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Corticotrophin releasing hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908768/acute-stress-diminishes-m-current-contributing-to-elevated-activity-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#1
Jing-Jing Zhou, Yonggang Gao, Therese A Kosten, Zongmao Zhao, De-Pei Li
Acute stress stimulates corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)-expressing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which is an essential component of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The M-channel is a voltage-dependent K(+) channel involved in stabilizing the neuronal membrane potential and regulating neuronal excitability. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that acute stress suppresses expression of Kv7 channels to stimulate PVN-CRH neurons and the HPA axis...
November 28, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908212/are-crh-ngf-as-psychoneuroimmune-regulators-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#2
F Z Zangeneh, M M Naghizadeh, M Bagheri, M Jafarabadi
PURPOSE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects quality of life and can worsen anxiety and depression either due to the features of PCOS or due to the diagnosis of a chronic disease. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and nerves growth factor (NGF) are the modulator for the actions of the sympathetic nervous and immune systems. METHODS: In total, 171 women divided into two groups: study and control groups. Serum CRH, NGF, and interleukins: IL-1α. IL-1β, 17A, and TNFα were determined by ELISA Kits in both groups...
December 2, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816005/assessing-placental-corticotrophin-releasing-hormone-disruption-by-hexestrol-in-a-cell-model
#3
Yun Zhu, Yan Qin Tan, Lai K Leung
Studies have shown that corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and relaxin are associated with early delivery. Our lab previously has shown the mycotoxin zeranol increases placental CRH expression. The mycotoxin is used in the farming industry to promote cattle growth, and some synthetic hormones are also used for the same purposes. In order to complete the picture of these growth promoting agents, we attempted to examine the synthetic hormones on the placental gene expression in the current study. Among the tested compounds, hexestrol induced the CRH mRNA and protein expression at 100nM in JEG-3 cells...
December 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784217/role-of-central-and-peripheral-crh-in-skin
#4
Maria Venihaki, Olga Rassouli, George Liapakis
Hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) has a key role in coordinating and controlling complex responses to stress, both systemically, by stimulating the expression of the pituitary POMC gene, and thus, resulting in increased production of ACTH and adrenal glucocorticoid release, and locally since CRH has been identified in several peripheral tissues. CRH seems to exert its effects through interaction with two known so far receptors, CRF1R and CRF2R. The mRNA and protein of CRH family of peptides and their receptors are expressed at several peripheral tissues including rodent and human skin...
October 26, 2016: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742460/behavioural-and-neurochemical-consequences-of-chronic-gut-microbiota-depletion-during-adulthood-in-the-rat
#5
A E Hoban, R D Moloney, A V Golubeva, K A McVey Neufeld, O O'Sullivan, E Patterson, C Stanton, T G Dinan, G Clarke, J F Cryan
Gut microbiota colonization is a key event for host physiology that occurs early in life. Disruption of this process leads to altered brain development which ultimately manifests as changes in brain function and behaviour in adulthood. Studies using germ-free (GF) mice highlight the extreme impact on brain health that results from life without commensal microbes. However, the impact of microbiota disturbances occurring in adulthood is less studied. To this end, we depleted the gut microbiota of 10-week-old male SpragueDawley rats via chronic antibiotic treatment...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738527/safety-needs-mediate-stressful-events-induced-mental-disorders
#6
Zheng Zheng, Simeng Gu, Yu Lei, Shanshan Lu, Wei Wang, Yang Li, Fushun Wang
"Safety first," we say these words almost every day, but we all take this for granted for what Maslow proposed in his famous theory of Hierarchy of Needs: safety needs come second to physiological needs. Here we propose that safety needs come before physiological needs. Safety needs are personal security, financial security, and health and well-being, which are more fundamental than physiological needs. Safety worrying is the major reason for mental disorders, such as anxiety, phobia, depression, and PTSD. The neural basis for safety is amygdala, LC/NE system, and corticotrophin-releasing hormone system, which can be regarded as a "safety circuitry," whose major behavior function is "fight or flight" and "fear and anger" emotions...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728996/social-stress-predicts-preterm-birth-in-twin-pregnancies
#7
David J Owen, Lorna Wood, Barbara Tomenson, Francis Creed, James P Neilson
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether stress, anxiety and depression predict preterm birth in twin pregnancies. METHODS: A prospective cohort study with a convenience sample of women pregnant with dichorionic, diamniotic twins. They were interviewed at 24-28 weeks using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone, ACTH and cortisol levels were assessed at 28 weeks. The main outcome was premature delivery; there were 42 preterm and 73 term births...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692363/exogenous-melatonin-reduced-blood-pressure-in-late-term-ovine-fetus-via-mt1-mt2-receptor-pathways
#8
Jianying Tao, Juanxiu Lv, Weisheng Li, Pengjie Zhang, Caiping Mao, Zhice Xu
Melatonin is involved in the regulation of blood pressure through the receptor dependent or independent route. However, the effect of melatonin on fetal blood pressure is unknown. This study investigated the effect of melatonin on blood pressure of the late-term ovine fetus in utero. Melatonin and/or antagonists were intravenously administered into the fetuses. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were recorded. Fetal blood samples were analyzed for biochemical parameters and hormones, including cortisol, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and endothelin...
September 2016: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591429/postnatal-light-alters-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-function-and-induces-a-depressive-like-phenotype-in-adult-mice
#9
Georgia Coleman, John Gigg, Maria Mercè Canal
The postnatal light environment that a mouse experiences during the critical first three postnatal weeks has long-term effects on both its circadian rhythm output and clock gene expression. Furthermore, data from our lab suggest that postnatal light may also impact the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is a key regulator of stress. To test the effect of postnatal light exposure on adult stress responses and circadian rhythmicity, we raised mice under either 24-h light-dark cycles (LD), constant light (LL) or constant dark (DD) during the first three postnatal weeks...
November 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567427/urocortin-and-corticotrophin-releasing-hormone-receptor-type-2-mrna-are-highly-expressed-in-deep-infiltrating-endometriotic-lesions
#10
Patrizia Carrarelli, Alice Luddi, Lucia Funghi, Felice Arcuri, Frederic Batteux, Cynthia Dela Cruz, Claudia Tosti, Fernando M Reis, Charles Chapron, Felice Petraglia
Ovarian endometrioma (OMA) and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) are the most severe forms of endometriosis, but different pathogenetic mechanisms and clinical symptoms distinguish these two forms. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and urocortin (Ucn) are endometrial neuropeptides involved in tissue differentiation and inflammation. The expression of CRH, Ucn, Ucn2, CRH-receptors (type-1 and type-2) and inflammatory enzymes phospholipase-A2 group IIA (PLA2G2A) and cycloxygenase-2 (COX2) were evaluated in OMA (n = 22) and DIE (n = 26)...
October 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549215/the-sex-dependent-role-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-depression-variations-in-the-nr3c1-gene-are-associated-with-major-depressive-disorder-in-women-but-not-in-men
#11
Nina Sarubin, Sven Hilbert, Felix Naumann, Peter Zill, Anna-Maria Wimmer, Caroline Nothdurfter, Rainer Rupprecht, Thomas C Baghai, Markus Bühner, Cornelius Schüle
Genetic variations in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) have been associated with maladaptive stress responses and major depressive disorder (MDD). In a case-control study design, we examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haploid genotype (haplotype) associations of MR gene NR3C2, GR gene NR3C1 and genes of GR chaperone molecules FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) and corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) differed between healthy subjects (n = 634) and inpatients with major depressive disorder (n = 412)...
August 22, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508030/hypothalamic-gastrin-releasing-peptide-receptor-mediates-an-antidepressant-like-effect-in-a-mouse-model-of-stress
#12
Lihua Yao, Jianxin Chen, Hexiang Chen, Dan Xiang, Can Yang, Ling Xiao, Wanhong Liu, Huiling Wang, Gaohua Wang, Fan Zhu, Zhongchun Liu
Evidence has shown that gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is involved in responses to stress and anxiety. The primary role of GRPR is to stimulate corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion. Thus, the mechanisms of GRPR signaling should be elucidated to discover novel therapeutic targets for treating depression. This study aimed to investigate GRPR alterations in the C57 mouse hypothalamus after the animals were subjected to stress and fluoxetine treatments...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412857/patients-with-chronic-insomnia-have-selective-impairments-in-memory-that-are-modulated-by-cortisol
#13
Gui-Hai Chen, Lan Xia, Fang Wang, Xue-Wei Li, Chuan-An Jiao
Memory impairment is a frequent complaint in insomniacs; however, it is not consistently demonstrated. It is unknown whether memory impairment in insomniacs involves neuroendocrine dysfunction. The participants in this study were selected from the clinical setting and included 21 patients with chronic insomnia disorder (CID), 25 patients with insomnia and comorbid depressive disorder (CDD), and 20 control participants without insomnia. We evaluated spatial working and reference memory, object working and reference memory, and object recognition memory using the Nine Box Maze Test...
October 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385383/parvalbumin-interneurons-of-central-amygdala-regulate-the-negative-affective-states-and-the-expression-of-corticotrophin-releasing-hormone-during-morphine-withdrawal
#14
Li Wang, Minjie Shen, Changyou Jiang, Lan Ma, Feifei Wang
BACKGROUND: The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is a crucial component of the neuronal circuitry mediating aversive emotion. Its role in the negative affective states during drug withdrawal includes changes in opioidergic, GABAergic, and corticotropin-releasing factor neurotransmission. However, the modulation of the neurobiological interconnectivity in the CeA and its effects in the negative reinforcement of drug dependents are poorly understood. METHOD: We performed electrophysiological recordings to assess the membrane excitability of parvalbumin (PV)(+) interneurons in the CeA during chronic morphine withdrawal...
November 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347405/prevention-of-gallstones-by-lidan-granule-insight-into-underlying-mechanisms-using-a-guinea-pig-model
#15
Xiao Wu, Xiaoqiang Liang, Yijie DU, Yan Zhang, Meng Yang, Weiyi Gong, Baojun Liu, Jingcheng Dong, Ningxia Zhang, Hongying Zhang
The aim of the study was to examine the mechanism of action of Lidan Granule (LDG) for the prevention of gallstones using a guinea pig model. One hundred guinea pigs were divided into five groups randomly: control (standard diet and saline), model [lithogenic diet (LD) and saline], LDG-H (LD and 2 g/kg of LDG), LDG-L (LD and 1 g/kg of LDG), and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) (LD and UDCA) as the positive control. At 6 weeks, the rate of gallstone formation and weight of the adrenal gland were recorded and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured...
July 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323622/-effect-of-qidan-granule-on-pmc-derived-peptide-content-and-structure-of-hippocampal-ca1-region-in-microwave-radiated-rats
#16
Lan-fang Guan, Ya-wei Li, Jun-jie Xu, Xiu-hong Zhong, Hong Zhang, Wen-he Zhu, Shi-jie Lv
OBJECTIVE: To explore the protection of high intensity microwave radiation on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity and hippocampal CA1 structure in rats and the protectiveeffect of Qindan Granule (QG) on radiation injured rats. METHODS: Totally 48 Wistar rats were randomlydivided into 8 groups, i.e., the normal control group, post-radiation day 1, 7, and 10 groups, 7 and 10days prevention groups, day 7 and 10 treatment groups, 6 in each group. Rats in prevention groups wererespectively administered with QG liquid (1 mL/100 g, 4...
April 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323435/-effects-of-chronological-moxibustion-on-circadian-rhythm-activities-of-hypothalamus-pituitary-axis-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-rats
#17
Wen-bin Ma, Xu-guang Liu, Hai-yan Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of chronological moxibustion on plasma corticosterone (CORT), corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) rats, so as to explore its mechanisms underlying improvement of RA. METHODS: A total of 144 SD rats were randomly divided into normal control, model, moxibustion, sham-adrenalectomy (ADX, sham-ADX), ADX and ADX+moxibustion groups which were further separately divided into 4 subgroups (4 time-points: 12 pm, 6 am, 12 am, 6 pm, n = 6/subgroup)...
April 2016: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27283766/urocortinergic-system-in-the-testes-of-normal-and-cryptorchid-dogs
#18
Caterina Squillacioti, Adriana De Luca, Giovanna Liguori, Sabrina Alì, Giuseppe Germano, Giuseppe Vassalotti, Luigi Navas, Nicola Mirabella
Cryptorchidism is the most common disorder of the sexual development in dogs, occurring in 13% of the males. Unilateral cryptorchidism is more frequent than bilateral and the right testis seems to be more frequently affected. Urocortin (UCN) is a corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)-related peptide which was observed to affect several functions in male genital organs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of UCN, and its receptors CRHR1 and CRHR2 by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and real-time RT-PCR in the normal and cryptic testis of the dog...
September 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252679/resveratrol-ameliorates-the-anxiety-and-depression-like-behavior-of-subclinical-hypothyroidism-rat-possible-involvement-of-the-hpt-axis-hpa-axis-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#19
Jin-Fang Ge, Ya-Yun Xu, Gan Qin, Jiang-Qun Cheng, Fei-Hu Chen
Metabolic disease subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is closely associated with depression-like behavior both in human and animal studies, and our previous studies have identified the antidepressant effect of resveratrol (RES) in stressed rat model. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RES would manifest an antidepressant effect in SCH rat model and explore the possible mechanism. A SCH rat model was induced by hemi-thyroid electrocauterization, after which the model rats in the RES and LT4 groups received a daily intragastric injection of RES at the dose of 15 mg/kg or LT4 at the dose of 60 μg/kg for 16 days...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27236452/second-line-tests-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-acth-dependent-cushing-s-syndrome
#20
Mattia Barbot, Laura Trementino, Marialuisa Zilio, Filippo Ceccato, Nora Albiger, Andrea Daniele, Anna Chiara Frigo, Rodica Mardari, Giuseppe Rolma, Marco Boscaro, Giorgio Arnaldi, Carla Scaroni
INTRODUCTION: Diagnosing Cushing's syndrome (CS) can be a challenge, especially in ACTH-dependent CS, when it comes to detecting the origin of ACTH secretion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective data were collected on 170 patients with ACTH-dependent CS (149 CD, 21 EAS) referring to two endocrinology units, focusing on three non-invasive tests: dexamethasone 8 mg overnight challenge (HDDST); corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) assay and the desmopressin (DDAVP) test...
October 2016: Pituitary
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