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Chun Yeh, Ching-Heng Ting, Ming-Luen Doong, Chin-Wen Chi, Shou-Dong Lee, Chih-Yen Chen
PURPOSE: Urocortin 3 is a key neuromodulator in the regulation of stress, anxiety, food intake, gut motility, and energy homeostasis, while ghrelin elicits feeding behavior and enhances gastric emptying, adiposity, and positive energy balance. However, the interplays between urocortin 3 and ghrelin on food intake and gastric emptying remain uninvestigated. METHODS: We examined the differential effects of central O-n-octanoylated ghrelin, des-Gln(14)-ghrelin, and urocortin 3 on food intake, as well as on charcoal nonnutrient semiliquid gastric emptying in conscious rats that were chronically implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) catheters...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Anna P Pilbrow, Kathy A Lewis, Marilyn H Perrin, Wendy E Sweet, Christine S Moravec, W H Wilson Tang, Mark O Huising, Richard W Troughton, Vicky A Cameron
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the CRF-related peptides, urocortin (Ucn)1, Ucn2 and Ucn3 signal through receptors CRFR1 and CRFR2 to restore homeostasis in response to stress. The Ucns exert potent cardioprotective effects and may have clinical utility in heart failure. To explore the activity of this system in the heart, we measured levels of myocardial gene expression of the CRF/Ucn family of ligands/receptors and investigated genetic variation and alternative splicing of CRFR1 in 110 heart failure patients and 108 heart donors...
October 18, 2016: Endocrinology
Chao Zhu, Changchun Cao, Xiaofei Wang, Jie Yuan, Lai Jin, Shengnan Li
Urocortins (UCNs) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) have been demonstrated to participate in various cardiovascular diseases, many of which involve vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2)-mediated arachidonic acid (AA) release is an important cause of VSMCs proliferation. The work was to investigate the regulation of VSMCs proliferation by UCN/TGF-beta and whether cPLA2 was a link between their signaling pathways. VSMCs proliferation was measured by colorimetric assay and immunofluorescence microscopy...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Mei Hua Gao, Dimosthenis Giamouridis, N Chin Lai, Evelyn Walenta, Vivian Almeida Paschoal, Young Chul Kim, Atsushi Miyanohara, Tracy Guo, Min Liao, Li Liu, Zhen Tan, Theodore P Ciaraldi, Simon Schenk, Aditi Bhargava, Da Young Oh, H Kirk Hammond
Using mice rendered insulin resistant with high fat diets (HFD), we examined blood glucose levels and insulin resistance after i.v. delivery of an adeno-associated virus type 8 encoding murine urocortin 2 (AAV8.UCn2). A single i.v. injection of AAV8.UCn2-normalized blood glucose and glucose disposal within weeks, an effect that lasted for months. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps showed reduced plasma insulin, increased glucose disposal rates, and increased insulin sensitivity following UCn2 gene transfer...
September 22, 2016: JCI Insight
Zsolt Bagosi, Miklós Palotai, Balázs Simon, Péter Bokor, András Buzás, Beáta Balangó, Dávid Pintér, Miklós Jászberényi, Krisztina Csabafi, Gyula Szabó
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the selective agonists of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) 2 receptor, urocortin 2 (UCN 2) and urocortin 3 (UCN 3), on the anxiety- and depression-like signs induced by acute nicotine withdrawal in mice. In order to do so, male CFLP mice were exposed for 7 days to repeated intraperitoneal (IP) injection with nicotine or saline solution and 1day of acute withdrawal and then a single intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection with UCN 2, UCN 3 or saline solution...
September 29, 2016: Brain Research
Xin Zhang, Yuanbing Wu, Jin Hao, Jieyao Zhu, Ni Tang, Jinwen Qi, Shuyao Wang, Hong Wang, Shuang Peng, Ju Liu, Yundi Gao, Defang Chen, Zhiqiong Li
Urocortin-3 (UCN3), one of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) family peptides, which was discovered in 2001, has a variety of biological functions. However, the researches of UCN3 in fish were scarce. In order to understand whether UCN3 play a role in regulating food intake in fish, we first cloned the ucn3 cDNAs sequence of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt), and investigated the ucn3 mRNA levels in 11 tissues. The Siberian sturgeon ucn3 cDNA sequence was 1044bp, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 447bp that encoded 148 amino acids with a mature peptide of 40 amino acids, a 5'-terminal untranslated region (5'-UTR) of 162bp and a 3'-terminal untranslated region (3'-UTR) of 435bp...
September 22, 2016: Peptides
Kenta Sumii, Hideaki Miyake, Noritoshi Enatsu, Koji Chiba, Masato Fujisawa
The objective of this study was to investigate the role of urocortin in testicular apoptosis using an experimental ischemia-reperfusion rat model. To evaluate the change in urocortin expression and apoptotic status in the testes following ischemia-reperfusion, the left testes of rats were rotated clockwise by 720° for 1 h, and were then harvested at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 24 h after detorsion (n = 5 in each group). A time-dependent increase in the expression levels of urocortin was noted until 6 h after reperfusion, but the expression of urocortin was markedly decreased 24 h after reperfusion...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Abba J Kastin, Weihong Pan
Pertinent to pandemic obesity, the discovery of endogenous peptides that affect the ingestion of food has led to the question of how these ingestive peptides exert their actions in the brain. Whereas peripheral sources provide a ready reserve, the availability of ingestive peptides to their central nervous system targets can be regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Some of the peptides/polypeptides are transported by saturable mechanisms from blood to brain. Examples include leptin, insulin, mahogany, and pancreatic polypeptide...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Esengul Keleş, Arzu Gebeşçe, Filiz Turan, Fatma Fidan, Hamza Yazgan, Bülent Baştürk, Mehmet Demirdöven, Alparslan Tonbul, Mahmut Kaya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Marloes J A G Henckens, Jan M Deussing, Alon Chen
Dysregulation of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-urocortin (UCN) system has been implicated in stress-related psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety. It has been proposed that CRF-CRF receptor type 1 (CRFR1) signalling promotes the stress response and anxiety-like behaviour, whereas UCNs and CRFR2 activation mediate stress recovery and the restoration of homeostasis. Recent findings, however, provide clear evidence that this view is overly simplistic. Instead, a more complex picture has emerged that suggests that there are brain region- and cell type-specific effects of CRFR signalling that are influenced by the individual's prior experience and that shape molecular, cellular and ultimately behavioural responses to stressful challenges...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Patrizia Carrarelli, Alice Luddi, Lucia Funghi, Felice Arcuri, Frederic Batteux, Cynthia Dela Cruz, Claudia Tosti, Fernando M Reis, Charles Chapron, Felice Petraglia
Ovarian endometrioma (OMA) and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) are the most severe forms of endometriosis, but different pathogenetic mechanisms and clinical symptoms distinguish these two forms. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and urocortin (Ucn) are endometrial neuropeptides involved in tissue differentiation and inflammation. The expression of CRH, Ucn, Ucn2, CRH-receptors (type-1 and type-2) and inflammatory enzymes phospholipase-A2 group IIA (PLA2G2A) and cycloxygenase-2 (COX2) were evaluated in OMA (n = 22) and DIE (n = 26)...
October 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
M J A G Henckens, Y Printz, U Shamgar, J Dine, M Lebow, Y Drori, C Kuehne, A Kolarz, M Eder, J M Deussing, N J Justice, O Yizhar, A Chen
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is critical in mediating states of anxiety, and its dysfunction has been linked to stress-related mental disease. Although the anxiety-related role of distinct subregions of the anterior BNST was recently reported, little is known about the contribution of the posterior BNST (pBNST) to the behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress. Previously, we observed abnormal expression of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRFR2) to be associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms...
August 23, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Justyna M Wierzbicka, Michał A Żmijewski, Anna Piotrowska, Boguslaw Nedoszytko, Magdalena Lange, Robert C Tuckey, Andrzej T Slominski
Ultraviolet radiation B stimulates both the production of vitamin D3 in the skin and the activation of the skin analog of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) as well as the central HPA. Since the role of vitamin D3 in the regulation of the HPA is largely unknown, we investigated the impact of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its noncalcemic analogs, 20(OH)D3 and 21(OH)pD, on the expression of the local HPA in human epidermal keratinocytes. The noncalcemic analogs showed similar efficacy to 1,25(OH)2D3 in stimulating the expression of neuropeptides, CRF, urocortins and POMC, and their receptors, CRFR1, CRFR2, MC1R, MC2R, MC3R and MC4R...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Fan Zhou, Bingxin Gao, Chunyan Deng, Guiqiong Huang, Ting Xu, Xiaodong Wang
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy(ICP) is complicated by acute placental-fetal hypoxia. Corticotropin-releasing hormone(CRH) and urocortin(UCN) are vasodilatory regulators of blood flow in the placenta. An ethinylestradiol(EE)-induced cholestasis rat model was reproduced and serum/placental CRH/UCN were detected during 14-21days of gestation(DG). Maternal serum or placental CRH/UCN levels in the control rats were relatively consistent during 14-21DG. Serum CRH was reduced in the EE-treated rats compared with the control rats at 21DG...
October 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Salvatore Giovanni Vitale, Antonio Simone Laganà, Agnese Maria Chiara Rapisarda, Maria Giovanna Scarale, Francesco Corrado, Pietro Cignini, Salvatore Butticè, Diego Rossetti
The activities of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and related peptides are mediated a number of receptors with seven transmembrane domains that are coupled to the Gs and Gq proteins. These receptors are known as CRF-Rs. In vitro studies have evidenced that urocortin (UCN) and CRF provoke an increase in the contractility of the uterus which is induced by endometrial prostaglandin F2a. Furthermore, through trophoblasts, it stimulates the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and prostaglandin PGE2 and has a vasodilatory effect on the placenta...
July 16, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Patrizia Carrarelli, Chih-Feng Yen, Lucia Funghi, Felice Arcuri, Claudia Tosti, Giuseppe Bifulco, Alice Luddi, Chyi-Long Lee, Felice Petraglia
OBJECTIVE: Adenomyosis is a uterine disorder characterized by dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, abnormal uterine bleeding, and infertility. Pathogenesis indicates that endometrial cells invade and proliferate within myometrium, and inflammatory mediators participate to the intense painful symptoms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of inflammatory (interleukin 1β [IL-1β], corticotropin-releasing hormone [CRH], urocortin [Ucn]) and neurogenic (nerve growth factors [NGFs], synaptophysin [SYN], microtubule-associated protein 2 [MAP2]) factors in adenomyotic nodules...
July 20, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Yair Shemesh, Oren Forkosh, Mathias Mahn, Sergey Anpilov, Yehezkel Sztainberg, Sharon Manashirov, Tamar Shlapobersky, Evan Elliott, Laure Tabouy, Gili Ezra, Elaine S Adler, Yair J Ben-Efraim, Shosh Gil, Yael Kuperman, Sharon Haramati, Julien Dine, Matthias Eder, Jan M Deussing, Elad Schneidman, Ofer Yizhar, Alon Chen
Social encounters are associated with varying degrees of emotional arousal and stress. The mechanisms underlying adequate socioemotional balance are unknown. The medial amygdala (MeA) is a brain region associated with social behavior in mice. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type-2 (CRF-R2) and its specific ligand urocortin-3 (Ucn3), known components of the behavioral stress response system, are highly expressed in the MeA. Here we show that mice deficient in CRF-R2 or Ucn3 exhibit abnormally low preference for novel conspecifics...
July 18, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Keiichi Hiramoto, Yurika Yamate, Eisuke F Sato
Ultraviolet (UV) eye irradiation denatures the cells of the intestine. This study examined the action of UVA and UVB on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis. We produced a mouse model of ulcerative colitis by administering DSS for 5 days and irradiated the eye with UVB or UVA for each day of the DSS treatment period. DSS-induced ulcerative colitis was deteriorated by the UVB eye irradiation. Conversely, the symptoms improved with UVA eye irradiation. The levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), urocortin 2, interleukin (IL)-18, IL-6 and histamine in the blood increased after the UVB eye irradiation of DSS-treated mice (UVB/DSS-treated mice)...
September 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Koji Takeuchi, Naoko Abe, Aiko Kumano
We examined the influence of adrenalectomy on NSAID-induced small intestinal damage in rats and investigated the possible involvement of adrenal glucocorticoids in the protective effects of urocortin I, a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) agonist. Male SD rats without fasting were administered indomethacin s.c. and killed 24 h later in order to examine the hemorrhagic lesions that developed in the small intestine. Urocortin I (20 µg/kg) was given i.v. 10 min before the administration of indomethacin. Bilateral adrenalectomy was performed a week before the experiment...
June 30, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Stefanie M Klampfl, Milena M Schramm, Gwen S Stinnett, Doris S Bayerl, Audrey F Seasholtz, Oliver J Bosch
Reduced corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor activation in the postpartum period is essential for adequate maternal behavior. One of the factors contributing to this hypo-activity might be the CRF-binding protein (CRF-BP), which likely reduces the availability of free extracellular CRF/urocortin 1. Here, we investigated behavioral effects of acute CRF-BP inhibition using 5μg of CRF(6-33) administered either centrally or locally within different parts of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in lactating rats...
August 2016: Hormones and Behavior
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