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pain neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146590/camkii%C3%AE-mediates-the-effect-of-il-17-to-promote-ongoing-spontaneous-and-evoked-pain-in-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Xiaoyu Hu, Fang Huang, Zaijie Jim Wang
Pain is a common and severe symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The neurobiological mechanism underlying MS pain is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of Ca(2+)/calmodulin dependent kinase type IIα (CaMKIIα) in driving chronic pain in MS using a mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. We found that spinal CaMKIIα activity was enhanced in EAE correlating with the development of ongoing spontaneous pain and evoked hypersensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113827/toxins-in-neurobiology-new-tools-from-old-molecules
#2
REVIEW
Irina Vetter
Molecules with neurotoxic properties are nearly ubiquitous in nature and are produced by some simple unicellular organisms including algae and bacteria, as well as complex multicellular organisms ranging from plants to invertebrate and vertebrate animals. While the biological roles of many neurotoxins are unknown, and some are simply metabolic waste products, it is perhaps not surprising that most toxins likely provide important survival advantages given the often substantial metabolic production cost to toxic organisms...
November 4, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110899/the-role-of-the-hippocampus-in-predicting-future-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-in-recently-traumatized-civilians
#3
Sanne J H van Rooij, Jennifer S Stevens, Timothy D Ely, Rebecca Hinrichs, Vasiliki Michopoulos, Sterling J Winters, Yvonne E Ogbonmwan, Jaemin Shin, Nicole R Nugent, Lauren A Hudak, Barbara O Rothbaum, Kerry J Ressler, Tanja Jovanovic
BACKGROUND: Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms that predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in recent trauma survivors is important for early interventions. Impaired inhibition of fear or behavioral responses is thought to be central to PTSD symptomatology, but its role in predicting PTSD is unknown. Here we examine whether brain function during response inhibition early after a civilian trauma can predict future PTSD symptoms. METHODS: Participants (original sample, n = 27; replication sample, n = 31) were recruited in the emergency department within 24 hours of trauma exposure...
September 20, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108801/mechanisms-of-placebo-analgesia-a-dual-process-model-informed-by-insights-from-cross-species-comparisons
#4
REVIEW
Scott M Schafer, Stephan Geuter, Tor D Wager
Placebo treatments are pharmacologically inert, but are known to alleviate symptoms across a variety of clinical conditions. Associative learning and cognitive expectations both play important roles in placebo responses, however we are just beginning to understand how interactions between these processes lead to powerful effects. Here, we review the psychological principles underlying placebo effects and our current understanding of their brain bases, focusing on studies demonstrating both the importance of cognitive expectations and those that demonstrate expectancy-independent associative learning...
November 3, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097192/the-endocannabinoid-system-and-its-therapeutic-exploitation-in-multiple-sclerosis-clues-for-other-neuroinflammatory-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Valerio Chiurchiù, Mario van der Stelt, Diego Centonze, Mauro Maccarrone
Multiple sclerosis is the most common inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, caused by an autoimmune response against myelin that eventually leads to progressive neurodegeneration and disability. Although the knowledge on its underlying neurobiological mechanisms has considerably improved, there is a still unmet need for new treatment options, especially for the progressive forms of the disease. Both preclinical and clinical data suggest that cannabinoids, derived from the Cannabis sativa plant, may be used to control symptoms such as spasticity and chronic pain, whereas only preclinical data indicate that these compounds and their endogenous counterparts, i...
October 31, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080714/hippocampal-morphology-mediates-biased-memories-of-chronic-pain
#6
Sara E Berger, Étienne Vachon-Presseau, Taha B Abdullah, Alex T Baria, Thomas J Schnitzer, A Vania Apkarian
Experiences and memories are often mismatched. While multiple studies have investigated psychological underpinnings of recall error with respect to emotional events, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the divergence between experiences and memories remain relatively unexplored in the domain of chronic pain. Here we examined the discrepancy between experienced chronic low back pain (CBP) intensity (twice daily ratings) and remembered pain intensity (n = 48 subjects) relative to psychometric properties, hippocampus morphology, memory capabilities, and personality traits related to reward...
November 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077871/from-mechanism-to-cure-renewing-the-goal-to-eliminate-the-disease-of-pain
#7
Theodore J Price, Michael S Gold
Objective: Persistent pain causes untold misery worldwide and is a leading cause of disability. Despite its astonishing prevalence, pain is undertreated, at least in part because existing therapeutics are ineffective or cause intolerable side effects. In this review, we cover new findings about the neurobiology of pain and argue that all but the most transient forms of pain needed to avoid tissue damage should be approached as a disease where a cure can be the goal of all treatment plans, even if attaining this goal is not yet always possible...
October 25, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077804/neuropsychological-and-neuropsychiatric-features-of-idiopathic-and-dyt1-dystonia-and-the-impact-of-medical-and-surgical-treatment
#8
Marjan Jahanshahi
Dystonia is a hyperkinetic movement disorder, characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements, postures, or both. Executive dysfunction is a feature of cognitive function in idiopathic and DYT1 dystonia. Psychiatric morbidity is increased in dystonia, and depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorders are the most common disorders. Sleep problems and pain are also frequently experienced. Evidence suggest that mood and anxiety disorders are intrinsic to the neurobiology of dystonia, but also that psychiatric co-morbidity can be secondary to pain experience and the psychosocial functioning and quality of life of the patients...
November 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068872/dopaminergic-tone-does-not-influence-pain-levels-during-placebo-interventions-in-patients-with-chronic-neuropathic-pain
#9
Ina Skyt, Kurosh Moslemi, Cathrine Baastrup, Kasper Grosen, Fabrizio Benedetti, Gitte L Petersen, Donald D Price, Kathryn T Hall, Ted J Kaptchuk, Peter Svensson, Troels S Jensen, Lene Vase
Placebo effects have been reported in patients with chronic neuropathic pain. Expected pain levels and positive emotions are involved in the observed pain relief, but the underlying neurobiology is largely unknown. Patients with neuropathic pain are highly motivated for pain relief, and as motivational factors such as expectations of reward, as well as pain processing in itself, are related to the dopaminergic system, it can be speculated that dopamine release contributes to placebo effects in neuropathic pain...
October 23, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024786/neurobiological-correlates-of-pain-avoidance-like-behavior-in-morphine-dependent-and-non-dependent-rats
#10
Amanda R Pahng, Rod I Paulsen, M Adrienne McGinn, Kimberly N Edwards, Scott Edwards
Repeated use of opioids can lead to the development of analgesic tolerance and dependence. Additionally, chronic opioid exposure can cause a paradoxical emergence of heightened pain sensitivity to noxious stimuli, termed hyperalgesia, which may drive continued or escalated use of opioids to manage worsening pain symptoms. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia has traditionally been measured in rodents via reflex-based assays, including the von Frey method. To better model the cognitive/motivational dimension of pain in a state of opioid dependence and withdrawal, we employed a recently developed non-reflex-based method for measuring pain avoidance-like behavior in animals (mechanical conflict avoidance test)...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016379/oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-neuroprogression-in-chronic-ptsd
#11
Mark W Miller, Alex P Lin, Erika J Wolf, Danielle R Miller
Posttraumatic stress disorder is a serious and often disabling syndrome that develops in response to a traumatic event. Many individuals who initially develop the disorder go on to experience a chronic form of the condition that in some cases can last for many years. Among these patients, psychiatric and medical comorbidities are common, including early onset of age-related conditions such as chronic pain, cardiometabolic disease, neurocognitive disorders, and dementia. The hallmark symptoms of posttraumatic stress-recurrent sensory-memory reexperiencing of the trauma(s)-are associated with concomitant activations of threat- and stress-related neurobiological pathways that occur against a tonic backdrop of sleep disturbance and heightened physiological arousal...
October 9, 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968188/the-opioid-epidemic-crisis-and-solutions
#12
Phil Skolnick
The widespread abuse of prescription opioids and a dramatic increase in the availability of illicit opioids have created what is commonly referred to as the opioid epidemic. The magnitude of this epidemic is startling: About 4% of the adult US population misuses prescription opioids, and in 2015, more than 33,000 deaths were attributable to overdose with licit and illicit opioids. Increasing the availability of medication-assisted treatments (such as buprenorphine and naltrexone), the use of abuse-deterrent formulations, and the adoption of US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention prescribing guidelines all constitute short-term approaches to quell this epidemic...
October 2, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967364/open-issues-in-the-assessment-and-management-of-pain-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#13
REVIEW
Gabriella Giancane, Alessandra Alongi, Silvia Rosina, Serena Calandra, Alessandro Consolaro, Angelo Ravelli
Pain is the major symptom of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and its reduction is a key goal of treatment. It is widely agreed that assessment of pain is a fundamental component of the rheumatology evaluation and should be carried out at each clinic visit. However, so far there has been insufficient attention to the impact and causes of pain in children with chronic arthritis in both clinical practice and research. Quantitative measures of pain are seldom used regularly in daily care and pain assessment has not been incorporated in the most popular composite outcome measures for JIA, including the criteria employed to measure improvement in therapeutic trials...
September 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935098/your-system-has-been-hijacked-the-neurobiology-of-chronic-pain
#14
Erica B Baller, David A Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931490/gpcrs-emerging-anti-cancer-drug-targets
#15
REVIEW
Ainhoa Nieto Gutierrez, Patricia H McDonald
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest and most diverse protein family in the human genome with over 800 members identified to date. They play critical roles in numerous cellular and physiological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, neurotransmission, development and apoptosis. Consequently, aberrant receptor activity has been demonstrated in numerous disorders/diseases, and as a result GPCRs have become the most successful drug target class in pharmaceuticals treating a wide variety of indications such as pain, inflammation, neurobiological and metabolic disorders...
September 18, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905723/breeding-and-rearing-naked-mole-rats-heterocephalus-glaber-under-laboratory-conditions
#16
Chenlin Yu, Shiyong Wang, Guoshi Yang, Shanmin Zhao, Lifang Lin, Wenjing Yang, Qiu Tang, Wei Sun, Shufang Cui
The unique biologic characteristics of naked mole-rats (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber) include longevity, cancer resistance, hypoxia tolerance, and pain insensitivity, making NMR an attractive model for biomedical research on aging, cancer, and neurobiology. However, breeding and rearing NMR in captivity is challenging. Here, we report a method for breeding NMR by using a closed-colony mating system. We selected sexually mature male and female NMR from different natal colonies and mated them 1:1. The 5 original colonies had an annual parity of 3...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880891/altered-right-anterior-insular-connectivity-and-loss-of-associated-functions-in-adolescent-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#17
Laura Anne Wortinger, Merete Glenne Øie, Tor Endestad, Vegard Bruun Wyller
Impairments in cognition, pain intolerance, and physical inactivity characterize adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet little is known about its neurobiology. The right dorsal anterior insular (dAI) connectivity of the salience network provides a motivational context to stimuli. In this study, we examined regional functional connectivity (FC) patterns of the right dAI in adolescent CFS patients and healthy participants. Eighteen adolescent patients with CFS and 18 aged-matched healthy adolescent control participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861505/the-use-of-cannabis-for-headache-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Bryson C Lochte, Alexander Beletsky, Nebiyou K Samuel, Igor Grant
Headache disorders are common, debilitating, and, in many cases, inadequately managed by existing treatments. Although clinical trials of cannabis for neuropathic pain have shown promising results, there has been limited research on its use, specifically for headache disorders. This review considers historical prescription practices, summarizes the existing reports on the use of cannabis for headache, and examines the preclinical literature exploring the role of exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids to alter headache pathophysiology...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858914/neuropathic-symptoms-of-the-ocular-surface-dryness-pain-and-itch
#19
Hjalte H Andersen, Gil Yosipovitch, Anat Galor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to describe the recent findings on epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of neuropathic symptoms of the ocular surface, with a focus on potential similarities between sensations of dry eye, pain and itch. RECENT FINDINGS: A narrative review of the literature was undertaken. Key references from research in dry eye, neuropathic symptoms of the ocular surface, ocular pain and itch, as well as general references on itch and pain neurobiology were included...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855788/an-abbreviated-therapeutic-neuroscience-education-session-improves-pain-knowledge-in-first-year-physical-therapy-students-but-does-not-change-attitudes-or-beliefs
#20
Terry Cox, Adriaan Louw, Emilio J Puentedura
OBJECTIVE: To determine if a 3-hour therapeutic neuroscience education session alters physical therapy student's knowledge of pain and effects their attitudes and beliefs regarding treating chronic pain. METHODS: Seventy-seven entry-level doctoral physical therapy students participated in the study. Following consent, demographic data were obtained and then the subjects completed the Neuroscience of Pain Questionnaire, the Health Care Provider's Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale and an additional questionnaire designed by the researchers...
February 2017: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
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