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Timothy D Hackenberg
The present paper provides an integrative review of research on token reinforcement systems, organized in relation to basic behavioral functions and economic variables. This type of functional taxonomy provides a useful way to organize the literature, bringing order to a wide range of findings across species and settings, and revealing gaps in the research and areas especially ripe for analysis and application. Unlike standard translational research, based on a unidirectional model in which the analysis moves from laboratory to the applied realm, work in the area of token systems is best served by a bidirectional interplay between laboratory and applied research, where applied questions inspire research on basic mechanisms...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Catherine Reeb, Jaap Kaandorp, Fredrik Jansson, Nicolas Puillandre, Jean-Yves Dubuisson, Raphaël Cornette, Florian Jabbour, Yoan Coudert, Jairo Patiño, Jean-François Flot, Alain Vanderpoorten
Morphometrics, the assignment of quantities to biological shapes, is a powerful tool to address taxonomic, evolutionary, functional and developmental questions. We propose a novel method for shape quantification of complex modular architecture in thalloid plants, whose extremely reduced morphologies, combined with the lack of a formal framework for thallus description, have long rendered taxonomic and evolutionary studies extremely challenging. Using graph theory, thalli are described as hierarchical series of nodes and edges, allowing for accurate, homologous and repeatable measurements of widths, lengths and angles...
February 22, 2018: New Phytologist
Amy J E Healey, Niall J McKeown, Amy L Taylor, Jim Provan, Warwick Sauer, Gavin Gouws, Paul W Shaw
Analysis of genetic variation can provide insights into ecological and evolutionary diversification which, for commercially harvested species, can also be relevant to the implementation of spatial management strategies and sustainability. In comparison with other marine biodiversity hot spots, there has been less genetic research on the fauna of the southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO). This is epitomized by the lack of information for lethrinid fish, which support socioeconomically important fisheries in the region...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Y Zhao, Z Yi, A Warren, W Song
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Andrew Du, Andrew M Zipkin, Kevin G Hatala, Elizabeth Renner, Jennifer L Baker, Serena Bianchi, Kallista H Bernal, Bernard A Wood
A large brain is a defining feature of modern humans, yet there is no consensus regarding the patterns, rates and processes involved in hominin brain size evolution. We use a reliable proxy for brain size in fossils, endocranial volume (ECV), to better understand how brain size evolved at both clade- and lineage-level scales. For the hominin clade overall, the dominant signal is consistent with a gradual increase in brain size. This gradual trend appears to have been generated primarily by processes operating within hypothesized lineages-64% or 88% depending on whether one uses a more or less speciose taxonomy, respectively...
February 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Rachel Ravago-Gotanco, Talna Lorena de la Cruz, Ma Josefa Pante, Philippe Borsa
The taxonomy of the mottled rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens species complex has long been challenging. In this study, we analyzed microsatellite genotypes, mitochondrial lineages, and morphometric data from 373 S. fuscescens individuals sampled from the northern Philippines and Hong Kong (South China Sea, Philippine Sea and Sulu Sea basins), to examine putative species boundaries in samples comprising three co-occurring mitochondrial lineages previously reported to characterize S. fuscescens (Clade A and Clade B) or S...
2018: PloS One
Hugh A Stoddard, Erica D Brownfield
PROBLEM: Undergraduate medical education (UME) has trended toward outcomes-based education, unveiling new issues for UME program organization and leadership. Using a common language for categorizing and linking all program components is essential. The Emory Curriculum Alignment Taxonomy (ECAT) was designed as a common vocabulary for curriculum mapping in the outcomes-based environment of the Emory University School of Medicine. APPROACH: The ECAT, developed in 2016, uses a set of 291 controlled identifiers, or "tags," to describe every educational activity's content, instruction, assessment, and outcomes, and thereby to align teaching inputs with student outcomes...
February 20, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Peter J Walker, Kim R Blasdell, Charles H Calisher, Ralf G Dietzgen, Hideki Kondo, Gael Kurath, Ben Longdon, David M Stone, Robert B Tesh, Noël Tordo, Nikos Vasilakis, Anna E Whitfield, Ictv Report Consortium
The family Rhabdoviridae comprises viruses with negative-sense (-) single-stranded RNA genomes of 10.8-16.1 kb. Virions are typically enveloped with bullet-shaped or bacilliform morphology but can also be non-enveloped filaments. Rhabdoviruses infect plants and animals including mammals, birds, reptiles and fish, as well as arthropods which serve as single hosts or act as biological vectors for transmission to animals or plants. Rhabdoviruses include important pathogens of humans, livestock, fish and agricultural crops...
February 19, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Guillermo Barturen, Lorenzo Beretta, Ricard Cervera, Ronald Van Vollenhoven, Marta E Alarcón-Riquelme
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nrrheum.2017.220.
February 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
Katarzyna A Campbell, Libby Fergie, Tom Coleman-Haynes, Sue Cooper, Fabiana Lorencatto, Michael Ussher, Jane Dyas, Tim Coleman
Behavioral support interventions are used to help pregnant smokers stop; however, of those tested, few are proven effective. Systematic research developing effective pregnancy-specific behavior change techniques (BCTs) is ongoing. This paper reports contributory work identifying potentially-effective BCTs relative to known important barriers and facilitators (B&Fs) to smoking cessation in pregnancy; to detect priority areas for BCTs development. A Nominal Group Technique with cessation experts ( n = 12) elicited an expert consensus on B&Fs most influencing women's smoking cessation and those most modifiable through behavioral support...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Muhammad F Amith, Zhe He, Jiang Bian, Juan Antonio Lossio-Ventura, Cui Tao
With the proliferation of heterogeneous health care data in the last three decades, biomedical ontologies and controlled biomedical terminologies play a more and more important role in knowledge representation and management, data integration, natural language processing, as well as decision support for health information systems and biomedical research. Biomedical ontologies and controlled terminologies are intended to assure interoperability. Nevertheless, the quality of biomedical ontologies has hindered their applicability and subsequent adoption in real-world applications...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Massimo Giangaspero, Claudio Apicella
Pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 species is responsible for cosmopolitan diseases affecting cattle and other ruminants, presenting a wide range of clinical manifestations, with relevant impact on zootechnic production. Understanding genomic characteristic and virus taxonomy is fundamental in order to sustain control and prophylactic programs. Given the recent various studies reporting a relatively high number of new strains, in particular from Asian countries, in the present study, four hundred-eighty-two genomic sequences have been evaluated applying the palindromic nucleotide substitutions method for genotyping...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Dominik Vondráček, Aneta Fuchsová, Dirk Ahrens, David Král, Petr Šípek
The development of modern methods of species delimitation, unified under the "integrated taxonomy" approach, allows a critical examination and re-evaluation of complex taxonomic groups. The rose chafer Protaetia (Potosia) cuprea is a highly polymorphic species group with a large distribution range. Despite its overall commonness, its taxonomy is unclear and subject to conflicting hypotheses, most of which largely fail to account for its evolutionary history. Based on the sequences of two mitochondrial markers from 65 individuals collected across the species range, and a detailed analysis of morphological characters including a geometric morphometry approach, we infer the evolutionary history and phylogeography of the P...
2018: PloS One
Rutan Zhang, Qin Qin, Baohong Liu, Liang Qiao
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most serious problems affecting public health and safety. It is crucial to understand antimicrobial resistance from molecular level. In this work, TiO2 assisted laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry (MS) was used for fast metabolites analysis from intact bacterial cells to discriminate different strains of bacteria and to detect AMR. With the mass spectra of bacterial metabolites by TiO2 -LDI MS, multivariable analysis was performed for bacterial identification to find out distinctive metabolites as potential biomarkers...
February 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Scott Parrigon, Sang Eun Woo, Louis Tay
The two commentaries to the CAPTION derivation paper (Parrigon, Woo, Tay, & Wang, 2017) provided insightful points regarding the consistency of emergent dimensional structures in the extant literature (Rauthmann & Sherman, 2018, p. 482) and potential concerns regarding the use of the lexical approach to identify psychologically important situation dimensions (Reis, 2018, p. 489). In this rejoinder, we seek to further these important discussions by (a) emphasizing the importance of Typicality in understanding a broad range of psychological processes, (b) clarifying the utility of broad, dimensional-based situation taxonomies such as the CAPTION model for providing key theoretical and empirical linkages across discrete situations, as well as for capturing a broad range of psychologically meaningful dimensions of situations, and (c) reaffirming the need for cross-cultural/language and facet-level investigations of the CAPTION dimensions in future research...
March 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Harry T Reis
The recent advent of methods for large-scale data collection has provided an unprecedented opportunity for researchers who seek to develop a taxonomy of situations. Parrigon, Woo, Tay, and Wang's (2017) CAPTIONs model is the latest such effort. In this comment, I argue that although bottom-up approaches of this sort have clear value, they are unlikely to provide the sort of definitive, comprehensive, and theoretically integrative taxonomy that the field wants and needs. In large part, this is because bottom-up taxonomies represent what is common about situations and not what is theoretically important and influential about them...
March 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
John F Rauthmann, Ryne A Sherman
Using the most comprehensive lexical approach with English adjectives to date, Parrigon et al. (2017) found 7 major dimensions of psychological situation characteristics (CAPTION: Complexity, Adversity, Positive Valence, Typicality, Importance, humOr, Negative Valence). Researchers using or studying situations may be interested in how well these dimensions empirically overlap with dimensions from other taxonomies, such as the DIAMONDS (Duty, Intellect, Adversity, Mating, pOsitivity, Negativity, Deception, Sociality)...
March 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
David Prangishvili, Tomohiro Mochizuki, Mart Krupovic, Ictv Report Consortium
Guttaviridae is a family of enveloped viruses infecting hyperthermophilic archaea. The virions are ovoid or droplet-shaped, with a diameter of 55-80 nm and a length of 75-130 nm. The genome is a circular dsDNA molecule of around 14-20 kbp. The droplet-shaped morphology is unprecedented among viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes and represents a group of archaea-specific virion morphotypes. The family includes two genera, Alphaguttavirus and Betaguttavirus, each with a single species. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of Guttaviridae, which is available at www...
February 8, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Jingjing Sun, Mengxin Xing, Wei Wang, Fangqun Dai, Junzhong Liu, Jianhua Hao
A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, red-pigmented, aerobic bacterium, strain M2T , was isolated from a seawater sample collected from the western Pacific Ocean at a depth of 1000 m and characterized using polyphasic taxonomy. Strain M2T was catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Cells grew at 4-33 °C (optimum, 25 °C), at pH 6-9 (optimum, 7) and with 0-4 % (w/v) (optimum, 1 %) NaCl. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain M2T was associated with the genus Hymenobacter. Strain M2T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Hymenobacter actinosclerus CCUG 39621T (95...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Peter Simmonds
Species definitions of viruses are frequently descriptive, with assignments often being based on their disease manifestations, host range, geographical distribution and transmission routes. This method of categorizing viruses has recently been challenged by technology advances, such as high-throughput sequencing. These have dramatically increased knowledge of viral diversity in the wider environment that dwarfs the current catalogue of viruses classified by the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV)...
February 6, 2018: Journal of General Virology
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