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pain neurobiology

Lydia Coxon, Andrew W Horne, Katy Vincent
Although pain is one of the main symptoms women with endometriosis present with, there is poor correlation between symptom severity and disease burden and the underlying biological mechanisms by which pain arises are still only poorly understood. We briefly review the neurobiology of pain before considering mechanisms that may be specifically relevant in the context of endometriosis. The role of pelvic factors such as new nerve fibre growth, peritoneal fluid and inflammation is explored with a particular focus on studies where these factors have been associated with pain symptoms rather than just being compared between women with endometriosis and disease-free controls...
February 15, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
David W Dodick
Migraine is a chronic paroxysmal neurological disorder characterised by multiphase attacks of head pain and a myriad of neurological symptoms. The underlying genetic and biological underpinnings and neural networks involved are coming sharply into focus. This progress in the fundamental understanding of migraine has led to novel, mechanism-based and disease-specific therapeutics. In this Seminar, the clinical features and neurobiology of migraine are reviewed, evidence to support available treatment options is provided, and emerging drug, device, and biological therapies are discussed...
March 6, 2018: Lancet
Andrew J Shepherd, Aaron D Mickle, Suraj Kadunganattil, Hongzhen Hu, Durga P Mohapatra
Bone metastasis in breast, prostate and lung cancers often leads to chronic pain, which is poorly managed by existing analgesics. The neurobiological mechanisms that underlie chronic pain associated with bone-metastasized cancers are not well understood, but sensitization of peripheral nociceptors by tumor microenvironment factors has been demonstrated to be important. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) is highly expressed in bone-metastasized breast and prostate cancers, and is critical to growth and proliferation of these tumors in the bone tumor microenvironment...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
David Borsook, Andrew M Youssef, Nadia Barakat, Christine B Sieberg, Igor Elman
By unconscious or covert processing of pain we refer to nascent interactions that affect the eventual deliverance of pain awareness. Thus, internal processes (viz., repeated nociceptive events, inflammatory kindling, reorganization of brain networks, genetic) or external processes (viz., environment, socioeconomic levels, modulation of epigenetic status) contribute to enhancing or inhibiting the presentation of pain awareness. Here we put forward the notion that for many patients, ongoing sub-conscious changes in brain function are significant players in the eventual manifestation of chronic pain...
February 21, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Chunhui Bao, Peng Liu, Huirong Liu, Xiaoming Jin, Yin Shi, Luyi Wu, Xiaoqing Zeng, Jianye Zhang, Di Wang, Vince D Calhoun, Jie Tian, Huangan Wu
Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) are shown to have abnormal changes in brain structures. This study aimed to further investigate whether these patients have abnormal brain activities and network connectivity. Sixty patients with CD and 40 healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) were used to assess differences in spontaneous regional brain activity and functional connectivity...
February 20, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Connor M Forbes, Ryan Flannigan, Darius A Paduch
BACKGROUND: Ejaculation consists of the emission of semen from seminal vesicles and prostate, followed by expulsion. Ejaculatory dysfunction may take several forms including premature ejaculation, delayed or anejaculation, retrograde ejaculation, and painful ejaculation. Ejaculation is what we can see whereas orgasm is what we feel. The presence of ejaculate does not indicate the ability to experience orgasm. Hence, for the purpose of this work we consider orgasm and ejaculation as 2 separate neurobiological phenomena...
February 17, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
Roberta A Schriber, Christina R Rogers, Emilio Ferrer, Rand D Conger, Richard W Robins, Paul D Hastings, Amanda E Guyer
The present study examined adolescents' neural responses to social exclusion as a mediator of past exposure to a hostile school environment (HSE) and later social deviance, and whether family connectedness buffered these associations. Participants (166 Mexican-origin adolescents, 54.4% female) reported on their HSE exposure and family connectedness across Grades 9-11. Six months later, neural responses to social exclusion were measured. Finally, social deviance was self-reported in Grades 9 and 12. The HSE-social deviance link was mediated by greater reactivity to social deviance in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, a region from the social pain network also implicated in social susceptibility...
March 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
Hanneke L D M Willemen, Annemieke Kavelaars, Judith Prado, Mirjam Maas, Sabine Versteeg, Lara J J Nellissen, Jeshua Tromp, Rafael Gonzalez Cano, Wenjun Zhou, Magnus E Jakobsson, Jędrzej Małecki, George Posthuma, Abdella M Habib, Cobi J Heijnen, Pål Ø Falnes, Niels Eijkelkamp
Chronic pain is a debilitating problem, and insights in the neurobiology of chronic pain are needed for the development of novel pain therapies. A genome-wide association study implicated the 5p15.2 region in chronic widespread pain. This region includes the coding region for FAM173B, a functionally uncharacterized protein. We demonstrate here that FAM173B is a mitochondrial lysine methyltransferase that promotes chronic pain. Knockdown and sensory neuron overexpression strategies showed that FAM173B is involved in persistent inflammatory and neuropathic pain via a pathway dependent on its methyltransferase activity...
February 14, 2018: PLoS Biology
Neil Basu, Chelsea M Kaplan, Eric Ichesco, Tony Larkin, Richard E Harris, Alison Murray, Gordon Waiter, Daniel J Clauw
OBJECTIVES: Many rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients report pain despite excellent control of inflammation with immunotherapies. Variable degrees of co-existing fibromyalgia (FM) may explain this disparity. FM has been characterised by aberrant brain functional connectivity, especially between the Default Mode Network (DMN) and insula. We hypothesised that RA patients reporting the highest 2011 ACR FM survey criteria scores- a continuous measure of FM degree also known as fibromyalgianess (FMness)- would demonstrate functional connectivity abnormalities similar to FM...
February 13, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Jo Nijs, Olivier Mairesse, Daniel Neu, Laurence Leysen, Lieven Danneels, Barbara Cagnie, Mira Meeus, Maarten Moens, Kelly Ickmans, Dorien Goubert
Among people with chronic pain, insomnia is highly prevalent, closely related to the mechanism of central sensitization, characterized by low-grade neuroinflammation, and commonly associated with stress or anxiety; in addition, it often does not respond effectively to drug treatments. This review article applies the current understanding of insomnia to clinical practice, including assessment and conservative treatment of insomnia in people with chronic pain. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia can be efficacious for improvements in sleep initiation, sleep maintenance, perceived sleep quality, and pain interference with daily functioning in people with chronic pain...
February 7, 2018: Physical Therapy
Matthew R Sapio, John K Neubert, Danielle M LaPaglia, Dragan Maric, Jason M Keller, Stephen J Raithel, Eric L Rohrs, Ethan M Anderson, John A Butman, Robert M Caudle, Dorothy C Brown, John D Heiss, Andrew J Mannes, Michael J Iadarola
Transient vanilloid potential 1 (TRPV1) agonists are emerging as highly efficacious non-opioid analgesics in preclinical studies. These drugs selectively lesion TRPV1+ primary sensory afferents, which are responsible for the transmission of many noxious stimulus modalities. Resiniferatoxin (RTX) is a very potent and selective TRPV1 agonist and is a promising candidate for treating many types of pain. Recent work establishing intrathecal application of RTX for the treatment of pain resulting from advanced cancer has demonstrated profound analgesia in client-owned dogs with osteosarcoma...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Yasuhiro Indo
NGF is a well-studied neurotrophic factor, and TrkA is a receptor tyrosine kinase for NGF. The NGF-TrkA system supports the survival and maintenance of NGF-dependent neurons during development. Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder due to loss-of-function mutations in the NTRK1 gene encoding TrkA. Individuals with CIPA lack NGF-dependent neurons, including NGF-dependent primary afferents and sympathetic postganglionic neurons, in otherwise intact systems...
February 1, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Søren S Olesen, Theresa Krauss, Ihsan Ekin Demir, Oliver H Wilder-Smith, Güralp O Ceyhan, Pankaj J Pasricha, Asbjørn M Drewes
Introduction: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a disease characterized by inflammation of the pancreas resulting in replacement of the normal functioning parenchyma by fibrotic connective tissue. This process leads to progressively impairment of exocrine and endocrine function and many patients develop a chronic pain syndrome. Objectives: We aimed to characterize the neurobiological signature of pain associated with CP and to discuss its implications for treatment strategies...
November 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
M A Fitzcharles, E Eisenberg
Medical cannabis has entered mainstream medicine and is here to stay. Propelled by public advocacy, the media and mostly anecdote rather than sound scientific study, patients worldwide are exploring marijuana use for a vast array of medical conditions including management of chronic pain. Contrary to the usual path of drug approval, medical cannabis has bypassed traditional evidence-based study and has been legalized as a therapeutic product by legislative bodies in various countries. While there is a wealth of basic science and preclinical studies demonstrating effects of cannabinoids in neurobiological systems, especially those pertaining to pain and inflammation, clinical study remains limited...
January 29, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Paul L Plener, Michael Kaess, Christian Schmahl, Stefan Pollak, Jörg M Fegert, Rebecca C Brown
BACKGROUND: 25-35% of adolescents in random samples drawn from German schools have been found to have manifested at least one episode of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). The prevalence in samples from child and adolescent psychiatric clinics is approximately 50%. NSSI can arise as a symptom in the setting of various types of mental illness. METHODS: This review is based on a selective literature search carried out in the PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases, with special consideration of regional study samples...
January 19, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Giacomo Rossettini, Elisa Carlino, Marco Testa
Placebo and nocebo effects are embodied psycho-neurobiological responses capable of modulating pain and producing changes at different neurobiological, body at perceptual and cognitive levels. These modifications are triggered by different contextual factors (CFs) presented in the therapeutic encounter between patient and healthcare providers, such as healing rituals and signs. The CFs directly impact on the quality of the therapeutic outcome: a positive context, that is a context characterized by the presence of positive CFs, can reduce pain by producing placebo effects, while a negative context, characterized by the presence of negative CFs, can aggravate pain by creating nocebo effects...
January 22, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Aimee K Hildenbrand, Nancy Kassam-Adams, Lamia P Barakat, Kristen L Kohser, Jeffrey A Ciesla, Douglas L Delahanty, Joel A Fein, Lindsay B Ragsdale, Meghan L Marsac
OBJECTIVES: After injury, many children experience posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) that negatively impact recovery. Acute pain and PTSS share neurobiological pathways, and acute dosage of morphine has been linked to reduced PTSS in naturalistic studies. However, the complex interactions between pain, morphine and other opioid use, and PTSS have yet to be investigated in robust pediatric samples.This prospective, longitudinal study examined relationships between acute pain, opioid medications, and PTSS after pediatric injury...
January 16, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Wilson M Compton, Christopher M Jones, Jack B Stein, Eric M Wargo
Overdoses of prescription or illicit opioids claimed the lives of 116 Americans each day in 2016, and the crisis continues to escalate. As healthcare systems evolve to address the crisis, the potential of pharmacists to make a positive difference is significant. In addition to utilizing available prescription drug monitoring programs to help prevent diversion of opioids, practicing pharmacists can be alert for signs of opioid misuse by patients (e.g., multiple prescriptions from different physicians) as well as inappropriate prescribing or hazardous drug combinations that physicians may not be aware of (e...
December 31, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Olivier George, George F Koob
Drug addiction or substance-use disorder is a chronically relapsing disorder that progresses through binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect and preoccupation/anticipation stages. These stages represent diverse neurobiological mechanisms that are differentially involved in the transition from recreational to compulsive drug use and from positive to negative reinforcement. The progression from recreational to compulsive substance use is associated with downregulation of the brain reward systems and upregulation of the brain stress systems...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Kıymet Kubra Yurt, Suleyman Kaplan
Diclofenac sodium (DS) is commonly used for the treatment of acute and chronic pain, even for extended periods of time. Over the years, DS has been associated with toxicity in nervous tissue, in addition to its anti-inflammatory properties. Basic neurobiological research has enhanced our understanding of the biological and pathological outcomes of toxicity. Several studies have suggested DS-induced cytotoxicity in the nervous system. Prenatal toxicities of DS are thought to be capable of leading to postnatal defects...
December 27, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
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