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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208601/surgical-neurostimulation-for-spinal-cord-injury
#1
REVIEW
Aswin Chari, Ian D Hentall, Marios C Papadopoulos, Erlick A C Pereira
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological condition characterized by a constellation of symptoms including paralysis, paraesthesia, pain, cardiovascular, bladder, bowel and sexual dysfunction. Current treatment for SCI involves acute resuscitation, aggressive rehabilitation and symptomatic treatment for complications. Despite the progress in scientific understanding, regenerative therapies are lacking. In this review, we outline the current state and future potential of invasive and non-invasive neuromodulation strategies including deep brain stimulation (DBS), spinal cord stimulation (SCS), motor cortex stimulation (MCS), transcutaneous direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the context of SCI...
February 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199203/neurogenetics-of-acute-and-chronic-opiate-opioid-abstinence-treating-symptoms-and-the-cause
#2
Kenneth Blum, Mark S Gold, William Jacobs, William Vaughn McCall, Marcelo Febo, David Baron, Kristina Dushaj, Zsolt Demetrovics, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
This review begins with a comprehensive history of opioid dependence and treatment in the United States. The focus is an evidence-based treatment model for opioid/opiate dependent individuals. The role of reward genetic polymorphisms and the epigenetic modifications that lead to vulnerability to use and misuse of opiates/opioid to treat pain are reviewed. The neurochemical mechanisms of acute opiate withdrawal and opiate/opioid reward mechanisms are explored with a goal of identifying specific treatment targets...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144843/infection-pain-and-itch
#3
REVIEW
Isaac M Chiu
Pain and itch are unpleasant sensations that often accompany infections caused by viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal pathogens. Recent studies show that sensory neurons are able to directly detect pathogens to mediate pain and itch. Nociceptor and pruriceptor neurons respond to pathogen-associated molecular patterns, including Toll-like receptor ligands, N-formyl peptides, and bacterial toxins. Other pathogens are able to silence neuronal activity to produce analgesia during infection. Pain and itch could lead to neuronal modulation of the immune system or behavioral avoidance of future pathogen exposure...
January 31, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129556/neural-responses-to-social-threat-and-predictors-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-and-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#4
Lisa J Burklund, Jared B Torre, Matthew D Lieberman, Shelley E Taylor, Michelle G Craske
Previous research has often highlighted hyperactivity in emotion regions to simple, static social threat cues in social anxiety disorder (SAD). Investigation of the neurobiology of SAD using more naturalistic paradigms can further reveal underlying mechanisms and how these relate to clinical outcomes. We used fMRI to investigate responses to novel dynamic rejection stimuli in individuals with SAD (N=70) and healthy controls (HC; N=17), and whether these responses predicted treatment outcomes following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)...
December 28, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129218/neurobiological-basis-for-pain-vulnerability-why-me
#5
Franziska Denk, Stephen B McMahon
Not everyone is equally likely to develop chronic pain. This review sets out to discuss the underlying neurobiological reasons that might make some of us unfortunate patients, while others are spared. We will show that genetic factors are likely to play a role in many patients, but that their exact identity has proven difficult to determine and remains, to a large extent, elusive. We will also discuss how the environment can impact how likely we are to develop chronic pain, and summarize early tentative evidence for how this might come about biologically...
January 24, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122648/microbiota-transfer-therapy-alters-gut-ecosystem-and-improves-gastrointestinal-and-autism-symptoms-an-open-label-study
#6
Dae-Wook Kang, James B Adams, Ann C Gregory, Thomas Borody, Lauren Chittick, Alessio Fasano, Alexander Khoruts, Elizabeth Geis, Juan Maldonado, Sharon McDonough-Means, Elena L Pollard, Simon Roux, Michael J Sadowsky, Karen Schwarzberg Lipson, Matthew B Sullivan, J Gregory Caporaso, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurobiological disorders that impair social interactions and communication and lead to restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. The causes of these disorders remain poorly understood, but gut microbiota, the 10(13) bacteria in the human intestines, have been implicated because children with ASD often suffer gastrointestinal (GI) problems that correlate with ASD severity. Several previous studies have reported abnormal gut bacteria in children with ASD...
January 23, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114184/pain-has-an-element-of-blank-a-biobehavioral-approach-to-chronicity
#7
Herta Flor
The development of acute to chronic pain is characterized by a shift from nociceptive brain circuits to those involved in emotion, motivation, cognition and learning. Psychological, psychosocial, genetic and neurobiological determinants of these evolving brain circuits are discussed and it is suggested that different concepts ofchronicity may have a common psychobiological basis. The analysis of these chronicity factors leads to the identification of psychobiological mechanisms of chronicity andmay change the classification of pain syndromes from a mainly descriptive to a mechanistic basis...
January 18, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096400/defining-recovery-neurobiology-of-injured-spinal-cord-by-synthetic-matrix-assisted-hmsc-implantation
#8
Alexander E Ropper, Devang K Thakor, InBo Han, Dou Yu, Xiang Zeng, Jamie E Anderson, Zaid Aljuboori, Soo-Woo Kim, Hongjun Wang, Richard L Sidman, Ross D Zafonte, Yang D Teng
Mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adult tissues offer tangible potential for regenerative medicine, given their feasibility for autologous transplantation. MSC research shows encouraging results in experimental stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and neurotrauma models. However, further translational progress has been hampered by poor MSC graft survival, jeopardizing cellular and molecular bases for neural repair in vivo. We have devised an adult human bone marrow MSC (hMSC) delivery formula by investigating molecular events involving hMSCs incorporated in a uniquely designed poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid scaffold, a clinically safe polymer, following inflammatory exposures in a dorsal root ganglion organotypic coculture system...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074359/pharmacological-management-of-chronic-pelvic-pain-in-women
#9
REVIEW
Erin T Carey, Sara R Till, Sawsan As-Sanie
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a multifaceted condition that often has both peripheral and central generators of pain. An understanding of neurobiology and neuropsychology of CPP should guide management. Successful treatment of CPP is typically multimodal, and pharmacologic treatment strategies include analgesics, hormonal suppression, anesthetics, antidepressants, membrane stabilizers, and anxiolytics. Evidence for these and other emerging pharmacologic therapies is presented in this article.
January 10, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072813/a-case-report-on-red-ear-syndrome-with-tinnitus-successfully-treated-with-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation
#10
Peter M Kreuzer, Veronika Vielsmeier, Timm B Poeppl, Berthold Langguth
BACKGROUND: The red ear syndrome represents a rare symptom complex consisting of auricular erythema associated with painful and burning sensations. It has been described in combination with tinnitus rarely. It has been hypothesized to be etiologically related to altered trigeminal afferent input, temporomandibular disorders, and thalamic dysfunction. OBJECTIVES: The initial objective of applying transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) in a case of red ear syndrome in combination with tinnitus was the alleviation of the phantom sounds...
January 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069928/functional-organization-of-cutaneous-and-muscle-afferent-synapses-onto-immature-spinal-lamina-i-projection-neurons
#11
Jie Li, Mark L Baccei
It is well established that sensory afferents innervating muscle are more effective at inducing hyperexcitability within spinal cord circuits compared with skin afferents, which likely contributes to the higher prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared with pain of cutaneous origin. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences in central nociceptive signaling remain incompletely understood, as nothing is known about how superficial dorsal horn neurons process sensory input from muscle versus skin at the synaptic level...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067727/psychological-and-physical-pain-as-predictors-of-suicide-risk-evidence-from-clinical-and-neuroimaging-findings
#12
Sakina J Rizvi, Adam Iskric, Raffaella Calati, Philippe Courtet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Suicide is a multidimensional clinical phenomenon with complex biological, social and psychological risk factors. Therefore, it is imperative for studies to focus on developing a unified understanding of suicide risk that integrates current clinical and neurobiological findings. A recent line of research has implicated different classifications of pain in understanding suicide risk, including the concepts of psychache and pain tolerance. Although psychache is defined as the experience of unbearable psychological pain, pain tolerance refers to the greatest duration or intensity of painful stimuli that one is able to bear...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028803/cortical-alterations-in-medication-overuse-headache
#13
Franz Riederer, Marie Schaer, Andreas R Gantenbein, Roger Luechinger, Lars Michels, Marihan Kaya, Spyridon Kollias, Peter S Sándor
OBJECTIVE: Using surface-based morphometry we aimed to provide a detailed examination of cortical alterations in medication-overuse headache (MOH), by disentangling between altered cortical thickness and gyrification (folding). BACKGROUND: In MOH, pain modulation is probably dysfunctional at the cortical and subcortical level, resulting in a disequilibrium between pain inhibition and facilitation. Both increased and decreased cortical volumes have been reported in individuals with MOH...
February 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008077/anxious-anticipation-and-pain-the-influence-of-instructed-vs-conditioned-threat-on-pain
#14
Philipp Reicherts, Julian Wiemer, Antje B M Gerdes, Stefan M Schulz, Paul Pauli, Matthias J Wieser
Negative emotions such as anxiety enhance pain perception. However, certain threat characteristics are discussed to have different or even divergent effects on pain (hypoalgesia vs hyperalgesia). In order to investigate the neurobiological basis of different threats, we compared the impact of conditioned threat (CT) vs instructed threat (IT) on pain using fMRI. In two groups, participants underwent either Pavlovian threat conditioning or an instructed threat procedure. Afterwards, in an identical test phase participants watched the same visual cues from the previous phase indicating potential threat or safety, and received painful thermal stimulation...
December 21, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001283/hey-mister-tambourine-man-play-a-drug-for-me-music-as-medication
#15
Robert H Howland
Listening to music may be thought of as noninvasive and nonpharmacological, but music should be considered a drug therapy. Music exposure has measurable neurobiological effects that are linked to systems regulating reward, motivation, and pleasure; stress and arousal; and immunity. Functional neuroimaging and lesion studies demonstrate that music-evoked emotions are associated with modulation of linked limbic and paralimbic brain regions. Some of these regions are involved in reward, motivation, and pleasure, and there are additional projections to brain structures regulating autonomic, emotional, and cognitive function...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986927/histological-underpinnings-of-grey-matter-changes-in-fibromyalgia-investigated-using-multimodal-brain-imaging
#16
F B Pomares, T Funck, N A Feier, S Roy, A Daigle-Martel, M Ceko, S Narayanan, D Araujo, A Thiel, N Stikov, M A Fitzcharles, P Schweinhardt
: Chronic pain patients present with cortical grey matter alterations, observed with anatomical magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Reduced regional grey matter volumes are often interpreted to reflect neurodegeneration but studies investigating the cellular origin of grey matter changes are lacking. We used multi-modal imaging to compare 26 post-menopausal women with 25 healthy controls (age range: 50-75 years) to test whether regional grey matter volume decreases in chronic pain are associated with compromised neuronal integrity...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984097/anti-allodynic-effect-of-mangiferin-in-neuropathic-rats-involvement-of-nitric-oxide-cyclic-gmp-atp-sensitive-k-channels-pathway-and-serotoninergic-system
#17
Antonio Espinosa de Los Monteros-Zuñiga, Teresa Izquierdo, Geovanna Nallely Quiñonez-Bastidas, Héctor Isaac Rocha-González, Beatriz Godínez-Chaparro
The neurobiology of neuropathic pain is caused by injury in the central or peripheral nervous system. Recent evidence points out that mangiferin shows anti-nociceptive effect in inflammatory pain. However, its role in inflammatory and neuropathic pain and the possible mechanisms of action are not yet established. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible anti-allodynic effect of mangiferin in rats with spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Furthermore, we sought to investigate the possible mechanisms of action that contribute to these effects...
October 28, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939459/molecular-mechanisms-of-pruritus
#18
REVIEW
J Meng, M Steinhoff
Pruritus is an unpleasant sensation that evokes the urgent desire to scratch. It is a symptom derived from many nervous system disorders that affects a large population of humans and is treated by a variety of pharmacological agents with variable access. Chronic itch is a huge unmet health problem which affect upward 20% of people worldwide. The mechanisms underlying the chronic pruritus are complex. Studies of the neurobiology, neurophysiology and cellular biology of itch have gradually been clarifying the mechanism of chronic itch both peripherally and centrally...
October 2016: Current Research in Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918444/mental-health-comorbidities-in-pediatric-chronic-pain-a-narrative-review-of-epidemiology-models-neurobiological-mechanisms-and-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Jillian Vinall, Maria Pavlova, Gordon J G Asmundson, Nivez Rasic, Melanie Noel
Chronic pain during childhood and adolescence can lead to persistent pain problems and mental health disorders into adulthood. Posttraumatic stress disorders and depressive and anxiety disorders are mental health conditions that co-occur at high rates in both adolescent and adult samples, and are linked to heightened impairment and disability. Comorbid chronic pain and psychopathology has been explained by the presence of shared neurobiology and mutually maintaining cognitive-affective and behavioral factors that lead to the development and/or maintenance of both conditions...
December 2, 2016: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893485/peripheral-neuropathic-pain-a-mechanism-related-organizing-principle-based-on-sensory-profiles
#20
Ralf Baron, Christoph Maier, Nadine Attal, Andreas Binder, Didier Bouhassira, Giorgio Cruccu, Nanna B Finnerup, Maija Haanpää, Per Hansson, Philipp Hüllemann, Troels S Jensen, Rainer Freynhagen, Jeffrey D Kennedy, Walter Magerl, Tina Mainka, Maren Reimer, Andrew S C Rice, Märta Segerdahl, Jordi Serra, Sören Sindrup, Claudia Sommer, Thomas Tölle, Jan Vollert, Rolf-Detlef Treede
Patients with neuropathic pain are heterogeneous in etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical appearance. They exhibit a variety of pain-related sensory symptoms and signs (sensory profile). Different sensory profiles might indicate different classes of neurobiological mechanisms, and hence subgroups with different sensory profiles might respond differently to treatment. The aim of the investigation was to identify subgroups in a large sample of patients with neuropathic pain using hypothesis-free statistical methods on the database of 3 large multinational research networks (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS), IMI-Europain, and Neuropain)...
February 2017: Pain
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