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Cryptic species

Tanner Matson, David L Wagner
A new species of Lactura is described from Texas: Lactura rubritegulasp. n. Identity of the new species can be reliably determined by both larval and adult characters, CO1 haplotypes, and its late-spring period of flight activity. Male genitalic features overlap with those of L. basistriga (Barnes & McDunnough, 1913), whereas female structures differ markedly between the pair. The new Sideroxylon-feeding species, rare in collections, is found principally in limestone areas in the vicinity San Antonio, Texas, westward through the southern Hill Country...
2017: ZooKeys
Eliécer E Gutiérrez, Kristofer M Helgen, Molly M McDonough, Franziska Bauer, Melissa T R Hawkins, Luis A Escobedo-Morales, Bruce D Patterson, Jesús E Maldonado
The taxonomy of American deer has been established almost entirely on the basis of morphological data and without the use of explicit phylogenetic methods; hence, phylogenetic analyses including data for all of the currently recognized species, even if based on a single gene, might improve current understanding of their taxonomy. We tested the monophyly of the morphology-defined genera and species of New World deer (Odocoileini) with phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences. This is the first such test conducted using extensive geographic and taxonomic sampling...
2017: ZooKeys
Vanda Chrenkova, Vit Hubka, Petr Cetkovsky, Michal Kouba, Barbora Weinbergerova, Pavlina Lyskova, Ludmila Hornofova, Petr Hubacek
Invasive fungal disease represents one of the severe complications in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. We describe a case of a patient treated for relapse of chronic lymphoblastic leukaemia 6 years after HSCT. The patient was treated for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis but died 3 months later from multiple organ failures consisting of haemorrhagic necrotizing fungal pneumonia, refractory chronic hepatic graft versus host disease and cytomegalovirus hepatitis. Autopsy samples revealed histopathological evidence of fungal hyphae and an unusual Aspergillus nidulans-like species was isolated in pure culture...
November 11, 2017: Mycopathologia
Hana Blažejová, Oldřich Šebesta, František Rettich, Jan Mendel, Viktória Čabanová, Martina Miterpáková, Lenka Betášová, Juraj Peško, Zdeněk Hubálek, Helge Kampen, Ivo Rudolf
We report the distribution of mosquitoes of the maculipennis complex in two distinct areas of the Czech Republic (Bohemia and South Moravia) and in one locality of neighbouring Slovakia with emphasis on the detection of the newly described cryptic species Anopheles daciae (Linton, Nicolescu & Harbach, 2004). A total of 691 mosquitoes were analysed using a species-specific multiplex PCR assay to differentiate between the members of the maculipennis complex. In the Czech Republic, we found Anopheles maculipennis (with a prevalence rate of 1...
November 8, 2017: Parasitology Research
David T Bilton, Ignacio Ribera
Meladema Laporte, 1835 are relatively large, stream-dwelling diving beetles, distributed widely in the Western Palaearctic, from the Atlantic Islands to Turkey, and from southern France and the Balkans to the central Sahara. In addition to the three previously recognised taxa (M. coriacea Laporte, 1835, M. imbricata (Wollaston, 1871) and M. lanio (Fabricius, 1775)) we describe a new, cryptic, species from the central Mediterranean area, which can be distinguished from M. coriacea on both DNA sequence data and morphology, and provide a key to known species of the genus...
2017: ZooKeys
Koki Yamamoto, Mizuki Hayashishita, Setsuya Minami, Kanji Suzuki, Takumi Hagiwara, Aya Noguchi, Hiroyuki Kawahara
A portion of newly synthesized transmembrane domain proteins tend to fail to assemble correctly in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, thus resulting in the production of a signal sequence-uncleaved form of the defective species. Although the efficient degradation of these mistargeted polypeptides is crucial, the molecular mechanism of their elimination pathway has not been adequately characterized. In this study, we focused on one such cryptic portion of a defective transmembrane domain protein, HLA-A, and show that a part of HLA-A is produced as a signal sequence-uncleaved labile species that is immediately targeted to the degradation pathway...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Marcos de O R da Cruz, Marcelo Weksler
The use of genetic data and tree-based algorithms to delimit evolutionary lineages is becoming an important practice in taxonomic identification, especially in morphologically cryptic groups. The effects of different phylogenetic and/or coalescent models in the analyses of species delimitation, however, are not clear. In this paper, we assess the impact of different evolutionary priors in phylogenetic estimation, species delimitation, and molecular dating of the genus Oligoryzomys (Mammalia: Rodentia), a group with complex taxonomy and morphological cryptic species...
October 28, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Ping Liu, Lei Xu, Shao-Lin Xu, Alejandro Martínez, Hua Chen, Dan Cheng, Henri J Dumont, Bo-Ping Han, Diego Fontaneto
Cladocerans are well-studied planktonic crustaceans, especially those of the genus Daphnia in which interesting evolutionary questions have been addressed on speciation processes. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate that other genera of cladocerans show similar levels of cryptic diversity, intraspecific gene flow, and thus become useful model systems for comparison. In order to do so, we chose the genus Diaphanosoma, widespread in tropical and temperate areas. We started with a survey of species diversity in the genus Diaphanosoma in Asia using a morphological approach, then obtained sequences from a mitochondrial and a nuclear marker from multiple individuals of different species, performed tests on DNA taxonomy and molecular phylogenies, and assessed the role of hybridization in explaining the cases of mitonuclear discordance...
November 2, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
A M Jauset, E Edo-Tena, P M Parés-Casanova, C Castañé, N Agustí, O Alomar
Within the genus Macrolophus (Heteroptera: Miridae), the species M. costalis (Fieber), M. melanotoma (Costa) and M. pygmaeus (Rambur) are present in the Mediterranean region on a wide variety of plant species. While M. costalis can easily be separated from the other two by the black tip at the scutellum, M. pygmaeus and M. melanotoma are cryptic species, extremely similar to one another in external traits, which has resulted in misidentifications. M. pygmaeus is an efficient biological control agent, both in greenhouse and field crops...
November 1, 2017: Insects
Wataru Suehiro, Fujio Hyodo, Hiroshi O Tanaka, Chihiro Himuro, Tomoyuki Yokoi, Shigeto Dobata, Benoit Guénard, Robert R Dunn, Edward L Vargo, Kazuki Tsuji, Kenji Matsuura
Invasions are ecologically destructive and can threaten biodiversity. Trophic flexibility has been proposed as a mechanism facilitating invasion, with more flexible species better able to invade. The termite hunting needle ant Brachyponera chinensis was introduced from East Asia to the United States where it disrupts native ecosystems. We show that B. chinensis has expanded dietary breadth without shifting trophic position in its introduced range. Transect sampling of ants and termites revealed a negative correlation between the abundance of B...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sasha V Siegel, Andrea Rivero, Jenna Oberstaller, Beatrice L Colon, Isaure de Buron, Dennis E Kyle
Aporocotylidae comprises a diverse family of fish blood flukes, with adults found in blood or body cavity of marine, brackish, or freshwater fish. Aporocotylids are unique among the Digenea with many developing in polychaetes. The life cycle has been elucidated for only a few species that develop in polychaetes from marine/brackish environments and none for western Atlantic aporocotylids. The basis for this study was observations of blood fluke larvae in terebellids from South Carolina, USA in 1982 prior to possible usage of molecular tools to specifically identify parasite larvae...
October 31, 2017: Parasitology International
Ujjal Das, Aaveri Sengupta, Sushobhan Biswas, Arghya Adhikary, Rakhi Dey Sharma, Anindita Chakraborty, Sanjit Dey
Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome occurs due to the clonogenic loss of crypt cells and villi depopulation, resulting in disruption of the mucosal barrier, bacterial invasion, inflammation, and sepsis. In this study, we investigated the role of ferulic acid (FA) against ionising radiation-induced duodenal injury and subsequent alterations in redox signalling events in wild type male Swiss albino mice. Mice were administered with FA at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 5 consecutive days prior to exposure of 2...
November 3, 2017: Free Radical Research
Noah H Rose, Rachael A Bay, Megan K Morikawa, Stephen R Palumbi
Closely related species often show substantial differences in ecological traits that allow them to occupy different environmental niches. For few of these systems is it clear what the genomic basis of adaptation is and whether a few loci of major effect or many genome-wide differences drive species divergence. Four cryptic species of the tabletop coral Acropora hyacinthus are broadly sympatric in American Samoa; here we show that two common species have differences in key environmental traits such as microhabitat distributions and thermal stress tolerance...
November 2, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Rupinder Kaur, Stefanos Siozios, Wolfgang J Miller, Omar Rota-Stabelli
Ability to distinguish between closely related Wolbachia strains is crucial for understanding the evolution of Wolbachia-host interactions and the diversity of Wolbachia-induced phenotypes. A useful model to tackle these issues is the Drosophila suzukii - Wolbachia association. D. suzukii, a destructive insect pest, harbor a non-CI inducing Wolbachia 'wSuz' closely related to the strong CI-inducing wRi strain. Multi locus sequence typing (MLST) suggests presence of genetic homogeneity across wSuz strains infecting European and American D...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Isabelle Louradour, Anurag Sharma, Ismael Morin-Poulard, Manon Letourneau, Alain Vincent, Michèle Crozatier, Nathalie Vanzo
Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in the adult mammalian bone marrow ensure blood cell renewal. Their cellular microenvironment, called 'niche', regulates hematopoiesis both under homeostatic and immune stress conditions. In the Drosophila hematopoietic organ, the lymph gland, the posterior signaling center (PSC) acts as a niche to regulate the hematopoietic response to immune stress such as wasp parasitism. This response relies on the differentiation of lamellocytes, a cryptic cell type, dedicated to pathogen encapsulation and killing...
November 1, 2017: ELife
Sangkeun Son, Young-Soo Hong, Mina Jang, Kyung Taek Heo, Byeongsan Lee, Jun-Pil Jang, Jong-Won Kim, In-Ja Ryoo, Won-Gon Kim, Sung-Kyun Ko, Bo Yeon Kim, Jae-Hyuk Jang, Jong Seog Ahn
Analysis of the genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. KCB13F003 showed the presence of a cryptic gene cluster encoding flavin-dependent halogenase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase. Pleiotropic approaches using multiple culture media followed by LC-MS-guided isolation and spectroscopic analysis enabled the identification of two new chlorinated cyclic hexapeptides, ulleungmycins A and B (1 and 2). Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined by 1D and 2D NMR techniques, advanced Marfey's analysis, and GITC derivatization...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
Sondos Samandi, Annie V Roy, Vivian Delcourt, Jean-François Lucier, Jules Gagnon, Maxime C Beaudoin, Benoît Vanderperre, Marc-André Breton, Julie Motard, Jean-François Jacques, Mylène Brunelle, Isabelle Gagnon-Arsenault, Isabelle Fournier, Aïda Ouangraoua, Darel J Hunting, Alan A Cohen, Christian R Landry, Michelle S Scott, Xavier Roucou
Recent functional, proteomic and ribosome profiling studies in eukaryotes have concurrently demonstrated the translation of alternative open reading frames (altORFs) in addition to annotated protein coding sequences (CDSs). We show that a large number of small proteins could in fact be coded by these altORFs. The putative alternative proteins translated from altORFs have orthologs in many species and contain functional domains. Evolutionary analyses indicate that altORFs often show more extreme conservation patterns than their CDSs...
October 30, 2017: ELife
Diana L Zuza-Alves, Walicyranison P Silva-Rocha, Guilherme M Chaves
Candida tropicalis has emerged as one of the most important Candida species. It has been widely considered the second most virulent Candida species, only preceded by C. albicans. Besides, this species has been recognized as a very strong biofilm producer, surpassing C. albicans in most of the studies. In addition, it produces a wide range of other virulence factors, including: adhesion to buccal epithelial and endothelial cells; the secretion of lytic enzymes, such as proteinases, phospholipases, and hemolysins, bud-to-hyphae transition (also called morphogenesis) and the phenomenon called phenotypic switching...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bautisse Postaire, Pauline Gélin, J Henrich Bruggemann, Marine Pratlong, Hélène Magalon
Assessing population connectivity is necessary to construct effective marine protected areas. This connectivity depends, among other parameters, inherently on species dispersal capacities. Isolation by distance (IBD) is one of the main modes of differentiation in marine species, above all in species presenting low dispersal abilities. This study reports the genetic structuring in the tropical hydrozoan Macrorhynchia phoenicea α (sensu Postaire et al., 2016a), a brooding species, from 30 sampling sites in the Western Indian Ocean and the Tropical Southwestern Pacific, using 15 microsatellite loci...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Jorge L Ramirez, Jose L Birindelli, Daniel C Carvalho, Paulo R A M Affonso, Paulo C Venere, Hernán Ortega, Mauricio Carrillo-Avila, José A Rodríguez-Pulido, Pedro M Galetti
Molecular studies have improved our knowledge on the neotropical ichthyofauna. DNA barcoding has successfully been used in fish species identification and in detecting cryptic diversity. Megaleporinus (Anostomidae) is a recently described freshwater fish genus within which taxonomic uncertainties remain. Here we assessed all nominal species of this genus using a DNA barcode approach (Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I) with a broad sampling to generate a reference library, characterize new molecular lineages, and test the hypothesis that some of the nominal species represent species complexes...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
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