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Embryology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742595/fetal-anatomic-imaging-between-11-and-14-weeks-gestation
#1
Ingrid Liff, Bryann Bromley
Fetal imaging between 11 and 14 weeks is a standard component of prenatal risk assessment for aneuploidy. Evaluating the fetus during this gestational age window provides the opportunity to reliably examine anatomic structures. Using a defined imaging protocol, approximately 50% of major abnormalities can be detected. Some abnormalities should almost always be detected, some may be detected on occasion and others are not currently detectable. Imagers must be familiar with embryologic patterns of development and natural history of anomalies...
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738009/morphological-evaluation-of-clefts-of-the-lip-palate-or-both-in-dogs
#2
Santiago Peralta, Nadine Fiani, Kimi H Kan-Rohrer, Frank J M Verstraete
OBJECTIVE To systematically characterize the morphology of cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate in dogs. ANIMALS 32 client-owned dogs with clefts of the lip (n = 5), palate (23), or both (4) that had undergone a CT or cone-beam CT scan of the head prior to any surgical procedures involving the oral cavity or face. PROCEDURES Dog signalment and skull type were recorded. The anatomic form of each defect was characterized by use of a widely used human oral-cleft classification system on the basis of CT findings and clinical images...
August 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734068/evolution-of-antero-posterior-patterning-of-the-limb-insights-from-the-chick
#3
REVIEW
Matthew Towers
The developing limbs of chicken embryos have served as pioneering models for understanding pattern formation for over a century. The ease with which chick wing and leg buds can be experimentally manipulated, while the embryo is still in the egg, has resulted in the discovery of important developmental organisers, and subsequently, the signals that they produce. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is produced by mesenchyme cells of the polarizing region at the posterior margin of the limb bud and specifies positional values across the antero-posterior axis (the axis running from the thumb to the little finger)...
July 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728585/neuroscience-in-the-third-dimension-shedding-new-light-on-the-brain-with-tissue-clearing
#4
REVIEW
Robin J Vigouroux, Morgane Belle, Alain Chédotal
For centuries analyses of tissues have depended on sectioning methods. Recent developments of tissue clearing techniques have now opened a segway from studying tissues in 2 dimensions to 3 dimensions. This particular advantage echoes heavily in the field of neuroscience, where in the last several years there has been an active shift towards understanding the complex orchestration of neural circuits. In the past five years, many tissue-clearing protocols have spawned. This is due to varying strength of each clearing protocol to specific applications...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726262/double-aortic-arch-anomalies-in-children-a-systematic-20-year-single-center-study
#5
M Kaldararova, I Simkova, I Varga, P Tittel, M Kardos, M Ondriska, V Vrsanska, J Masura
INTRODUCTION: Aortic arch anomalies underlie numerous congenital disorders. Effectively diagnosing and treating them requires close understanding of cardiovascular embryology. As our Center serves the entire pediatric population of our country, we performed a comprehensive retrospective analysis of all aortic arch anomalies diagnosed at our Center over the past 20 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 40 children with aortic arch anomalies, distinguishing two defect types: Group 1 displayed ring-forming anomalies, and Group 2 other types of aortic arch anomalies that did not form a vascular ring...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721155/clinical-importance-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue
#6
Eszter Nagy, Adam L Jermendy, Bela Merkely, Pal Maurovich-Horvat
Different visceral fat compartments have several systemic effects and may play a role in the development of both insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. In the last couple of years special attention has been paid to the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), which can be quantified by non-invasive cardiac imaging techniques. The epicardial fat is a unique fat compartment between the myocardium and the visceral pericardium sharing a common embryologic origin with the visceral fat depot. Epicardial adipose tissue has several specific roles, and its local effects on cardiac function are incorporated in the complex pathomechanism of coronary artery disease...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718994/hemifacial-microsomia-in-a-cat
#7
R B Song, M Kent, E N Glass, G J Davis, F A Castro, A de Lahunta
A 7-month-old domestic medium hair cat presented with facial asymmetry affecting the bony and soft tissue structures of the right side of the head including the maxilla, nose, eye and pinna of the ear. Additionally, neurological dysfunction of the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves on the affected side was present. A congenital malformation affecting the first and second embryologic pharyngeal arches was suspected. This is the first case of hemifacial microsomia of likely congenital origin reported in a cat...
July 18, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718946/evidence-for-plical-support-of-the-patella
#8
Robert M Geraghty, Michelle Spear
There is a consensus that there is no overt anterior joint capsule in the knee. However, other anterior structures act in lieu of a joint capsule: the quadriceps tendon and patellar retinacular fibres. In the absence of a capsule, the synovium forms the suprapatellar pouch. Other synovial structures, the plicae, are more controversial. They are often described as embryonic remnants with no function, despite surrounding the patella. We aimed to identify plical anatomy and histology on cadaveric dissection and to examine their embryology using the human virtual embryo website...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716333/congenital-anomalies-of-the-superior-vena-cava-embryological-correlation-imaging-perspectives-and-clinical-relevance
#9
REVIEW
Abed Ghandour, Karunakaravel Karuppasamy, Prabhakar Rajiah
There is a wide spectrum of congenital anomalies of the superior vena cava, which are more increasingly recognized in cross-sectional imaging. Although some of these anomalies are asymptomatic, others have important clinical and interventional implications. Imaging modalities such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging play an important role in the accurate characterization of these anomalies, which is essential for mapping prior to surgeries or interventions. In this article, we review a wide range of anomalies of the superior vena cava, including the embryological basis, cross-sectional imaging findings, and clinical implications, particularly from an interventional radiology perspective...
July 14, 2017: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712646/live-births-after-embryo-selection-using-morphokinetics-versus-conventional-morphology-a-retrospective-analysis
#10
Simon Fishel, Alison Campbell, Sue Montgomery, Rachel Smith, Lynne Nice, Samantha Duffy, Lucy Jenner, Kathyrn Berrisford, Louise Kellam, Rob Smith, Ivy D'Cruz, Ashley Beccles
The increasing corpus of clinical studies using time-lapse imaging for embryo selection demonstrates considerable variation in study protocols and only limited-sized study cohorts. Outcome measures are based on implantation or clinical pregnancy; some predict blastulation from early cleavage-stage data, and few have evaluated live birth. Erroneously, most studies treat the embryos as independent variables and do not include patient or treatment variables in the statistical analyses. In this study, cohort size was 14,793 patients and 23,762 cycles...
June 23, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707769/embryonic-development-of-eucorydia-yasumatsui-asahina-with-special-reference-to-external-morphology-insecta-blattodea-corydiidae
#11
Mari Fujita, Ryuichiro Machida
As the first step in the comparative embryological study of Blattodea, with the aim of reconstructing the groundplan and phylogeny of Dictyoptera and Polyneoptera, the embryonic development of a corydiid was examined and described in detail using Eucorydia yasumatsui. Ten to fifteen micropyles are localized on the ventral side of the egg, and aggregated symbiont bacterial "mycetomes" are found in the egg. The embryo is formed by the fusion of paired blastodermal regions, with higher cellular density on the ventral side of the egg...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705803/clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-care-of-girls-and-women-with-turner-syndrome-proceedings-from-the-2016-cincinnati-international-turner-syndrome-meeting
#12
Claus H Gravholt, Niels H Andersen, Gerard S Conway, Olaf M Dekkers, Mitchell E Geffner, Karen O Klein, Angela E Lin, Nelly Mauras, Charmian A Quigley, Karen Rubin, David E Sandberg, Theo C J Sas, Michael Silberbach, Viveca Söderström-Anttila, Kirstine Stochholm, Janielle A van Alfen-van derVelden, Joachim Woelfle, Philippe F Backeljauw
Turner syndrome affects 25-50 per 100,000 females and can involve multiple organs through all stages of life, necessitating multidisciplinary approach to care. Previous guidelines have highlighted this, but numerous important advances have been noted recently. These advances cover all specialty fields involved in the care of girls and women with TS. This paper is based on an international effort that started with exploratory meetings in 2014 in both Europe and the USA, and culminated with a Consensus Meeting held in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA in July 2016...
September 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698706/personhood-status-of-the-human-zygote-embryo-fetus
#13
John Janez Miklavcic, Paul Flaman
The fields of biology, medicine, and embryology have described the developmental milestones of humans throughout gestation in great detail. It is less clear as to when humans are recognized as people, persons, or beings with rights that are protected by legislation. The practice of law is irrevocably intertwined with that of ethical conduct; and the time at which a human life is considered a person has implications that extend to health care, legislation on abortion, and autonomy of individuals. This article reviews the economical position that fertilization is the moment that personhood of the conceptus begins...
May 2017: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695964/segmentation-gene-expression-patterns-in-bactrocera-dorsalis-and-related-insects-regulation-and-shape-of-blastoderm-and-larval-cuticle
#14
Worramin Suksuwan, Xiaoli Cai, Lertluk Ngernsiri, Stefan Baumgartner
The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is regarded as a severe pest of fruit production in Asia. Despite its economic importance, only limited information regarding the molecular and developmental biology of this insect is known to date. We provide a detailed analysis of B. dorsalis embryology, as well as the expression patterns of a number of segmentation genes known to act during patterning of Drosophila and compare these to the patterns of other insect families. An anterior shift of the expression of gap genes was detected when compared to Drosophila...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693936/sirenomelia-associated-with-discoid-adrenal-and-lumbar-meningocoele-an-autopsy-report
#15
Nelofar Islam, Bappa Mandal, Ram Narayan Das, Goutam Bera, Suchandra Mukherjee, Uttara Chatterjee
Mermaid syndrome or Sirenomelia is a rare congenital deformity in which the legs are fused and bears resemblance to mermaid's tail. It carries a poor prognosis, due to associated urogenital and gastrointestinal abnormalities. An early antenatal diagnosis using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can help in termination of pregnancy. Embryologically, it is considered as the extreme form of caudal regression syndrome due to the persistence of vitelline artery. Here, we report a case of Sirenomelia associated with bilateral renal agenesis along with the rare findings of discoid adrenal, lumbar meningocoele and abnormalities of the hand...
June 17, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693528/impact-of-oocytes-with-clcg-on-icsi-outcomes-and-their-potential-relation-to-pesticide-exposure
#16
Philippe Merviel, Rosalie Cabry, Karen Chardon, Elodie Haraux, Florence Scheffler, Naima-Belhadri Mansouri, Aviva Devaux, Hikmat Chahine, Véronique Bach, Henri Copin, Moncef Benkhalifa
BACKGROUND: Oocyte quality is a key limiting factor in female fertility which is primarily reflected in morphological features. Centrally located cytoplasm granulation (CLCG) is one type of cytoplasmic dimorphism exhibited by oocytes that could be linked to pesticide exposure with a significant risk of decreased ICSI outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective study included 633 women who were part of an intracytoplasmic spermatozoa injection (ICSI) program between 2009 and 2011...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689684/-ectopic-thymus-a-rare-cause-of-neck-mass-in-children
#17
S Kallel, M Mnejja, M Kessentini, A Ben Said, I Charfeddine, B Hammami, A Ghorbel
INTRODUCTION: Ectopic cervical thymus (ECT) is a rare embryological abnormality in children. It can be revealed by a compressive neck mass mistaken for a malignant tumor. Through a new case of ECT, we review the embryopathogenesis, diagnostic difficulties and therapeutic features. CLINICAL OBSERVATION: A 19-month-old girl presented a right cervical mass that quickly increased in size, causing intermittent dyspnea. The physical examination objectified a 6-cm, soft and compressible, painless right cervical tumefaction, extending from the mastoid area to the ipsilateral supraclavicular fossa...
July 6, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687207/high-risk-of-preterm-birth-and-low-birth-weight-after-oocyte-donation-ivf-analysis-of-133-785-live-births
#18
Mohan Shashikant Kamath, Belavendra Antonisamy, Mariano Mascarenhas, Sesh Kamal Sunkara
A higher risk of pregnancy complications occurs after assisted reproductive techniques compared with spontaneously conceived pregnancies. This is attributed to the underlying infertility and assisted reproduction technique procedures involved during treatment. It is a matter of interest whether use of donor oocytes affects perinatal outcomes compared with pregnancies after autologous IVF. Anonymized data were obtained from the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority. The analysis included 5929 oocyte donation and 127,856 autologous IVF live births...
June 22, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685367/rare-muscular-variations-identified-in-a-single-cadaveric-upper-limb-a-four-headed-biceps-brachii-and-muscular-elevator-of-the-latissimus-dorsi-tendon
#19
Colin W Moore, Charles L Rice
Supernumerary or accessory heads of the biceps brachii are persistent muscular structures which can vary in number and location in the arm. Variations in other arm muscles, such as the coracobrachialis, can accompany supernumerary biceps brachii musculature in the upper limb. In this case report, we describe two rare muscular variants in a single adult male: a four-headed biceps brachii and the muscular elevator of the latissimus dorsi tendon. Additionally, accessory muscles of the brachialis and flexor digiti minimi brevis were identified in the upper limb...
July 6, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684259/zinner-syndrome-a-diagnostic-challenge-the-aid-of-morphology-embryology-and-immunohistochemistry
#20
Michela Campora, Alberto Olivero, Carlo Toncini, Bruno Spina, Ezio Fulcheri, Carlo Terrone, Valerio Gaetano Vellone
We investigate a patient with right kidney agenesis. Imaging showed the presence of a cystic mass dislocating the bladder. The specimen showed three formations: a kidney remnant, a ureter with blind-ending branch and a cysts, from this departed another tubular structure, considered the deferential duct. The specimen was sampled. The supposed kidney was formed by cystic structures. Examination of the tubular structures disclosed smooth muscle fibers with no lumen, while the cyst was surrounded by fibrous and hemorrhagic walls...
July 3, 2017: Urology
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