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Cryptic species

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777336/first-morphological-and-molecular-analysis-of-eucoleus-boehmi-like-eggs-in-dogs-from-argentina
#1
Carla Mariela Lavallén, Romina Sandra Petrigh, Martín Horacio Fugassa, Guillermo María Denegri, Marcela Cecilia Dopchiz
The canid parasites Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) and Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) parasitize the lower and the upper respiratory tract, respectively. Reports and descriptions of these nematodes are scarce in Argentina, possibly due to misdiagnosis of morphologically similar trichuroids eggs, and the lack of knowledge about the species of Eucoleus in this geographical area. Scanning electron microscopy is a useful tool for identification of E. boehmi eggs based on the characteristics of the shell structure which differentiate between species...
May 18, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763782/high-correlation-of-chemical-composition-with-genotype-in-cryptic-species-of-the-liverwort-aneura-pinguis
#2
Rafał Wawrzyniak, Wiesław Wasiak, Beata Jasiewicz, Agnieszka Ludwiczuk, Alina Bączkiewicz, Katarzyna Buczkowska
Chemical constituents of cryptic species detected within the liverwort Aneura pinguis were identified using headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). Fibre coating with divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) was used. A total of 48 samples of A. pinguis were analysed. The studied plants were identified genetically based on barcode DNA sequences and represented three cryptic species (A, B and F) of A. pinguis. Cryptic species A and B are genetically diverse; both represent three evolutionary lineages: A1, A2, A3 and B1, B2, B3, respectively...
May 12, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754205/context-dependent-crypsis-a-prey-s-perspective-of-a-color-polymorphic-predator
#3
D Rodríguez-Morales, V Rico-Gray, J G García-Franco, H Ajuria-Ibarra, L T Hernández-Salazar, L E Robledo-Ospina, D Rao
Many animals use body coloration as a strategy to communicate with conspecifics, prey, and predators. Color is a trade-off for some species, since they should be visible to conspecifics but cryptic to predators and prey. Some flower-dwelling predators, such as crab spiders, are capable of choosing the color of flowers where they ambush flower visitors and pollinators. In order to avoid being captured, visitors evaluate flowers visually before landing. The crab spider Mecaphesa dubia is a polymorphic species (white/purple color morphs), which inhabits the flower heads of a dune plant, Palafoxia lindenii...
May 12, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753095/cerebral-cystic-echinococcosis-in-mongolian-children-caused-by-echinococcus-canadensis
#4
Orkhontuul Shirmen, Batbold Batchuluun, Avaajigmed Lkhamjav, Tugbayar Tseveen, Tsetsegdelger Munkhjargal, Tsogtsaikhan Sandag, Enkhsaikhan Lkhagvasuren, Tetsuya Yanagida, Yuji Nishikawa, Akira Ito
Recent molecular re-evaluation of Echinococcus granulosus, which causes cystic echinococcosis (CE), has revealed that it is not a single species, but instead consists of 5 cryptic species. Among them, E. granulosus (dog-sheep strain) is predominant (75%) followed by Echinococcus canadensis (22%). The major affected organs, in humans, are the liver (88%) and lungs (11%). Primary cerebral CE comprises less than 1% of all cases. As cerebral CE cases are rare, there are few reports with molecular confirmation of the causative species...
May 9, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752884/diversity-and-hidden-host-specificity-of-chytrids-infecting-colonial-volvocacean-algae
#5
Silke Van den Wyngaert, Keilor Rojas-Jimenez, Kensuke Seto, Maiko Kagami, Hans-Peter Grossart
Chytrids are zoosporic fungi that play an important, but yet understudied, ecological role in aquatic ecosystems. Many chytrid species have been morphologically described as parasites on phytoplankton. However, the majority of them have rarely been isolated and lack DNA sequence data. In this study we isolated and cultivated three parasitic chytrids, infecting a common volvocacean host species, Yamagishiella unicocca. In order to identify the chytrids, we characterized morphology and life cycle, and analyzed phylogenetic relationships based on 18S and 28S rDNA genes...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746729/the-evolution-of-colour-polymorphism-in-british-winter-active-lepidoptera-in-response-to-search-image-use-by-avian-predators
#6
Jamie Conor Weir
Phenotypic polymorphism in cryptic species is widespread. This may evolve in response to search image use by predators exerting negative frequency-dependent selection on intraspecific colour morphs, "apostatic selection". Evidence exists to indicate search image formation by predators and apostatic selection operating on wild prey populations, though not to demonstrate search image use directly resulting in apostatic selection. The present study attempted to address this deficiency, using British Lepidoptera active in winter as a model system...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744635/shell-colour-temperature-micro-habitat-structure-and-predator-pressure-affect-the-behaviour-of-cepaea-nemoralis
#7
Zuzanna M Rosin, Zbigniew Kwieciński, Andrzej Lesicki, Piotr Skórka, Jarosław Kobak, Anna Szymańska, Tomasz S Osiejuk, Tomasz Kałuski, Monika Jaskulska, Piotr Tryjanowski
Although shell colour polymorphism of the land snail Cepaea nemoralis is a well-known phenomenon, proximate and ultimate factors driving its evolution remain uncertain. Polymorphic species show variation in behavioural responses to selective forces. Therefore, we estimated effects of various environmental factors (temperature, humidity, food availability, (micro)habitat structure and predatory pressure) on behavioural response (frequency of locomotion, climbing and hiding) of C. nemoralis morphs, in experimental and natural conditions...
May 9, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743512/daytime-eyeshine-contributes-to-pupil-camouflage-in-a-cryptobenthic-marine-fish
#8
Matteo Santon, Pierre-Paul Bitton, Ulrike K Harant, Nico K Michiels
Ocular reflectors enhance eye sensitivity in dim light, but can produce reflected eyeshine when illuminated. Some fish can occlude their reflectors during the day. The opposite is observed in cryptic sit-and-wait predators such as scorpionfish and toadfish, where reflectors are occluded at night and exposed during the day. This results in daytime eyeshine, proposed to enhance pupil camouflage by reducing the contrast between the otherwise dark pupil and the surrounding tissue. In this study, we test this hypothesis in the scorpionfish Scorpaena porcus and show that eyeshine is the result of two mechanisms: the previously described Stratum Argenteum Reflected (SAR) eyeshine, and Pigment Epithelium Transmitted (PET) eyeshine, a newly described mechanism for this species...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742313/phylogenetic-comparative-analysis-supports-aposematic-colouration-body-size-association-in-millipede-assassins-hemiptera-reduviidae-ectrichodiinae
#9
Michael Forthman, Christiane Weirauch
The diversity of colour patterns and its importance in interactions with the environment make colouration in animals an intriguing research focus. Aposematic colouration is positively correlated with body size in certain groups of animals, suggesting that warning colours are more effective or that crypsis is harder to achieve in larger animals. Surprisingly, this relationship has not been recovered in studies investigating insects, which may have been confounded by a focus on aposematic taxa that are also gregarious...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742111/opening-the-file-drawer-unexpected-insights-from-a-chytrid-infection-experiment
#10
Allison Q Byrne, Thomas J Poorten, Jamie Voyles, Craig K R Willis, Erica Bree Rosenblum
Infection experiments are critical for understanding wildlife disease dynamics. Although infection experiments are typically designed to reduce complexity, disease outcomes still result from complex interactions between host, pathogen, and environmental factors. Cryptic variation across factors can lead to decreased repeatability of infection experiments within and between research groups and hinder research progress. Furthermore, studies with unexpected results are often relegated to the "file drawer" and potential insights gained from these experimental outcomes are lost...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740906/phylogenetic-patterns-of-ant-fungus-associations-indicate-that-farming-strategies-not-only-a-superior-fungal-cultivar-explain-the-ecological-success-of-leafcutter-ants
#11
Ulrich G Mueller, Melissa R Kardish, Heather D Ishak, April M Wright, Scott E Solomon, Sofia M Bruschi, Alexis L Carlson, Maurício Bacci
To elucidate fungicultural specializations contributing to ecological dominance of leafcutter ants, we estimate the phylogeny of fungi cultivated by fungus-growing (attine) ants, including fungal cultivars from (i) the entire leafcutter range from southern South America to southern North America, (ii) all higher-attine ant lineages (leafcutting genera Atta, Acromyrmex; nonleafcutting genera Trachymyrmex, Sericomyrmex) and (iii) all lower-attine lineages. Higher-attine fungi form two clades, Clade-A fungi (Leucocoprinus gongylophorus, formerly Attamyces) previously thought to be cultivated only by leafcutter ants, and a sister clade, Clade-B fungi, previously thought to be cultivated only by Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex ants...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738577/widespread-plant-specialization-in-the-polyphagous-planthopper-hyalesthes-obsoletus-cixiidae-a-major-vector-of-stolbur-phytoplasma-evidence-of-cryptic-speciation
#12
Andrea Kosovac, Jes Johannesen, Oliver Krstić, Milana Mitrović, Tatjana Cvrković, Ivo Toševski, Jelena Jović
The stolbur phytoplasma vector Hyalesthes obsoletus is generally considered as a polyphagous species associated with numerous wild and cultivated plants. However, recent research in southeastern Europe, the distribution centre of H. obsoletus and the area of most stolbur-inflicted crop diseases, points toward specific host-plant associations of the vector, indicating specific vector-based transmission routes. Here, we study the specificity of populations associated with four host-plants using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers, and we evaluate the evolution of host-shifts in H...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736999/the-hidden-half-ecology-and-evolution-of-cryptobenthic-fishes-on-coral-reefs
#13
Simon J Brandl, Christopher H R Goatley, David R Bellwood, Luke Tornabene
Teleost fishes are the most diverse group of vertebrates on Earth. On tropical coral reefs, their species richness exceeds 6000 species; one tenth of total vertebrate biodiversity. A large proportion of this diversity is composed of cryptobenthic reef fishes (CRFs): bottom-dwelling, morphologically or behaviourally cryptic species typically less than 50 mm in length. Yet, despite their diversity and abundance, these fishes are both poorly defined and understood. Herein we provide a new quantitative definition and synthesise current knowledge on the diversity, distribution and life history of CRFs...
May 7, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736331/patterns-of-genetic-structuring-at-the-northern-limits-of-the-australian-smelt-retropinna-semoni-cryptic-species-complex
#14
Md Rakeb-Ul Islam, Daniel J Schmidt, David A Crook, Jane M Hughes
Freshwater fishes often exhibit high genetic population structure due to the prevalence of dispersal barriers (e.g., waterfalls) whereas population structure in diadromous fishes tends to be weaker and driven by natal homing behaviour and/or isolation by distance. The Australian smelt (Retropinnidae: Retropinna semoni ) is a native fish with a broad distribution spanning inland and coastal drainages of south-eastern Australia. Previous studies have demonstrated variability in population genetic structure and movement behaviour (potamodromy, facultative diadromy, estuarine residence) across the southern part of its geographic range...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734361/cryptic-diversity-two-morphologically-similar-species-of-invasive-apple-snail-in-peninsular-malaysia
#15
Suganiya Rama Rao, Thor-Seng Liew, Yoon-Yen Yow, Shyamala Ratnayeke
Invasive snails in the genus Pomacea have spread across Southeast Asia including Peninsular Malaysia. Their effects on natural and agricultural wetlands are appreciable, but species-specific effects are less clear because of morphological similarity among the species. Our objective was to establish diagnostic characteristics of Pomacea species in Malaysia using genetic and morphological criteria. The mitochondrial COI gene of 52 adult snails from eight localities in Peninsular Malaysia was amplified, sequenced, and analysed to verify species and phylogenetic relationships...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722032/high-frequency-ultrasonic-communication-in-a-critically-endangered-nocturnal-primate-claire-s-mouse-lemur-microcebus-mamiratra
#16
Alida F Hasiniaina, Marina Scheumann, Mamy Rina Evasoa, Diane Braud, Solofonirina Rasoloharijaona, Blanchard Randrianambinina, Elke Zimmermann
The critically endangered Claire's mouse lemur, only found in the evergreen rain forest of the National Park Lokobe (LNP) and a few lowland evergreen rain forest fragments of northern Madagascar, was described recently. The present study provides the first quantified information on vocal acoustics of calls, sound associated behavioral context, acoustic niche, and vocal activity of this species. We recorded vocal and social behavior of six male-female and six male-male dyads in a standardized social-encounter paradigm in June and July 2016 at the LNP, Nosy Bé island...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720606/cryptic-species-in-a-well-known-habitat-applying-taxonomics-to-the-amphipod-genus-epimeria-crustacea-peracarida
#17
Jan Beermann, Michael V Westbury, Michael Hofreiter, Leon Hilgers, Fabian Deister, Hermann Neumann, Michael J Raupach
Taxonomy plays a central role in biological sciences. It provides a communication system for scientists as it aims to enable correct identification of the studied organisms. As a consequence, species descriptions should seek to include as much available information as possible at species level to follow an integrative concept of 'taxonomics'. Here, we describe the cryptic species Epimeria frankei sp. nov. from the North Sea, and also redescribe its sister species, Epimeria cornigera. The morphological information obtained is substantiated by DNA barcodes and complete nuclear 18S rRNA gene sequences...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720195/characterization-of-plasmodium-relictum-a-cosmopolitan-agent-of-avian-malaria
#18
Gediminas Valkiūnas, Mikas Ilgūnas, Dovilė Bukauskaitė, Karin Fragner, Herbert Weissenböck, Carter T Atkinson, Tatjana A Iezhova
BACKGROUND: Microscopic research has shown that Plasmodium relictum is the most common agent of avian malaria. Recent molecular studies confirmed this conclusion and identified several mtDNA lineages, suggesting the existence of significant intra-species genetic variation or cryptic speciation. Most identified lineages have a broad range of hosts and geographical distribution. Here, a rare new lineage of P. relictum was reported and information about biological characters of different lineages of this pathogen was reviewed, suggesting issues for future research...
May 2, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718499/lethal-and-sublethal-effects-of-clothianidin-on-the-development-and-reproduction-of-bemisia-tabaci-hemiptera-aleyrodidae-med-and-meam1
#19
Yong Fang, Jinda Wang, Chen Luo, Ran Wang
The Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) cryptic species complex includes important crop pests, and among them, the cryptic species Mediterranean (MED) and Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) cause substantial crop losses in China. The second-generation neonicotinoid clothianidin acts as an agonist of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the insect nervous system and has both stomach and contact activity. In this study, the toxicity of clothianidin and five other insecticides to MED and MEAM1 was examined. The sublethal effects of clothianidin on the development and reproduction of MED and MEAM1 were also investigated...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713335/trends-in-karyotype-evolution-in-astyanax-teleostei-characiformes-characidae-insights-from-molecular-data
#20
Rubens Pazza, Jorge A Dergam, Karine F Kavalco
The study of patterns and evolutionary processes in neotropical fish is not always an easy task due the wide distribution of major fish groups in large and extensive river basins. Thus, it is not always possible to detect or correlate possible effects of chromosome rearrangements in the evolution of biodiversity. In the Astyanax genus, chromosome data obtained since the 1970s have shown evidence of cryptic species, karyotypic plasticity, supernumerary chromosomes, triploidies, and minor chromosomal rearrangements...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
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