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Andrzej T Slominski, Michal A Zmijewski, Przemyslaw M Plonka, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Ralf Paus
The skin, a self-regulating protective barrier organ, is empowered with sensory and computing capabilities to counteract the environmental stressors to maintain/restore disrupted cutaneous homeostasis. These complex functions are coordinated by a cutaneous neuro-endocrine system that also communicates in a bidirectional fashion with the central nervous, endocrine and immune systems, all acting in concert to control body homeostasis. While ultraviolet energy (UV) has played an important role in the origin and evolution of life, UV absorption by the skin not only triggers mechanisms that defend skin integrity and regulate global homeostasis, but also induces skin pathology (e...
March 12, 2018: Endocrinology
M Tavares-Silva, D Ferreira, S Cardoso, A R Raimundo, J Barbosa-Breda, A Leite-Moreira, A Rocha-Sousa
Urocortin 2 (UCN2) is a peptide related to corticotropin-releasing factor, capable of activating CRF-R2. Among its multisystemic effects, it has actions in all 3 muscle subtypes. This study's aim was to determine its potential role in two of the intrinsic eye muscle kinetics. Strips of iris sphincter (rabbit) and ciliary (bovine) muscles were dissected and mounted in isometric force-transducer systems filled with aerated-solutions. Contraction was elicited using carbachol (10(-6) M for iris sphincter, 10(-5) M for ciliary muscle), prior to all testing substances...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
Paula G Slater, Sebastian E Gutierrez-Maldonado, Katia Gysling, Carlos F Lagos
The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system is a key mediator of the stress response and addictive behavior. The CRF system includes four peptides: The CRF system includes four peptides: CRF, urocortins I-III, CRF binding protein (CRF-BP) that binds CRF with high affinity, and two class B G-protein coupled receptors CRF1 R and CRF2 R. CRF-BP is a secreted protein without significant sequence homology to CRF receptors or to any other known class of protein. Recently, it has been described a potentiation role of CRF-BP over CRF signaling through CRF2 R in addictive-related neuronal plasticity and behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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Richard A. Knight, Carol Chen-Scarabelli, Zhaokan Yuan, Roy B. McCauley, J. Di Rezze, Gabriele M. Scarabelli, Paul A. Townsend, David Latchman, Louis Saravolatz, Giuseppe Faggian, Alessandro Mazzucco, Hardial S. Chowdrey, Anastasis Stephanou, Tiziano M. Scarabelli First published: 22 February 2008 FEBS Letters, Volume 582, Issue 6, Pages 984-990 DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2008.02.035 The above article from FEBS Letters, published online on February 22, 2008 in Wiley Online Library (, has been withdrawn by agreement between the authors, the Journal Managing Editor Felix Wieland, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd...
February 2018: FEBS Letters
Allyson L Schreiber, Nicholas W Gilpin
Alcohol use is pervasive in the United States. In the transition from nonhazardous drinking to hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorder, neuroadaptations occur within brain reward and brain stress systems. One brain signaling system that has received much attention in animal models of excessive alcohol drinking and alcohol dependence is corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). The CRF system is composed of CRF, the urocortins, CRF-binding protein, and two receptors - CRF type 1 and CRF type 2. This review summarizes how acute, binge, and chronic alcohol dysregulates CRF signaling in hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic brain regions and how this dysregulation may contribute to changes in alcohol reinforcement, excessive alcohol consumption, symptoms of negative affect during withdrawal, and alcohol relapse...
January 28, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Jeffrey I Mechanick, Shan Zhao, W Timothy Garvey
Leptin has central importance in the global obesity and cardiovascular disease problem. Leptin is principally secreted by adipocytes and acts in the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and food intake, increase energy expenditure, and regulate body weight. Based on clinical translation of specific and networked actions, leptin affects the cardiovascular system and may be a marker and driver of cardiometabolic risk factors with interventions that are actionable by cardiologists. Leptin subnetwork analysis demonstrates a statistically significant role for ethnoculturally and socioeconomically appropriate lifestyle intervention in cardiovascular disease...
December 13, 2017: Global Heart
Zsolt Bagosi, Krisztina Csabafi, Beáta Balangó, Dávid Pintér, Orsolya Szolomájer-Csikós, Zsolt Bozsó, Gábor Tóth, Gyula Telegdy, Gyula Szabó
The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like actions of Urocortin 2 (Ucn2) and its two fragments, Ucn2 (1-21) and Ucn2 (22-38), in mice, in an attempt to identify the biologically active sequence of this 38 amino acid neuropeptide. In this purpose, male C57BL/6 mice were treated intracerebroventricularly (icv) with 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/2µl of Ucn2, Ucn2 (1-21) or Ucn2 (22-38). After 30 minutes, the mice were evaluated in an elevated plus-maze test and a forced swim test for anxiety- and depression-like behavior, respectively...
December 13, 2017: Brain Research
Annelyn Torres-Reverón, Leslie L Rivera, Idhaliz Flores, Caroline B Appleyard
Treatments for endometriosis include pharmacological or surgical procedures that produce significant side effects. We aimed to determine how environmental enrichment (EE) could impact the progression of endometriosis using the autotransplantation rat model. Female rats were exposed to EE (endo-EE: toys and nesting materials, 4 rats per cage, larger area enclosure) or no enrichment (endo-NE: 2 rats per cage) starting on postnatal day 21. After 8 weeks, sham surgery or surgical endometriosis was induced by suturing uterine horn tissue next to the intestinal mesentery, then allowed to progress for 60 days during which EE or NE continued...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Zoltán Péterfi, Erzsébet Farkas, Kata Nagyunyomi-Sényi, Andrea Kádár, Szenci Ottó, András Horváth, Tamás Füzesi, Ronald M Lechan, Csaba Fekete
Two anorexigenic peptides, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and urocortin 3 (UCN3), are co-expressed in a continuous neuronal group that extends from the perifornical area to the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, raising the possibility that this cell group may be involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. In this study, therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the TRH/UCN3 neurons regulate food intake by influencing feeding-related neuropeptide Y (NPY) and/or proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC)...
November 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Jinxin Wang, Jiaqing Yi, Paul B Siegel, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
The Virginia lines of chickens have been selected for low (LWS) or high (HWS) juvenile body weight and have different severities of anorexia and obesity, respectively. The LWS that are exposed to stressors at hatch are refractory to neuropeptide Y (NPY)-induced food intake and the objective was to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Chicks were exposed to a stressor (-20°C for 6 minutes, and 22°C and delayed access to food for 24 hours) after hatch and hypothalamic nuclei, including the lateral hypothalamus (LH), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), and arcuate nucleus (ARC), were collected 5 days later...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Andrey E Ryabinin, William J Giardino
The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system plays a role in alcohol consumption, and its dysregulation can contribute to alcohol use disorder. This system includes four peptide ligands: CRF, urocortin (Ucn)1, Ucn2, and Ucn3. Historically, attention focused on CRF, however, Ucn1 also plays a critical role in excessive alcohol use. This review covers evidence for this contribution and contrasts the role of Ucn1 with CRF. While CRF can promote binge consumption, this regulation occurs through generalized mechanisms that are not specific for alcohol...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
S J Anderson, M G White, S L Armour, R Maheshwari, D Tiniakos, Y D Muller, E Berishvili, T Berney, J Am Shaw
Replacement of pancreatic β-cells through deceased donor islet transplantation is a proven therapy for preventing recurrent life-threatening hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. Although near-normal glucose levels and insulin independence can be maintained for many years following successful islet transplantation, restoration of normal functional β-cell mass has remained elusive. It has recently been proposed that dedifferentiation / plasticity towards other endocrine phenotypes may play an important role in stress-induced β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes...
September 26, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
Charalabos Pothoulakis, Monica Torre-Rojas, Marco A Duran-Padilla, Jonathan Gevorkian, Odysseas Zoras, Emmanuel Chrysos, George Chalkiadakis, Stavroula Baritaki
Colorectal cancer (CRC) responds poorly to immuno-mediated cytotoxicity. Underexpression of corticotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-2 (CRHR2) in CRC, promotes tumor survival, growth and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), in vitro and in vivo. We explored the role of CRHR2 downregulation in CRC cell resistance to Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis and the underlying molecular mechanism. CRC cell sensitivity to CH11-induced apoptosis was compared between Urocortin-2 (Ucn2)-stimulated parental and CRHR2-overexpressing CRC cell lines and targets of CRHR2/Ucn2 signaling were identified through in vitro and ex vivo analyses...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Laura M Maia, Ana L Rocha, Helen L Del Puerto, Felice Petraglia, Fernando M Reis
Accurate noninvasive diagnostic tests for endometriosis are still missing. This study evaluated the predictive value of the neuropeptide urocortin 1 (Ucn1) to detect pelvic endometriosis in symptomatic women. We enrolled prospectively 97 consecutive women submitted to gynecologic laparoscopy for chronic or acute pelvic pain, infertility or adnexal mass. Preoperative blood samples were assayed for Ucn1 using enzyme immunoassay. Patients with endometriosis had higher plasma Ucn1 levels compared to patients with no lesions (median 59 vs...
September 19, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
Miriam T Rademaker, A Mark Richards
The urocortins (Ucns), endogenous peptides belonging to the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family, are increasingly recognized as having diverse and important multi-system functions, especially within the cardiovascular system. The biological actions of the three Ucns (Ucn1, Ucn2, Ucn3) are mediated via G-protein-coupled CRF receptors, with both peptides and receptors widely distributed throughout tissues and organs contributing to pressure/volume homeostasis including the heart, vasculature, kidneys and adrenals...
November 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Shigeo Ohno, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Hiroaki Fujihara, Nobuhiro Fujiki, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Takashi Maruyama, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Hiromichi Ueno, Satomi Sonoda, Motoko Ohno, Yuichi Umezu, Akinori Hamamura, Satoru Saeki, Yoichi Ueta
To visualize oxytocin in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system, we generated a transgenic rat that expresses the oxytocin-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fusion gene. In the present study, we examined the age-related changes of oxytocin-mRFP1 fluorescent intensity in the posterior pituitary (PP), the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of transgenic rats. The mRFP1 fluorescent intensities were significantly increased in the PP, the SON and the PVN of 12-, 18- and 24-month-old transgenic rats in comparison with 3-month-old transgenic rats...
August 28, 2017: Neuroscience Research
Kazunori Kageyama, Shingo Murasawa, Kanako Niioka, Fumio Otsuka, Hiroko Yagi, Makoto Daimon
A close interaction has been shown between the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Urocortin 2 (Ucn2) has a very high affinity for the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) type 2 (CRF2) receptor. Pituitary Ucn2 regulates expression and secretion of gonadotropins in response to stress. The CRF2 receptor in the pituitary contributes to the modulation of gonadotropins. To explore the possible function of Ucn2 and the CRF2 receptor in pituitary gonadotropic tumor cells, we examined the direct regulation of gonadotropins by Ucn2 in a representative pituitary gonadotropic tumor, mouse LβT2 cells...
November 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Laura A Tan, Joan M Vaughan, Marilyn H Perrin, Jean E Rivier, Paul E Sawchenko
The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family of peptides includes CRF and three urocortins, which signal through two distinct G-protein coupled receptors, CRF1 and CRF2 . Although the cellular distribution of CRF receptor expression has been well characterized at the mRNA level, the localization of receptor protein, and, by inference, of functional receptors, has been limited by a lack of reliable immunohistochemical evidence. Recently, a CRF-related peptide, termed PD-sauvagine, was isolated from the skin of the frog, Pachymedusa dacnicolor, and validated as a high-affinity ligand for CRF receptor studies...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Ignacio Díaz, Eva Calderón-Sánchez, Raquel Del Toro, Javier Ávila-Médina, Eva Sánchez de Rojas-de Pedro, Alejandro Domínguez-Rodríguez, Juan Antonio Rosado, Abdelkrim Hmadcha, Antonio Ordóñez, Tarik Smani
Urocortin 1 and 2 (Ucn-1 and Ucn-2) have established protective actions against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injuries. However, little is known about their role in posttranscriptional regulation in the process of cardioprotection. Herein, we investigated whether microRNAs play a role in urocortin-induced cardioprotection. Administration of Ucn-1 and Ucn-2 at the beginning of reperfusion significantly restored cardiac function, as evidenced ex vivo in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts and in vivo in rat subjected to I/R...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Benjamin Ducarouge, Marjolaine Pelissier-Rota, Rebecca Powell, Alain Buisson, Bruno Bonaz, Muriel Jacquier-Sarlin
AIM: To determine the role of corticotropin releasing factor receptor (CRF2) in epithelial permeability and enterocyte cell differentiation. METHODS: For this purpose, we used rat Sprague Dawley and various colon carcinoma cell lines (SW620, HCT8R, HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines). Expression of CRF2 protein was analyzed by fluorescent immunolabeling in normal rat colon and then by western blot in dissociated colonic epithelial cells and in the lysates of colon carcinoma cell lines or during the early differentiation of HT-29 cells (ten first days)...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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