Read by QxMD icon Read

Cryptic species

Eugeniya I Bekker, Dmitry P Karabanov, Yan R Galimov, Christoph R Haag, Tatiana V Neretina, Alexey A Kotov
Species with a large geographic distributions present a challenge for phylogeographic studies due to logistic difficulties of obtaining adequate sampling. For instance, in most species with a Holarctic distribution, the majority of studies has concentrated on the European or North American part of the distribution, with the Eastern Palearctic region being notably understudied. Here, we study the phylogeography of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna Straus, 1820 (Crustacea: Cladocera), based on partial mitochondrial COI sequences and using specimens from populations spread longitudinally from westernmost Europe to easternmost Asia, with many samples from previously strongly understudied regions in Siberia and Eastern Asia...
2018: PloS One
Stephen S Curran, Eric E Pulis, Michael J Andres, Robin M Oversteet
Two cryptic species of haploporid digeneans belonging in Saccocoelioides are described from Costa Rica; one from a poeciliid fish Poecilia gillii and the other from a characid fish, Astyanx aeneus. Traditional morphological features are examined and found to be largely inefficient for differentiate among new species and 20 New World congeners. Comparison of ribosomal DNA sequences among the 2 new species, 2 North American, 4 Middle American, and 3 South American species of Saccocoelioides, including the type-species Saccocoelioides nanii from Argentina and Saccocoelioides sogandaresi from Texas, is effective for differentiating among these species...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Leila M Lopes-Bezerra, Hector M Mora-Montes, Yu Zhang, Gustavo Nino-Vega, Anderson Messias Rodrigues, Zoilo Pires de Camargo, Sybren de Hoog
The description of cryptic species with different pathogenic potentials has changed the perspectives on sporotrichosis. Sporothrix schenckii causes a benign chronic subcutaneous mycosis, Sporothrix brasiliensis is highly virulent, and Sporothrix globosa mainly causes fixed cutaneous lesions. Furthermore, S. brasiliensis is the prevalent species related to cat-transmitted sporotrichosis. Sources of infection, transmission, and distribution patterns also differ between species, and variability differs between species because of different degrees of clonality...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
M Anouk Goedknegt, David W Thieltges, Jaap van der Meer, K Mathias Wegner, Pieternella C Luttikhuizen
Despite their frequent occurrence and strong impacts on native biota, biological invasions can long remain undetected. One reason for this is that an invasive species can be morphologically similar to either native species or introduced species previously established in the same region, and thus be subject to mistaken identification. One recent case involves congeneric invasive parasites, copepods that now infect bivalve hosts along European Atlantic coasts, after having been introduced independently first from the Mediterranean Sea (Mytilicola intestinalis Steuer, 1902) and later from Japan (Mytilicola orientalis Mori, 1935)...
2018: PloS One
Emily K Herman, Lyto Yiangou, Diego M Cantoni, Christopher N Miller, Francine Marciano-Cabral, Erin Anthonyrajah, Joel B Dacks, Anastasios D Tsaousis
Although the Golgi apparatus has a conserved morphology of flattened stacked cisternae in most eukaryotes, it has lost the stacked organization in several lineages, raising the question of what range of morphologies is possible for the Golgi. In order to understand this diversity, it is necessary to characterise the Golgi in many different lineages. Here we identify the Golgi apparatus in Naegleria , the first description of an unstacked Golgi organelle in a non-parasitic eukaryote, other than fungi. We provide a comprehensive list of Golgi-associated membrane trafficking genes encoded in two species of Naegleria and show that nearly all are expressed in mouse-passaged N...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Petter Z Marki, Jon Fjeldså, Martin Irestedt, Knud A Jønsson
Detailed knowledge of species limits is an essential component of the study of biodiversity. Although accurate species delimitation usually requires detailed knowledge of both genetic and phenotypic variation, such variation may be limited or unavailable for some groups. In this study, we reconstruct a molecular phylogeny for all currently recognized species and subspecies of Australasian shrikethrushes (Colluricincla), including the first sequences of the poorly known C. tenebrosa. Using a novel method for species delimitation, the multi-rate Poisson Tree Process (mPTP), in concordance with the phylogenetic data, we estimate species limits in this genetically diverse, but phenotypically subtly differentiated complex of birds...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
P Fasura Amorim
The Jenynsia lineata species complex comprises J. lineata from Montevideo, Uruguay and Jenynsia multidentata, from coastal basins of Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina up to 1200 m a.s.l. Taxonomic divisions within this group were tested using three different species delimitation methods, which found the two existing names to be synonyms and revealed a new cryptic species. Jenynsia darwini sp. nov. is distinguished from all congeners by having a unique combination of character states, including the shape of the dorsal postcleithrum (three times higher than wide v...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Paola Pulido-Santacruz, Alexandre Aleixo, Jason T Weir
We possess limited understanding of how speciation unfolds in the most species-rich region of the planet-the Amazon basin. Hybrid zones provide valuable information on the evolution of reproductive isolation, but few studies of Amazonian vertebrate hybrid zones have rigorously examined the genome-wide underpinnings of reproductive isolation. We used genome-wide genetic datasets to show that two deeply diverged, but morphologically cryptic sister species of forest understorey birds show little evidence for prezygotic reproductive isolation, but substantial postzygotic isolation...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
José Ferreira Saraiva, Raimundo Nonato Picanço Souto, Vera Margarete Scarpassa
Recent studies have shown that Anopheles oswaldoi sensu lato comprises a cryptic species complex in South America. Anopheles konderi, which was previously raised to synonymy with An. oswaldoi, has also been suggested to form a species complex. An. oswaldoi has been incriminated as a malaria vector in some areas of the Brazilian Amazon, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela, but was not recognized as a vector in the remaining regions in its geographic distribution. The role of An. konderi as a malaria vector is unknown or has been misattributed to An...
2018: PloS One
Siddharthan Surveswaran, Vinita Gowda, Mei Sun
Spiranthes (∼ 36 species, Orchidaceae) is a small genus with a global distribution. It has a center of diversity in North America with only a few species occurring in Asia. This study focuses on the Asian Spiranthes with an emphasis on understanding their biogeographic relationships and species delimitations using molecular markers. Our phylogenetic trees based on nuclear (ITS) and chloroplast (trnL-trnLF, matK and trnS-G) sequences from samples across their range in Asia revealed the Asian Spiranthes are monophyletic...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
S Taheri, S James, V Roy, T Decaëns, B W Williams, F Anderson, R Rougerie, C-H Chang, G Brown, L Cunha, D W G Stanton, E Da Silva, J-H Chen, A R Lemmon, E Moriarty Lemmon, M Bartz, D Baretta, I Barois, E Lapied, M Coulis, L Dupont
Pontoscolex corethrurus is the most widespread earthworm species in tropical and sub-tropical zones and one of the most studied in soil science. Although, ecological interactions of P. corethrurus with its environment are well documented, the taxonomic status of the species remains unclear. In this study, we investigated phylogenetic relationships within the genus Pontoscolex, in particular focusing on morphologically indistinguishable (i.e., cryptic) lineages. A total of 792 specimens collected from 25 different countries and islands all over the world were analyzed using two mitochondrial (COI and 16S rDNA) and two nuclear (internal transcribed spacers 2 and 28S rDNA) markers, and a total of 11 morphological characters both internal and external were investigated in all genetically characterized lineages...
February 28, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Ryan Catchpole, Aurore Gorlas, Jacques Oberto, Patrick Forterre
Hyperthermophilic microorganisms are an important asset in the toolkits of biotechnologists, biochemists and evolutionary biologists. The anaerobic archaeon, Thermococcus kodakarensis, has become one of the most useful hyperthermophilic model species, not least due to its natural competence and genetic tractability. Despite this, the range of genetic tools available for T. kodakarensis remains limited. Using sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, we determined that the rolling-circle replication origin of the cryptic mini-plasmid pTP2 from T...
March 1, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Tahseen Raza Hashmi, Salam Rita Devi, Naresh M Meshram, Ram Prasad
Endosymbionts are vital factor for arthropod ecology. The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex composed of more than 34 putative species. Moreover to the primary endosymbiont Portiera aleyrodidarum , six secondary endosymbionts Cardinium , Arsenophonus , Rickettsia , Wolbachia, Hamiltonella and Fritschea are known in B . tabaci . Here, we tested four of the six secondary endosymbiont lineages (excluding Fritschea and Hamiltonella ) from 180 whitely individuals collected from six host plants belonging to families Solanaceae (Brinjal, Tomato and Potato) and Fabaceae (Soyabean, Mungbean and Subabool)...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Taylor M Wilcox, Michael K Schwartz, Winsor H Lowe
Ecologists and evolutionary biologists have long been interested in the role of interspecific competition in the diversification of clades. These studies often focus on a single taxonomic group, making the implicit assumption that important competitive interactions occur only between closely related taxa, despite abundant documentation of intense competition between species that are distantly related. Specifically, this assumption ignores convergence of distantly related competitors on limiting niche axes and thus may miss cryptic effects of distantly related competitors on the evolution of focal clades...
February 26, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Natalia Freitas, Tetyana Lukash, Sumedha Gunewardena, Benjamin Chappell, Betty L Slagle, Severin O Gudima
Five matching sets of non-malignant liver tissues and HCCs from individuals chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) were examined. The HBV genomic sequences were determined using overlapping PCR amplicons covering the entire viral genome. Four pairs of tissues were infected with HBV of genotype C, while one pair - with genotype B. HBV replication markers were found in all tissues. In majority of HCC samples, the levels of pre-genomic/pre-core RNA (pgRNA) and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) were lower than those of liver tissue counterparts...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
Shiro Itoi, Yukako Mochizuki, Minori Tanaka, Hikaru Oyama, Tadasuke Tsunashima, Riko Yamada, Hirotoshi Shishido, Yasuji Masuda, Shizuko Nakai, Noriyuki Takai, Hideto Fukushima, Koko Abe, Takahito Kojima, Haruo Sugita
Current literature states that family Scombropidae consists of a single genus Scombrops comprising three species worldwide, with two of them, Scombrops boops and Scombrops gilberti, distributed in the waters around the Japanese Archipelago. Although these two scombropids are commercially important species, little is known about the ecology of these fishes. It is difficult to discriminate between these two species based on external characteristics because of their morphological similarity. Here, we report two different morphotypes characterized by the relative growth between the otolith size and the standard length (SL) of the scombropid specimens caught in southern waters off Kyushu Island, Japan, and show the genetic relationship between the morphotypes by means of phylogenetic analyses using complete DNA sequences of the cytochrome b gene...
February 28, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Rogelio de J Treviño-Rangel, José F Espinosa-Pérez, Hiram Villanueva-Lozano, Alexandra M Montoya, Angel Andrade, Alexandro Bonifaz, Gloria M González
Candida bracarensis is an emerging cryptic species within the Candida glabrata clade. To date, little is known about its epidemiology, virulence, and antifungal susceptibility. This study documents the occurrence of C. bracarensis for the first time in Mexico and focuses on its in vitro production of hydrolytic enzymes, as well as antifungal susceptibility to echinocandins. This strain was isolated from a vaginal swab of a female with vulvovaginal candidosis; exhibited a very strong activity of aspartyl proteinase, phospholipase, and hemolysin; and was susceptible to caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin (MIC = 0...
February 27, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Pierre Gladieux, Bradford Condon, Sebastien Ravel, Darren Soanes, Joao Leodato Nunes Maciel, Antonio Nhani, Li Chen, Ryohei Terauchi, Marc-Henri Lebrun, Didier Tharreau, Thomas Mitchell, Kerry F Pedley, Barbara Valent, Nicholas J Talbot, Mark Farman, Elisabeth Fournier
Delineating species and epidemic lineages in fungal plant pathogens is critical to our understanding of disease emergence and the structure of fungal biodiversity and also informs international regulatory decisions. Pyricularia oryzae (syn. Magnaporthe oryzae ) is a multihost pathogen that infects multiple grasses and cereals, is responsible for the most damaging rice disease (rice blast), and is of growing concern due to the recent introduction of wheat blast to Bangladesh from South America. However, the genetic structure and evolutionary history of M...
February 27, 2018: MBio
James Barber, Lara E Harrup, Rhiannon Silk, Eva Veronesi, Simon Gubbins, Katarzyna Bachanek-Bankowska, Simon Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are responsible for the biological transmission of internationally important arboviruses of livestock. In 2011, a novel Orthobunyavirus was discovered in northern Europe causing congenital malformations and abortions in ruminants. From field studies, Culicoides were implicated in the transmission of this virus which was subsequently named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), but to date no assessment of susceptibility to infection of field populations under standardised laboratory conditions has been carried out...
February 27, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
R F Walker
Based upon evolvability theory, phenotypes like aging that offer no apparent individual benefit may evolve nonetheless. Pursuant to that concept, the evolution of a hypothetical, genome-based aging program called phenoptosis was proposed. However, while aging may facilitate evolvability, it need not result from a program specifically selected for that purpose. Instead, it is possible that the potential for aging is conserved within the genome as a part of a beneficial program that orchestrates and integrates developmental transformation of the soma from conception to maturation...
December 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"