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Cryptic species

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093817/cryptic-inbreeding-depression-in-a-growing-population-of-a-long-lived-species
#1
Helen R Taylor, Rogan M Colbourne, Hugh A Robertson, Nicola J Nelson, Fred W Allendorf, Kristina M Ramstad
Genetic effects are often overlooked in endangered species monitoring, and populations showing positive growth are often assumed to be secure. However, the continued reproductive success of a few individuals may mask issues such as inbreeding depression, especially in long-lived species. Here, we test for inbreeding depression in little spotted kiwi (Apteryx owenii) by comparing a population founded with two birds to one founded with 40 birds, both from the same source population and both showing positive population growth...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089841/the-birth-of-aposematism-high-phenotypic-divergence-and-low-genetic-diversity-in-a-young-clade-of-poison-frogs
#2
Rebecca Dent Tarvin, Emily A Powell, Juan C Santos, Santiago R Ron, David C Cannatella
Rapid radiation coupled with low genetic divergence often hinders species delimitation and phylogeny estimation even if putative species are phenotypically distinct. Some aposematic species, such as poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), have high levels of intraspecific color polymorphism, which can lead to overestimation of species when phenotypic divergence primarily guides species delimitation. We explored this possibility in the youngest origin of aposematism (3-7 MYA) in poison frogs, Epipedobates, by comparing genetic divergence with color and acoustic divergence...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079282/troubling-issues-at-the-frontier-of-animal-tracking-for-conservation-and-management
#3
Steven J Cooke, Vivian M Nguyen, Steven T Kessel, Nigel E Hussey, Nathan Young, Adam T Ford
Developments in electronic tagging and tracking, including biotelemetry and biologging, have provided unprecedented insight into the ecology of wild animals (Cooke et al. 2004) and revealed hidden movement patterns, habitat associations, animal-environment interactions, and mortality rates for even the most cryptic of species (Hussey et al. 2015; Kays et al. 2015). Natural history, ecology (including movement ecology), conservation, and resource management have all benefitted from the application of this technology...
January 12, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074845/local-coexistence-and-genetic-isolation-of-three-pollinator-species-on-the-same-fig-tree-species
#4
T L Sutton, J L DeGabriel, M Riegler, J M Cook
Molecular tools increasingly reveal cryptic lineages and species that were previously unnoticed by traditional taxonomy. The discovery of cryptic species in sympatry prompts the question of how they coexist in the apparent absence of ecological divergence. However, this assumes first that the molecular taxonomy used to identify cryptic lineages delimits species boundaries accurately. This issue is important, because many diversity studies rely heavily or solely on data from mitochondrial DNA sequences for species delimitation, and several factors may lead to poor identification of species boundaries...
January 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073555/molecular-and-phylogenetic-characterization-of-ostreopsis-dinophyceae-and-the-description-of-a-new-species-ostreopsis-rhodesae-sp-nov-from-a-subtropical-australian-lagoon
#5
Arjun Verma, Mona Hoppenrath, Juan José Dorantes-Aranda, D Tim Harwood, Shauna A Murray
Cryptic and pseudo-cryptic species are common amongst marine phytoplankton, and may cause misleading inferences of ecological and physiological data of plankton community studies. Deciphering the diversity and distribution of species of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis is one example, as there are many morphologically indistinct clades that differ greatly genetically and toxicologically from one another. In this study, a new species, Ostreopsis rhodesae from the southern Great Barrier Reef was described...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073439/the-competitive-dynamics-of-toxic-alexandrium-fundyense-and-non-toxic-alexandrium-tamarense-the-role-of-temperature
#6
Lisa K Eckford-Soper, Eileen Bresnan, Jean-Pierre Lacaze, David H Green, Keith Davidson
The dinoflagellate Alexandrium produces paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. The genus is globally distributed, with Scottish waters being of particular interest due to the co-occurrence of different species and strains. In Scottish waters, Alexandrium was historically thought to be dominated by the highly toxic (Group I) Alexandrium fundyense. However, the morphologically indistinguishable (Group III) Alexandrium tamarense has recently also been found to co-occur, raising important questions in relation to Alexandrium biogeography...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070297/phylogeographic-patterns-of-a-lower-intertidal-isopod-in-the-gulf-of-california-and-the-caribbean-and-comparison-with-other-intertidal-isopods
#7
Luis A Hurtado, Mariana Mateos, Shuang Liu
A growing body of knowledge on the diversity and evolution of intertidal isopods across different regions worldwide has enhanced our understanding on biological diversification at the poorly studied, yet vast, sea-land interface. High genetic divergences among numerous allopatric lineages have been identified within presumed single broadly distributed species. Excirolana mayana is an intertidal isopod that is commonly found in sandy beaches throughout the Gulf of California. Its distribution in the Pacific extends from this basin to Colombia and in the Atlantic from Florida to Venezuela...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060923/comparative-postembryonic-skeletal-ontogeny-in-two-sister-lineages-of-old-world-tree-frogs-rhacophoridae-taruga-polypedates
#8
Gayani Senevirathne, Ryan Kerney, Madhava Meegaskumbura
Rhacophoridae, a family of morphologically cryptic frogs, with many genetically distinct evolutionary lineages, is understudied with respect to skeletal morphology, life history traits and skeletal ontogeny. Here we analyze two species each from two sister lineages, Taruga and Polypedates, and compare their postembryonic skeletal ontogeny, larval chondrocrania and adult osteology in the context of a well-resolved phylogeny. We further compare these ontogenetic traits with the direct-developing Pseudophilautus silus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056072/clarifying-the-cryptic-host-specificity-of-blastocystis-spp-isolates-from-alouatta-palliata-and-a-pigra-howler-monkeys
#9
Claudia Villanueva-Garcia, Elias Jose Gordillo-Chavez, Eduardo Lopez-Escamilla, Emilio Rendon-Franco, Claudia Irais Muñoz-Garcia, Lilia Gama, Williams Arony Martinez-Flores, Nayeli Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Mirza Romero-Valdovinos, Hilda Diaz-Lopez, Jose Galian, Guiehdani Villalobos, Pablo Maravilla, Fernando Martinez-Hernandez
Although the presence of cryptic host specificity has been documented in Blastocystis, differences in infection rates and high genetic polymorphism within and between populations of some subtypes (ST) have impeded the clarification of the generalist or specialist specificity of this parasite. We assessed the genetic variability and host specificity of Blastocystis spp. in wild howler monkeys from two rainforest areas in the southeastern region of Mexico. Fecal samples of 225 Alouatta palliata (59) and A. pigra (166) monkeys, belonging to 16 sylvatic sites, were analyzed for infection with Blastocystis ST using a region of the small subunit rDNA (SSUrDNA) gene as a marker...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051127/population-cycles-and-species-diversity-in-dynamic-kill-the-winner-model-of-microbial-ecosystems
#10
Sergei Maslov, Kim Sneppen
Determinants of species diversity in microbial ecosystems remain poorly understood. Bacteriophages are believed to increase the diversity by the virtue of Kill-the-Winner infection bias preventing the fastest growing organism from taking over the community. Phage-bacterial ecosystems are traditionally described in terms of the static equilibrium state of Lotka-Volterra equations in which bacterial growth is exactly balanced by losses due to phage predation. Here we consider a more dynamic scenario in which phage infections give rise to abrupt and severe collapses of bacterial populations whenever they become sufficiently large...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043876/the-syllis-gracilis-species-complex-a-molecular-approach-to-a-difficult-taxonomic-problem-annelida-syllidae
#11
Patricia Álvarez-Campos, Gonzalo Giribet, Ana Riesgo
Syllis gracilis is an emblematic member of the subfamily Syllinae (Syllidae, Annelida), which inhabits shallow, temperate coastal waters and can be found on algae, coral rubble, and sponges. Their distinctive ypsiloid chaetae, usually found in specimens from populations all around the world, led to the consideration of the species as cosmopolitan, even though four other species have similar chaetae: Syllis magellanica, S. picta, S. mayeri and S. ypsiloides. The discovery of deeply divergent lineages in the Mediterranean Sea, that were morphologically similar, questioned the cosmopolitanism of S...
December 31, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034343/genetic-structure-and-historical-demography-of-the-blue-swimming-crab-portunus-pelagicus-from-southeastern-sea-of-china-based-on-mitochondrial-coi-gene
#12
Guijing Ren, Guidong Miao, Chunyan Ma, Jianxue Lu, Xiaolong Yang, Hongyu Ma
In this study, the population genetic structure and historical demography of the blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus, from southeastern sea of China were investigated using cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of mitochondrion. A total of 889 bp segment of COI gene was sequenced, which showed a high haplotype diversity (0.6833-0.8142) and low nucleotide diversity (0.0021-0.0034). Among 30 haplotypes defined in this study, one (H1) was the most dominant (47.7%) and shared by each locality, while the majority (23) were rare and only existed in one individual...
December 30, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030636/natal-host-plants-can-alter-herbivore-competition
#13
Huipeng Pan, Evan L Preisser, Qi Su, Xiaoguo Jiao, Wen Xie, Shaoli Wang, Qingjun Wu, Youjun Zhang
Interspecific competition between herbivores is widely recognized as an important determinant of community structure. Although researchers have identified a number of factors capable of altering competitive interactions, few studies have addressed the influence of neighboring plant species. If adaptation to/ epigenetic effects of an herbivore's natal host plant alter its performance on other host plants, then interspecific herbivore interactions may play out differently in heterogeneous and homogenous plant communities...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029226/meeting-the-challenge-of-dna-barcoding-neotropical-amphibians-polymerase-chain-reaction-optimization-and-new-coi-primers
#14
Mariana L Lyra, Célio F B Haddad, Ana Maria L de Azeredo-Espin
Amphibians are one of the most threatened vertebrate classes, yet at the same time new species are being described every year, demonstrating that the number of existing species is grossly underestimated. In groups such as amphibians, with high extinction rates and poorly known species boundaries, DNA barcoding is a tool that can rapidly assess genetic diversity and estimate species richness for prioritizing conservation decisions. However, reliable recovery of the 5' region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene is critical for the ongoing effort to gather DNA barcodes for all amphibian species...
December 28, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028845/genome-wide-snp-data-reveal-cryptic-phylogeographic-structure-and-microallopatric-divergence-in-a-rapids-adapted-clade-of-cichlids-from-the-congo-river
#15
S Elizabeth Alter, Jason Munshi-South, Melanie L J Stiassny
The lower Congo River (LCR) is a freshwater biodiversity hotspot in Africa characterized by some of the world's largest rapids. However, little is known about the evolutionary forces shaping this diversity, which include numerous endemic fishes. We investigated phylogeographic relationships in Teleogramma, a small clade of rheophilic cichlids, in the context of regional geography and hydrology. Previous studies have been unable to resolve phylogenetic relationships within Teleogramma due to lack of variation in nuclear genes and discrete morphological characters among putative species...
December 28, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028238/major-transitions-in-dinoflagellate-evolution-unveiled-by-phylotranscriptomics
#16
Jan Janouškovec, Gregory S Gavelis, Fabien Burki, Donna Dinh, Tsvetan R Bachvaroff, Sebastian G Gornik, Kelley J Bright, Behzad Imanian, Suzanne L Strom, Charles F Delwiche, Ross F Waller, Robert A Fensome, Brian S Leander, Forest L Rohwer, Juan F Saldarriaga
Dinoflagellates are key species in marine environments, but they remain poorly understood in part because of their large, complex genomes, unique molecular biology, and unresolved in-group relationships. We created a taxonomically representative dataset of dinoflagellate transcriptomes and used this to infer a strongly supported phylogeny to map major morphological and molecular transitions in dinoflagellate evolution. Our results show an early-branching position of Noctiluca, monophyly of thecate (plate-bearing) dinoflagellates, and paraphyly of athecate ones...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028055/the-role-of-hybridization-in-facilitating-tree-invasion
#17
REVIEW
John F Gaskin
Hybridization events can generate additional genetic diversity upon which natural selection can act and at times enhance invasiveness of the species. Invasive tree species are a growing ecological concern worldwide, and some of these invasions involve hybridization events pre- or post-introduction. There are 20 hybrid invasive tree taxa in 15 genera (11 plant families) discussed here. When reported, abundance of hybrids comprised 10-100% of an invasion, the remainder being parental taxa. In seven hybrid taxa researchers identified phenotypes that may make hybrids better invaders...
December 26, 2016: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027423/global-analysis-reveals-that-cryptic-diversity-is-linked-with-habitat-but-not-mode-of-life
#18
Robert Poulin, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León
The ubiquity of genetically distinct, cryptic species is limiting any attempt to estimate local or global biodiversity as well as impeding efforts to conserve species or control pests and diseases. Environmental factors or biological traits promoting rapid diversification into morphologically similar species remain unclear. Here, using a meta-analysis of 1230 studies using DNA sequences to search for cryptic diversity in metazoan taxa, we test two hypotheses regarding the frequency of cryptic taxa based on mode of life and habitat...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027292/shedding-light-on-the-grey-zone-of-speciation-along-a-continuum-of-genomic-divergence
#19
Camille Roux, Christelle Fraïsse, Jonathan Romiguier, Yoann Anciaux, Nicolas Galtier, Nicolas Bierne
Speciation results from the progressive accumulation of mutations that decrease the probability of mating between parental populations or reduce the fitness of hybrids-the so-called species barriers. The speciation genomic literature, however, is mainly a collection of case studies, each with its own approach and specificities, such that a global view of the gradual process of evolution from one to two species is currently lacking. Of primary importance is the prevalence of gene flow between diverging entities, which is central in most species concepts and has been widely discussed in recent years...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026893/cryptic-diversity-in-a-fig-wasp-community-%C3%A2-morphologically-differentiated-species-are-sympatric-but-cryptic-species-are-allopatric
#20
C T Darwell, J M Cook
A key debate in ecology centres on the relative importance of niche and neutral processes in determining patterns of community assembly with particular focus on whether ecologically similar species with similar functional traits are able to coexist. Meanwhile, molecular studies are increasingly revealing morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species with presumably similar ecological roles. Determining the geographic distribution of such cryptic species provides opportunities to contrast predictions of niche versus neutral models...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Ecology
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