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Urocortins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109061/urocortin-suppresses-endometrial-cancer-cell-migration-via-crfr2-and-its-system-components-are-differentially-modulated-by-estrogen
#1
Gemma L Owens, Kevin M Lawrence, Tom R Jackson, Emma J Crosbie, Berna S Sayan, Henry C Kitchener, Paul A Townsend
Urocortin (UCN1) peptide shares structural and functional homology with corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). UCN1 is significantly reduced in endometrial adenocarcinoma compared to healthy controls. However, there are no data which evaluate the effects of UCN1 in the endometrium, or how it is modulated. We used proliferation and transwell assays to determine the effect of UCN1 on the proliferation and migration of Ishikawa and HEC1A cells. We also determined the expression levels of UCN1 and its receptors produced by estrogen receptor agonists, and the effect of UCN1 on estrogen receptor expression, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
January 21, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103786/crh-receptor-signalling-potential-roles-in-pathophysiology
#2
Styliani Ourailidou, Dimitris Grammatopoulos
To maintain homeostatic equilibrium, living organisms have evolved complex adaptation systems that control an array of behavioural, autonomic, neuroendocrine and immune responses. One of the important switches The master switch of this system is the hypothalamic hormone corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which together with a family of related peptides (urocortins, UCNs) orchestrate stress-coping responses that reinstate homeostasis. Persistent disturbances in the homeostatic equilibrium either due to inadequate or persistently uncontrolled responses have been associated with pathogenic mechanisms of disease...
January 10, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103784/the-multi-faceted-profile-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf-family-of-neuropeptides-and-of-their-receptors-on-the-paracrine-local-regulation-of-the-inflammatory-response
#3
Andrew N Margioris, Eirini Dermitzaki, Maria Venihaki, Christos Tsatsani, Achille Gravanis, Pavlina Avgoustinaki, George Liapakis
The corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) family of neuropeptides, CRF and the Urocortins, and their receptors are present not only within the central nervous system but also in the periphery at various locations and at the sites of inflammation where they influence its progress in a complex local / paracrine manner. These neuropeptides are either produced locally, by components of the inflammatory response or they may reach the inflammation sites via postganglionic sympathetic and sensory afferent nerve transport...
January 9, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103783/understanding-corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptor-crfr-activation-using-structural-models
#4
Arnau Cordomi, George Liapakis, Minos Timotheos Matsoukas
The corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 and 2 receptors (CRF1R and CRF2R) belong to the secretin-like family, also known as class B1, of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Several endogenous hormones mediate their responses through the CRF receptors, such as CRF and the urocortins. The structures for the N-terminus extracellular domain of both CRF1R and CRF2R in complex with peptidic ligands were released a few years ago and permitted the study of hormone binding to the orthosteric binding site. It was not until more recently, when the crystal structure of the transmembrane domain of human CRF1R in its inactive state bound to an allosteric antagonist became available...
January 10, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071586/milestones-in-crh-research
#5
George P Chrousos, Emmanouil Zoumakis
The Corticotropin-releasing Hormone (CRH) mammalian family members include CRH, urocortin I, Stresscopin (SCP) and Stresscopin-related peptide (SRP), along with the CRH receptors type 1 (CRHR1) and type 2 (CRHR2), and CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP). These family members differ in their tissue distribution and pharmacology. Several studies have provided evidence supporting an important role of this family in the regulation of the neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress. Regulation of the relative contribution of CRH and its homologs and the two CRH receptors in brain CRH pathways may be essential in coordinating physiologic responses to stress...
January 9, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011950/involvement-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-corticotropin-releasing-factor-2-receptors-in-pathogenesis-of-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-enteritis-in-rats
#6
K Takeuchi, A Kumano, N Abe, T Kotani
We herein investigated, using a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) agonist and antagonists, whether CRF plays a role in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion-induced small intestinal lesions in rats. Under pentobarbital anesthesia, the superior mesenteric artery was clamped (ischemia) for 75 min, followed by reperfusion with removal of the clamp. After a 24-h reperfusion, the area of hemorrhagic lesions that developed in the small intestine was measured. Urocortin I (CRF receptor 1/2 agonist), astressin (CRF receptor 1/2 antagonist), NBI27914 (CRF receptor 1 antagonist), or astressin 2B (CRF receptor 2 antagonist) was administered i...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832152/urocortin-treatment-improves-acute-hemodynamic-instability-and-reduces-myocardial-damage-in-post-cardiac-arrest-myocardial-dysfunction
#7
Chien-Hua Huang, Chih-Hung Wang, Min-Shan Tsai, Nai-Tan Hsu, Chih-Yen Chiang, Tzung-Dau Wang, Wei-Tien Chang, Huei-Wen Chen, Wen-Jone Chen
AIMS: Hemodynamic instability occurs following cardiac arrest and is associated with high mortality during the post-cardiac period. Urocortin is a novel peptide and a member of the corticotrophin-releasing factor family. Urocortin has the potential to improve acute cardiac dysfunction, as well as to reduce the myocardial damage sustained after ischemia reperfusion injury. The effects of urocortin in post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction remain unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a preclinical cardiac arrest model and investigated the effects of urocortin...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826101/serotonin-and-urocortin-1-in-the-dorsal-raphe-and-edinger-westphal-nuclei-after-early-life-stress-in-serotonin-transporter-knockout-rats
#8
Rick H A van der Doelen, Berit Robroch, Ilse A Arnoldussen, Maya Schulpen, Judith R Homberg, Tamás Kozicz
The interaction of early life stress (ELS) and the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with increased risk to develop depression in later life. We have used the maternal separation paradigm as a model for ELS exposure in homozygous and heterozygous 5-HTT knockout rats and measured urocortin 1 (Ucn1) mRNA and/or protein levels, Ucn1 DNA methylation, as well as 5-HT innervation in the centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal (EWcp) and dorsal raphe (DR) nuclei, both implicated in the regulation of stress response...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818644/an-update-on-crf-mechanisms-underlying-alcohol-use-disorders-and-dependence
#9
REVIEW
Isabel Marian Hartmann Quadros, Giovana Camila Macedo, Liz Paola Domingues, Cristiane Aparecida Favoretto
Alcohol is the most commonly used and abused substance worldwide. The emergence of alcohol use disorders, and alcohol dependence in particular, is accompanied by functional changes in brain reward and stress systems, which contribute to escalated alcohol drinking and seeking. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems have been critically implied in the transition toward problematic alcohol drinking and alcohol dependence. This review will discuss how dysregulation of CRF function contributes to the vulnerability for escalated alcohol drinking and other consequences of alcohol consumption, based on preclinical evidence...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777046/crh-peptide-evolution-occurred-in-three-phases-evidence-from-characterizing-sea-lamprey-crh-system-members
#10
Matthew J Endsin, Ola Michalec, Lori A Manzon, David A Lovejoy, Richard G Manzon
The corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) system, which includes the CRH family of peptides, their receptors (CRHRs) and a binding protein (CRHBP), has been strongly conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. The identification of invertebrate homologues suggests this system evolved over 500 million years ago. However, the early vertebrate evolution of the CRH system is not understood. Current theory indicates that agnathans (hagfishes and lampreys) are monophyletic with a conservative evolution over the past 500million years and occupy a position at the root of vertebrate phylogeny...
January 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757017/intracerebroventricular-urocortin-3-counteracts-central-acyl-ghrelin-induced-hyperphagic-and-gastroprokinetic-effects-via-crf-receptor-2-in-rats
#11
Chun Yeh, Ching-Heng Ting, Ming-Luen Doong, Chin-Wen Chi, Shou-Dong Lee, Chih-Yen Chen
PURPOSE: Urocortin 3 is a key neuromodulator in the regulation of stress, anxiety, food intake, gut motility, and energy homeostasis, while ghrelin elicits feeding behavior and enhances gastric emptying, adiposity, and positive energy balance. However, the interplays between urocortin 3 and ghrelin on food intake and gastric emptying remain uninvestigated. METHODS: We examined the differential effects of central O-n-octanoylated ghrelin, des-Gln(14)-ghrelin, and urocortin 3 on food intake, as well as on charcoal nonnutrient semiliquid gastric emptying in conscious rats that were chronically implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) catheters...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754786/cardiac-crfr1-expression-is-elevated-in-human-heart-failure-and-modulated-by-genetic-variation-and-alternative-splicing
#12
Anna P Pilbrow, Kathy A Lewis, Marilyn H Perrin, Wendy E Sweet, Christine S Moravec, W H Wilson Tang, Mark O Huising, Richard W Troughton, Vicky A Cameron
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the CRF-related peptides, urocortin (Ucn)-1, Ucn2, and Ucn3 signal through receptors CRFR1 and CRFR2 to restore homeostasis in response to stress. The Ucns exert potent cardioprotective effects and may have clinical utility in heart failure. To explore the activity of this system in the heart, we measured the levels of myocardial gene expression of the CRF/Ucn family of ligands/receptors and investigated genetic variation and alternative splicing of CRFR1 in 110 heart failure patients and 108 heart donors...
December 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702653/ucn-enhances-tgf-beta-mediated-mitoinhibition-of-vsmcs-via-counteracting-tgf-beta-induced-cpla2-expression-and-activation
#13
Chao Zhu, Changchun Cao, Xiaofei Wang, Jie Yuan, Lai Jin, Shengnan Li
Urocortins (UCNs) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) have been demonstrated to participate in various cardiovascular diseases, many of which involve vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2)-mediated arachidonic acid (AA) release is an important cause of VSMCs proliferation. The work was to investigate the regulation of VSMCs proliferation by UCN/TGF-beta and whether cPLA2 was a link between their signaling pathways. VSMCs proliferation was measured by colorimetric assay and immunofluorescence microscopy...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699250/one-time-injection-of-aav8-encoding-urocortin-2-provides-long-term-resolution-of-insulin-resistance
#14
Mei Hua Gao, Dimosthenis Giamouridis, N Chin Lai, Evelyn Walenta, Vivian Almeida Paschoal, Young Chul Kim, Atsushi Miyanohara, Tracy Guo, Min Liao, Li Liu, Zhen Tan, Theodore P Ciaraldi, Simon Schenk, Aditi Bhargava, Da Young Oh, H Kirk Hammond
Using mice rendered insulin resistant with high fat diets (HFD), we examined blood glucose levels and insulin resistance after i.v. delivery of an adeno-associated virus type 8 encoding murine urocortin 2 (AAV8.UCn2). A single i.v. injection of AAV8.UCn2-normalized blood glucose and glucose disposal within weeks, an effect that lasted for months. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps showed reduced plasma insulin, increased glucose disposal rates, and increased insulin sensitivity following UCn2 gene transfer...
September 22, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693397/selective-crf2-receptor-agonists-ameliorate-the-anxiety-and-depression-like-state-developed-during-chronic-nicotine-treatment-and-consequent-acute-withdrawal-in-mice
#15
Zsolt Bagosi, Miklós Palotai, Balázs Simon, Péter Bokor, András Buzás, Beáta Balangó, Dávid Pintér, Miklós Jászberényi, Krisztina Csabafi, Gyula Szabó
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the selective agonists of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) 2 receptor, urocortin 2 (UCN 2) and urocortin 3 (UCN 3), on the anxiety- and depression-like signs induced by acute nicotine withdrawal in mice. In order to do so, male CFLP mice were exposed for 7 days to repeated intraperitoneal (IP) injection with nicotine or saline solution and 1day of acute withdrawal and then a single intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection with UCN 2, UCN 3 or saline solution...
September 29, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667703/intraperitoneal-injection-urocortin-3-reduces-the-food-intake-of-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii
#16
Xin Zhang, Yuanbing Wu, Jin Hao, Jieyao Zhu, Ni Tang, Jinwen Qi, Shuyao Wang, Hong Wang, Shuang Peng, Ju Liu, Yundi Gao, Defang Chen, Zhiqiong Li
Urocortin-3 (UCN3), one of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) family peptides, which was discovered in 2001, has a variety of biological functions. However, the researches of UCN3 in fish were scarce. In order to understand whether UCN3 play a role in regulating food intake in fish, we first cloned the ucn3 cDNAs sequence of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt), and investigated the ucn3 mRNA levels in 11 tissues. The Siberian sturgeon ucn3 cDNA sequence was 1044bp, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 447bp that encoded 148 amino acids with a mature peptide of 40 amino acids, a 5'-terminal untranslated region (5'-UTR) of 162bp and a 3'-terminal untranslated region (3'-UTR) of 435bp...
September 22, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659706/characterization-of-urocortin-as-an-anti-apoptotic-protein-in-experimental-ischemia-reperfusion-model-of-the-rat-testis
#17
Kenta Sumii, Hideaki Miyake, Noritoshi Enatsu, Koji Chiba, Masato Fujisawa
The objective of this study was to investigate the role of urocortin in testicular apoptosis using an experimental ischemia-reperfusion rat model. To evaluate the change in urocortin expression and apoptotic status in the testes following ischemia-reperfusion, the left testes of rats were rotated clockwise by 720° for 1 h, and were then harvested at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 24 h after detorsion (n = 5 in each group). A time-dependent increase in the expression levels of urocortin was noted until 6 h after reperfusion, but the expression of urocortin was markedly decreased 24 h after reperfusion...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658512/involvement-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-metabolic-regulation
#18
Abba J Kastin, Weihong Pan
Pertinent to pandemic obesity, the discovery of endogenous peptides that affect the ingestion of food has led to the question of how these ingestive peptides exert their actions in the brain. Whereas peripheral sources provide a ready reserve, the availability of ingestive peptides to their central nervous system targets can be regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Some of the peptides/polypeptides are transported by saturable mechanisms from blood to brain. Examples include leptin, insulin, mahogany, and pancreatic polypeptide...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648432/utility-of-the-pediatric-sleep-questionnaire-and-urocortin-level-in-urine-as-screening-tools-in-pediatric-patients-with-suspected-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome
#19
Esengul Keleş, Arzu Gebeşçe, Filiz Turan, Fatma Fidan, Hamza Yazgan, Bülent Baştürk, Mehmet Demirdöven, Alparslan Tonbul, Mahmut Kaya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586075/region-specific-roles-of-the-corticotropin-releasing-factor-urocortin-system-in-stress
#20
Marloes J A G Henckens, Jan M Deussing, Alon Chen
Dysregulation of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-urocortin (UCN) system has been implicated in stress-related psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety. It has been proposed that CRF-CRF receptor type 1 (CRFR1) signalling promotes the stress response and anxiety-like behaviour, whereas UCNs and CRFR2 activation mediate stress recovery and the restoration of homeostasis. Recent findings, however, provide clear evidence that this view is overly simplistic. Instead, a more complex picture has emerged that suggests that there are brain region- and cell type-specific effects of CRFR signalling that are influenced by the individual's prior experience and that shape molecular, cellular and ultimately behavioural responses to stressful challenges...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
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