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pain neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918444/mental-health-comorbidities-in-pediatric-chronic-pain-a-narrative-review-of-epidemiology-models-neurobiological-mechanisms-and-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Jillian Vinall, Maria Pavlova, Gordon J G Asmundson, Nivez Rasic, Melanie Noel
Chronic pain during childhood and adolescence can lead to persistent pain problems and mental health disorders into adulthood. Posttraumatic stress disorders and depressive and anxiety disorders are mental health conditions that co-occur at high rates in both adolescent and adult samples, and are linked to heightened impairment and disability. Comorbid chronic pain and psychopathology has been explained by the presence of shared neurobiology and mutually maintaining cognitive-affective and behavioral factors that lead to the development and/or maintenance of both conditions...
December 2, 2016: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893485/peripheral-neuropathic-pain-a-mechanism-related-organizing-principle-based-on-sensory-profiles
#2
Ralf Baron, Christoph Maier, Nadine Attal, Andreas Binder, Didier Bouhassira, Giorgio Cruccu, Nanna B Finnerup, Maija Haanpää, Per Hansson, Philipp Hüllemann, Troels S Jensen, Rainer Freynhagen, Jeffrey D Kennedy, Walter Magerl, Tina Mainka, Maren Reimer, Andrew S C Rice, Märta Segerdahl, Jordi Serra, Sören Sindrup, Claudia Sommer, Thomas Tölle, Jan Vollert, Rolf-Detlef Treede
Patients with neuropathic pain are heterogeneous in etiology, pathophysiology and clinical appearance. They exhibit a variety of pain-related sensory symptoms and signs (sensory profile). Different sensory profiles might indicate different classes of neurobiological mechanisms and hence subgroups with different sensory profiles might respond differently to treatment.The aim of the investigation was to identify subgroups in a large sample of neuropathic pain patients using hypothesis-free statistical methods on the database of three large multi-national research networks (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS), IMI-Europain, Neuropain)...
November 3, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870423/sex-based-differences-in-brain-alterations-across-chronic-pain-conditions
#3
REVIEW
Arpana Gupta, Emeran A Mayer, Connor Fling, Jennifer S Labus, Bruce D Naliboff, Jui-Yang Hong, Lisa A Kilpatrick
Common brain mechanisms are thought to play a significant role across a multitude of chronic pain syndromes. In addition, there is strong evidence for the existence of sex differences in the prevalence of chronic pain and in the neurobiology of pain. Thus, it is important to consider sex when developing general principals of pain neurobiology. The goal of the current Mini-Review is to evaluate what is known about sex-specific brain alterations across multiple chronic pain populations. A total of 15 sex difference and 143 single-sex articles were identified from among 412 chronic pain neuroimaging articles...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852966/hippocampal-activation-of-microglia-may-underlie-the-shared-neurobiology-of-comorbid-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-chronic-pain
#4
Rao Sun, Zuoxia Zhang, Yishan Lei, Yue Liu, Cui'e Lu, Hui Rong, Yu'e Sun, Wei Zhang, Zhengliang Ma, Xiaoping Gu
The high comorbidity rates of posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain have been widely reported, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Emerging evidence suggested that an excess of inflammatory immune activities in the hippocampus involved in the progression of both posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain. Considering that microglia are substrates underlying the initiation and propagation of the neuroimmune response, we hypothesized that stress-induced activation of hippocampal microglia may contribute to the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder-pain comorbidity...
2016: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826033/the-neurobiology-of-safety-and-threat-learning-in-infancy
#5
REVIEW
Jacek Debiec, Regina M Sullivan
What an animal needs to learn to survive is altered dramatically as they change from dependence on the parent for protection to independence and reliance on self-defense. This transition occurs in most altricial animals, but our understanding of the behavioral neurobiology has mostly relied on the infant rat. The transformation from dependence to independence occurs over three weeks in pups and is accompanied by complex changes in responses to both natural and learned threats and the supporting neural circuitry...
November 4, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816599/etiology-and-treatment-of-pain-and-psychosocial-issues-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#6
Miguel Regueiro, Julia B Greer, Eva Szigethy
There is increasing evidence that brain-gut interactions are altered during development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Understanding the relationship between the neurobiology, psychological symptoms, and social ramifications of IBD can guide comprehensive care for the whole patient. The most common psychological conditions in patients with IBD are chronic abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression. We review the evidence-based data and rates of these conditions and their respective relationship to IBD and the diagnostic approaches to identify patients with these conditions...
November 2, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813425/emerging-drugs-for-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-and-neuropathic-pain
#7
Nikolaos Papanas, Dan Ziegler
Diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) is a common complication of diabetes. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the emerging drugs for DSPN, which aim either at improving alleviation of neuropathic pain or addressing the putative mechanisms underlying diabetic neuropathy. Expert Opinion: Current treatment does not address the sensory deficits and pathogenesis underlying DSPN, so there is an unmet need for treatment options targeting the natural history of the condition. Some of these pathogenetic therapies have demonstrated clinically relevant improvements in neuropathic endpoints in recent randomised controlled trials...
November 18, 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812328/adverse-social-experiences-in-adolescent-rats-result-in-enduring-effects-on-social-competence-pain-sensitivity-and-endocannabinoid-signaling
#8
Peggy Schneider, Laura Bindila, Christian Schmahl, Martin Bohus, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Beat Lutz, Rainer Spanagel, Miriam Schneider
Social affiliation is essential for many species and gains significant importance during adolescence. Disturbances in social affiliation, in particular social rejection experiences during adolescence, affect an individual's well-being and are involved in the emergence of psychiatric disorders. The underlying mechanisms are still unknown, partly because of a lack of valid animal models. By using a novel animal model for social peer-rejection, which compromises adolescent rats in their ability to appropriately engage in playful activities, here we report on persistent impairments in social behavior and dysregulations in the endocannabinoid (eCB) system...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797669/mindful-yoga-pilot-study-shows-modulation-of-abnormal-pain-processing-in-fibromyalgia-patients
#9
James W Carson, Kimberly M Carson, Kim D Jones, Lindsay Lancaster, Scott D Mist
Published findings from a randomized controlled trial have shown that Mindful Yoga training improves symptoms, functional deficits, and coping abilities in individuals with fibromyalgia and that these benefits are replicable and can be maintained 3 months post-treatment. The aim of this study was to collect pilot data in female fibromyalgia patients (n = 7) to determine if initial evidence indicates that Mindful Yoga also modulates the abnormal pain processing that characterizes fibromyalgia. Pre- and post-treatment data were obtained on quantitative sensory tests and measures of symptoms, functional deficits, and coping abilities...
January 2016: International Journal of Yoga Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784343/patterns-of-association-of-chronic-medical-conditions-and-major-depression
#10
S B Patten, J V A Williams, D H Lavorato, J L Wang, N Jetté, T T Sajobi, K M Fiest, A G M Bulloch
AIMS: Age and sex-related patterns of association between medical conditions and major depressive episodes (MDE) are important for understanding disease burden, anticipating clinical needs and for formulating etiological hypotheses. General population estimates are especially valuable because they are not distorted by help-seeking behaviours. However, even large population surveys often deliver inadequate precision to adequately describe such patterns. In this study, data from a set of national surveys were pooled to increase precision, supporting more precise characterisation of these associations...
October 27, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778031/-application-of-optogenetic-technique-in-pain-research
#11
Yi Li, Han Hao, Hai-Lin Zhang, Xiao-Na DU
Chronic pain represents a major clinical issue which so far is still in shortage of selective and effective treatment. Multiple components are involved in the pain processing, including peripheral, spinal and supraspinal levels of the nervous system. The core to fight the pain problem effectively is to have a good understanding of nociceptive mechanism and the neurobiology of pain perception. Optogenetic technique allows selective activation of subpopulation neurons and provides possibility for better understanding of complex pathway and modulation mechanism in nervous system...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762659/neurobiological-effects-of-morphine-following-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Michelle Hook, Sarah Woller, Eric Bancroft, Miriam Aceves, Mary Katherine Funk, John Hartman, Sandra M Garraway
Opioids and NSAIDs are commonly used to manage pain in the early phase of spinal cord injury (SCI). Despite its analgesic efficacy, however, our studies suggest that intrathecal (i.t.) morphine undermines locomotor recovery and increases lesion size in a rodent model of SCI. Similarly, intravenous (i.v.) morphine attenuates locomotor recovery. The current study explores whether i.v. morphine also increases lesion size after a spinal contusion (T12) injury, and quantifies the cell types that are affected by early opioid administration...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719874/nature-of-the-placebo-and-nocebo-effect-in-relation-to-functional-neurologic-disorders
#13
E Carlino, A Piedimonte, F Benedetti
Placebos have long been considered a nuisance in clinical research, for they have always been used as comparators for the validation of new treatments. By contrast, today they represent an active field of research, and, due to the involvement of many mechanisms, the study of the placebo effect can actually be viewed as a melting pot of concepts and ideas for neuroscience. There is not a single placebo effect, but many, with different mechanisms across different medical conditions and therapeutic interventions...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717882/pain-modulation-from-the-brain-during-diabetic-neuropathy-uncovering-the-role-of-the-rostroventromedial-medulla
#14
Marta Silva, José Tiago Costa-Pereira, Daniel Martins, Isaura Tavares
Diabetic neuropathy has a profound impact in the quality of life of patients who frequently complain of pain. The mechanisms underlying diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) are no longer ascribed only to damage of peripheral nerves. The effects of diabetes at the central nervous system are currently considered causes of DPN. Management of DNP may be achieved by antidepressants that act on serotonin (5-HT) uptake, namely specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The rostroventromedial medulla (RVM) is a key pain control center involved in descending pain modulation at the spinal cord through local release of 5-HT and plays a peculiar role in the balance of bidirectional control (i...
October 4, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707814/acetaminophen-study-yields-new-insights-into-neurobiological-underpinnings-of-empathy
#15
John Tully, Marija M Petrinovic
Empathy is a cornerstone of social behavior, impairments of which are characteristic of neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism and psychopathy. According to the "shared representations" theory, empathy relies upon neural processes similar to those underpinning the first-hand experience of a given emotion. A recent study by Mischkowski et al. (2016) provides novel insights into neurobiological underpinnings of empathy by demonstrating that acetaminophen, a widely-used painkiller, reduces empathy for other's physical and social pain...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703694/emotional-arousal-when-watching-drama-increases-pain-threshold-and-social-bonding
#16
R I M Dunbar, Ben Teasdale, Jackie Thompson, Felix Budelmann, Sophie Duncan, Evert van Emde Boas, Laurie Maguire
Fiction, whether in the form of storytelling or plays, has a particular attraction for us: we repeatedly return to it and are willing to invest money and time in doing so. Why this is so is an evolutionary enigma that has been surprisingly underexplored. We hypothesize that emotionally arousing drama, in particular, triggers the same neurobiological mechanism (the endorphin system, reflected in increased pain thresholds) that underpins anthropoid primate and human social bonding. We show that, compared to subjects who watch an emotionally neutral film, subjects who watch an emotionally arousing film have increased pain thresholds and an increased sense of group bonding...
September 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696115/the-analgesic-and-anxiolytic-effect-of-souvenaid-a-novel-nutraceutical-is-mediated-by-alox15-activity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#17
Suku-Maran Shalini, Deron R Herr, Wei-Yi Ong
Pain and anxiety have a complex relationship and pain is known to share neurobiological pathways and neurotransmitters with anxiety. Top-down modulatory pathways of pain have been shown to originate from cortical and subcortical regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In this study, a novel docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing nutraceutical, Souvenaid, was administered to mice with infraorbital nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain and behavioral responses recorded. Infraorbital nerve ligation resulted in increased face wash strokes of the face upon von Frey hair stimulation, indicating increased nociception...
October 1, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687118/mindfulness-interventions
#18
J David Creswell
Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing: (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e...
September 28, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685982/the-noradrenergic-locus-coeruleus-as-a-chronic-pain-generator
#19
REVIEW
Bradley K Taylor, Karin N Westlund
Central noradrenergic centers such as the locus coeruleus (LC) are traditionally viewed as pain inhibitory; however, complex interactions among brainstem pathways and their receptors modulate both inhibition and facilitation of pain. In addition to the well-described role of descending pontospinal pathways that inhibit spinal nociceptive transmission, an emerging body of research now indicates that noradrenergic neurons in the LC and their terminals in the dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), spinal dorsal horn, and spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis participate in the development and maintenance of allodynia and hyperalgesia after nerve injury...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634802/partial-sleep-deprivation-attenuates-the-positive-affective-system-effects-across-multiple-measurement-modalities
#20
Patrick H Finan, Phillip J Quartana, Bethany Remeniuk, Eric L Garland, Jamie L Rhudy, Matthew Hand, Michael R Irwin, Michael T Smith
OBJECTIVE: Ample behavioral and neurobiological evidence links sleep and affective functioning. Recent self-report evidence suggests that the affective problems associated with sleep loss may be stronger for positive versus negative affective state, and that those effects may be mediated by changes in electroencepholographically measured slow wave sleep. In the present study, we extend those preliminary findings using multiple measures of affective functioning. DESIGN: In a within-subject randomized crossover experiment, we tested the effects of one night of sleep continuity disruption via forced awakenings (FA) compared to one night of uninterrupted sleep (US) on three measures of positive and negative affective functioning: self-reported affective state, affective pain modulation, and affect-biased attention...
September 9, 2016: Sleep
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