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Cryptic species

David A Wickell, Michael D Windham, Xiaofei Wang, Stuart J Macdonald, James B Beck
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Although asexual taxa are generally seen as evolutionary dead ends, asexuality appears to provide a short-term benefit in some taxa, including a wider geographic distribution compared to sexual relatives. However, this may be an illusion created by multiple, morphologically cryptic, asexual lineages, each occupying a relatively small area. In this study we investigate the role of multiple lineages in the biogeography of Myriopteris gracilis Fée (Pteridaceae), a North American apomictic triploid fern species with a particularly large range...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Botany
Andrew S Buxton, Jim J Groombridge, Richard A Griffiths
The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) to assess the presence-absence of rare, cryptic or invasive species is hindered by a poor understanding of the factors that can remove DNA from the system. In aquatic systems, eDNA can be transported out either horizontally in water flows or vertically by incorporation into the sediment. Equally, eDNA may be broken down by various biotic and abiotic processes if the target organism leaves the system. We use occupancy modelling and a replicated mesocosm experiment to examine how detection probability of eDNA changes once the target species is no longer present...
2017: PloS One
Diana Rodrigues de Pina, Matheus Alvarez, Guilherme Giacomini, Ana Luiza Menegatti Pavan, Carlos Ivan Andrade Guedes, Ricardo de Souza Cavalcante, Rinaldo Poncio Mendes, Anamaria Mello Miranda Paniago
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate differences in lung damage in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) in two endemic regions of Brazil (Botucatu, SP, in the southeastern region and Campo Grande, MS, in the west central region). METHODS: The study sought to objectively quantify fibrosis and emphysema treated patients using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) that was performed according to an established and validated computational method...
June 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Cynthia Bichara, Philippe Flahaut, Damien Costa, Anne-Lise Bienvenu, Stephane Picot, Gilles Gargala
BACKGROUND: Since several malaria parasite species are usually present in a particular area, co-infections with more than one species of Plasmodium are more likely to occur in humans infected in these areas. In many mixed infections, parasite densities of the cryptic species may be low and often not recognized in clinical practice. CASE PRESENTATION: Two children (3 and 6 years old) adopted recently from Central African Republic were admitted to hospital because of intermittent fever...
August 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
Kin Onn Chan, Alana M Alexander, Lee L Grismer, Yong-Chao Su, Jesse L Grismer, Evan S H Quah, Rafe M Brown
Accurately delimiting species boundaries is a non-trivial undertaking that can have significant effects on downstream inferences. We compared the efficacy of commonly-used species delimitation methods (SDMs) and a population genomics approach based on genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to assess lineage separation in the Malaysian Torrent Frog Complex currently recognized as a single species (Amolops larutensis). First, we used morphological, mitochondrial DNA and genome-wide SNPs to identify putative species boundaries by implementing non-coalescent and coalescent-based SDMs (mPTP, iBPP, BFD*)...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Vinicius D L R Goulart, Jean P Boubli, Robert J Young
New World primates feature a complex colour vision system. Most species have polymorphic colour vision where males have a dichromatic colour perception and females can be either dichromatic or trichromatic. The adaptive value of high allelic diversity of opsins, a light sensitive protein, found in primates' eyes remains unknown. Studies revealing the allelic diversity are important as they shed light on our understanding of the adaptive value of differences in the colouration of species and their ecologies...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Anja Palandačić, Alexander Naseka, David Ramler, Harald Ahnelt
BACKGROUND: Molecular taxonomy studies and barcoding projects can provide rapid means of detecting cryptic diversity. Nevertheless, the use of molecular data for species delimitation should be undertaken with caution. Especially the single-gene approaches are linked with certain pitfalls for taxonomical inference. In the present study, recent and historical species descriptions based upon morphology were used as primary species hypotheses, which were then evaluated with molecular data (including in type and historical museum material) to form secondary species hypotheses...
August 9, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Eric A Griffin, S Joseph Wright, Peter J Morin, Walter P Carson
Producing and retaining leaves underlie the performance and survivorship of seedlings in deeply shaded tropical forests. These habitats are characterized by conditions ideal for foliar bacteria, which can be potent plant pathogens. Leaf production, retention and susceptibility to enemies may ultimately depend upon interactions among soil nutrients and foliar microbes, yet this has never been tested. We experimentally evaluated the degree that foliar bacteria and soil resource supply mediate leaf dynamics for five common tree species (five different families) in a Panamanian forest...
August 7, 2017: New Phytologist
P A Eyer, R Seltzer, T Reiner-Brodetzki, A Hefetz
Although extensive research has been carried out on the desert ants in the genus Cataglyphis in recent years, some of the specific intra- and interspecific relationships remain elusive. The present study disentangles the phylogenetic relationships among the C. bicolor complex in Israel using an integrative approach based on genetic markers, morphometric measurements, and chemical analyses (cuticular hydrocarbons). Several species delimitation approaches based on four nuclear, two mitochondrial, and eleven microsatellite markers, as well as 16 body measurements and 56 chemical variables, were employed to deciphering the occurrence of cryptic species in our data set...
July 31, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Mohammad Haseli, Monireh Zare Bazghalee, Harry W Palm
The examination of the two batoid species, Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål) and Himantura gerrardi (Gray), resulted in a morphologic identification of the five eutetrarhynchid species, namely Parachristianella indonesiensis Palm, 2004 reported for the first time from Himantura gerrardi, Pa. monomegacantha Kruse, 1959, Prochristianella clarkeae Beveridge, 1990, Pr. butlerae Beveridge, 1990 and Dollfusiella spinulifera (Beveridge et Jones, 2000). By sequencing the partial 28S rDNA and calculating the genetic distances between the morphologically identified specimens from the Persian Gulf and their allopatric morphological conspecifics as well as using a phylogeny, the specimens of the Persian Gulf were considered as the allopatric conspecifics of Parachristianella indonesiensis, Pa...
July 31, 2017: Parasitology International
Y Navasse, S A P Derocles, M Plantegenest, A Le Ralec
Diaeretiella rapae is an aphid parasitoid with potential for use in biological control strategies. However, several recent genetic studies have challenged the long held view that it is a generalist parasitoid. We investigated its ecological specialization and ability to use resources in cultivated and uncultivated areas. Ecological specialization would reduce its ability to exploit the diversity of aphid species, particularly in uncultivated areas, and to control pest aphids. Four D. rapae strains were studied, three reared on pest aphids on Brassicaceae and one strain on a non-pest aphid on Chenopodiaceae...
August 3, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Michio Hori, Mifuyu Nakajima, Hiroki Hata, Masaki Yasugi, Satoshi Takahashi, Masanori Nakae, Kosaku Yamaoka, Masanori Kohda, Jyun-Ichi Kitamura, Masayoshi Maehata, Hirokazu Tanaka, Norihiro Okada, Yuichi Takeuchi
Laterality has been studied in several vertebrates, mainly in terms of brain lateralization and behavioral laterality, but morphological asymmetry has not been extensively investigated. Asymmetry in fishes was first described in scale-eating cichlids from Lake Tanganyika, in the form of bilateral dimorphism in which some individuals, when opening their mouths, twist them to the right and others to the left. This asymmetry has a genetic basis, and is correlated with lateralized attack behaviors. This has subsequently been found in fishes from numerous taxa with various feeding habits...
August 2017: Zoological Science
Borja Milá, James L Van Tassell, Jatziri A Calderón, Lukas Rüber, Rafael Zardoya
The adaptive radiation of the seven-spined gobies (Gobiidae: Gobiosomatini) represents a classic example of how ecological specialization and larval retention can drive speciation through local adaptation. However, geographically widespread and phenotypically uniform species also do occur within Gobiosomatini. This lack of phenotypic variation across large geographic areas could be due to recent colonization, widespread gene flow, or stabilizing selection acting across environmental gradients. We use a phylogeographic approach to test these alternative hypotheses in the naked goby Gobiosoma bosc, a widespread and phenotypically invariable intertidal fish found along the Atlantic Coast of North America...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Karin Voigtländer, Etienne Iorio, Peter Decker, Jörg Spelda
The widespread European centipede species Lithobius (Monotarsobius) crassipes L. Koch, 1862 was revised using an integrative approach incorporating sequence data and morphology. The partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcoding gene was amplified and sequenced for 21 individuals from northern Spain, France and Germany as well as for individuals of three other species of the subgenus Monotarsobius Verhoeff, 1905. The dataset was used for molecular phylogenetic analysis and genetic distance determination...
2017: ZooKeys
Henrique M Rodrigues, Julio Rivera, Neil Reid, Gavin J Svenson
We present the description of a new genus and new species of praying mantis, Hondurantemna chespiritoigen. n. & sp. n. This species of cryptic mantis, collected in National parks in Mexico and Honduras, remained unknown despite its considerable body size. Based on a phylogenetic analysis with molecular data and traditional morphological analysis, we place this new genus within Antemninae, a monotypic Mantidae subfamily. We update the subfamily concept for Antemninae and provide a key to the two genera. We describe the external morphology of immatures and adults of the new species as well as the genital complexes of both sexes and the ootheca of Antemna rapax...
2017: ZooKeys
Ionuţ Ştefan Iorgu, Elena Iulia Iorgu, Gergely Szövényi, Kirill Márk Orci
A new, morphologically cryptic species of phaneropterine bush-crickets is described from the grasslands of the Romanian Eastern Carpathians. Despite the morphological and acoustic similarities with the recently described Isophya nagyi Szövényi, Puskás & Orci, I. bucovinensissp. n. is characterized by a peculiar male calling song, with faster syllable repetition rate (160-220 syllables per minute, at 22-27°C) and less complex syllable structure (composed of only two elements instead of three observable in I...
2017: ZooKeys
Misbah Ullah, Zhaofu Yang, Pingping Qiao, Yalin Zhang
Nagiella occultalis Misbah & Yang, sp. n. from China is described and illustrated. This new species is very similar to N. quadrimaculalis (Kollar, 1844) in general morphological characters of forewing and male genitalia. Molecular evidence shows that these two species diverge in COI barcode region by more than 3.2%. Sequence divergence among the two species is congruent with subtle morphological differences. Wing venation and male genitalia of the two species are compared and illustrated.
2017: ZooKeys
Matthias Seidel, Mary L Jameson, Rachel L Stone
The Neotropical scarab beetle genus Mesomerodon Ohaus (Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae: Rutelini) is distributed in the western (lowland) Amazonian region from Colombia to Bolivia. Based on our research, the genus includes three species including a new cryptic species from Ecuador. We use niche modeling to predict potential suitable habitat and identify environmental factors associated with the distribution of Mesomerodon species. We characterize the genus, provide a key to species, diagnose each species, describe a new species, provide spatial and temporal distributions, and discuss distributions of the species in relation to Amazonian landscape biodiversity...
2017: ZooKeys
Cristian Fernando Beza-Beza, James Beck, Pedro Reyes-Castillo, Mary Liz Jameson
Yumtaax Boucher (Coleoptera: Passalidae) is an endemic genus from the temperate sierras of Mexico and includes six narrowly distributed species. Yumtaax species have been assigned to several genera of Passalidae throughout history, and a phylogenetic approach is necessary to understand species delimitation and interspecific relationships. This study reconstructed the molecular phylogeny of six Yumtaax morphotypes using parsimony and Bayesian analysis of DNA sequence data from the ribosomal nuclear gene region 28S and the mitochondrial gene regions 12S and cytochrome oxidase I (COI) in addition to morphological characters...
2017: ZooKeys
Marc Simó-Riudalbas, Margarita Metallinou, Philip de Pous, Johannes Els, Sithum Jayasinghe, Erika Péntek-Zakar, Thomas Wilms, Saleh Al-Saadi, Salvador Carranza
The Hajar Mountains of south-eastern Arabia form an isolated massif surrounded by the sea to the east and by a large desert to the west. As a result of their old geological origin, geographical isolation, complex topography and local climate, these mountains provide an important refuge for endemic and relict species of plants and animals. With 19 species restricted to the Hajar Mountains, reptiles are the vertebrate group with the highest level of endemicity, becoming an excellent model for understanding the patterns and processes that generate and shape diversity in this arid mountain range...
2017: PloS One
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