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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231613/genetic-determinism-vs-phenotypic-plasticity-in-protist-morphology
#1
Matthieu Mulot, Katarzyna Marcisz, Lara Grandgirard, Enrique Lara, Anush Kosakyan, Bjorn J M Robroek, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Richard J Payne, Edward A D Mitchell
Untangling the relationships between morphology and phylogeny is key to building a reliable taxonomy, but is especially challenging for protists, where the existence of cryptic or pseudocryptic species makes finding relevant discriminant traits difficult. Here we use Hyalosphenia papilio (a testate amoeba) as a model species to investigate the contribution of phylogeny and phenotypic plasticity in its morphology. We study the response of Hyalosphenia papilio morphology (shape and pores number) to environmental variables in 1) a manipulative experiment with controlled conditions (water level), 2) an observational study of a withinsite natural ecological gradient (water level), and 3) an observational study across 37 European peatlands (climate)...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231408/climbing-bloom-s-taxonomy-pyramid-lessons-from-a-graduate-histology-course
#2
Nikki B Zaidi, Charles Hwang, Sara Scott, Stefanie Stallard, Joel Purkiss, Michael Hortsch
Bloom's taxonomy was adopted to create a subject-specific scoring tool for histology multiple-choice questions (MCQs). This Bloom's Taxonomy Histology Tool (BTHT) was used to analyze teacher- and student-generated quiz and examination questions from a graduate level histology course. Multiple-choice questions using histological images were generally assigned a higher BTHT level than simple text questions. The type of microscopy technique (light or electron microscopy) used for these image-based questions did not result in any significant differences in their Bloom's taxonomy scores...
February 23, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231252/toward-a-comprehensive-taxonomy-of-human-motives
#3
Jennifer R Talevich, Stephen J Read, David A Walsh, Ravi Iyer, Gurveen Chopra
A major success in personality has been the development of a consensual structure of traits. However, much less progress has been made on the structure of an equally important aspect of human psychology: motives. We present an empirically and theoretically structured hierarchical taxonomy of 161 motives gleaned from a literature review from McDougall to the present and based on the cluster analysis of similarity judgments among these 161 motives, a broader sampling of motives than previous work. At the broadest level were: Meaning, Communion, and Agency...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230521/micromonospora-terminaliae-sp-nov-an-endophytic-actinobacterium-isolated-from-the-surface-sterilized-stem-of-the-medicinal-plant-terminalia-mucronata
#4
Onuma Kaewkla, Arinthip Thamchaipinet, Christopher Milton Mathew Franco
An endophytic actinobacterium, strain TMS7T, was isolated from the stem of a Thai medicinal plant collected from the grounds of the Phujong-Nayoa National park, Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. As a result of a polyphasic taxonomy study, this strain was identified as a member of the genus Micromonospora. This strain was a Gram-stain-positive, aerobic actinobacterium with well-developed substrate mycelium with hyphae forming a single microspore was non-motile. Stran TMS7T was identified according to its 16S rRNA gene sequence as a new member of the genus Micromonospora...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229023/toxgen-an-improved-reference-database-for-the-identification-of-type-b-trichothecene-genotypes-in-fusarium
#5
Tomasz Kulik, Kessy Abarenkov, Maciej Buśko, Katarzyna Bilska, Anne D van Diepeningen, Anna Ostrowska-Kołodziejczak, Katarzyna Krawczyk, Balázs Brankovics, Sebastian Stenglein, Jakub Sawicki, Juliusz Perkowski
Type B trichothecenes, which pose a serious hazard to consumer health, occur worldwide in grains. These mycotoxins are produced mainly by three different trichothecene genotypes/chemotypes: 3ADON (3-acetyldeoxynivalenol), 15ADON (15-acetyldeoxynivalenol) and NIV (nivalenol), named after these three major mycotoxin compounds. Correct identification of these genotypes is elementary for all studies relating to population surveys, fungal ecology and mycotoxicology. Trichothecene producers exhibit enormous strain-dependent chemical diversity, which may result in variation in levels of the genotype's determining toxin and in the production of low to high amounts of atypical compounds...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228686/synoptic-taxonomy-of-cortaderia-stapf-danthonioideae-poaceae
#6
Daniel Testoni, H Peter Linder
Cortaderia (Poaceae; Danthonioideae) is a medium-sized genus of C3 tussock grasses, widespread in the temperate to tropic-alpine regions of South America. It is particularly important in the subalpine and alpine zones of the Andes. We revised the classification of the genus, and recognize 17 species grouped into five informal groups. We describe one new species, Cortaderia echinata H.P.Linder, from Peru. We provide a key to the groups and the species, complete nomenclature for each species including new lectotypes, and notes on the ecology, distribution and diagnostic morphological and anatomical characters...
2017: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228664/taxonomy-of-macromotettixoides-with-the-description-of-a-new-species-tetrigidae-metrodorinae
#7
Ling-Sheng Zha, Feng-Ming Yu, Saranyaphat Boonmee, Prapassorn D Eungwanichayapant, Ting-Chi Wen
Descriptions of the flying organs and generic characteristics of the genus Macromotettixoides Zheng, Wei & Jiang are currently imprecise. Macromotettixoides is reviewed and compared with allied genera. A re-description is undertaken and a determination key is provided to Macromotettixoides. Macromotettixoides parvula Zha & Wen, sp. n. from the Guizhou Karst Region, China, is described and illustrated with photographs. Observations on the ecology and habits of the new species are recorded. Four current species of Hyboella Hancock are transferred to Macromotettixoides...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226228/antigen-presenting-cells-in-the-skin
#8
Sakeen W Kashem, Muzlifah Haniffa, Daniel H Kaplan
Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the skin include dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages. They are highly dynamic, with the capacity to enter skin from the peripheral circulation, patrol within tissue, and migrate through lymphatics to draining lymph nodes. Skin APCs are endowed with antigen sensing, processing, and presenting machinery and play key roles in initiating, modulating, and resolving cutaneous inflammation. Skin APCs are a highly heterogeneous population with functionally specialized subsets that are developmentally imprinted and modulated by local tissue microenvironmental and inflammatory cues...
February 6, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224050/exoskeletons-of-bougainvilliidae-and-other-hydroidolina-cnidaria-hydrozoa-structure-and-composition
#9
María A Mendoza-Becerril, José Eduardo A R Marian, Alvaro Esteves Migotto, Antonio Carlos Marques
The exoskeleton is an important source of characters for the taxonomy of Hydroidolina. It originates as epidermal secretions and, among other functions, protects the coenosarc of the polypoid stage. However, comparative studies on the exoskeletal tissue origin, development, chemical, and structural characteristics, as well as its evolution and homology, are few and fragmented. This study compares the structure and composition of the exoskeleton and underlying coenosarc in members of "Anthoathecata" and some Leptothecata, but does so mainly in bougainvilliid polyps histological analyses...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222924/assessing-anthropogenic-pressures-on-streams-a-random-forest-approach-based-on-benthic-diatom-communities
#10
Floriane Larras, Romain Coulaud, Edwige Gautreau, Elise Billoir, Juliette Rosebery, Philippe Usseglio-Polatera
Benthic diatoms have been widely used to assess the ecological status of freshwater ecosystems, especially in the context of recent international water framework directive policies (e.g. the WFD). Despite diatom-based indices are known to respond fastly to water quality degradation, they are not designed to precisely identify the nature of pressures co-occurring in the environment. Based on large scale monitoring data, we aimed at building models able to estimate the risk of stream impairment by many types of anthropogenic pressures from taxonomy-based and trait-based characteristics of diatom assemblages...
February 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222808/detection-and-genome-characterization-of-four-novel-bat-hepadnaviruses-and-a-hepevirus-in-china
#11
Bo Wang, Xing-Lou Yang, Wen Li, Yan Zhu, Xing-Yi Ge, Li-Biao Zhang, Yun-Zhi Zhang, Claus-Thomas Bock, Zheng-Li Shi
BACKGROUND: In recent years, novel hepadnaviruses, hepeviruses, hepatoviruses, and hepaciviruses have been discovered in various species of bat around the world, indicating that bats may act as natural reservoirs for these hepatitis viruses. In order to further assess the distribution of hepatitis viruses in bat populations in China, we tested the presence of these hepatitis viruses in our archived bat liver samples that originated from several bat species and various geographical regions in China...
February 22, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222171/metabolite-profiling-of-the-carnivorous-pitcher-plants-darlingtonia-and-sarracenia
#12
Hannu Hotti, Peddinti Gopalacharyulu, Tuulikki Seppänen-Laakso, Heiko Rischer
Sarraceniaceae is a New World carnivorous plant family comprising three genera: Darlingtonia, Heliamphora, and Sarracenia. The plants occur in nutrient-poor environments and have developed insectivorous capability in order to supplement their nutrient uptake. Sarracenia flava contains the alkaloid coniine, otherwise only found in Conium maculatum, in which its biosynthesis has been studied, and several Aloe species. Its ecological role and biosynthetic origin in S. flava is speculative. The aim of the current research was to investigate the occurrence of coniine in Sarracenia and Darlingtonia and to identify common constituents of both genera, unique compounds for individual variants and floral scent chemicals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220284/untangling-convoluted-taxonomy-of-chambriella-rego-chubb-pavanelli-1999-cestoda-proteocephalidae-with-erection-of-riggenbachiella-n-g-and-the-description-of-a-new-species-from-pimelodid-catfishes-in-the-neotropical-region
#13
Philippe Vieira Alves, Alain de Chambrier, José Luis Luque, Tomáš Scholz
As part of a complex revision of proteocephalid cestodes parasitic in freshwater bony fishes of the Neotropical Region, the genus Chambriella Rego, Chubb & Pavanelli, 1999 is redefined based on detailed examination of type-specimens and newly collected material of both nominal species of the genus. This examination revealed that the type-species C. agostinhoi (Pavanelli & Santos, 1992) from Zungaro jahu (Ihering) (type-host) and Z. zungaro (Humboldt) is indistinguishable from Lenhataenia megacephala (Woodland, 1934) from Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix & Agassiz) (all hosts Siluriformes: Pimelodidae), the type- and only species of the genus...
February 20, 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220082/synaptic-and-neuronal-autoantibody-associated-psychiatric-syndromes-controversies-and-hypotheses
#14
Adam Al-Diwani, Thomas A Pollak, Alexander E Langford, Belinda R Lennox
Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) mediated by antibodies against synaptic and neuronal surface targets frequently presents with a psychiatric syndrome. In these patients, removal of autoantibodies treats the disease and outcomes are closely linked to early intervention. The discovery of these autoantibodies in isolated psychiatric syndromes has raised the possibility that these patients may derive similar benefits from immunotherapy, a potentially transformational approach to the treatment of mental illness. Although open-label case series suggest impressive therapeutic outcomes, the pathological relevance of these autoantibodies outside of canonical presentations is debated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219759/reevaluating-species-number-distribution-and-endemism-of-the-coral-genus-pocillopora-lamarck-1816-using-species-delimitation-methods-and-microsatellites
#15
P Gélin, B Postaire, C Fauvelot, H Magalon
Species delimitation methods based on genetic information, notably using single locus data, have been proposed as means of increasing the rate of biodiversity description, but can also be used to clarify complex taxonomies. In this study, we explore the species diversity within the cnidarian genus Pocillopora, widely distributed in the tropical belt of the Indo-Pacific Ocean. From 943 Pocillopora colonies sampled in the Western Indian Ocean, the Tropical Southwestern Pacific and Southeast Polynesia, representing a huge variety of morphotypes, we delineated Primary Species Hypotheses (PSH) applying the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery method, the Poisson tree processes algorithm and the Generalized mixed Yule-coalescent model on two mitochondrial markers (Open Reading Frame and Dloop) and reconstructing a haploweb using one nuclear marker (Internal Transcribed Spacer 2)...
February 17, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219758/resolving-relationships-at-the-animal-fungal-divergence-a-molecular-phylogenetic-study-of-the-protist-trichomycetes-ichthyosporea-eccrinida
#16
Nicole K Reynolds, Matthew E Smith, Eric D Tretter, Justin Gause, Dustin Heeney, Matías J Cafaro, James F Smith, Stephen J Novak, William A Bourland, Merlin M White
Trichomycetes is a group of microorganisms that was considered a class of fungi comprising four orders of commensal, gut-dwelling endosymbionts obligately associated with arthropods. Since molecular phylogenies revealed two of those orders (Amoebidiales and Eccrinales = "protist trichos") to be closely related to members of the protist class Ichthyosporea (= Mesomycetozoea), trichomycetes have been considered an ecological association of both early-diverging fungi and protists. Understanding of the taxonomy, evolution, and diversity of the protist trichos is lacking largely due to the difficulties inherent in species collection that have contributed to undersampling and understudy...
February 17, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218807/characterizing-fish-responses-to-a-river-restoration-over-21-years-based-on-species-traits
#17
Stefanie Höckendorff, Jonathan D Tonkin, Peter Haase, Margret Bunzel-Drüke, Olaf Zimball, Matthias Scharf, Stefan Stoll
Understanding restoration effectiveness is often impaired by a lack of quality, long-term monitoring data and, to date, few studies have used species trait information to gain insight into the processes that drive the reaction of fish communities to restoration. We examined fish community responses using a highly resolved dataset with 21 consecutive years of data (4 years pre- and 17 years post-restoration) at multiple restored and unrestored sampling reaches from a river restoration project at the Lippe River, Germany...
February 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218714/hciv-1-and-other-tailless-icosahedral-internal-membrane-containing-viruses-of-the-family-sphaerolipoviridae
#18
REVIEW
Tatiana A Demina, Maija K Pietilä, Julija Svirskaitė, Janne J Ravantti, Nina S Atanasova, Dennis H Bamford, Hanna M Oksanen
Members of the virus family Sphaerolipoviridae include both archaeal viruses and bacteriophages that possess a tailless icosahedral capsid with an internal membrane. The genera Alpha- and Betasphaerolipovirus comprise viruses that infect halophilic euryarchaea, whereas viruses of thermophilic Thermus bacteria belong to the genus Gammasphaerolipovirus. Both sequence-based and structural clustering of the major capsid proteins and ATPases of sphaerolipoviruses yield three distinct clades corresponding to these three genera...
February 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218575/journal-of-general-virology-introduction-to-ictv-virus-taxonomy-profiles
#19
Andrew J Davison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218573/ictv-virus-taxonomy-profile-ascoviridae
#20
Sassan Asgari, Dennis K Bideshi, Yves Bigot, Brian A Federici, Xiao-Wen Cheng, Ictv Report Consortium
The family Ascoviridae includes viruses with circular dsDNA genomes of 100-200 kbp characterized by oblong enveloped virions of 200-400 nm in length. Ascoviruses mainly infect lepidopteran larvae and are mechanically transmitted by parasitoid wasps in which they may also replicate. Most known members belong to the genus Ascovirus, except one virus, that of the genus Toursvirus, which replicates in both its lepidopteran and parasitoid vector hosts. Ascoviruses cause high mortality among economically important insect pests, thereby controlling insect populations...
January 2017: Journal of General Virology
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