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Cryptic species

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352089/cryptic-production-of-trans-3-hydroxyproline-in-echinocandin-b-biosynthesis
#1
Johanna Mattay, Stefanie Houwaart, Wolfgang Hüttel
Echinocandins are antifungal nonribosomal hexapeptides produced by fungi. Two of the amino acids are hydroxy-l-prolines: trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline and, in most echinocandin structures, (trans-2,3)-3-hydroxy-(trans-2,4)-4-methyl-l-proline. In the case of echinocandin biosynthesis by Glarea lozoyensis, both amino acids are found in pneumocandin A0, while in pneumocandin B0 the latter residue is substituted by trans-3- hydroxy-l-proline (3-Hyp). We have recently reported that all three amino acids are generated by the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent proline hydroxylase GloF...
January 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352078/the-highly-divergent-mitochondrial-genomes-indicate-that-the-booklouse-liposcelis-bostrychophila-psocoptera-liposcelididae-is-a-cryptic-species
#2
Shiqian Feng, Qianqian Yang, Hu Li, Fan Song, Václav Stejskal, George P Opit, Wanzhi Cai, Zhihong Li, Renfu Shao
The booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila is an important storage pest worldwide. The mt genome of an asexual strain (Beibei, China) of the booklouse, L. bostrychophila, comprises two chromosomes; each chromosome contains approximate half of the 37 genes typically found in animals. The mt genomes of two sexual strains of L. bostrychophila, however, comprise five and seven chromosomes respectively; each chromosome contains one to six genes. To understand mt genome evolution in L. bostrychophila and whether L...
January 19, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346442/comparative-metabolic-ecology-of-tropical-herbivorous-echinoids-on-a-coral-reef
#3
Levi S Lewis, Jennifer E Smith, Yoan Eynaud
BACKGROUND: The metabolic rate of consumers is a key driver of ecosystem dynamics. On coral reefs, herbivorous echinoids consume fleshy algae, facilitating the growth of reef-building calcified organisms; however, little is known about differences among species in their metabolic and functional ecology. Here, we used log-linear (log-log) regression models to examine the allometric scaling of mass and routine metabolic rate for five common herbivorous echinoids on a Hawaiian coral reef: Echinothrix calamaris, E...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345218/mitochondrial-dna-suggests-cryptic-speciation-in-prodiplosis-longifila-gagn%C3%A3-diptera-cecidomyiidae-associated-with-geographic-distance-and-host-specialization
#4
D N Duque-Gamboa, M F Castillo-Cárdenas, L M Hernández, Y C Guzmán, M R Manzano, N Toro-Perea
Prodiplosis longifila is reported as a pest of a wide range of species cultivated in America, including citrus, solanaceous species and asparagus. This species has different behavioural traits that are primarily centred on the oviposition habit and the feeding of larvae, which can change depending on the host. However, scarce information is available on population studies and the natural history of this insect, and uncertainty exists about the taxonomic identity and the geographic distribution of this species...
January 18, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339383/new-shuttle-vectors-for-gene-cloning-and-expression-in-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-species
#5
Massimiliano Lucidi, Federica Runci, Giordano Rampioni, Emanuela Frangipani, Livia Leoni, Paolo Visca
Understanding bacterial pathogenesis requires adequate genetic tools to assess the role of individual virulence determinants by mutagenesis and complementation assays, as well as for homologous and heterologous expression of cloned genes. Our knowledge of Acinetobacter baumannii pathogenesis has so far been limited by the scarcity of genetic tools to manipulate multi drug resistant (MDR) epidemic strains which are responsible for most of infections. Here, we report the construction of new multi-purpose shuttle plasmids, namely pVRL1 and pVRL2, which can efficiently replicate in Acinetobacter sp...
January 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338711/blood-parasite-infections-in-a-wild-population-of-ravens-corvus-corax-in-bulgaria
#6
Peter Shurulinkov, Lachezar Spasov, Georgi Stoyanov, Nayden Chakarov
BACKGROUND: Blood parasites have been studied intensely in many families of avian hosts, but corvids, a particularly cosmopolitan family, remain underexplored. Haemosporidian parasites of the common raven (Corvus corax) have not been studied, although it is the largest, most adaptable, and widespread corvid. Genetic sequence data from parasites of ravens can enhance the understanding of speciation patterns and specificity of haemosporidian parasites in corvids, and shed light how these hosts cope with parasite pressure...
January 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335015/cryptic-diversity-in-an-atlantic-forest-malaria-vector-from-the-mountains-of-south-east-brazil
#7
Guilherme de Rezende Dias, Thais Tenorio Soares Fujii, Bernardo Fernandes Fogel, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Teresa Fernandes Silva-do-Nascimento, André Nóbrega Pitaluga, Carlos José Carvalho-Pinto, Antonio Bernardo Carvalho, Alexandre Afrânio Peixoto, Luísa Damazio Pitaluga Rona
BACKGROUND: Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii is the primary vector of human and simian malarias in Brazilian regions covered by the Atlantic Rainforest. Previous studies found that An. cruzii presents high levels of behavioural, chromosomal and molecular polymorphisms, which led to the hypothesis that it may be a complex of cryptic species. Here, An. cruzii specimens were collected in five sites in South-East Brazil located at different altitudes on the inner and coastal slopes of two mountain ranges covered by Atlantic Rainforest, known as Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueria...
January 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334414/cryptic-species-as-a-window-into-the-paradigm-shift-of-the-species-concept
#8
Cene Fišer, Christopher T Robinson, Florian Malard
The species concept is the cornerstone of biodiversity science and any paradigm shift in the delimitation of species affects many research fields. Many biologists now are embracing a new 'species' paradigm as separately evolving populations using different delimitation criteria. Individual criteria can emerge during different periods of speciation; some may never evolve. As such, a paradigm shift in the species concept relates to this inherent heterogeneity in the speciation process and species category - which is fundamentally overlooked in biodiversity research...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334293/dna-barcoding-for-species-identification-in-deep-sea-clams-mollusca-bivalvia-vesicomyidae
#9
Jun Liu, Haibin Zhang
Deep-sea clams (Bivalvia: Vesicomyidae) have been found in reduced environments over the world oceans, but taxonomy of this group remains confusing at species and supraspecific levels due to their high-morphological similarity and plasticity. In the present study, we collected mitochondrial COI sequences to evaluate the utility of DNA barcoding on identifying vesicomyid species. COI dataset identified 56 well-supported putative species/operational taxonomic units (OTUs), approximately covering half of the extant vesicomyid species...
January 15, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329292/transcriptome-profiling-with-focus-on-potential-key-genes-for-wing-development-and-evolution-in-megaloprepus-caerulatus-the-damselfly-species-with-the-world-s-largest-wings
#10
Wiebke Feindt, Sara J Oppenheim, Robert DeSalle, Paul Z Goldstein, Heike Hadrys
The evolution, development and coloration of insect wings remains a puzzling subject in evolutionary research. In basal flying insects such as Odonata, genomic research regarding bauplan evolution is still rare. Here we focus on the world's largest odonate species-the "forest giant" Megaloprepus caerulatus, to explore its potential for looking deeper into the development and evolution of wings. A recently discovered cryptic species complex in this genus previously considered monotypic is characterized by morphological differences in wing shape and color patterns...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328532/population-genomic-footprints-of-host-adaptation-introgression-and-recombination-in-coffee-leaf-rust
#11
Diogo Nuno Silva, Vítor Várzea, Octávio Salgueiro Paulo, Dora Batista
Coffee Leaf Rust, caused by Hemileia vastatrix (Hv), represents the biggest threat to coffee production worldwide and ranks amongst the most serious fungal diseases in history. Despite a recent series of outbreaks and emergence of hyper-virulent strains, the population evolutionary history and potential of this pathogen remains poorly understood. To address this issue, we used RADseq to generate ∼19,000 SNPs across a worldwide collection of 37 Hv samples. Contrarily to the longstanding idea that Hv represents a genetically unstructured and cosmopolitan species, our results reveal the existence of a cryptic species complex with marked host tropism...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321854/phylogenetic-relationships-and-phylogeography-of-relevant-lineages-within-the-complex-campanulaceae-family-in-macaronesia
#12
Tiago Menezes, Maria M Romeiras, Miguel M de Sequeira, Mónica Moura
Macaronesia has long been recognized as a natural model for studying evolutionary processes in plant diversification. Several studies have attempted to focus on single lineages, and few have covered the diversification of a family across all the archipelagos. We used a comprehensive sample to clarify the phylogenetic relationships and the biogeographic history of the Macaronesian Campanulaceae. Hypotheses related to the colonization of these archipelagos will be used to examine the diversification patterns of different lineages...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310715/fast-and-accurate-identification-of-cryptic-and-sympatric-mayfly-species-of-the-baetis-rhodani-group
#13
Roberta Bisconti, Roberta Tenchini, Carlo Belfiore, Giuseppe Nascetti, Daniele Canestrelli
OBJECTIVE: Species of the Baetis rhodani group are among the most widespread mayflies of the Palearctic region. However, frequent occurrence of morphologically cryptic species complicates the identification of sympatric species. Here, we proposed and tested a method for the fast, accurate, and cost-effective assignment of a large number of individuals to their putative species, based on high resolution melting profiles of a standard mitochondrial gene fragment. We tested this method using a system of three recently identified cryptic species inhabiting the Tyrrhenian Islands (western Mediterranean basin)...
January 8, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304036/a-novel-molecular-toolkit-for-rapid-detection-of-the-pathogen-and-primary-vector-of-thousand-cankers-disease
#14
Emel Oren, William Klingeman, Romina Gazis, John Moulton, Paris Lambdin, Mark Coggeshall, Jiri Hulcr, Steven J Seybold, Denita Hadziabdic
Thousand Cankers Disease (TCD) of Juglans and Pterocarya (Juglandaceae) involves a fungal pathogen, Geosmithia morbida, and a primary insect vector, Pityophthorus juglandis. TCD was described originally from dying Juglans nigra trees in the western United States (USA), but it was reported subsequently from the eastern USA and northern Italy. The disease is often difficult to diagnose due to the absence of symptoms or signs on the bark surface of the host. Furthermore, disease symptoms can be confused with those caused by other biotic and abiotic agents...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302793/complete-genomic-sequence-of-raphanus-sativus-cryptic-virus-4-rscv4-a-novel-alphapartitivirus-from-radish
#15
Laurence Svanella-Dumas, Sébastien Theil, Matthieu Barret, Thierry Candresse
The present work reports the discovery and complete genome sequencing of a virus from symptomless radish seedlings, classifiable as a novel member of the genus Alphapartitivirus, family Partitiviridae. Total RNA extracted from germinating seedlings was sequenced using Illumina technology. Bioinformatic analysis of the RNA-seq data revealed two contigs representing the near full-length genomic sequences of two genomic RNAs representing a new virus. Analysis of the genome sequence (excluding the polyA tail, RNA1: 1976 nt and RNA2: 1751 nt, respectively) showed a genomic organization typical of viruses classed within the Partitiviridae, with each genomic RNA encoding a single open reading frame (ORF)...
January 4, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299287/diet-reveals-links-between-morphology-and-foraging-in-a-cryptic-temperate-reef-fish
#16
Natalia S Winkler, Maite Paz-Goicoechea, Robert W Lamb, Alejandro Pérez-Matus
Predators select prey so as to maximize energy and minimize manipulation time. In order to reduce prey detection and handling time, individuals must actively select their foraging space (microhabitat) and populations exhibit morphologies that are best suited for capturing locally available prey. We explored how variation in diet correlates with habitat type, and how these factors influence key morphological structures (mouth gape, eye diameter, fin length, fin area, and pectoral fin ratio) in a common microcarnivorous cryptic reef fish species, the triplefin Helcogrammoides cunninghami...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299274/cryptic-genetic-variation-in-an-inbreeding-and-cosmopolitan-pest-xylosandrus-crassiusculus-revealed-using-ddradseq
#17
Caroline Storer, Adam Payton, Stuart McDaniel, Bjarte Jordal, Jiri Hulcr
Each year new exotic species are transported across the world through global commerce, causing considerable economic and ecological damage. An important component of managing invasion pathways is to identify source populations. Some of the most widespread exotic species are haplodiploid ambrosia beetles. The ability to mate with siblings (inbreed) and their transportable food source (symbiotic fungus) have enabled them to colonize most of the world and become pests of plant nurseries, lumber, and forests. One of the fastest spreading ambrosia beetles is Xylosandrus crassiusculus...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299273/does-forest-extent-affect-salamander-survival-evidence-from-a-long-term-demographic-study-of-a-tropical-newt
#18
Anthony Lau, Nancy E Karraker, David Dudgeon
Forest loss has been associated with reduced survival in many vertebrates, and previous research on amphibians has mostly focused on effects at early life stages. Paramesotriton hongkongensis is a tropical newt that breeds in streams but spends up to 10 months per year in terrestrial habitats. Populations are threatened by habitat degradation and collection for the pet trade, but the cryptic terrestrial lifestyle of this newt has limited our understanding of its population ecology, which inhibits development of a species-specific conservation plan...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299254/phoretic-poecilochirus-mites-specialize-on-their-burying-beetle-hosts
#19
Volker Nehring, Josef K Müller, Nadine Steinmetz
Recurring species interactions can cause species to adapt to each other. Specialization will increase the fitness of symbionts in the coevolved association but may reduce the flexibility of symbiont choice as it will often decrease fitness in interactions with other than the main symbiont species. We analyzed the fitness interactions between a complex of two cryptic mite species and their sympatric burying beetle hosts in a European population. Poecilochirus mites (Mesostigmata, Parasitidae) are phoretic on burying beetles and reproduce alongside beetles, while these care for their offspring at vertebrate carcasses...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296890/the-lipid-peroxidation-product-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-induces-tissue-factor-decryption-via-ros-generation-and-the-thioredoxin-system
#20
Shabbir A Ansari, Usha R Pendurthi, L Vijaya Mohan Rao
Many pathophysiologic agents transform cryptic tissue factor (TF) on cells to prothrombotic TF, and one such stimulus is 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), the most abundant aldehyde produced by the oxidation of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. HNE was shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and p38 MAPK activation, but the link between them and their role in TF decryption are unclear. The present study was carried out to elucidate potential mechanisms involved in HNE-induced TF decryption in monocytic cells...
November 28, 2017: Blood Advances
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