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Ryuji Komine, Atsushi Shimizu, Kazuhiko Mori, Keisuke Minamimura, Toru Hirata, Takashi Kobayashi, Nobuo Toda, Masaya Mori
Introduction: Annular pancreas is a rare congenital abnormality characterized by a ring of pancreatic tissue surrounding the descending portion of the duodenum. Annular pancreas coexisting with replaced common hepatic artery which is also a rare anatomical variation has not been reported previously. Case Presentation: A 53-year-old man visited our hospital complaining of epigastric pain. Based on radiological examinations, he was diagnosed as having pancreatitis, annular pancreas, and hepatomesenteric trunk...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
Thomas Muelleman, Sreeya Yalamanchali, Yelizaveta Shnayder
Parathyroid glands undergo a variable descent during embryologic development and can be found anywhere in the neck from the level of the mandible to the mediastinum. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first report of a patient who was found to have bilateral parathyroid adenomas in her pyriform sinuses. A middle-aged woman with renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism presented with dysphagia and was found to have bilateral pyriform sinus masses on endoscopy. We performed direct laryngoscopy and surgical excision of these masses, and they were found to be parathyroid adenomas...
March 2018: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
Mayuko Motomura, Koichi Watanabe, Yoko Tabira, Joe Iwanaga, Wakako Matsuuchi, Daichi Yoshida, Tsuyoshi Saga, Koh-Ichi Yamaki
We encountered a case of duplicated right vertebral artery during an anatomical dissection course for medical students in 2015. Two vertebral arteries were found in the right neck of a 91-year-old female cadaver. The proximal leg of the arteries arose from the area between the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery that diverged from the brachiocephalic artery. The distal leg arose from the right subclavian artery as expected. The proximal leg entered the transverse foramen of the fourth cervical vertebra and the distal leg entered the transverse foramen of the sixth cervical vertebra...
March 16, 2018: Kurume Medical Journal
Luis German Pulgarin Ricardo, Sebastián Isaza Zapata, Ricardo Uribe Gonzalez
Nutcracker syndrome is a condition where there is compression of the left renal vein between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery causing symptoms. Here, we describe the case of a female patient who had symptoms secondary to the compression of a left inferior vena cava between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery causing a nutcracker syndrome. We will review the etiology, embryology, and imaging of the inferior vena cava and nutcracker syndrome.
February 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Arash Salavitabar, Anjali Chelliah, David Kalfa, Matthew A Crystal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Mark T Brown
Moral status ascribes equal obligations and rights to individuals on the basis of membership in a protected group. Substance change is an event that results in the origin or cessation of individuals who may be members of groups with equal moral status. In this paper, two substance changes that affect the moral status of human embryos are identified. The first substance change begins with fertilization and ends with the formation of the blastocyst, a biological individual with moral status comparable to that ascribed to human organs...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Chandni Rajesh Patel, Aryan Maleki, Sagar Kulkarni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
Gary Hin-Fai Yam, Ericia Pei-Wen Teo, Melina Setiawan, Matthew J Lovatt, Nur Zahirah Binte M Yusoff, Matthias Fuest, Bee-Tin Goh, Jodhbir S Mehta
Corneal opacities are a leading cause of global blindness. They are conventionally treated by the transplantation of donor corneal tissue, which is, restricted by a worldwide donor material shortage and allograft rejection. Autologous adult stem cells with a potential to differentiate into corneal stromal keratocytes (CSKs) could offer a suitable choice of cells for regenerative cell therapy. Postnatal periodontal ligament (PDL) contains a population of adult stem cells, which has a similar embryological origin as CSK, that is cranial neural crest...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Marie Audouin, Alexis Girshovich, Olivier Cussenot, Raphaele Renard-Penna
PURPOSE: Changes related to prostatic ageing include an increase of prostate volume and morphologic distortions of the prostatic edges in middle-aged and older men. These changes of the prostate exhibit a certain level of heterogeneity, which is clinically obvious for surgeons, radiologists, and anatomists, and which can be explained by the complex nature of the embryologic/anatomic development of the prostate. While the etiology of the median lobe has typically been attributed to a growth and protrusion of the prostatic area at the top of the utricle, we argue that this is not necessarily the case as intravesical protrusions of the prostate have also been observed laterally and anteriorly to the bladder neck, suggesting the involvement of other prostatic zones, thereby highlighting the need to refine the concept of the median lobe...
March 13, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Alison M Earley, Cameron T Dixon, Celia E Shiau
FOXQ1 is a member of the forkhead-box transcription factor family that has important functions in development, cancer, aging, and many cellular processes. The role of FOXQ1 in cancer biology has raised intense interest, yet much remains poorly understood. We investigated the possible function of the two zebrafish orthologs (foxq1a and foxq1b) of human FOXQ1 in innate immune cell development and function. We employed CRISPR-Cas9 targeted mutagenesis to create null mutations of foxq1a and foxq1b in zebrafish...
2018: PloS One
Paloma Del C Monroig-Bosque, Ekene I Okoye
Mullerian duct anomalies (MDAs) are congenital defects of the female genital system that arise from abnormal embryological development of the Mullerian ducts. Septate uterus is the most common, resulting from incomplete resorption of the medial septum after fusion of the Mullerian ducts. Two main types of septate uterus exist, including septa that extend completely or partially from the uterine fundus to the cervical os. The combination of a uterine septum with a double cervix has been previously described; however, in most cases the septum was complete...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Jinjin Zhu, Alison Ordway, Lena Weber, Kasun Buddika, Justin P Kumar
How different cells and tissues commit and determine their fates has been a central question in developmental biology since the seminal embryological experiments conducted by Wilhelm Roux and Hans Driesch in sea urchins and frogs. Here, we demonstrate that Polycomb group (PcG) proteins maintain Drosophila eye specification by suppressing the activation of alternative fate choices. The loss of PcG in the developing eye results in a cellular reprogramming event in which the eye is redirected to a wing fate. This fate transformation occurs with either the individual loss of Pc or the simultaneous reduction of PhoRC and Pax6...
March 12, 2018: Development
S Louryan
Trained in the ULB, pupil of Albert Brachet, Ernest Van Campenhout frequented successively the Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), the Yale University and the Montreal University, to settle definitively in the Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL), where he becomes professor of anatomy, histology and embryology. Despite the fact that his most interest was the autonomic innervation of the digestive tract, he examined a lot of problems, and his severe and rigorous teaching impressed a number of student's generations...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
M Grigore, F Furtunescu, D Minca, M Costache, C Garbe, O Simionescu
BACKGROUND: Eye and skin share the embryological origin. Both are established risk factors in epidermal skin cancer. There are few reports using iris colour classification scales, most of them analyse colour in general or are too complex to use in daily practice. OBJECTIVES: To investigate which iris colour pattern is associated with epidermal skin cancer in a S-E European Caucasian population. METHODS: A case control study was conducted on 480 patients: 229 skin cancers patients and 251 controls (dermatological patients free of skin cancers), admitted in two medical clinics of Dermatology in Bucharest, between October 2011 and May 2014...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Vaibhav P Pai, Alexis Pietak, Valerie Willocq, Bin Ye, Nian-Qing Shi, Michael Levin
Endogenous bioelectrical signaling coordinates cell behaviors toward correct anatomical outcomes. Lack of a model explaining spatialized dynamics of bioelectric states has hindered the understanding of the etiology of some birth defects and the development of predictive interventions. Nicotine, a known neuroteratogen, induces serious defects in brain patterning and learning. Our bio-realistic computational model explains nicotine's effects via the disruption of endogenous bioelectrical gradients and predicts that exogenous HCN2 ion channels would restore the endogenous bioelectric prepatterns necessary for brain patterning...
March 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Ali Mohtashami, Andrew Kiat, Jane Cross, Robert Simon, Austin Curtin
INTRODUCTION: Abernethy malformations are extremely rare congenital anomalous portosystemic shunts. We report the case of a patient with a rare variant Abernethy malformation between the superior mesenteric vein and left renal vein, associated with a massive jejunal diverticulum. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 37-year-old Caucasian female presented to our emergency department with severe abdominal pain and proceeded to laparotomy for a presumed small bowel obstruction...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
A d'Alessandro, N Kari, A Alameh, N Pasquier, A Tarhini, B Vinson Bonnet, R Noun, E Chouillard
BACKGROUND: The umbilicus, an embryological natural orifice, is increasingly used as the only access route during single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) for colorectal disease. As a part of some of these procedures, a temporary, diverting ostomy could be exteriorized through the umbilicus itself. Theoretical advantages include better preservation of the abdominal wall and potentially superior cosmetic results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate our preliminary experience in SILS colorectal resection with umbilical stoma (u-stoma)...
March 6, 2018: Techniques in Coloproctology
Lorraine Sheena Kasaven, Anastasia Goumenou, Kenneth Adegoke
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a well-recognised iatrogenic complication following controlled ovarian stimulation (COS). Mild to moderate cases are mostly managed conservatively. Severe cases of OHSS can be potentially fatal. For this reason, UK clinics providing licensed fertility treatment are obliged to follow Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority guidelines for reporting severe incidents. We present an unusually severe complication of OHSS resulting in significant morbidity. A nulligravida woman aged 25, with a 4-year history of subfertility and multiple risk factors for the development of OHSS, underwent COS...
March 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Guang-Jiang Shi, Guang-Rui Shi, Jia-Yin Zhou, Wen-Jin Zhang, Chen-Ying Gao, Ya-Ping Jiang, Zhen-Guo Zi, Hai-Hong Zhao, Yong Yang, Jian-Qiang Yu
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major endocrine metabolic disease and is marked by a lack of insulin. The complication of DM is one of the most difficult problems in medicine. The initial translational studies revealed that growth factors have a major role in integrating tissue physiology and in embryology as well as in growth, maturation and tissue repair. In some tissues affected by diabetes, growth factors are induced by a relative deficit or excess. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a promising regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism with multiple beneficial effects including hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering...
March 1, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jonas Pichat, Juan Eugenio Iglesias, Tarek Yousry, Sébastien Ourselin, Marc Modat
Histology permits the observation of otherwise invisible structures of the internal topography of a specimen. Although it enables the investigation of tissues at a cellular level, it is invasive and breaks topology due to cutting. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction was thus introduced to overcome the limitations of single-section studies in a dimensional scope. 3D reconstruction finds its roots in embryology, where it enabled the visualisation of spatial relationships of developing systems and organs, and extended to biomedicine, where the observation of individual, stained sections provided only partial understanding of normal and abnormal tissues...
February 21, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
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