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Cryptic species

Shun-Ichiro Takano, Midori Tuda, Keiji Takasu, Naruto Furuya, Yuya Imamura, Sangwan Kim, Kosuke Tashiro, Kazuhiro Iiyama, Matias Tavares, Acacio Cardoso Amaral
Maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts in arthropods manipulate host reproduction to increase the fitness of infected females. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is one such manipulation, in which uninfected females produce few or no offspring when they mate with infected males. To date, two bacterial endosymbionts, Wolbachia and Cardinium, have been reported as CI inducers. Only Wolbachia induces complete CI, which causes 100% offspring mortality in incompatible crosses. Here we report a third CI inducer that belongs to a unique clade of Alphaproteobacteria detected within the coconut beetle, Brontispa longissima This beetle comprises two cryptic species, the Asian clade and the Pacific clade, which show incompatibility in hybrid crosses...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dragoş Postolache, Flaviu Popescu, Ladislav Paule, Dalibor Ballian, Peter Zhelev, Sorina Fărcaş, Juraj Paule, Ovidiu Badea
The Balkan Peninsula is one of the largest and most important European glacial refugia. However, the evolutionary history and phylogeographic pattern of temperate tree species that survived in the Balkans glacial refugia and their contribution to the genetic structure of the current population in the Carpathian Mountains remains poorly understood. Using polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and extensive population sampling, we explored the phylogeographic pattern of Carpinus betulus in both the Balkan Peninsula and the Carpathian region...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Peng Zhang, Xiuna Wang, Aili Fan, Yanjing Zheng, Xingzhong Liu, Shihua Wang, Huixi Zou, Berl R Oakley, Nancy P Keller, Wen-Bing Yin
Spore pigmentation is very common in the fungal kingdom. The best studied pigment in fungi is melanin which coats the surface of single cell spores. What and how pigments function in a fungal species with multiple cell conidia is poorly understood. Here, we identified and deleted a polyketide synthase (PKS) gene PfmaE and showed that it is essential for multicellular conidial pigmentation and development in a plant endophytic fungus, Pestalotiopsis fici. To further characterize the melanin pathway, we utilized an advanced Aspergillus nidulans heterologous system for the expression of the PKS PfmaE and the Pfma gene cluster...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
Magdalena Olson, Timothy Harris, Rebecca Higgins, Peter Mullin, Kirsten Powers, Sean Olson, Thomas O Powers
Nematode surveys of North American grasslands conducted from 2010 to 2015 frequently recovered a species of criconematid nematode morphologically resembling Mesocriconema curvatum. These specimens were recovered from remnant native prairies in the central tallgrass ecoregion of North America, and not from surrounding agroecosystems. Historical records indicate that M. curvatum is a cosmopolitan species feeding on a wide range of agronomic and native plants. DNA barcoding indicates North American grasslands contain at least 10 phylogenetically distinct lineages of Mesocriconema that resemble, but are not, M...
March 2017: Journal of Nematology
Jiao Cheng, Zhong-Li Sha
Mounting evidence of cryptic species in the marine realm emphasizes the necessity to thoroughly revise our current perceptions of marine biodiversity and species distributions. Here, we used mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtDNA COI) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrDNA ITS) to investigate cryptic diversity and potential hybridization in the Japanese mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria in the Northwestern (NW) Pacific. Both mitochondrial and nuclear gene genealogies revealed two cryptic species in this morphotaxon, which was further confirmed by extensive population-level analyses...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jennafer A P Hamlin, Natasha A Sherman, Leonie C Moyle
Recognition and rejection of heterospecific male gametes occurs in a broad range of taxa, although the complexity of mechanisms underlying these components of postmating cryptic female choice is poorly understood. In plants, the arena for postmating interactions is the female reproductive tract (pistil), within which heterospecific pollen tube growth can be arrested via active molecular recognition and rejection. Unilateral incompatibility (UI) is one such postmating barrier in which pollen arrest occurs in only one direction of an interspecific cross...
May 16, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Sílvia Anglès, Albert Reñé, Esther Garcés, Antonella Lugliè, Nicola Sechi, Jordi Camp, Cecilia Teodora Satta
Bysmatrum subsalsum is a cosmopolitan dinoflagellate species that inhabits marine and transitional habitats. Despite its wide distribution, information on the morphological variability, phylogeny and ecology of B. subsalsum is scarce. In this study, we provide morphological and molecular data on B. subsalsum strains and wild cells from different locations in the Mediterranean Basin. The dynamics of cell abundances and the associated environmental conditions during a field bloom are also described. Genetic sequences of B...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Evgeniy S Gusev, Dora Čertnerová, Magda Škaloudová, Pavel Škaloud
A complex of closely related Mallomonas taxa belonging to the section Papillosae, M. kalinae Řezáčová and M. rasilis Dürrschmidt, have been studied in detail by molecular and morphometric methods. Our investigations uncovered the existence of a new species found in water bodies in Vietnam, which we describe here as Mallomonas furtiva sp. nov. This taxon is morphologically very similar to M. kalinae, from which it differs by minute, but statistically significant morphological differences on the structure of silica scales...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
C J Battey, John Klicka
Migratory species that alternate between sympatry and allopatry over the course of an annual cycle are promising subjects for studies seeking to understand the process of speciation in the absence of strict geographic isolation. Here we sought to identify cryptic species and assess rates of gene flow in a clade of neotropical migrant songbirds in which geography and taxonomy are currently out of sync: the Red-Eyed Vireo (V. olivaceus) Species Complex. Phylogenetic, clustering, and statistical species delimitation analyses found that V...
May 12, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Nathaniel S R Ng, Peter R Wilton, Dewi Malia Prawiradilaga, Ywee Chieh Tay, Mochamad Indrawan, Kritika M Garg, Frank E Rheindt
The role of Pleistocene Ice Age in tropical diversification is poorly understood, especially in archipelagos, in which glaciation-induced sea level fluctuations may lead to complicated changes in land distribution. To assess how Pleistocene land bridges may have facilitated gene flow in tropical archipelagos, we investigated patterns of diversification in the rarely-collected rusty-bellied fantail Rhipidura teysmanni (Passeriformes: Rhipiduridae) complex from Wallacea using a combination of bioacoustic traits and whole-genome sequencing methods (dd-RADSeq)...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Aloisie Poulíčková, Markéta Letáková, Petr Hašler, Eileen Cox, Martin Duchoslav
The popularity of aquatic bioassessments has increased in Europe and worldwide, with a considerable number of methods being based on benthic diatoms. Recent evidence from molecular data and mating experiments has shown that some traditional diatom morphospecies represent species complexes, containing several to many cryptic species. This case study is based on epiphytic diatom and environmental data from shallow fishponds, investigating whether the recognition and use of fine taxonomic resolution (cryptic species) can improve assessment of community response to environmental drivers and increase sharpness of classification, compared to coarse taxonomic resolution (genus level and species level with unresolved species complexes)...
May 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
R E O'Connor, G Fonseka, R Frodsham, A L Archibald, M Lawrie, G A Walling, D K Griffin
Balanced chromosomal aberrations have been shown to affect fertility in most species studied, often leading to hypoprolificacy (reduced litter size) in domestic animals such as pigs. With an increasing emphasis in modern food production on the use of a small population of high quality males for artificial insemination, the potential economic and environmental costs of hypoprolific boars, bulls, rams etc. are considerable. There is therefore a need for novel tools to facilitate rapid, cost-effective chromosome translocation screening...
May 12, 2017: Animal Genetics
Philip Bertrand, Jeff Bowman, Rodney J Dyer, Micheline Manseau, Paul J Wilson
Sex-specific genetic structure is a commonly observed pattern among vertebrate species. Facing differential selective pressures, individuals may adopt sex-specific life history traits that ultimately shape genetic variation among populations. Although differential dispersal dynamics are commonly detected in the literature, few studies have used genetic structure to investigate sex-specific functional connectivity. The recent use of graph theoretic approaches in landscape genetics has demonstrated network capacities to describe complex system behaviors where network topology represents genetic interaction among sub-units...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Daniel F Marchán, Rosa Fernández, Irene de Sosa, Darío J Díaz Cosín, Marta Novo
Spatial and temporal aspects of the evolution of cryptic species complexes have received less attention than species delimitation within them. The phylogeography of the cryptic complex Hormogaster elisae (Oligochaeta, Hormogastridae) lacks knowledge on several aspects, including the small-scale distribution of its lineages or the palaeogeographic context of their diversification. To shed light on these topics, a dense specimen collection was performed in the center of the Iberian Peninsula - resulting in 28 new H...
May 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Maria Emilia Cattana, Catiana Dudiuk, Mariana Fernández, Florencia Rojas, Liliana Alegre, Susana Córdoba, Guillermo García-Effron, Gustavo Giusiano
A total of 59 C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and 1 C. orthopsilosis recovered from catheters and blood cultures of pediatric patients of the Northeastern region of Argentina were studied. Susceptibility to azoles, amphotericin B, and echinocandins were tested by broth microdilution method. According to CLSI clinical breakpoints, more than 91% of the strains were azole-susceptible while 15% showed high amphotericin B MICs.
May 8, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Marco Pezzi, Marilena Leis, Milvia Chicca, Lise Roy
Among Gamasina (Acari: Mesostigmata) mites, some dermanyssoid species are known to cause gamasoidosis, a human dermatitis characterized by papulosquamous eruptions and urticarian lesions. We describe a case of mite infestation which occurred in public conference halls in Ferrara (Italy), affecting four people who attended the place and showed signs of gamasoidosis. The mites were collected and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy and mitochondrial DNA sequencing (Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I partial CDS)...
May 5, 2017: Parasitology International
Manish Kohli, Yeung Ho, David W Hillman, Jamie L Van Etten, Christine Henzler, Rendong Yang, Jame M Sperger, Yingming Li, Elizabeth Tseng, Ting Hon, Tyson Clark, Winston Tan, Rachel E Carlson, Liguo Wang, Hugues Sicotte, Ho Thai, Rafael Jimenez, Haojie Huang, Peter T Vedell, Bruce W Eckloff, J Fernando Quevedo, Henry C Pitot, Brian Costello, Jin Jen, Eric D Wieben, Kevin A T Silverstein, Joshua M Lang, Liewei Wang, Scott M Dehm
Purpose: Androgen receptor (AR) variant AR-V7 is a ligand-independent transcription factor that promotes prostate cancer resistance to AR-targeted therapies.  Accordingly, efforts are underway to develop strategies for monitoring and inhibiting AR-V7 in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).  The purpose of this study was to understand whether other AR variants may be co-expressed with AR-V7 and promote resistance to AR-targeted therapies.<br /><br /> Experimental Design:  We utilized complementary short- and long-read sequencing of intact AR mRNA isoforms to characterize AR expression in CRPC models...
May 4, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Catherine S McFadden, Roxanne Haverkort-Yeh, Alexandra M Reynolds, Anna Halàsz, Andrea M Quattrini, Zac H Forsman, Yehuda Benayahu, Robert J Toonen
The development of coalescent-based and other multilocus methods for species delimitation has facilitated the identification of cryptic species complexes across the tree of life. A recent taxonomic revision of the ecologically important soft coral genus Ovabunda validated 11morphospecies, all with type localities and overlapping geographic ranges in the Red Sea. A subsequent molecular phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial and 28S nrDNA genes divided the genus into just two clades, with no apparent genetic distinctions among morphospecies...
April 30, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Rui Zhang, Gregory M Mueller, Xiao-Fei Shi, Pei-Gui Liu
Suillus spraguei, synonym S. pictus, has been reported from eastern North America and eastern Asia associated with Pinus subgenus Strobus. Published phylogenetic analyses of rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence and population genetic studies indicated that S. spraguei as currently circumscribed might contain several geographically distinct species. This study examined this possibility through a multigene analysis of S. spraguei specimens from eastern North America and eastern Asia. These specimens were associated with Pinus strobus, P...
April 19, 2017: Mycologia
Yen-Po Lin, Robert D Edwards, Takumasa Kondo, Thomas L Semple, Lyn G Cook
Asexual lineages provide a challenge to species delimitation because species concepts either have little biological meaning for them or are arbitrary, since every individual is monophyletic and reproductively isolated from all other individuals. However, recognition and naming of asexual species is important to conservation and economic applications. Some scale insects are widespread and polyphagous pests of plants, and several species have been found to comprise cryptic species complexes. Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner, 1861) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) is a parthenogenetic, cosmopolitan and polyphagous pest that feeds on plant species from more than 80 families...
2017: PloS One
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