel P Machado, João André Carriço, Mirko Rossi
Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Additionally, C. jejuni is the most common bacterial etiological agent in the autoimmune Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Ganglioside mimicry by C. jejuni lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is the triggering factor of the disease. LOS-associated genes involved in the synthesis and transfer of sialic acid (glycosyltranferases belonging to family GT-42) are essential in C. jejuni to synthesize ganglioside-like LOS...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444432/surface-matrix-screening-identifies-semi-specific-interactions-that-improve-potency-of-a-near-pan-reactive-hiv-1-neutralizing-antibody
#5
Young D Kwon, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Baoshan Zhang, Robert T Bailer, Nicole A Doria-Rose, Tatyana S Gindin, Bob Lin, Mark K Louder, Krisha McKee, Sijy O'Dell, Amarendra Pegu, Stephen D Schmidt, Mangaiarkarasi Asokan, Xuejun Chen, Misook Choe, Ivelin S Georgiev, Vivian Jin, Marie Pancera, Reda Rawi, Keyun Wang, Rajoshi Chaudhuri, Lisa A Kueltzo, Slobodanka D Manceva, John-Paul Todd, Diana G Scorpio, Mikyung Kim, Ellis L Reinherz, Kshitij Wagh, Bette M Korber, Mark Connors, Lawrence Shapiro, John R Mascola, Peter D Kwong
Highly effective HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies could have utility in the prevention or treatment of HIV-1 infection. To improve the potency of 10E8, an antibody capable of near pan-HIV-1 neutralization, we engineered 10E8-surface mutants and screened for improved neutralization. Variants with the largest functional enhancements involved the addition of hydrophobic or positively charged residues, which were positioned to interact with viral membrane lipids or viral glycan-sialic acids, respectively. In both cases, the site of improvement was spatially separated from the region of antibody mediating molecular contact with the protein component of the antigen, thereby improving peripheral semi-specific interactions while maintaining unmodified dominant contacts responsible for broad recognition...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443887/impact-of-mutations-in-the-hemagglutinin-of-h10n7-viruses-isolated-from-seals-on-virus-replication-in-avian-and-human-cells
#6
Anne Dittrich, David Scheibner, Ahmed H Salaheldin, Jutta Veits, Marcel Gischke, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Elsayed M Abdelwhab
Wild birds are the reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses, which are frequently transmitted to domestic birds and occasionally to mammals. In 2014, an H10N7 virus caused severe mortality in harbor seals in northeastern Europe. Although the hemagglutinin (HA) of this virus was closely related to H10 of avian H10N4 virus, it possessed unique nonsynonymous mutations, particularly in the HA1 subunit in or adjacent to the receptor binding domain and proteolytic cleavage site. Here, the impact of these mutations on virus replication was studied in vitro...
February 14, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442082/comparative-analysis-of-salivary-sialic-acid-levels-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-chronic-periodontitis-patients-a-biochemical-study
#7
Surekha Rathod, Tony Shori, Trupti Satish Sarda, Anubha Raj, Padmaja Jadhav
Aim: Sialic acid plays a central role in the functioning of biological systems, in stabilizing the glycoproteins and cellular membranes, assisting in cell-cell recognition and interaction. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the periodontal health status and salivary Sialic acid levels in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects were included in the study, which were divided into the following groups, 30 in each group...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441721/application-of-mono-or-disaccharides-in-drug-targeting-and-efficacy
#8
SiSi Yuan, MaoLin Li, Jiansheng Chen, Li Zhou, Wen Zhou
Carbohydrates and their conjugates play important roles in many life processes including fertilization, differentiation, development, immune response, and infection. Their activities were largely dependent on the properties of terminal mono- or disaccharides. Galactose, mannose, fucose, glucose, sialic acid, etc. are commonly used as powerful scaffolds installed on drug molecules for targeting specific tissues including brain, liver and cancers, and as epitopes for enhancing the targeting of various vaccination...
February 13, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440651/reconstruction-of-the-sialylation-pathway-in-the-ancestor-of-eukaryotes
#9
Daniel Petit, Elin Teppa, Ugo Cenci, Steven Ball, Anne Harduin-Lepers
The biosynthesis of sialylated molecules of crucial relevance for eukaryotic cell life is achieved by sialyltransferases (ST) of the CAZy family GT29. These enzymes are widespread in the Deuterostoma lineages and more rarely described in Protostoma, Viridiplantae and various protist lineages raising the question of their presence in the Last eukaryotes Common Ancestor (LECA). If so, it is expected that the main enzymes associated with sialic acids metabolism are also present in protists. We conducted phylogenomic and protein sequence analyses to gain insights into the origin and ancient evolution of ST and sialic acid pathway in eukaryotes, Bacteria and Archaea...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439861/enhancement-of-glycosylation-by-stable-co-expression-of-two-sialylation-related-enzymes-on-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#10
Nguyen Thi Sam, Ryo Misaki, Takao Ohashi, Kazuhito Fujiyama
Sialic acid plays important roles in stabilization and modulation of the interaction of molecules and membranes in organisms. Due to its high electronegativity, sialic acid can promote binding effects of molecules and support the transportation of drugs and ions in cells. This also strengthens cells against degradation from glycosidases and proteases. Hence sialic acid helps glycoproteins extend their half-lives and bioactivity. On the other hand, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have been widely used as a workhorse in biopharmaceutical fields in part due to the similarity between their glycan properties and those in humans...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436609/enhancement-of-malignant-properties-of-human-glioma-cells-by-ganglioside-gd3-gd2
#11
Taiji Iwasawa, Pu Zhang, Yuki Ohkawa, Hiroyuki Momota, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Yuhsuke Ohmi, Robiul H Bhuiyan, Keiko Furukawa, Koichi Furukawa
Sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, gangliosides, are considered as cancer associated antigens in neuro-ectoderm-derived tumors such as melanomas and neuroblastomas. In particular, gangliosides GD3 and GD2 are expressed in human gliomas. It has been reported that their expression levels increase along with increased malignant properties. However, the implication of GD3/GD2 in human glioma cells has never been clarified, at least to the best of our knowledge. In this study, we introduced the cDNA of GD3 synthase (GD3S)(ST8SIA1) into a glioma cell line, U-251MG, that expresses neither GD3 nor GD2, thereby establishing transfectant cells U-251MG-GD3S(+) expressing high levels of GD3 and GD2 on the cell surface...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434218/association-of-cytosolic-sialidase-neu2-with-plasma-membrane-enhances-fas-mediated-apoptosis-by-impairing-pi3k-akt-mtor-mediated-pathway-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#12
Shalini Nath, Chhabinath Mandal, Uttara Chatterjee, Chitra Mandal
Modulation of sialylation by sialyltransferases and sialidases plays essential role in carcinogenesis. There are few reports on sialyltransferase, however, the contribution of cytosolic sialidase (Neu2) remains unexplored in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We observed lower expression of Neu2 in different PDAC cells, patient tissues, and a significant strong association with clinicopathological characteristics. Neu2 overexpression guided drug-resistant MIAPaCa2 and AsPC1 cells toward apoptosis as evidenced by decreased Bcl2/Bax ratio, activation of caspase-3/caspase-6/caspase-8, PARP reduction, reduced CDK2/CDK4/CDK6, and cyclin-B1/cyclin-E with unaffected caspase-9...
February 12, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433940/n-glycan-sialylation-in-a-silkworm-baculovirus-expression-system
#13
Masatoshi Suganuma, Tsuyoshi Nomura, Yukiko Higa, Yukiko Kataoka, Shunsuke Funaguma, Hironobu Okazaki, Takeo Suzuki, Kazuhito Fujiyama, Hideki Sezutsu, Ken-Ichiro Tatematsu, Toshiki Tamura
A silkworm-baculovirus system is particularly effective for producing recombinant proteins, including glycoproteins. However, N-glycan structures in silkworm differ from those in mammals. Glycoproteins in silkworm are secreted as pauci-mannose type N-glycans without sialic acid or galactose residues. Sialic acid on N-glycans plays important roles in protein functions. Therefore, we developed pathways for galactosylation and sialylation in silkworm. Sialylated N-glycans on proteins were successfully produced in silkworm by co-expressing galactosyltransferase and sialyltransferase and providing an external supply of a sialylation-related substrate...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432848/characterization-of-a-recombinant-bacteroides-fragilis-sialidase-expressed-in-escherichia-coli
#14
Takaaki Yamamoto, Hideyo Ugai, Haruyuki Nakayama-Imaohji, Ayano Tada, Miad Elahi, Hitoshi Houchi, Tomomi Kuwahara
The human gut commensal Bacteroides fragilis produces sialidases that remove a terminal sialic acid from host-derived polysaccharides. Sialidase is considered to be involved in B. fragilis infection pathology. A native B. fragilis sialidase has been purified and characterized, and was shown to be post-translationally modified by glycosylation. However, the biochemical properties of recombinant B. fragilis sialidase expressed in a heterologous host remain uncharacterized. In this study, we examined the enzymatic properties of the 60-kDa sialidase NanH1 of B...
February 9, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430825/dynamically-pegylated-and-borate-coordination-polymer-coated-polydopamine-nanoparticles-for-synergetic-tumor-targeted-chemo-photothermal-combination-therapy
#15
Shucheng Liu, Jianming Pan, Jinxin Liu, Yue Ma, Fengxian Qiu, Lin Mei, Xiaowei Zeng, Guoqing Pan
Multifunctional nanomaterials with efficient tumor-targeting and high antitumor activity are highly anticipated in the field of cancer therapy. In this work, a synergetic tumor-targeted, chemo-photothermal combined therapeutic nanoplatform based on a dynamically PEGylated, borate-coordination-polymer-coated polydopamine nanoparticle (PDA@CP-PEG) is developed. PEGylation on the multifunctional nanoparticles is dynamically achieved via the reversible covalent interaction between the surface phenylboronic acid (PBA) group and a catechol-containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) molecule...
February 12, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430170/analytical-characterization-of-recombinant-hcg-and-comparative-studies-with-reference-product
#16
Rajamannar Thennati, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Nitin Nage, Yena Patel, Sandip Kumar Bose, Vinod Burade, Ranjit Sudhakar Ranbhor
Introduction: Regulatory agencies recommend a stepwise approach for demonstrating biosimilarity between a proposed biosimilar and reference biological product emphasizing for functional and structural characterization to trace if there is any difference which may impact safety and efficacy. We studied the comparative structural and biological attributes of recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin (rhCG), SB005, with reference product, Ovidrel ® and Ovitrelle ® . Recombiant hCG was approved in 2000 by the US Food and Drug Administration for the induction of final follicular maturation, early luteinization in infertile women as part of assisted reproductive technology program...
2018: Biologics: Targets & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426894/site-specific-n-glycosylation-analysis-of-soluble-fc%C3%AE-receptor-iiib-in-human-serum
#17
Hirokazu Yagi, Daisuke Takakura, Lubka T Roumenina, Wolf Herman Fridman, Catherine Sautès-Fridman, Nana Kawasaki, Koichi Kato
Fc-receptors for immunoglobulin G (FcγRs) mediate a variety of effector and regulatory mechanisms in the immune system. N-glycosylation of FcγRs critically affects their functions which is well exemplified by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and phagocytosis mediated by homologous FcγRIIIa and FcγRIIIb, respectively. Although several reports describe N-glycosylation profiles of recombinant FcγRIII glycoproteins, much remains unknown regarding their native glycoforms. Here we performed site-specific N-glycosylation profiling of a soluble form of FcγRIIIb purified from human serum based on mass spectrometric analysis...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425504/functional-cd169-on-macrophages-mediates-interaction-with-dendritic-cells-for-cd8-t-cell-cross-priming
#18
Dieke van Dinther, Henrike Veninga, Salvador Iborra, Ellen G F Borg, Leoni Hoogterp, Katarzyna Olesek, Marieke R Beijer, Sjoerd T T Schetters, Hakan Kalay, Juan J Garcia-Vallejo, Kees L Franken, Lamin B Cham, Karl S Lang, Yvette van Kooyk, David Sancho, Paul R Crocker, Joke M M den Haan
Splenic CD169+ macrophages are located in the marginal zone to efficiently capture blood-borne pathogens. Here, we investigate the requirements for the induction of CD8+ T cell responses by antigens (Ags) bound by CD169+ macrophages. Upon Ag targeting to CD169+ macrophages, we show that BATF3-dependent CD8α+ dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for DNGR-1-mediated cross-priming of CD8+ T cell responses. In addition, we demonstrate that CD169, a sialic acid binding lectin involved in cell-cell contact, preferentially binds to CD8α+ DCs and that Ag transfer to CD8α+ DCs and subsequent T cell activation is dependent on the sialic acid-binding capacity of CD169...
February 6, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423831/targeted-versus-untargeted-omics-the-cafsa-story
#19
Maria Del Mar Amador, Benoit Colsch, Foudil Lamari, Claude Jardel, Farid Ichou, Agnès Rastetter, Frédéric Sedel, Fabien Jourdan, Clément Frainay, Ronald A Wevers, Emmanuel Roze, Christel Depienne, Christophe Junot, Fanny Mochel
BACKGROUND: In 2009, untargeted metabolomics led to the delineation of a new clinico-biological entity called cerebellar ataxia with elevated cerebrospinal free sialic acid, or CAFSA. In order to elucidate CAFSA, we applied sequentially targeted and untargeted omic approaches. METHODS AND RESULTS: First, we studied five of the six CAFSA patients initially described. Besides increased CSF free sialic acid concentrations, three patients presented with markedly decreased 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) CSF concentrations...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417655/glycan-distribution-and-density-in-native-skin-s-stratum-corneum
#20
J Danzberger, M Donovan, C Rankl, R Zhu, S Vicic, C Baltenneck, R Enea, P Hinterdorfer, G S Luengo
BACKGROUND: The glycosylation of proteins on the surface of corneocytes is believed to play an important role in cellular adhesion in the stratum corneum (SC) of human skin. Mapping with accuracy the localization of glycans on the surface of corneocytes through traditional methods of immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy remains a challenging task as both approaches lack enough resolution or need to be performed in high vacuum conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used an advanced mode of atomic force microscope (AFM), with simultaneous topography and recognition imaging to investigate the distribution of glycans on native (no chemical preparation) stripped samples of human SC...
February 7, 2018: Skin Research and Technology
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