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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228520/the-significance-of-trop2-expression-in-predicting-braf-mutations-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#1
Joon Seog Kong, Hyeon Jin Kim, Min-Jung Kim, Areumnuri Kim, Dalnim Lee, Kanghee Han, Sunhoo Park, Jae Soo Koh, Jae Kyung Myung
Background: Trophoblast antigen 2 (TROP2) is a human trophoblast cell-surface glycoprotein that is overexpressed in several types of epithelial cancers, and is suggested to be associated with an unfavorable prognosis. BRAF mutations are the most common genetic alteration in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We evaluated the correlation between TROP2 expression and BRAF mutation in PTC. Methods: First, we carried out pyrosequencing for BRAF mutations and immunohistochemistry for TROP2 expression with a tissue microarray consisting of 52 PTC cases...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228121/low-dose-bisphenol-a-activates-the-erk-signaling-pathway-and-attenuates-steroidogenic-gene-expression-in-human-placental-cells
#2
Po-Wei Chu, Zhi-Jie Yang, Huei-Shing Huang, Ai-An Chang, Yu-Chen Cheng, Gwo-Jang Wu, Hsin-Chieh Lan
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial material used for many plastic products and is considered an endocrine disruptor. BPA can be released into the environment and can spread through the food chain. It is well known that BPA exposure leads to lesions, especially in the reproductive system. According to previous studies, BPA reduces newborn numbers in pregnant mice and affects placentation. The placenta is a special endocrine organ during pregnancy. It secretes important hormones, such as progesterone and estrogen, to maintain gestation...
December 4, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223764/hypoxia-induced-and-hif1%C3%AE-vegf-mediated-tight-junction-dysfunction-in-choriocarcinoma-cells-implications-for-preeclampsia
#3
Yuan Zhang, Hai-Jun Zhao, Xin-Ru Xia, Fei-Yang Diao, Xiang Ma, Jing Wang, Li Gao, Jie Liu, Chao Gao, Yu-Gui Cui, Jia-Yin Liu
INTRODUCTION: Accumulated data indicate that placental hypoxia is implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia (PE). Tight junction (TJ) is important structure that sustains normal placental barrier function, its dysregulation under hypoxia has been observed. This study was designed to explore hypoxia-induced TJ dysfunction in trophoblast cells and its possible involvement in PE pathophysiology. METHODS: Choriocarcinoma cells were grown in a monolayer and treated with cobalt chloride (CoCl2) to induce hypoxia...
December 6, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222466/deciphering-transcriptional-regulation-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells-specified-towards-a-trophoblast-fate
#4
Ashish Jain, Toshihiko Ezashi, R Michael Roberts, Geetu Tuteja
Differentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC) continue to provide a model for studying early trophoblast cells (TB), but many questions have been raised regarding their true identity. Therefore, we carried out a global and unbiased analysis on previously published transcriptomic profiles for hESC differentiated to TB by means of bone morphogenetic protein-4 and inhibitors of activin A and fibroblast growth factor-2 signaling (BAP treatment). Our results confirm that BAP treated hESC (ESCd) lack a mesoderm signature and are a subtype of placental cells unlike those present at term...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221114/interferon-%C3%AF-increases-bola-i-for-implantation-during-early-pregnancy-in-dairy-cows
#5
Zhe Zhu, Binbin Li, Yue Wu, Xiao Wang, GanZhen Deng
Interferon-τ (IFN-τ) signals pregnancy recognition in ruminants. We investigated the effects of IFN-τ produced by embryo trophoblastic cells (ETCs) on expression of bovine leukocyte antigen-I (BoLA-I), a bovine analogue of human MHC-I, in endometrial luminal epithelial cells (EECs) during early pregnancy in dairy cows. Expression of IFN-τ and BoLA-I was increased in endometrial tissues during early pregnancy. Expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased in endometrial tissues, while expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was decreased, indicating immunosuppression...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217138/durable-remission-for-a-woman-with-refractory-choriocarcinoma-treated-with-anti-endoglin-monoclonal-antibody-and-bevacizumab-a-case-from-the-new-england-trophoblastic-disease-center-brigham-and-women-s-hospital-and-dana-farber-cancer-institute
#6
Michael J Worley, Kevin M Elias, Neil S Horowitz, Bradley J Quade, Ross S Berkowitz
A 36-year-old with metastatic and refractory choriocarcinoma following single- and multi-agent chemotherapy and surgical metastectomy experienced a durable remission after receiving therapy with an anti-endoglin monoclonal antibody and bevacizumab. Treatment options and scientific advances in this disease are highlighted.
December 4, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214996/the-role-of-cdx2-as-a-lineage-specific-transcriptional-repressor-for-pluripotent-network-during-the-first-developmental-cell-lineage-segregation
#7
Daosheng Huang, Guoji Guo, Ping Yuan, Amy Ralston, Lingang Sun, Mikael Huss, Tapan Mistri, Luca Pinello, Huck Hui Ng, Guocheng Yuan, Junfeng Ji, Janet Rossant, Paul Robson, Xiaoping Han
The first cellular differentiation event in mouse development leads to the formation of the blastocyst consisting of the inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE). The transcription factor CDX2 is required for proper TE specification, where it promotes expression of TE genes, and represses expression of Pou5f1 (OCT4). However its downstream network in the developing embryo is not fully characterized. Here, we performed high-throughput single embryo qPCR analysis in Cdx2 null embryos to identify CDX2-regulated targets in vivo...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214637/identification-and-treatment-of-gestational-trophoblastic-neoplasia-located-in-the-cesarean-scar
#8
Xiaoyu Wang, Yuan Li, Junjun Yang, Yonglan He, Ming Wang, Xirun Wan, Yang Xiang
OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical characteristics of, and the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for, gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) located in the cesarean scar. METHODS: The present retrospective analysis was conducted among patients diagnosed with GTN located in the cesarean scar at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China, between June 1, 2006, and May 31, 2016. Clinical features, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and outcomes were reviewed...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214230/cytotoxicity-of-endocytosis-and-efflux-inhibitors-in-the-bewo-cell-line
#9
Mansi Shah, Luke Bourner, Shariq Ali, Sanaalarab Al-Enazy, Erik Rytting
Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the cell viability and cytotoxicity of various endocytosis and efflux inhibitors which can be used to determine transport and uptake mechanisms in the BeWo (b30 clone) human placental trophoblast cell line. Ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were also studied since they are often used as cosolvents for administration of these inhibitors. Methodology: The water-soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1) assay was used to quantify cell viability and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay was used to determine cytotoxicity...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213331/noninvasive-prenatal-diagnosis-of-fetal-aneuploidy-by-circulating-fetal-nucleated-red-blood-cells-and-extravillous-trophoblasts-using-silicon-based-nanostructured-microfluidics
#10
Chung-Er Huang, Gwo-Chin Ma, Hei-Jen Jou, Wen-Hsiang Lin, Dong-Jay Lee, Yi-Shing Lin, Norman A Ginsberg, Hsin-Fu Chen, Frank Mau-Chung Chang, Ming Chen
Background: Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) based on cell-free DNA in maternal circulation has been accepted worldwide by the clinical community since 2011 but limitations, such as maternal malignancy and fetoplacental mosaicism, preclude its full replacement of invasive prenatal diagnosis. We present a novel silicon-based nanostructured microfluidics platform named as "Cell Reveal™" to demonstrate the feasibility of capturing circulating fetal nucleated red blood cells (fnRBC) and extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVT) for cell-based noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (cbNIPD)...
2017: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212614/clinical-trials-in-gynecologic-oncology-past-present-and-future
#11
REVIEW
Christina M Annunziata, Elise C Kohn
The Gynecologic Oncology Group has historically performed ground-breaking, practice-changing clinical trials in women's cancers. The current standard of care for initial treatment of ovarian, endometrial, cervical, and trophoblastic cancers was determined by clinical trials completed within this cooperative group structure. For example, trial GOG-0111 set the standard for combining platinum and taxane chemotherapy in ovarian cancer, and more recently GOG-0240 provided evidence for adding bevacizumab to chemotherapy for women with advanced cervical cancer...
December 3, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208244/role-of-nucleoside-transporters-in-transplacental-pharmacokinetics-of-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-zidovudine-and-emtricitabine
#12
S Karbanova, L Cerveny, M Ceckova, Z Ptackova, L Jiraskova, S Greenwood, F Staud
INTRODUCTION: Zidovudine (AZT) and emtricitabine (FTC) are effective and well tolerated antiretroviral drugs, routinely used in the prevention of perinatal HIV transmission. However, precise mechanism(s) involved in their transfer from mother to fetus are not fully elucidated. Since both drugs are nucleoside analogues, we hypothesized that the mechanisms of their transplacental passage might include equilibrative nucleoside transporters, ENT1 and/or ENT2. METHODS: To address this issue, we performed in vitro accumulation assays in the BeWo placental trophoblast cell line, ex vivo uptake studies in fresh villous fragments isolated from human placenta and in situ dually perfused rat term placenta experiments...
December 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208243/resveratrol-mitigates-trophoblast-and-endothelial-dysfunction-partly-via-activation-of-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2
#13
Seshini Gurusinghe, Annie G Cox, Rahana Rahman, Siow T Chan, Ruth Muljadi, Harmeet Singh, Bryan Leaw, Joanne C Mockler, Sarah A Marshall, Padma Murthi, Rebecca Lim, Euan M Wallace
INTRODUCTION: Maternal endothelial dysfunction underlying preeclampsia arises from excessive placental release of anti-angiogenic factors, such as soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt1), soluble endoglin (sEng) and activin A. Resveratrol, an activator of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) transcription factor, mediates the gene expression of antioxidant and vasoprotective factors that may counter the endothelial damage imposed by these anti-angiogenic factors. The objective of this study was to assess whether resveratrol could reduce placental oxidative stress and production of anti-angiogenic factors in vitro and/or improve in vitro markers of endothelial dysfunction via Nrf2 activation...
December 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208241/increased-trophoblast-inclusions-in-placentas-from-prematurely-born-infants-a-potential-marker-of-risk-for-preterm-neurodevelopmental-outcomes
#14
Morgan R Firestein, Rosanna Abellar, Michael M Myers, Martha G Welch
Trophoblast inclusions (TIs) are placental abnormalities of the trophoblast bilayer. Present in 2-8% of full-term placentas, they are associated with poor neurodevelopment, including autism. Although previously unstudied, examination of chorionic villi from 108 preterm births revealed a ∼4 fold increase in the frequency of TIs (30.5%). Frequency of TIs was inversely related to gestational age (GA); 43% of placentas <30 weeks and 20% of placentas ≥32 weeks had TIs (χ2 = 4.41, p = 0.036). This increased prevalence in preterm infants suggests that TIs may indicate adverse intrauterine processes or undetected genetic abnormalities and could identify infants at risk for poor neurodevelopment...
December 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208239/syncytial-nuclei-accumulate-at-the-villous-surface-in-iugr-while-proliferation-is-unchanged
#15
E Haeussner, C Schmitz, D Grynspan, F Edler von Koch, H-G Frank
INTRODUCTION: Placental syncytiotrophoblast is responsible for feto-maternal nutrient exchange during pregnancy. It is assumed that in IUGR, placental dysfunction is crucially bound to compromised stability and function of syncytiotrophoblast, the latter being related to altered proliferation of villous trophoblast. Cell cycle data obtained on conventional thin sections has produced inconsistent results. In the present study we investigated cell cycle markers found in the villous trophoblast using a novel 3D histological quantification method...
December 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208238/toll-like-receptor-2-mediates-local-innate-immune-response-against-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-ex%C3%A2-vivo-infected-human-placental-chorionic-villi-explants
#16
Christian Castillo, Lorena Muñoz, Ileana Carrillo, Ana Liempi, Lisvaneth Medina, Norbel Galanti, Juan Diego Maya, Ulrike Kemmerling
BACKGROUND: Congenital Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi that must cross the placental barrier during transmission. The trophoblast constitutes the first tissue in contact with the maternal-blood circulating parasite. Importantly, the congenital transmission rates are low, suggesting the presence of local placental defense mechanisms. On the other hand, the placenta is considered an immune regulatory organ since it acts as a modulator of fetal and maternal immune responses...
December 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208234/vitamin-d-attenuates-sphingosine-1-phosphate-s1p-mediated-inhibition-of-extravillous-trophoblast-migration
#17
Melissa Westwood, Khiria Al-Saghir, Sarah Finn-Sell, Cherlyn Tan, Elizabeth Cowley, Stéphane Berneau, Daman Adlam, Edward D Johnstone
INTRODUCTION: Failure of trophoblast invasion and remodelling of maternal blood vessels leads to the pregnancy complication pre-eclampsia (PE). In other systems, the sphingolipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), controls cell migration therefore this study determined its effect on extravillous trophoblast (EVT) function. METHODS: A transwell migration system was used to assess the behaviour of three trophoblast cell lines, Swan-71, SGHPL-4, and JEG3, and primary human trophoblasts in the presence or absence of S1P, S1P pathway inhibitors and 1,25(OH)2D3...
December 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208172/investigation-of-role-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-annexin-a5-and-apelin-by-immunohistochemistry-method-in-placenta-of-preeclampsia-patients
#18
Nese Colcimen, Gülay Bulut, Ozlem Ergul Erkec, Murat Cetin Ragbetli
Preeclampsia is a disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria occurred after 20 weeks of gestation. Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.  The pathophysiological mechanism of preeclampsia is not known exactly yet. Preeclampsia endothelial cell dysfunction, associated with inadequate trophoblastic invasion is characterized by abnormal placentation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) according to is an angiogenic cytokine, Annexin A5 is among endogenous peptides are both expressed from placental trophoblasts and Apelin is a multifunctional peptide and expressed by placental trophoblasts and endothelial cells...
November 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205643/paternal-hla-c-is-a-risk-factor-in-unexplained-recurrent-miscarriage
#19
Tess Meuleman, Geert W Haasnoot, Jan M M van Lith, Willem Verduijn, Kitty W M Bloemenkamp, Frans H J Claas
PROBLEM: HLA-C is the only classical HLA-I antigen expressed on trophoblast. We hypothesized that the alloimmune response to paternal HLA-C plays a role in unexplained recurrent miscarriage. METHOD OF STUDY: In a case-control design, we included 100 women with at least three unexplained consecutive miscarriages along with their partners and children. For the first control group, we included 90 women with an uneventful singleton pregnancy without pregnancy complications in their history along with their children...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205636/immune-checkpoint-molecules-soluble-program-death-ligand-1-and-galectin-9-are-increased-in-pregnancy
#20
Elizabeth Ann L Enninga, Susan M Harrington, Douglas J Creedon, Rodrigo Ruano, Svetomir N Markovic, Haidong Dong, Roxana S Dronca
PROBLEM: Pregnancy requires balance between tolerance to the haploidentical fetus and the mother's ability to mount immune responses. There are parallels to this phenomenon that occur in metastatic cancer. We assessed soluble program death ligand-1 soluble PD-L1 (sPD-L1) and galectin-9 in the blood of pregnant women during gestation as these molecules are highly involved in immune suppression during cancer. METHOD OF STUDY: Maternal blood was collected from 30 primigravida women at monthly intervals during pregnancy, delivery and 6-week post-partum...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
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