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pain neurobiology

Michelle Hook, Sarah Woller, Eric Bancroft, Miriam Aceves, Mary Katherine Funk, John Hartman, Sandra M Garraway
Opioids and NSAIDs are commonly used to manage pain in the early phase of spinal cord injury (SCI). Despite its analgesic efficacy, however, our studies suggest that intrathecal (i.t.) morphine undermines locomotor recovery and increases lesion size in a rodent model of SCI. Similarly, intravenous (i.v.) morphine attenuates locomotor recovery. The current study explores whether i.v. morphine also increases lesion size after a spinal contusion (T12) injury, and quantifies the cell types that are affected by early opioid administration...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
E Carlino, A Piedimonte, F Benedetti
Placebos have long been considered a nuisance in clinical research, for they have always been used as comparators for the validation of new treatments. By contrast, today they represent an active field of research, and, due to the involvement of many mechanisms, the study of the placebo effect can actually be viewed as a melting pot of concepts and ideas for neuroscience. There is not a single placebo effect, but many, with different mechanisms across different medical conditions and therapeutic interventions...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Marta Silva, José Tiago Costa-Pereira, Daniel Martins, Isaura Tavares
Diabetic neuropathy has a profound impact in the quality of life of patients who frequently complain of pain. The mechanisms underlying diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) are no longer ascribed only to damage of peripheral nerves. The effects of diabetes at the central nervous system are currently considered causes of DPN. Management of DNP may be achieved by antidepressants that act on serotonin (5-HT) uptake, namely specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The rostroventromedial medulla (RVM) is a key pain control center involved in descending pain modulation at the spinal cord through local release of 5-HT and plays a peculiar role in the balance of bidirectional control (i...
October 4, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
John Tully, Marija M Petrinovic
Empathy is a cornerstone of social behavior, impairments of which are characteristic of neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism and psychopathy. According to the "shared representations" theory, empathy relies upon neural processes similar to those underpinning the first-hand experience of a given emotion. A recent study by Mischkowski et al. (2016) provides novel insights into neurobiological underpinnings of empathy by demonstrating that acetaminophen, a widely-used painkiller, reduces empathy for other's physical and social pain...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
R I M Dunbar, Ben Teasdale, Jackie Thompson, Felix Budelmann, Sophie Duncan, Evert van Emde Boas, Laurie Maguire
Fiction, whether in the form of storytelling or plays, has a particular attraction for us: we repeatedly return to it and are willing to invest money and time in doing so. Why this is so is an evolutionary enigma that has been surprisingly underexplored. We hypothesize that emotionally arousing drama, in particular, triggers the same neurobiological mechanism (the endorphin system, reflected in increased pain thresholds) that underpins anthropoid primate and human social bonding. We show that, compared to subjects who watch an emotionally neutral film, subjects who watch an emotionally arousing film have increased pain thresholds and an increased sense of group bonding...
September 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Suku-Maran Shalini, Deron R Herr, Wei-Yi Ong
Pain and anxiety have a complex relationship and pain is known to share neurobiological pathways and neurotransmitters with anxiety. Top-down modulatory pathways of pain have been shown to originate from cortical and subcortical regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In this study, a novel docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing nutraceutical, Souvenaid, was administered to mice with infraorbital nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain and behavioral responses recorded. Infraorbital nerve ligation resulted in increased face wash strokes of the face upon von Frey hair stimulation, indicating increased nociception...
October 1, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
J David Creswell
Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing: (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e...
September 28, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
Bradley K Taylor, Karin N Westlund
Central noradrenergic centers such as the locus coeruleus (LC) are traditionally viewed as pain inhibitory; however, complex interactions among brainstem pathways and their receptors modulate both inhibition and facilitation of pain. In addition to the well-described role of descending pontospinal pathways that inhibit spinal nociceptive transmission, an emerging body of research now indicates that noradrenergic neurons in the LC and their terminals in the dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), spinal dorsal horn, and spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis participate in the development and maintenance of allodynia and hyperalgesia after nerve injury...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Patrick H Finan, Phillip J Quartana, Bethany Remeniuk, Eric L Garland, Jamie L Rhudy, Matthew Hand, Michael R Irwin, Michael T Smith
OBJECTIVE: Ample behavioral and neurobiological evidence links sleep and affective functioning. Recent self-report evidence suggests that the affective problems associated with sleep loss may be stronger for positive versus negative affective state, and that those effects may be mediated by changes in electroencepholographically measured slow wave sleep. In the present study, we extend those preliminary findings using multiple measures of affective functioning. DESIGN: In a within-subject randomized crossover experiment, we tested the effects of one night of sleep continuity disruption via forced awakenings (FA) compared to one night of uninterrupted sleep (US) on three measures of positive and negative affective functioning: self-reported affective state, affective pain modulation, and affect-biased attention...
September 9, 2016: Sleep
Ted B Usdin, Eugene L Dimitrov
Chronic pain is frequently associated with anxiety, depression, and cognitive dysfunction. This review discusses recent work in rodents that contributes to the understanding of their neurobiological links. Brain regions that contain circuits that mediate persistent changes in behavior that are caused by nerve injury or joint inflammation include the rostral anterior cingulate and other parts of the medial prefrontal cortex, the basolateral and central nucleus of the amygdala, and the nucleus accumbens. Functional changes, including increases in the activity within specific neuronal pathways and in the levels of specific synaptic components, that are associated with the behavior changes, or are in some cases necessary for them, have recently been identified...
October 2016: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Nina Kaseva, Riikka Pyhälä, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Katri Räikkönen, Anna-Liisa Järvenpää, Sture Andersson, Johan G Eriksson, Petteri Hovi, Eero Kajantie
BACKGROUND: Early life stress, such as painful and stressful procedures during neonatal intensive care after preterm birth, can permanently affect physiological, hormonal and neurobiological systems. This may contribute to altered programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) and provoke changes in HPAA function with long-term health impacts. Previous studies suggest a lower HPAA response to stress in young adults born preterm compared with controls born at term. We assessed whether these differences in HPAA stress responsiveness are reflected in everyday life HPAA functioning, i...
2016: PloS One
Dennis C Turk, Roger B Fillingim, Richard Ohrbach, Kushang V Patel
UNLABELLED: The psychosocial and functional consequences of chronic pain disorders have been well documented as having significant effects on the experience of pain, presentation to health care providers, responsiveness to and participation in treatment, disability, and health-related quality of life. Thus, psychosocial and functional consequences have been incorporated as 1 of the 5 dimensions within the integrated Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION)-American Pain Society (APS) Pain Taxonomy (AAPT): 1) core diagnostic criteria; 2) common features; 3) common medical comorbidities; 4) neurobiological, psychosocial, and functional consequences; and 5) putative neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms, risk factors, and protective factors...
September 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
James W Carson, Kimberly M Carson, Kim D Jones, Lindsay Lancaster, Scott D Mist
Published findings from a randomized controlled trial have shown that Mindful Yoga training improves symptoms, functional deficits, and coping abilities in individuals with fibromyalgia and that these benefits are replicable and can be maintained 3 months post-treatment. The aim of this study was to collect pilot data in female fibromyalgia patients (n = 7) to determine if initial evidence indicates that Mindful Yoga also modulates the abnormal pain processing that characterizes fibromyalgia. Pre- and post-treatment data were obtained on quantitative sensory tests and measures of symptoms, functional deficits, and coping abilities...
September 1, 2016: International Journal of Yoga Therapy
Ulrich T Egle, Matthias Franz, Peter Joraschky, Astrid Lampe, Inge Seiffge-Krenke, Manfred Cierpka
In the last decade strong empirical evidence from several long-term studies supports the conclusion that physical and sexual abuse as well as emotional deprivation in childhood make people significantly more vulnerable to mental and functional disorders across their lifetime. Additionally, an increased vulnerability to several somatic disorders (cardiovascular disorders, type-2-diabetes, hepatitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), immunological and pain disorders, pharynx and lung cancer) was demonstrated - most of them with a reduced life expectancy...
October 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Elisa Rubino, Alessandro Vacca, Flora Govone, Annalisa Gai, Silvia Boschi, Milena Zucca, Paola De Martino, Salvatore Gentile, Lorenzo Pinessi, Innocenzo Rainero
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adiponectin, leptin, and resistin are adipocyte-derived secretory factors involved in endothelial function, weight, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Recent studies suggested a role for adipokines in episodic migraine as mediators of inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, and resistin in patients with chronic migraine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven chronic migraineurs (20 females, 7 males; mean age 49...
August 22, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Jennifer C Naylor, Jason D Kilts, Jennifer L Strauss, Steven T Szabo, Charlotte E Dunn, H Ryan Wagner, Robert M Hamer, Lawrence J Shampine, Joseph R Zanga, Christine E Marx
Female Veterans are the most rapidly growing segment of new users of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), and a significant proportion of female Veterans receiving treatment from VHA primary care providers report persistent pain symptoms. Currently, available data characterizing the neurobiological underpinnings of pain disorders are limited. Preclinical data suggest that neurosteroids may be involved in the modulation of pain symptoms, potentially via actions at gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Justin C Strickland, Mark A Smith
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated that participation in regular resistance exercise (e.g., strength training) is associated with improvements in mental health, memory, and cognition. However, less is known about the neurobiological mechanisms mediating these effects. The goal of this mini-review is to describe and evaluate the available animal models of resistance exercise that may prove useful for examining CNS activity. NEW METHOD: Various models have been developed to examine resistance exercise in laboratory animals...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Priyanka Purkayastha, Reshma Alokam, Aruna Malapati, Dharmarajan Sriram, Perumal Yogeeswari
An atypical protein kinase C, PKMzeta has become an attractive target for various neurological disorders including long term potentiation, cognition, neuropathic pain and cancer. Drug discovery efforts have been hindered due to the non-availability of the protein structure and hence in the present study we attempted to build the open and closed models of the protein PKMzeta using homology modeling. The models were then used to identify PKMzeta inhibitors utilizing a high-throughput virtual screening protocol from a large commercial chemical database...
October 2015: Molecular Informatics
L M van Vliet, S van Dulmen, P Mistiaen, J M Bensing
- Good communication is important for patients and can elicit placebo effects: true psychobiological effects not attributable to the medical-technical intervention.- It is, however, often unclear which communication behaviours influence specific patient outcomes.- In this article we present insights into the potential effect of specific communication, via specific mechanisms, on specific patient outcomes, including patients' perception of pain.- A recent systematic review and additional literature demonstrate that (a) manipulating patients' expectations, (b) demonstrating empathy, and (c) providing procedural information, might influence patient outcomes...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Thomas Friedrich, Neslihan N Tavraz, Cornelia Junghans
Mutations in four genes have been identified in familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM), from which CACNA1A (FHM type 1) and SCN1A (FHM type 3) code for neuronal voltage-gated calcium or sodium channels, respectively, while ATP1A2 (FHM type 2) encodes the α2 isoform of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase's catalytic subunit, thus classifying FHM primarily as an ion channel/ion transporter pathology. FHM type 4 is attributed to mutations in the PRRT2 gene, which encodes a proline-rich transmembrane protein of as yet unknown function...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
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