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Urocortins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315631/network-analysis-of-urocortins
#1
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: Urocortins (Ucns), members of corticotropin releasing factor family, play critical roles in a number of pathological and physiological conditions. Many proteins have been reported to participate in Ucns signaling pathways, which formed complex interaction networks. METHODS: STITCH ('search tool for interactions of chemicals') is an interaction network database that provides exploration of the known and predicted interactions among large sets of chemicals and proteins...
November 19, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315311/the-effects-of-crf-and-urocortins-on-the-sociability-of-mice
#2
Zsolt Bagosi, Gergely Karasz, András Czébely-Lénárt, Krisztina Csabafi, Miklós Jászberényi, Gyula Telegdy
The aim of our study was to determine the role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), the urocortins (Ucn1, Ucn2 and Ucn3) and their receptors (CRF1 and CRF2) in the sociability of mice. Male CFLP mice were administered intracerebroventricularly (icv) with CRF and urocortins alone or in combination with antalarmin (specific CRF1 antagonist) and astressin2B (specific CRF2 antagonist) and then investigated in a Crawley social interaction test arena, that consists of three chambers. An unknown male in a cage was put in the first chamber and an empty cage was put in the opposite chamber...
March 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302012/targeting-npy-crf-ucns-and-nps-neuropeptide-systems-to-treat-alcohol-use-disorder-aud
#3
Francisco David Rodriguez, Rafael Coveñas
BACKGROUND: The term Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) incorporates different states of disease related to the recurrent use of alcohol and linked to the relevant impairment, disability and failure to perform major responsibilities in different realms. Many neurotransmitter systems are involved in the phases or states of alcoholism from reward mechanisms, associated to binge intoxication, to stress and anxiety linked to relapse and withdrawal. Some neuropeptides play a key function in the control of anxiety and stress, and establish a close relationship with the pathological mechanisms underlying alcohol addiction...
March 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294390/combined-xil-6r-and-urocortin-2-treatment-restores-mdx-diaphragm-muscle-force
#4
Jennifer Manning, Maria M Buckley, Ken D O'Halloran, Dervla O'Malley
Introduction Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by progressive muscle degeneration leading to immobility, respiratory failure and premature death. As chronic inflammation and stress are implicated in DMD pathology, the efficacy of an anti-inflammatory and anti-stress intervention strategy in ameliorating diaphragm dysfunction was investigated. Methods Diaphragm muscle contractile function was compared in wild-type and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice treated with saline, anti-IL-6R antibodies (xIL-6R), the corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor 2 (CRFR2) agonist, urocortin 2 or both xIL-6R and urocortin 2...
March 13, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267582/melanocortin-4-receptor-ligands-modulate-energy-homeostasis-through-urocortin-1-neurons-of-the-centrally-projecting-edinger-westphal-nucleus
#5
Nóra Füredi, Ákos Nagy, Alexandra Mikó, Gergely Berta, Tamás Kozicz, Erika Pétervári, Márta Balaskó, Balázs Gaszner
The role of the urocortin 1 (Ucn1) expressing centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal (EWcp) nucleus in energy homeostasis and stress adaptation response has previously been investigated. Morphological and functional studies have proven that orexigenic and anorexigenic peptidergic afferents and receptors for endocrine messengers involved in the energy homeostasis are found in the EWcp. The central role of the hypothalamic melanocortin system in energy homeostasis is well known, however, no data have been published so far on possible crosstalk between melanocortins and EWcp-Ucn1...
March 3, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260504/the-crf-family-of-neuropeptides-and-their-receptors-mediators-of-the-central-stress-response
#6
Nina Dedic, Alon Chen, Jan M Deussing
Dysregulated stress neurocircuits, caused by genetic and/or environmental changes, underlie the development of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is the major physiological activator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and consequently a primary regulator of the mammalian stress response. Together with its three family members, urocortins (UCNs) 1, 2, and 3, CRF integrates the neuroendocrine, autonomic, metabolic and behavioral responses to stress by activating its cognate receptors CRFR1 and CRFR2...
March 1, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245760/peripheral-corticotropin-releasing-factor-signaling-inhibits-gastric-emptying-mechanisms-of-action-and-role-in-stress-related-gastric-alterations-of-motor-function
#7
József Czimmer, Yvette Taché
The activation of corticotrophin releasing-factor (CRF) receptors in the brain is well established to coordinate the endocrine, behavioral, autonomic and visceral responses to stress. In addition, CRF receptors are also expressed within the gut where they exert biological actions and play a role in modulating stress-related gastrointestinal function. In particular, peripheral injection of CRF and related peptides, urocortin 1, 2 or 3 inhibit gastric emptying (GE) and alters fasted and fed pattern of gastroduodenal motility in several experimental species...
February 28, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228090/cardioprotective-utility-of-urocortin-in-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-where-do-we-stand
#8
Craig Basman, Pratik Agrawal, Richard Knight, Louis Saravolatz, Chad McRee, Carol Chen-Scarabelli, Jagat Narula, Tiziano Scarabelli
There has been a constant pursuit for development of newer therapies which can contribute to the relatively nascent field of cardioprotection in the setting of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. One novel cardioprotective agent among others, that has shown promising results in the limited number of research studies undertaken till now, is Urocortin. Urocortins are peptides belonging to the Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone family. Acting through a variety of downstream mechanisms, urocortin has been shown to alter cellular metabolism and modulate the mechanism of cell death occurring as a result of ischemia-reperfusion injury...
February 22, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177704/the-rab-gtpase-activating-protein-tbc1d1-is-critical-for-maintaining-normal-glucose-homeostasis-and-%C3%AE-cell-mass
#9
Sabina Paglialunga, Genevieve Simnett, Holly Robson, Monica Hoang, Renjitha Pillai, Alicia M Arkell, Jeremy A Simpson, Arend Bonen, Mark Huising, Jamie W Joseph, Graham P Holloway
TBC1D1, a Rab-GTPase activating protein, is a paralogue of AS160, and has been implicated in the canonical insulin-signaling cascade in peripheral tissues. More recently, TBC1D1 was identified in rat and human pancreatic islets, however the islet function of TBC1D1 remains not fully understood. We examined the role of TBC1D1 in glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion utilizing a rat knockout (KO) model. Chow-fed TBC1D1 KO rats had improved insulin action but impaired glucose-tolerance test (GTT) and a lower insulin response during an ipGTT compared to WT rats...
January 31, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170426/chronic-social-stress-in-pigs-impairs-intestinal-barrier-and-nutrient-transporter-function-and-alters-neuro-immune-mediator-and-receptor-expression
#10
Yihang Li, Zehe Song, Katelyn A Kerr, Adam J Moeser
Psychosocial stress is a major factor driving gastrointestinal (GI) pathophysiology and disease susceptibility in humans and animals. The mechanisms governing susceptibility to stress-induced GI disease remain poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the influence of chronic social stress (CSS) in pigs, induced by 7 d of chronic mixing/crowding stress, on intestinal barrier and nutrient transport function, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) signaling and immunological responses. Results from this study showed that CSS resulted in a significant impairment of ileal and colonic barrier function indicated by reduced transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in the ileum and increased FD4 flux in the ileum (by 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162848/altered-functionality-of-the-corticotrophin-releasing-hormone-receptor-2-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-of-hyperphagic-maternally-separated-rats
#11
V Alcántara-Alonso, M I Amaya, G Matamoros-Trejo, P de Gortari
Early-life stress induces endocrine and metabolic alterations that increase food intake and overweight in adulthood. The stress response activates the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and urocortins' (Ucns) system in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). These peptides induce anorexic effects through CRH-R2 receptor activation; however, chronic stressed animals develop hyperphagia despite of high PVN CRH expression. We analyzed this paradoxical behavior in adult rats subjected to maternal separation (MS) for 180min/daily during post-natal days 2-14, evaluating their body weight gain, food intake, serum corticosterone and vasopressin concentrations, PVN mRNA expression of CRH-R1, CRH-R2, CRH, Ucn2, Ucn3, vasopressin and CRH-R2 protein levels...
February 1, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140406/control-of-chronic-excessive-alcohol-drinking-by-genetic-manipulation-of-the-edinger-westphal-nucleus-urocortin-1-neuropeptide-system
#12
W J Giardino, E D Rodriguez, M L Smith, M M Ford, D Galili, S H Mitchell, A Chen, A E Ryabinin
Midbrain neurons of the centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWcp) are activated by alcohol, and enriched with stress-responsive neuropeptide modulators (including the paralog of corticotropin-releasing factor, urocortin-1). Evidence suggests that EWcp neurons promote behavioral processes for alcohol-seeking and consumption, but a definitive role for these cells remains elusive. Here we combined targeted viral manipulations and gene array profiling of EWcp neurons with mass behavioral phenotyping in C57BL/6 J mice to directly define the links between EWcp-specific urocortin-1 expression and voluntary binge alcohol intake, demonstrating a specific importance for EWcp urocortin-1 activity in escalation of alcohol intake...
January 31, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109061/urocortin-suppresses-endometrial-cancer-cell-migration-via-crfr2-and-its-system-components-are-differentially-modulated-by-estrogen
#13
Gemma L Owens, Kevin M Lawrence, Tom R Jackson, Emma J Crosbie, Berna S Sayan, Henry C Kitchener, Paul A Townsend
Urocortin (UCN1) peptide shares structural and functional homology with corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). UCN1 is significantly reduced in endometrial adenocarcinoma compared to healthy controls. However, there are no data which evaluate the effects of UCN1 in the endometrium, or how it is modulated. We used proliferation and transwell assays to determine the effect of UCN1 on the proliferation and migration of Ishikawa and HEC1A cells. We also determined the expression levels of UCN1 and its receptors produced by estrogen receptor agonists, and the effect of UCN1 on estrogen receptor expression, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
February 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103786/crh-receptor-signalling-potential-roles-in-pathophysiology
#14
Styliani Ourailidou, Dimitris Grammatopoulos
To maintain homeostatic equilibrium, living organisms have evolved complex adaptation systems that control an array of behavioural, autonomic, neuroendocrine and immune responses. One of the important switches The master switch of this system is the hypothalamic hormone corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which together with a family of related peptides (urocortins, UCNs) orchestrate stress-coping responses that reinstate homeostasis. Persistent disturbances in the homeostatic equilibrium either due to inadequate or persistently uncontrolled responses have been associated with pathogenic mechanisms of disease...
January 10, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103784/the-multi-faceted-profile-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf-family-of-neuropeptides-and-of-their-receptors-on-the-paracrine-local-regulation-of-the-inflammatory-response
#15
Andrew N Margioris, Eirini Dermitzaki, Maria Venihaki, Christos Tsatsani, Achille Gravanis, Pavlina Avgoustinaki, George Liapakis
The corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) family of neuropeptides, CRF and the Urocortins, and their receptors are present not only within the central nervous system but also in the periphery at various locations and at the sites of inflammation where they influence its progress in a complex local / paracrine manner. These neuropeptides are either produced locally, by components of the inflammatory response or they may reach the inflammation sites via postganglionic sympathetic and sensory afferent nerve transport...
January 9, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103783/understanding-corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptor-crfr-activation-using-structural-models
#16
Arnau Cordomi, George Liapakis, Minos Timotheos Matsoukas
The corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 and 2 receptors (CRF1R and CRF2R) belong to the secretin-like family, also known as class B1, of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Several endogenous hormones mediate their responses through the CRF receptors, such as CRF and the urocortins. The structures for the N-terminus extracellular domain of both CRF1R and CRF2R in complex with peptidic ligands were released a few years ago and permitted the study of hormone binding to the orthosteric binding site. It was not until more recently, when the crystal structure of the transmembrane domain of human CRF1R in its inactive state bound to an allosteric antagonist became available...
January 10, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071586/milestones-in-crh-research
#17
George P Chrousos, Emmanouil Zoumakis
The Corticotropin-releasing Hormone (CRH) mammalian family members include CRH, urocortin I, Stresscopin (SCP) and Stresscopin-related peptide (SRP), along with the CRH receptors type 1 (CRHR1) and type 2 (CRHR2), and CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP). These family members differ in their tissue distribution and pharmacology. Several studies have provided evidence supporting an important role of this family in the regulation of the neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress. Regulation of the relative contribution of CRH and its homologs and the two CRH receptors in brain CRH pathways may be essential in coordinating physiologic responses to stress...
January 9, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011950/involvement-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-corticotropin-releasing-factor-2-receptors-in-pathogenesis-of-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-enteritis-in-rats
#18
K Takeuchi, A Kumano, N Abe, T Kotani
We herein investigated, using a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) agonist and antagonists, whether CRF plays a role in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion-induced small intestinal lesions in rats. Under pentobarbital anesthesia, the superior mesenteric artery was clamped (ischemia) for 75 min, followed by reperfusion with removal of the clamp. After a 24-h reperfusion, the area of hemorrhagic lesions that developed in the small intestine was measured. Urocortin I (CRF receptor 1/2 agonist), astressin (CRF receptor 1/2 antagonist), NBI27914 (CRF receptor 1 antagonist), or astressin 2B (CRF receptor 2 antagonist) was administered i...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832152/urocortin-treatment-improves-acute-hemodynamic-instability-and-reduces-myocardial-damage-in-post-cardiac-arrest-myocardial-dysfunction
#19
Chien-Hua Huang, Chih-Hung Wang, Min-Shan Tsai, Nai-Tan Hsu, Chih-Yen Chiang, Tzung-Dau Wang, Wei-Tien Chang, Huei-Wen Chen, Wen-Jone Chen
AIMS: Hemodynamic instability occurs following cardiac arrest and is associated with high mortality during the post-cardiac period. Urocortin is a novel peptide and a member of the corticotrophin-releasing factor family. Urocortin has the potential to improve acute cardiac dysfunction, as well as to reduce the myocardial damage sustained after ischemia reperfusion injury. The effects of urocortin in post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction remain unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a preclinical cardiac arrest model and investigated the effects of urocortin...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826101/serotonin-and-urocortin-1-in-the-dorsal-raphe-and-edinger-westphal-nuclei-after-early-life-stress-in-serotonin-transporter-knockout-rats
#20
Rick H A van der Doelen, Berit Robroch, Ilse A Arnoldussen, Maya Schulpen, Judith R Homberg, Tamás Kozicz
The interaction of early life stress (ELS) and the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with increased risk to develop depression in later life. We have used the maternal separation paradigm as a model for ELS exposure in homozygous and heterozygous 5-HTT knockout rats and measured urocortin 1 (Ucn1) mRNA and/or protein levels, Ucn1 DNA methylation, as well as 5-HT innervation in the centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal (EWcp) and dorsal raphe (DR) nuclei, both implicated in the regulation of stress response...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience
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