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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503039/the-possible-role-of-meditation-in-myofascial-pain-syndrome-a-new-hypothesis
#1
Prashanth Panta
BACKGROUND OF HYPOTHESIS: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is the most common musculoskeletal pain disorder of the head and neck area. In the past, several theories were put forth to explain its origin and nature, but none proved complete. Myofascial pain responds to changing psychological states and stress, anxiety, lack of sleep, anger, depression and chronic pain are direct contributional factors. Myofascial pain syndrome may be considered as a psychosomatic disorder. There are numerous accepted palliative approaches, but of all, relaxation techniques stand out and initiate healing at the base level...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493519/neurotransmitters-behind-pain-relief-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-positron-emission-tomography-evidence-for-release-of-endogenous-opioids
#2
S Lamusuo, J Hirvonen, P Lindholm, I K Martikainen, N Hagelberg, R Parkkola, T Taiminen, J Hietala, S Helin, A Virtanen, A Pertovaara, S K Jääskeläinen
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at M1/S1 cortex has been shown to alleviate neuropathic pain. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possible neurobiological correlates of cortical neurostimulation for the pain relief. METHODS: We studied the effects of M1/S1 rTMS on nociception, brain dopamine D2 and μ-opioid receptors using a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blinded crossover study design and 3D-positron emission tomography (PET)...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490916/the-cannabis-withdrawal-syndrome-current-insights
#3
REVIEW
Udo Bonnet, Ulrich W Preuss
The cannabis withdrawal syndrome (CWS) is a criterion of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fifth Edition) and cannabis dependence (International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-10). Several lines of evidence from animal and human studies indicate that cessation from long-term and regular cannabis use precipitates a specific withdrawal syndrome with mainly mood and behavioral symptoms of light to moderate intensity, which can usually be treated in an outpatient setting...
2017: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456872/catechol-o-methyltransferase-comt-an-update-on-its-role-in-cancer-neurological-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#4
Pedro Bastos, Tiago Gomes, Laura Ribeiro
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme that catalyses the methylation of catechol substrates, classically in catecholamine metabolism, but also acting upon other substrates such as oestrogen and polyphenols. Although its classical function has been established for more than five decades, an ever expanding COMT role in other pathways and diseases has become a subject of active study in recent years. The most highlighted domains are related with COMT involvement in neuropsychiatric disorders and its role in the neurobiology of cognition, behaviour, emotions, pain processing and perception, sleep regulation, addictive behaviour and neurodegeneration...
April 30, 2017: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443503/kratom-and-future-treatment-for-the-opioids-addiction-and-chronic-pain-periculo-beneficium
#5
Ismaliza Ismail, Suzaily Wahab, Hatta Sidi, Srijit Das, Loo Jiann Lin, Rosdinom Razali
Kratom (Mitragynaspeciosa), a natural existing plant found in South-East Asia, is tradi-tionally used as an herb to help to elevate a person's energy and also to treat numerous medical ailments. Other than the analgesic property, kratom has been used as an agent to overcome opioid withdrawal as it contains natural alkaloids, i.e. mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, and MGM-9, which has agonist affinity on the opioid receptors, including mu (μ) and kappa (κ). The role of neural reward pathway linked to μ-opioid receptors and both dopaminergic and GABA-ergic interneurons that express μ-opioid receptors were deliberated...
April 25, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437310/neurobiological-consequences-of-early-painful-experience-basic-science-findings-and-implications-for-evidence-based-practice
#6
Erin E Young, Amy DʼAgata, Dorothy Vittner, Kyle M Baumbauer
As healthcare teams have worked to improve infant survival rates, the management of painful events experienced by these hospitalized neonates has increased and yet pain management remains highly variable between healthcare institutions. At the same time, emerging evidence suggests that these early painful experiences may alter the trajectory of development for pain-processing pathways both peripherally and centrally. This concise review highlights findings from both the basic and clinical science literature supporting the hypothesis that early painful experiences can have long-lasting negative effects on biological, psychological, and socioemotional functions...
April 2017: Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394827/fibromyalgia-a-missed-comorbidity-in-spondyloarthritis-prevalence-and-impact-on-assessment-and-treatment
#7
Philip J Mease
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fibromyalgia is a clinical representation of the neurobiological phenomenon of central sensitization, characterized by chronic widespread pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, and other symptoms. Fibromyalgia may occur in conjunction with chronic rheumatic diseases, driven by the effects of chronic pain and inflammation and likely influenced by the patient's genetic and psychoemotional background. This article reviews the data on prevalence of concomitant fibromyalgia and its impact on disease assessment in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA)...
April 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364467/partial-sleep-deprivation-attenuates-the-positive-affective-system-effects-across-multiple-measurement-modalities
#8
Patrick H Finan, Phillip J Quartana, Bethany Remeniuk, Eric L Garland, Jamie L Rhudy, Matthew Hand, Michael R Irwin, Michael T Smith
Objective: Ample behavioral and neurobiological evidence links sleep and affective functioning. Recent self-report evidence suggests that the affective problems associated with sleep loss may be stronger for positive versus negative affective state and that those effects may be mediated by changes in electroencepholographically measured slow wave sleep (SWS). In the present study, we extend those preliminary findings using multiple measures of affective functioning. Design: In a within-subject randomized crossover experiment, we tested the effects of one night of sleep continuity disruption via forced awakenings (FA) compared to one night of uninterrupted sleep (US) on three measures of positive and negative affective functioning: self-reported affective state, affective pain modulation, and affect-biased attention...
January 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326945/descending-facilitation
#9
Min Zhuo
It is documented that sensory transmission, including pain, is subject to endogenous inhibitory and facilitatory modulation at the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Descending facilitation has received a lot of attention, due to its potentially important roles in chronic pain. Recent investigation using neurobiological approaches has further revealed the link between cortical potentiation and descending facilitation. Cortical-spinal top-down facilitation, including those relayed through brainstem neurons, provides powerful control for pain transmission at the level of the spinal cord...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325179/pain-management-in-horses
#10
REVIEW
Alonso Guedes
There has been great progress in the understanding of basic neurobiologic mechanisms of pain, but this body of knowledge has not yet translated into new and improved analgesics. Progress has been made regarding pain assessment in horses, but more work is needed until sensitive and accurate pain assessment tools are available for use in clinical practice. This review summarizes and updates the knowledge concerning the cornerstones of pain medicine (understand, assess, prevent, and treat). It highlights the importance of understanding pain mechanisms and expressions to enable a rational approach to pain assessment, prevention, and management in the equine patient...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286178/vagus-nerve-stimulation-suppresses-acute-noxious-activation-of-trigeminocervical-neurons-in-animal-models-of-primary-headache
#11
Simon Akerman, Bruce Simon, Marcela Romero-Reyes
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been reported to be effective in the abortive treatment of both migraine and cluster headache. Using validated animal models of acute dural-intracranial (migraine-like) and trigeminal-autonomic (cluster-like) head pain we tested whether VNS suppresses ongoing and nociceptive-evoked firing of trigeminocervical neurons to explain its abortive effects in migraine and cluster headache. Unilateral VNS was applied invasively via hook electrodes placed on the vagus nerve. A single dose of ipsilateral or contralateral VNS, to trigeminal recording and dural-stimulating side, suppressed ongoing spontaneous and noxious dural-evoked trigeminocervical neuronal firing...
June 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270756/role-of-the-lateral-habenula-in-pain-associated-depression
#12
Yanhui Li, Yumeng Wang, Chengluan Xuan, Yang Li, Lianhua Piao, Jicheng Li, Hua Zhao
Patients with chronic pain have significantly higher incidences of depression and anxiety than the average person. However, the mechanism underlying this link has not been elucidated in terms of how chronic pain causes significant mood changes and further develops into severe anxiety or depression. The serotonergic system in the raphe nuclei is an important component in both pain processing and the pathogenesis of depression. Since the lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) controls the raphe nuclei, it may participate in the regulation of pain-associated depression...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258747/psychotherapy-with-somatosensory-stimulation-for-endometriosis-associated-pain-the-role-of-the-anterior-hippocampus
#13
Florian Beissner, Christine Preibisch, Annemarie Schweizer-Arau, Roxana M Popovici, Karin Meissner
BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a gynecological disorder affecting 6%-10% of all women in their reproductive age. There is an emerging view in the literature that psychological trauma plays a central role in the pathogenesis of pelvic pain, one of the core symptoms of endometriosis. Here we report central nervous system mechanisms of a novel combination of psychotherapy and somatosensory stimulation that has recently shown remarkable effects in reducing pain, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in these patients...
January 16, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243252/neurobiological-mechanism-of-acupuncture-for-relieving-visceral-pain-of-gastrointestinal-origin
#14
REVIEW
Fang Zhang, Luyi Wu, Jimeng Zhao, Tingting Lv, Zhihai Hu, Zhijun Weng, Shuoshuo Wang, Huangan Wu, Huirong Liu
It is currently accepted that the neural transduction pathways of gastrointestinal (GI) visceral pain include the peripheral and central pathways. Existing research on the neurological mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) in the treatment of GI visceral pain has primarily been concerned with the regulation of relevant transduction pathways. The generation of pain involves a series of processes, including energy transduction of stimulatory signals in the sensory nerve endings (signal transduction), subsequent conduction in primary afferent nerve fibers of dorsal root ganglia, and transmission to spinal dorsal horn neurons, the ascending transmission of sensory signals in the central nervous system, and the processing of sensory signals in the cerebral cortex...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240187/the-endocannabinoid-system-modulating-levels-of-consciousness-emotions-and-likely-dream-contents
#15
Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, José Carlos Pastrana-Trejo, Mireille Salas-Crisóstomo, Miriel de-la-Cruz
Cannabinoids are derivatives that are either compounds occurring naturally in the plant, Cannabis sativa or synthetic analogs of these molecules. The first and most widely investigated of the cannabinoids is ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), which is the main psychotropic constituent of cannabis and undergoes significant binding to cannabinoid receptors. These cannabinoid receptors are seven-transmembrane receptors that received their name from the fact that they respond to cannabinoid compounds, including Δ9-THC...
February 23, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228081/the-neurobiology-and-psychiatric-perspective-of-vaginismus-linking-the-pharmacological-and-psycho-social-interventions
#16
Zuri Shahidii Kadir, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Najwa Baharuddin
Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition, it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216087/neural-consequences-of-post-exertion-malaise-in-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#17
Dane B Cook, Alan R Light, Kathleen C Light, Gordon Broderick, Morgan R Shields, Ryan J Dougherty, Jacob D Meyer, Stephanie VanRiper, Aaron J Stegner, Laura D Ellingson, Suzanne D Vernon
Post exertion malaise is one of the most debilitating aspects of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, yet the neurobiological consequences are largely unexplored. The objective of the study was to determine the neural consequences of acute exercise using functional brain imaging. Fifteen female Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients and 15 healthy female controls completed 30min of submaximal exercise (70% of peak heart rate) on a cycle ergometer. Symptom assessments (e.g...
February 17, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208601/surgical-neurostimulation-for-spinal-cord-injury
#18
REVIEW
Aswin Chari, Ian D Hentall, Marios C Papadopoulos, Erlick A C Pereira
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological condition characterized by a constellation of symptoms including paralysis, paraesthesia, pain, cardiovascular, bladder, bowel and sexual dysfunction. Current treatment for SCI involves acute resuscitation, aggressive rehabilitation and symptomatic treatment for complications. Despite the progress in scientific understanding, regenerative therapies are lacking. In this review, we outline the current state and future potential of invasive and non-invasive neuromodulation strategies including deep brain stimulation (DBS), spinal cord stimulation (SCS), motor cortex stimulation (MCS), transcutaneous direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the context of SCI...
February 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199203/neurogenetics-of-acute-and-chronic-opiate-opioid-abstinence-treating-symptoms-and-the-cause
#19
Kenneth Blum, Mark S Gold, William Jacobs, William Vaughn McCall, Marcelo Febo, David Baron, Kristina Dushaj, Zsolt Demetrovics, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
This review begins with a comprehensive history of opioid dependence and treatment in the United States. The focus is an evidence-based treatment model for opioid/opiate dependent individuals. The role of reward genetic polymorphisms and the epigenetic modifications that lead to vulnerability to use and misuse of opiates/opioid to treat pain are reviewed. The neurochemical mechanisms of acute opiate withdrawal and opiate/opioid reward mechanisms are explored with a goal of identifying specific treatment targets...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144843/infection-pain-and-itch
#20
REVIEW
Isaac M Chiu
Pain and itch are unpleasant sensations that often accompany infections caused by viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal pathogens. Recent studies show that sensory neurons are able to directly detect pathogens to mediate pain and itch. Nociceptor and pruriceptor neurons respond to pathogen-associated molecular patterns, including Toll-like receptor ligands, N-formyl peptides, and bacterial toxins. Other pathogens are able to silence neuronal activity to produce analgesia during infection. Pain and itch could lead to neuronal modulation of the immune system or behavioral avoidance of future pathogen exposure...
January 31, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
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