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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036894/how-can-data-drive-policy-and-practice-in-child-welfare-making-the-link-in-canada
#1
Barbara Fallon, Joanne Filippelli, Tara Black, Nico Trocmé, Tonino Esposito
Formal university-child welfare partnerships offer a unique opportunity to begin to fill the gaps in the child welfare knowledge base and link child welfare services to the realities of practice. With resources from a knowledge mobilization grant, a formal partnership was developed between the University of Toronto, clinicians, policy analysts, and researchers from child welfare agencies across Ontario. The key objectives of the grant included: (1) enhancing the capacity of service providers to access and analyze child welfare data to inform service and policy decisions; (2) integrating clinical expertise in service and policy decisions; and (3) developing a joint research agenda addressing high-priority knowledge gaps...
October 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036676/anti-crisprdb-a-comprehensive-online-resource-for-anti-crispr-proteins
#2
Chuan Dong, Ge-Fei Hao, Hong-Li Hua, Shuo Liu, Abraham Alemayehu Labena, Guoshi Chai, Jian Huang, Nini Rao, Feng-Biao Guo
CRISPR-Cas is a tool that is widely used for gene editing. However, unexpected off-target effects may occur as a result of long-term nuclease activity. Anti-CRISPR proteins, which are powerful molecules that inhibit the CRISPR-Cas system, may have the potential to promote better utilization of the CRISPR-Cas system in gene editing, especially for gene therapy. Additionally, more in-depth research on these proteins would help researchers to better understand the co-evolution of bacteria and phages. Therefore, it is necessary to collect and integrate data on various types of anti-CRISPRs...
September 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036529/itsonedb-a-comprehensive-collection-of-eukaryotic-ribosomal-rna-internal-transcribed-spacer-1-its1-sequences
#3
Monica Santamaria, Bruno Fosso, Flavio Licciulli, Bachir Balech, Ilaria Larini, Giorgio Grillo, Giorgio De Caro, Sabino Liuni, Graziano Pesole
A holistic understanding of environmental communities is the new challenge of metagenomics. Accordingly, the amplicon-based or metabarcoding approach, largely applied to investigate bacterial microbiomes, is moving to the eukaryotic world too. Indeed, the analysis of metabarcoding data may provide a comprehensive assessment of both bacterial and eukaryotic composition in a variety of environments, including human body. In this respect, whereas hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA are the de facto standard barcode for bacteria, the Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) of ribosomal RNA gene cluster has shown a high potential in discriminating eukaryotes at deep taxonomic levels...
September 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036271/cancer-hallmarks-analytics-tool-chat-a-text-mining-approach-to-organize-and-evaluate-scientific-literature-on-cancer
#4
Simon Baker, Imran Ali, Ilona Silins, Sampo Pyysalo, Yufan Guo, Johan Högberg, Ulla Stenius, Anna Korhonen
Motivation: To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in cancer development, significant efforts are being invested in cancer research. This has resulted in millions of scientific articles. An efficient and thorough review of the existing literature is crucially important to drive new research. This time-demanding task can be supported by emerging computational approaches based on text mining which offer a great opportunity to organize and retrieve the desired information efficiently from sizable databases...
July 14, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035326/prebiotic-rna-network-formation-a-taxonomy-of-molecular-cooperation
#5
Cole Mathis, Sanjay N Ramprasad, Sara Imari Walker, Niles Lehman
Cooperation is essential for evolution of biological complexity. Recent work has shown game theoretic arguments, commonly used to model biological cooperation, can also illuminate the dynamics of chemical systems. Here we investigate the types of cooperation possible in a real RNA system based on the Azoarcus ribozyme, by constructing a taxonomy of possible cooperative groups. We construct a computational model of this system to investigate the features of the real system promoting cooperation. We find triplet interactions among genotypes are intrinsically biased towards cooperation due to the particular distribution of catalytic rate constants measured empirically in the real system...
October 16, 2017: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034955/a-review-of-issues-of-nomenclature-and-taxonomy-of-hypericum-perforatum-l-and-kew-s-medicinal-plant-names-services
#6
REVIEW
Elizabeth Anne Dauncey, Jason Thomas Whitley Irving, Robert Allkin
OBJECTIVES: To review which names are used to refer to Hypericum perforatum L. in health regulation and medicinal plant references, and the potential for ambiguity or imprecision. KEY FINDINGS: Structured searches of Kew's Medicinal Plant Names Services Resource, supplemented with other online bibliographic resources, found that the scientific name Hypericum perforatum L. is used consistently in the literature, but variation between subspecies is rarely considered by researchers...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034857/minimal-standards-for-describing-new-species-belonging-to-the-families-campylobacteraceae-and-helicobacteraceae-campylobacter-arcobacter-helicobacter-and-wolinella-spp
#7
Stephen L W On, William G Miller, Kurt Houf, James G Fox, Peter Vandamme
Ongoing changes in taxonomic methods, and in the rapid development of the taxonomic structure of species assigned to the Epsilonproteobacteria have lead the International Committee of Systematic Bacteriology Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Campylobacter and Related Bacteria to discuss significant updates to previous minimal standards for describing new species of Campylobacteraceae and Helicobacteraceae. This paper is the result of these discussions and proposes minimum requirements for the description of new species belonging to the families Campylobacteraceae and Helicobacteraceae, thus including species in Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter, and Wolinella...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034856/franconibacter-daqui-sp-nov-a-facultatively-alkaliphilic-species-isolated-from-a-daqu-sample
#8
Ziqing Gao, Chenglin Su, Xueying Yang, Di Sun, Chao Zeng, Ming Chen, Wenzhong Hu, Chunzhi Zhang
A novel bacterium, designated strain DL503(T), was isolated from a Daqu sample and its taxonomic position determined using a polyphasic taxonomy. Strain DL503(T) was a Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-sporulating, motile and coccoid-rod-shaped bacterium. Optimum growth occurred at 20-45 °C, pH 5.0-10.0 and 1.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the isolate belongs to the genus Franconibacter, showing highest levels of similarity with respect to Franconibacter pulveris JCM 16471(T) (98...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033656/typifications-for-galactia-purshii-and-g-volubilis-fabaceae
#9
Alan R Franck
The pervasive difficulties encountered with studying Galactia in the eastern USA necessitate additional typifications to stabilize the taxonomy. Galactia purshii is lectotypified here as the earliest available but overlooked name for a fairly common species of the Atlantic Coast and peninsular Florida. Galactia volubilis is epitypified here since the characterization of the species has been limited by its lectotype being an illustration. A lectotype is designated for Galactia pilosa var. angustifolia, a form with narrow leaves here considered synonymous with G...
2017: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031471/gunslingers-poker-players-and-chickens-3-decision-making-under-mental-performance-pressure-in-junior-elite-athletes
#10
Beth L Parkin, Vincent Walsh
BACKGROUND: Having investigated the decision making of world class elite and subelite athletes (see Parkin and Walsh, 2017; Parkin et al., 2017), here the abilities of those at the earliest stage of entry to elite sport are examined. Junior elite athletes have undergone initial national selection and are younger than athletes examined previously (mean age 13 years). Decision making under mental pressure is explored in this sample. During performance an athlete encounters a wide array of mental pressures; these include the psychological impact of errors, negative feedback, and requirements for sustained attention in a dynamic environment (Anshel and Wells, 2000; Mellalieu et al...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031469/gunslingers-poker-players-and-chickens-2-decision-making-under-physical-performance-pressure-in-subelite-athletes
#11
Beth L Parkin, Vincent Walsh
BACKGROUND: Having investigated the influence of acute physical exhaustion on decision-making in world-class elite athletes in Parkin et al. (2017), here a similar method is applied to subelite athletes. These subelite athletes were enrolled on a Team GB talent development program and were undergoing training for possible Olympic competition in 4-8 years. They differ from elite athletes examined previously according to expertise and age. While considered elite (Swann et al., 2015), the subelite athletes had approximately 8 years fewer sporting experience and were yet to obtain sustained success on the international stage...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031468/gunslingers-poker-players-and-chickens-1-decision-making-under-physical-performance-pressure-in-elite-athletes
#12
Beth L Parkin, Katie Warriner, Vincent Walsh
BACKGROUND: The cognitive skills required during sport are highly demanding; accurate decisions based on the processing of dynamic environments are made in a fraction of a second (Walsh, 2014). Optimal decision-making abilities are crucial for success in sporting competition (Bar-Eli et al., 2011; Kaya, 2014). Moreover, for the elite athlete, decision making is required under conditions of intense mental and physical pressure (Anshel and Wells, 2000), yet much of the work in this area has largely ignored the highly stressful context in which athletes operate...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030424/stable-coronary-syndromes-pathophysiology-diagnostic-advances-and-therapeutic-need
#13
REVIEW
Thomas J Ford, David Corcoran, Colin Berry
The diagnostic management of patients with angina pectoris typically centres on the detection of obstructive epicardial CAD, which aligns with evidence-based treatment options that include medical therapy and myocardial revascularisation. This clinical paradigm fails to account for the considerable proportion (approximately one-third) of patients with angina in whom obstructive CAD is excluded. This common scenario presents a diagnostic conundrum whereby angina occurs but there is no obstructive CAD (ischaemia and no obstructive coronary artery disease-INOCA)...
October 13, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030295/the-new-phylogeny-of-the-genus-mycobacterium-the-old-and-the-news
#14
Enrico Tortoli, Tarcisio Fedrizzi, Conor J Meehan, Alberto Trovato, Antonella Grottola, Elisabetta Giacobazzi, Giulia Fregni Serpini, Sara Tagliazucchi, Anna Fabio, Clotilde Bettua, Roberto Bertorelli, Francesca Frascaro, Veronica De Sanctis, Monica Pecorari, Olivier Jousson, Nicola Segata, Daniela M Cirillo
BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic studies of bacteria have been based so far either on a single gene (usually the 16S rRNA) or on concatenated housekeeping genes. For what concerns the genus Mycobacterium these approaches support the separation of rapidly and slowly growing species and the clustering of most species in well-defined phylogenetic groups. The advent of high-throughput shotgun sequencing leads us to revise conventional taxonomy of mycobacteria on the light of genomic data. For this purpose we investigated 89 newly sequenced species in addition to 60 retrieved from GenBank and used the Average Nucleotide Identity pairwise scores to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships within this genus...
October 10, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029319/new-records-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae-from-the-state-of-alagoas-northeast-of-brazil
#15
Moises Thiago de Souza Freitas, Carlos Fernando Rocha Dos Santos, Edilberto Marinho de Andrade, Carlos Brisola Marcondes, Valdir de Queiroz Balbino, Felipe Arley Costa Pessoa
Phlebotomine sand flies are small insects of great medical importance. This study presents new records of phlebotomine sand flies, which augment the list of species, recorded in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Sand flies were collected using CDC miniature light traps. Collections were made between November 2008 and April 2016, in 47 municipalities within the state of Alagoas. Twenty-seven thousand two-hundred forty-four sand flies were collected, representing 18 species in seven genera. Lutzomyia longipalpis was the predominant species (85...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028818/floral-structure-and-ontogeny-of-syndiclis-lauraceae
#16
Gang Zeng, Bing Liu, David K Ferguson, Jens G Rohwer, Yong Yang
Generic delimitation in the Beilschmiedia group of the Lauraceae remains ambiguous because flowering specimens of a few genera with confined distribution are poorly represented in herbaria, and a few floral characters important for taxonomy are still poorly known. Syndiclis is sporadically distributed in southwestern China, and is represented in the herbaria by only a few flowering specimens. We conducted field investigations to collect floral materials of four species and observed structures and ontogeny of the tiny flowers using both light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028181/unbiased-taxonomic-annotation-of-metagenomic-samples
#17
Bruno Fosso, Graziano Pesole, Francesc Rosselló, Gabriel Valiente
The classification of reads from a metagenomic sample using a reference taxonomy is usually based on first mapping the reads to the reference sequences and then classifying each read at a node under the lowest common ancestor of the candidate sequences in the reference taxonomy with the least classification error. However, this taxonomic annotation can be biased by an imbalanced taxonomy and also by the presence of multiple nodes in the taxonomy with the least classification error for a given read. In this article, we show that the Rand index is a better indicator of classification error than the often used area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and F-measure for both balanced and imbalanced reference taxonomies, and we also address the second source of bias by reducing the taxonomic annotation problem for a whole metagenomic sample to a set cover problem, for which a logarithmic approximation can be obtained in linear time and an exact solution can be obtained by integer linear programming...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025693/characterizing-active-ingredients-of-ehealth-interventions-targeting-persons-with-poorly-controlled-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-using-the-behavior-change-techniques-taxonomy-scoping-review
#18
Mihiretu M Kebede, Tatjana P Liedtke, Tobias Möllers, Claudia R Pischke
BACKGROUND: The behavior change technique taxonomy v1 (BCTTv1; Michie and colleagues, 2013) is a comprehensive tool to characterize active ingredients of interventions and includes 93 labels that are hierarchically clustered into 16 hierarchical clusters. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the active ingredients in electronic health (eHealth) interventions targeting patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and relevant outcomes...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025122/software-application-profile-opal-and-mica-open-source-software-solutions-for-epidemiological-data-management-harmonization-and-dissemination
#19
Dany Doiron, Yannick Marcon, Isabel Fortier, Paul Burton, Vincent Ferretti
Motivation: Improving the dissemination of information on existing epidemiological studies and facilitating the interoperability of study databases are essential to maximizing the use of resources and accelerating improvements in health. To address this, Maelstrom Research proposes Opal and Mica, two inter-operable open-source software packages providing out-of-the-box solutions for epidemiological data management, harmonization and dissemination. Implementation: Opal and Mica are two standalone but inter-operable web applications written in Java, JavaScript and PHP...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024657/detecting-activated-cell-populations-using-single-cell-rna-seq
#20
Ye Emily Wu, Lin Pan, Yanning Zuo, Xinmin Li, Weizhe Hong
Single-cell RNA sequencing offers a promising opportunity for probing cell types mediating specific behavioral functions and the underlying molecular programs. However, this has been hampered by a long-standing issue in transcriptional profiling of dissociated cells, specifically the transcriptional perturbations that are artificially induced during conventional whole-cell dissociation procedures. Here, we develop Act-seq, which minimizes artificially induced transcriptional perturbations and allows for faithful detection of both baseline transcriptional profiles and acute transcriptional changes elicited by behavior/experience-driven activity...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
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