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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434960/solitary-cysticercal-cyst-insidethe-blake-s-pouch-remnant-of-mega-cisterna-magna-with-associated-aqueductal-stenosis-the-clinical-and-management-implications
#1
Kuntal Kanti Das, Jaskaran Singh Gosal, Suyash Singh, Anant Mehrotra, Awadhesh Jaiswal, Sushila Jaiswal, Raj Kumar
BACKGROUND: Intraventricular and subarachnoid forms represent the relatively complex albeit uncommon manifestations of the central nervous system involvement by the cysticercal cysts. Cysticercal encystationinsidethe Blake's pouch remnant of mega cisterna magna remainsan extremely rare clinical scenario and to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported before. CASE REPORT: Herein, we report the case of a 12-year-old boy who presented with acute worsening and subsequent spontaneous resolution of his compensated hydrocephalus...
April 18, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432408/a-rare-anastomosis-between-the-common-hepatic-artery-and-the-superior-mesenteric-artery-a-case-report
#2
Łukasz Olewnik, Grzegorz Wysiadecki, Michał Polguj, Mirosław Topol
For decades, anastomoses between unpaired branches of the abdominal aorta have attracted the attention of anatomists, surgeons and radiologists, due to their significance in many clinical procedures. This report presents a rare anastomosis between the common hepatic artery and the superior mesenteric artery, which gave off three branches to the jejunum. The diameter of the anastomosis measured at the point of its branching off the common hepatic artery and at the level of union with the superior mesenteric artery was 4...
April 21, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430293/three-cases-of-ectopic-sphenoid-sinus-pituitary-adenoma
#3
Ernest Jan Bobeff, Karol Wiśniewski, Wielisław Papierz, Ludomir Stefańczyk, Dariusz Jan Jaskólski
<i><b>Introduction</b>: Ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma is a rare tumour originating from embryologic remnants of Rathke's pouch. Although it is considered a clinically benign neoplasm, necrosis is encountered in 25% of cases and it can invade adjacent bone structures. <b>Aims</b>: To establish clinical, radiological and histopathological features of ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma. <b>Material and methods: </b> Analysis of three cases: two females and one man, aged 61-70...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429283/use-of-hormones-tissue-factors-and-bioengineering-in-the-management-of-hypospadias
#4
Aparajita Mitra, Yogesh Kumar Sarin
Hypospadiology is a rapidly evolving field. Progress in the understanding of how hormonal therapy affects the growth of the phallus has allowed surgeons to optimize the tissues for surgery. But conflicting data from a number of studies and a lack of consensus on drugs, their dosing, mode of delivery and timing of use means that the creation of protocols is unlikely to happen in the near future. Nonetheless, there is a hope and the standardization of scientific reporting will make it easier to compare data at the global level...
April 21, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426026/generation-of-multipotent-induced-cardiac-progenitor-cells-from-mouse-fibroblasts-and-potency-testing-in-ex-vivo-mouse-embryos
#5
Pratik A Lalit, Adriana M Rodriguez, Karen M Downs, Timothy J Kamp
Here we describe a protocol to generate expandable and multipotent induced cardiac progenitor cells (iCPCs) from mouse adult fibroblasts using forced expression of Mesp1, Tbx5, Gata4, Nkx2.5 and Baf60c (MTGNB) along with activation of Wnt and JAK/STAT signaling. This method does not use iPS cell factors and thus differs from cell activation and signaling-directed (CASD) reprogramming to cardiac progenitors. Our method is specific to direct CPC reprogramming, whereas CASD reprogramming can generate various cell types depending on culture conditions and raises the possibility of transitioning through a pluripotent cell state...
May 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420997/micrornas-in-palatogenesis-and-cleft-palate
#6
REVIEW
Christian Schoen, Armaz Aschrafi, Michelle Thonissen, Geert Poelmans, Johannes W Von den Hoff, Carine E L Carels
Palatogenesis requires a precise spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression, which is controlled by an intricate network of transcription factors and their corresponding DNA motifs. Even minor perturbations of this network may cause cleft palate, the most common congenital craniofacial defect in humans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small regulatory non-coding RNAs, have elicited strong interest as key regulators of embryological development, and as etiological factors in disease. MiRNAs function as post-transcriptional repressors of gene expression and are therefore able to fine-tune gene regulatory networks...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420007/accessory-spleen-in-the-greater-omentum-embryology-and-revisited-prevalence-rates
#7
Nikita Gill, Areeba Nasir, Jennifer Douglin, Bettina Pretterklieber, Hanno Steinke, Michael Pretterklieber, Sebastian Cotofana
PURPOSE: To investigate in a large sample the prevalence rates of accessory spleens located in the greater omentum and to explain the embryological background and the vascular supply of this rare congenital disorder. METHODS: Evaluation of the presence of accessory spleens located in the greater omentum was performed in 5 different international anatomical centers investigating a total of 1,045 body donors. Arterial and venous blood supply and the precise location of the respective vasculature within the splenic ligaments are described based on dissection of this rare condition in a male specimen...
April 19, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398520/injury-leads-to-the-appearance-of-cells-with-characteristics-of-both-microglia-and-astrocytes-in-mouse-and-human-brain
#8
Ulrika Wilhelmsson, Daniel Andersson, Yolanda de Pablo, Roy Pekny, Anders Ståhlberg, Jan Mulder, Nicholas Mitsios, Tibor Hortobágyi, Milos Pekny, Marcela Pekna
Microglia and astrocytes have been considered until now as cells with very distinct identities. Here, we assessed the heterogeneity within microglia/monocyte cell population in mouse hippocampus and determined their response to injury, by using single-cell gene expression profiling of cells isolated from uninjured and deafferented hippocampus. We found that in individual cells, microglial markers Cx3cr1, Aif1, Itgam, and Cd68 were co-expressed. Interestingly, injury led to the co-expression of the astrocyte marker Gfap in a subpopulation of Cx3cr1-expressing cells from both the injured and contralesional hippocampus...
April 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396968/a-comprehensive-review-of-the-anterior-fontanelle-embryology-anatomy-and-clinical-considerations
#9
REVIEW
Anthony V D'Antoni, Orin Imani Donaldson, Cameron Schmidt, Veronica Macchi, Raffaele De Caro, Rod J Oskouian, Marios Loukas, R Shane Tubbs
PURPOSE: Fontanelles are a regular feature of infant development in which two segments of bone remain separated, leaving an area of fibrous membrane or a "soft spot" that acts to accommodate growth of the brain without compression by the skull. Of the six fontanelles in the human skull, the anterior fontanelle, located between the frontal and parietal bones, serves as an important anatomical diagnostic tool in the assessment of impairments of the skull and brain and allows access to the brain and ventricles in the infant...
April 10, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394009/anatomical-variations-of-testicular-artery-a-review
#10
Ilangovan Kayalvizhi, Ravi Kant Narayan, Piyush Kumar
The testicular arteries (TAs) also known as Internal spermatic arteries are long and slender arteries usually arising from the anterolateral aspect of the abdominal aorta (AA), 2.5 cm to 5 cm caudal to the renal arteries (RA). The variation in testicular arteries may be found with respect to their origin, number or course. They can originate from the abdominal aorta itself at an abnormal level. If not arising from abdominal aorta the TA variants may arise from renal artery, supra renal artery or any one of the lumbar arteries...
April 10, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393791/serpentinous-structure-in-the-right-atrium
#11
Monish S Raut, Arun Maheshwari, Ganesh Shivnani
Thin, slender, filament like structure is common finding in right atrium echocardiographically. These structures generally represent embryological remnants like thebasian valve, eustachian valve and chiari network. Apart from these variants, they can also be initial finding of thrombotic process specially in the presence of central venous catheter. Early detection and removing the catheter can prevent further thromboembolism in such cases.
April 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392009/genitourinary-and-gastrointestinal-co-morbidities-in-children-the-role-of-neural-circuits-in-regulation-of-visceral-function
#12
REVIEW
A P Malykhina, K E Brodie, D T Wilcox
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) is a common problem in childhood. Lower urinary tract symptoms in children include overactive bladder, voiding postponement, stress incontinence, giggle incontinence, and dysfunctional voiding. Gastrointestinal co-morbidities, including constipation or fecal incontinence, are commonly associated with lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms in children, often reaching 22-34%. This review summarized the potential mechanisms underlying functional lower urinary and gastrointestinal co-morbidities in children...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391023/third-ventricular-cerebrospinal-fluid-cysts-of-thalamic-origin-review-of-embryological-origin-presentation-and-management-strategies-with-a-case-series
#13
REVIEW
Ciro A Vasquez, Michael Casey, Zach Folzenlogen, D Ryan Ormond, Kevin Lillehei, A Samy Youssef
OBJECTIVE: Third ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cysts of thalamic origin are very rare. The objective of this study is to review their possible pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management strategies with a case series describing management via an endoscopic approach with fenestration using a single burr hole technique. METHODS: A systematic literature review of reported cases of thalamic cysts was conducted with further meta-analysis of CSF cysts that involve the third ventricle...
April 5, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389228/brachyury-drives-formation-of-a-distinct-vascular-branchpoint-critical-for-fetal-placental-arterial-union-in-the-mouse-gastrula
#14
Adriana M Rodriguez, Dexter X Jin, Adam D Wolfe, Maria M Mikedis, Lauren Wierenga, Maleka P Hashmi, Christoph Viebahn, Karen M Downs
How the fetal-placental arterial connection is made and positioned relative to the embryonic body axis, thereby ensuring efficient and directed blood flow to and from the mother during gestation, is not known. Here we use a combination of genetics, timed pharmacological inhibition in living mouse embryos, and three-dimensional modeling to link two novel architectural features that, at present, have no status in embryological atlases. The allantoic core domain (ACD) is the extraembryonic extension of the primitive streak into the allantois, or pre-umbilical tissue; the vessel of confluence (VOC), situated adjacent to the ACD, is an extraembryonic vessel that marks the site of fetal-placental arterial union...
April 4, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388884/inhibition-of-six1-affects-tumour-invasion-and-the-expression-of-cancer-stem-cell-markers-in-pancreatic-cancer
#15
Tristan Lerbs, Savita Bisht, Sebastian Schölch, Mathieu Pecqueux, Glen Kristiansen, Martin Schneider, Bianca T Hofmann, Thilo Welsch, Christoph Reissfelder, Nuh N Rahbari, Johannes Fritzmann, Peter Brossart, Jürgen Weitz, Georg Feldmann, Christoph Kahlert
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells (CSC) contribute to tumour progression and metastasis. Assessment of transcription factors involved in these two mechanisms can help to identify new targets for an oncological therapy. In this study, we focused on the evaluation of the transcription factor Six1 (Sine oculis 1). This protein is involved in embryologic development and its contribution to carcinogenesis has been described in several studies. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry against Six1 was performed on a tissue microarray containing specimens of primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) of 139 patients...
April 7, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387433/neurosurgical-management-and-pathology-of-lumbosacral-lipomas-with-tethered-cord
#16
REVIEW
Takato Morioka, Nobuya Murakami, Takafumi Shimogawa, Nobutaka Mukae, Kimiakai Hashiguchi, Satoshi O Suzuki, Koji Iihara
Lumbosacral lipomas are the most common form of occult spinal dysraphism. The development of lumbosacral lipomas is from the premature disjunction of the neural tube from the surrounding ectoderm, leaving the neural plate open posteriorly and allowing for the infiltration of mesodermal tissue, including fatty tissue. Since lumbosacral lipomas are a common cause of spinal cord tethering that can lead to progressive neurological deficits, prophylactic neurosurgery for lumbosacral lipomas, including untethering of the spinal cord, is recommended...
April 7, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387106/-when-an-encircling-aortic-arch-anomaly-hides-behind-respiratory-and-digestive-symptoms-in-children
#17
M Solowianiuk, C Soulatges, N Farhat, J Holzki, M-C Seghaye
Aortic arch anomalies are relatively frequent and account for 15 to 20 % of all congenital cardiovascular malformations. They can be discovered in case of symptoms of airway or esophageal compression such as dysphagia, chronic cough, stridor, wheezing and recurrent respiratory infections. We report the cases of two children with encircling aortic arch anomaly. The 3-year-old boy had complained of chronic respiratory symptoms such as laryngitis and asthma since the age of 4 months. The 20-month-old boy presented with inter-mittent stridor, dysphagia and frequent vomiting...
November 2016: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386743/anomalous-inferior-mesenteric-artery-supplying-the-ascending-transverse-descending-and-sigmoid-colons
#18
Tamami Abe, Ayako Ujiie, Yuya Taguchi, Shun Satoh, Takahiro Shibuya, Yan Jun, Sumio Isogai, Yoh-Ichi Satoh
We have encountered in our anatomical practice the first case and an extremely rare second case in which the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colons were supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery. The causes of colic artery anomalies are generally explained in conjunction with the development of the superior mesenteric artery, which is intimately related to embryonic elongation and midgut rotation. However, this embryological model was inapplicable to both cases. This difficulty motivated us to seek possible relationships with reported anomalous inferior mesenteric arteries in adults as well as their embryological causes...
April 6, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384846/absence-of-posterior-triangle-clinical-and-embryological-perspective
#19
Shikha Singh, Puja Chauhan, Hitendra Kumar Loh, Vandana Mehta, Rajesh Kumar Suri
Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and Trapezius (TM) muscle present in the cervical region serves as an important landmark in forming boundaries of posterior triangle of neck. This case reports a continuous muscle sheet obscuring the left posterior triangle in the neck of a 60-year-old Indian male cadaver. An unfamiliar oval gap was observed in its posterosuperior portion. Description of such a variant in anatomical literature is rare and is scarcely reported. An attempt has been made to portray its embryological and phylogenetic basis...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381082/embryo-transfer-a-review-of-timing-and-techniques
#20
Pietro Bortoletto, Jennifer Bakkensen, Raymond M Anchan
Since the first successful human in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy nearly 40 years ago, remarkable progress has been made in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Improvements in oocyte retrieval, embryo culture, genetic screening, and embryo selection have contributed to dramatic improvements in IVF outcomes. A more robust understanding of embryologic development has driven innovation in not only the timing of embryo transfer but also the number of embryos to transfer. Additionally, overcoming the technical hurdle of embryo vitrification has given both physicians and patients several benefits including the flexibility to mitigate effects of superovulation on the endometrium, limit the number of embryos transferred, afforded an opportunity to screen the quality of embryos both by evaluating in vitro development as well as preimplantation genetic testing...
April 4, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
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