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PTSD genetics

Caroline M Nievergelt, Allison E Ashley-Koch, Shareefa Dalvie, Michael A Hauser, Rajendra A Morey, Alicia K Smith, Monica Uddin
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after exposure to a traumatic event is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder. Heritability estimates from twin studies as well as from recent molecular data (single nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability) indicate moderate to high heritability, yet robust genetic variants for PTSD have not yet been identified and the genetic architecture of this polygenic disorder remains largely unknown. To date, fewer than 10 large-scale genome-wide association studies of PTSD have been published, with findings that highlight the unique challenges for PTSD genomics, including a complex diagnostic entity with contingency of PTSD diagnosis on trauma exposure and the large genetic diversity of the study populations...
February 2, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Jun-Cheng Guo, Yi-Jun Yang, Min Guo, Xiao-Dan Wang, Yang Juan, Yun-Suo Gao, Lin-Qiu Fu, Xiang-Ling Jiang, Lin-Mei Fu, Tao Huang
Objective: To investigate the correlations of four genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods: A total of 300 patients with sporadic PTSD and 150 healthy subjects (the control group) were selected according to the diagnostic criteria of PTSD (DSM-IV), and the genotypes of the BDNF SNPs G-712A, C270T, rs6265, and rs7103411 were detected by polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing to determine intergroup differences in the genotypes and allele frequencies; the p values were corrected with the permutation test...
March 19, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Matthias Miesch, Arno Deister
AIMS AND METHODS: To examine the 12-month prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidity of ADHD in a collective of adult psychiatric patients admitted to an open general ward in a psychiatric hospital in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany) over a period of one year (n = 166). RESULTS: The 12 months prevalence of ADHD was 59.0 % (severe symptomatology: 33.1 %), high rates of comorbid disorders (92.9 % depression, 5.1 % bipolar disorder, 28.6 % anxiety disorder, 30...
February 28, 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Bianca Acevedo, Elaine Aron, Sarah Pospos, Dana Jessen
During the past decade, research on the biological basis of sensory processing sensitivity (SPS)-a genetically based trait associated with greater sensitivity and responsivity to environmental and social stimuli-has burgeoned. As researchers try to characterize this trait, it is still unclear how SPS is distinct from seemingly related clinical disorders that have overlapping symptoms, such as sensitivity to the environment and hyper-responsiveness to incoming stimuli. Thus, in this review, we compare the neural regions implicated in SPS with those found in fMRI studies of-Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Schizophrenia (SZ) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) to elucidate the neural markers and cardinal features of SPS versus these seemingly related clinical disorders...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Victoria C Merritt, Alexandra L Clark, Scott F Sorg, Nicole D Evangelista, Madeleine Werhane, Mark W Bondi, Dawn M Schiehser, Lisa Delano-Wood
Since few studies have examined the relationship between the APOE gene and clinical outcomes following military-related traumatic brain injury (TBI), we aimed to determine whether the ε4 allele of the APOE gene influences neuropsychiatric symptoms in Veterans with a history of mild to moderate TBI. Participants included 133 Veterans (TBI=79, military controls [MC]=54) who underwent APOE genotyping and were divided into ε4+ (TBI=18, MC=15) and ε4- (TBI=61, MC=39) groups. All participants underwent evaluation of psychological distress using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Sophie E Walker, Carmen Sandi
Experience of adversity early in life and dysregulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity are risk factors often independently associated with the development of psychopathological disorders, including depression, PTSD and pathological aggression. Additional evidence suggests that in combination these factors may interact to shape the development and expression of psychopathology differentially, though little is known about underlying mechanisms. Here, we studied the long-term consequences of early life stress exposure on individuals with differential constitutive glucocorticoid (GR) responsiveness to repeated stressor exposure, assessing both socio-affective behaviors and brain activity in regions sensitive to pathological alterations following stress...
February 7, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Izabela M Krzyzewska, Judith B M Ensink, Laura Nawijn, Adri N Mul, Saskia B Koch, Andrea Venema, Vinod Shankar, Jessie L Frijling, Dirk J Veltman, Ramon J L Lindauer, Miranda Olff, Marcel M A M Mannens, Mirjam van Zuiden, Peter Henneman
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that may develop after a traumatic event. Here we aimed to identify epigenetic and genetic loci associated with PTSD. We included 73 traumatized police officers with extreme phenotypes regarding symptom severity despite similar trauma history: n = 34 had PTSD and n = 39 had minimal PTSD symptoms. Epigenetic and genetic profiles were based on the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We searched for differentially methylated probes (DMPs) and differentially methylated regions (DMRs)...
January 23, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Adam J Kirry, Matthew R Herbst, Sarah E Poirier, Michelle M Maskeri, Amy C Rothwell, Robert C Twining, Marieke R Gilmartin
A genetic polymorphism within the gene encoding the pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor type I (PAC1R) has recently been associated with hyper-reactivity to threat-related cues in women, but not men, with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PACAP is a highly conserved peptide, whose role in mediating adaptive physiological stress responses is well established. Far less is understood about the contribution of PACAP signaling in emotional learning and memory, particularly the encoding of fear to discrete cues...
January 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Erika J Wolf, Mark W Miller, Danielle R Sullivan, Ananda B Amstadter, Karen S Mitchell, Jack Goldberg, Kathryn M Magruder
BACKGROUND: To examine shared genetic and environmental risk factors across PTSD symptoms and resilience. METHODS: Classical twin study of 2010-2012 survey data conducted among 3,318 male twin pairs in the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Analyses included: (a) estimates of genetic and environmental influences on PTSD symptom severity (as measured by the PTSD Checklist) and resilience (assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-10); (b) development of a latent model of traumatic stress, spanning both PTSD and resilience; and (c) estimates of genetic and environmental influences on this spectrum...
December 28, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
Luobing Liu, Li Wang, Chengqi Cao, Xing Cao, Ye Zhu, Ping Liu, Shu Luo, Jianxin Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prior studies have found that the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) interacts with trauma exposure to increase general risk for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). However, there is little knowledge about the effects of the interaction on distinct symptom clusters of PTSD. This study aimed to investigate the relation between the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and earthquake-related exposures and a contemporary phenotypic model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in a traumatised adult sample from China...
December 27, 2017: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Savannah Tollefson, Michael Himes, Rajesh Narendran
Addiction is composed of three phases: intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Negative reinforcement, strengthening a behaviour by removing an aversive stimulus, has been associated with the withdrawal phase. An imbalance of neurotransmitters within the brain's stress (nociceptin, neuropeptide Y) and anti-stress (CRF, norepinephrine, etc.) system is attributed to negatively reinforced compulsive behaviours associated with relapse. Similarly, post-traumatic stress disorder is characterized by an overactive stress system...
December 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
Mark W Logue, Sanne J H van Rooij, Emily L Dennis, Sarah L Davis, Jasmeet P Hayes, Jennifer S Stevens, Maria Densmore, Courtney C Haswell, Jonathan Ipser, Saskia B J Koch, Mayuresh Korgaonkar, Lauren A M Lebois, Matthew Peverill, Justin T Baker, Premika S W Boedhoe, Jessie L Frijling, Staci A Gruber, Ilan Harpaz-Rotem, Neda Jahanshad, Sheri Koopowitz, Ifat Levy, Laura Nawijn, Lauren O'Connor, Miranda Olff, David H Salat, Margaret A Sheridan, Jeffrey M Spielberg, Mirjam van Zuiden, Sherry R Winternitz, Jonathan D Wolff, Erika J Wolf, Xin Wang, Kristen Wrocklage, Chadi G Abdallah, Richard A Bryant, Elbert Geuze, Tanja Jovanovic, Milissa L Kaufman, Anthony P King, John H Krystal, Jim Lagopoulos, Maxwell Bennett, Ruth Lanius, Israel Liberzon, Regina E McGlinchey, Katie A McLaughlin, William P Milberg, Mark W Miller, Kerry J Ressler, Dick J Veltman, Dan J Stein, Kathleen Thomaes, Paul M Thompson, Rajendra A Morey
BACKGROUND: Many studies report smaller hippocampal and amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but findings have not always been consistent. Here, we present the results of a large-scale neuroimaging consortium study on PTSD conducted by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC)-Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) PTSD Working Group. METHODS: We analyzed neuroimaging and clinical data from 1868 subjects (794 PTSD patients) contributed by 16 cohorts, representing the largest neuroimaging study of PTSD to date...
February 1, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Marangelie Criado-Marrero, Theo Rein, Elisabeth B Binder, James T Porter, John Koren, Laura J Blair
Mood disorders affect nearly a quarter of the world's population. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these conditions is of great importance. FK-506 binding protein 5 ( FKBP5 ) encodes the FKBP51 protein, a heat shock protein 90 kDa (Hsp90) co-chaperone, and is a risk factor for several affective disorders. FKBP51, in coordination with Hsp90, regulates glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity via a short negative feedback loop. This signalling pathway rapidly restores homeostasis in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis following stress...
January 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Ran Zwigenberg
The onset of nuclear warfare in Hiroshima and Nagasaki had far-reaching implications for the world of medicine. The study of the A-bomb and its implications led to the launching of new fields and avenues of research, most notably in genetics and radiation studies. Far less understood and under-studied was the impact of nuclear research on psychiatric medicine. Psychological research, however, was a major focus of post-war military and civilian research into the bomb. This research and the perceived revolutionary impact of atomic energy and warfare on society, this paper argues, played an important role in the global development of post-war psychiatry...
January 2018: Medical History
Rajendra A Morey, Sarah L Davis, Melanie E Garrett, Courtney C Haswell, Christine E Marx, Jean C Beckham, Gregory McCarthy, Michael A Hauser, Allison E Ashley-Koch
Depending on the traumatic event, a significant fraction of trauma survivors subsequently develop PTSD. The additional variability in PTSD risk is expected to arise from genetic susceptibility. Unfortunately, several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have failed to identify a consistent genetic marker for PTSD. The heritability of intermediate phenotypes such as regional brain volumes is often 80% or higher. We conducted a GWAS of subcortical brain volumes in a sample of recent military veteran trauma survivors (n = 157), grouped into PTSD (n = 66) and non-PTSD controls (n = 91)...
November 30, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
Joey Ward, Rona J Strawbridge, Mark E S Bailey, Nicholas Graham, Amy Ferguson, Donald M Lyall, Breda Cullen, Laura M Pidgeon, Jonathan Cavanagh, Daniel F Mackay, Jill P Pell, Michael O'Donovan, Valentina Escott-Price, Daniel J Smith
Mood instability is a core clinical feature of affective and psychotic disorders. In keeping with the Research Domain Criteria approach, it may be a useful construct for identifying biology that cuts across psychiatric categories. We aimed to investigate the biological validity of a simple measure of mood instability and evaluate its genetic relationship with several psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
November 30, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
Renato Polimanti, Ananda B Amstadter, Murray B Stein, Lynn M Almli, Dewleen G Baker, Laura J Bierut, Bekh Bradley, Lindsay A Farrer, Eric O Johnson, Anthony King, Henry R Kranzler, Adam X Maihofer, John P Rice, Andrea L Roberts, Nancy L Saccone, Hongyu Zhao, Israel Liberzon, Kerry J Ressler, Caroline M Nievergelt, Karestan C Koenen, Joel Gelernter
BACKGROUND: The nature and underlying mechanisms of the observed increased vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women are unclear. METHODS: We investigated the genetic overlap of PTSD with anthropometric traits and reproductive behaviors and functions in women. The analysis was conducted using female-specific summary statistics from large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a cohort of 3577 European American women (966 PTSD cases and 2611 trauma-exposed controls)...
November 27, 2017: Genome Medicine
Michiel van Boxelaere, Jason Clements, Patrick Callaerts, Rudi D'Hooge, Zsuzsanna Callaerts-Vegh
Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD), anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) might underlie these social and cognitive deficits...
2017: PloS One
Laura Rosenberg, Marta Rosenberg, Sherri Sharp, Christopher R Thomas, Helen F Humphries, Charles E Holzer, David N Herndon, Walter J Meyer
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether acute propranolol treatment prevented posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression in children hospitalized in the pediatric intensive care unit for large burns. We hypothesized that the prevalence of PTSD, anxiety, and depression would be significantly less in the propranolol than nonpropranolol groups. METHODS: Children who had previously participated in a randomized controlled clinical trial of acute propranolol and nonpropranolol controls were invited to participate in long-term follow-up interviews...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Mario F Juruena, Mariia Bocharova, Bruno Agustini, Allan H Young
BACKGROUND: The link between the abnormalities of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and depression has been one of the most consistently reported findings in psychiatry. At the same time, multiple studies have demonstrated a stronger association between the increased activation of HPA-axis and melancholic, or endogenous depression subtype. This association has not been confirmed for the atypical subtype, and some researchers have suggested that as an antinomic depressive subtype, it may be associated with the opposite type, i...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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