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Corticotrophin releasing hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772307/family-environment-interacts-with-crhr1-rs17689918-to-predict-mental-health-and-behavioral-outcomes
#1
Arunima Roy, Kariina Laas, Triin Kurrikoff, Andreas Reif, Toomas Veidebaum, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Jaanus Harro
BACKGROUND: Corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor-1 gene (CRHR1) variants have been implicated in mental health. However, little is known of the effects of CRHR1 on long-term mental health and behavior in presence of environmental stressors. We assess the effects of CRHR1 variant (rs17689918)-by-environment interactions on emotionality and behavioral traits, including anxiety, depression, aggression and antisocial behaviors. We also determine effects of rs17689918-by-environment-by-sex interactions on the above-mentioned outcomes...
May 14, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770110/a-pcr-based-method-for-rna-probes-and-applications-in-neuroscience
#2
Ruifang Hua, Shanshan Yu, Mugen Liu, Haohong Li
In situ hybridization (ISH) is a powerful technique that is used to detect the localization of specific nucleic acid sequences for understanding the organization, regulation, and function of genes. However, in most cases, RNA probes are obtained by in vitro transcription from plasmids containing specific promoter elements and mRNA-specific cDNA. Probes originating from plasmid vectors are time-consuming and not suitable for the rapid gene mapping. Here, we introduce a simplified method to prepare digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled non-radioactive RNA probes based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and applications in free-floating mouse brain sections...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751401/exposure-to-pfdoa-causes-disruption-of-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-axis-in-zebrafish-larvae
#3
Shengnan Zhang, Xiaochun Guo, Shaoyong Lu, Nan Sang, Guangyu Li, Ping Xie, Chunsheng Liu, Liguo Zhang, Yi Xing
Perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), a kind of perfluorinated carboxylic acid (PFCA) with 12 carbon atoms, has an extensive industrial utilization and is widespread in both wildlife and the water environment, and was reported to have the potential to cause a disruption in the thyroid hormone system homeostasis. In this study, zebrafish embryos/larvae were exposed to different concentrations of PFDoA (0, 0.24, 1.2, 6 mg/L) for 96 h post-fertilization (hpf). PFDoA exposure caused obvious growth restriction connected with the reduced thyroid hormones (THs) contents in zebrafish larvae, strengthening the interference effect on the growth of fish larvae...
April 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751050/effects-of-hypergravity-on-the-gene-expression-of-the-hypothalamic-feeding-related-neuropeptides-in-mice-via-vestibular-inputs
#4
Satomi Sonoda, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Chikara Abe, Hironobu Morita, Hiromichi Ueno, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Takashi Maruyama, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Yoshiya Tanaka, Yoichi Ueta
The effects of hypergravity on the gene expression of the hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides in sham-operated (Sham) and vestibular-lesioned (VL) mice were examined by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the paraventricular nucleus was increased significantly in Sham but not in VL mice after 3 days of exposure to a 2 g environment compared with a 1 g environment. Significant decreases in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and significant increases in neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein in the arcuate nucleus and orexin in the lateral hypothalamic area were observed in both Sham and VL mice...
May 8, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691693/environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-mercury-exposure-alter-thyroid-hormone-levels-and-gene-expression-in-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid-axis-of-zebrafish-larvae
#5
Yaling Sun, Yingwen Li, Zhihao Liu, Qiliang Chen
Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals that can cause severe damage to fish. Studies have demonstrated that Hg has a specific affinity for the endocrine system, but little is known about the effects of Hg on thyroid endocrine system in fish. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of 1, 4, and 16 μg/L Hg2+ (added as HgCl2 ) from 2 h post-fertilization (hpf) to 168 hpf. Thyroid hormone (TH) levels and mRNA expression levels of genes involved in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were determined...
April 24, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690969/molecular-pathogenesis-of-chewable-tobacco
#6
Saeeda Baig, Zile Rubab, Wasfa Farooq
In Pakistan, extensive use of several precarious chewable tobacco formulations has made oral cancer the second leading malignancy. Selection of literature was done by a survey of studies published from 1990 to 2017 mainly, from PUBMED and few from other search engines, on naswar, gutka, areca nut and betel quid, which included published reviews, original articles and other data sources on chewable tobacco, its epidemiology, pathological implications, and psychological effects. These studies have revealed that the chemicals in these formulations bind and mutate DNA of oral mucosa through down regulating cellular repair pathways and upregulating genetic networks associated with pathogenesis...
May 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670001/epigenetic-programming-of-synthesis-release-and-or-receptor-expression-of-common-mediators-participating-in-the-risk-resilience-for-comorbid-stress-related-disorders-and-coronary-artery-disease
#7
REVIEW
Carlos Manuel Zapata-Martín Del Campo, Martín Martínez-Rosas, Verónica Guarner-Lans
Corticotrophin releasing factor, vasopressin, oxytocin, natriuretic hormones, angiotensin, neuregulins, some purinergic substances, and some cytokines contribute to the long-term modulation and restructuring of cardiovascular regulation networks and, at the same time, have relevance in situations of comorbid abnormal stress responses. The synthesis, release, and receptor expression of these mediators seem to be under epigenetic control since early stages of life, possibly underlying the comorbidity to coronary artery disease (CAD) and stress-related disorders (SRD)...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668880/restraint-induced-crh-elevation-triggers-apoptosis-of-ovarian-cells-and-impairs-oocyte-competence-via-activation-of-the-fas-fasl-system
#8
Chuan-Yong Li, Zhi-Bin Li, Qiao-Qiao Kong, Xiao Han, Bin Xiao, Xiao Li, Zhong-Le Chang, Jing-He Tan
Mechanisms by which psychological stress damages oocytes are largely undetermined. Although a previous study showed that the stress-induced corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) elevation impaired oocyte competence by triggering apoptosis of ovarian cells, how CRH causes apoptosis in ovarian cells and oocytes is unknown. In this study, we have examined the hypothesis that restraint stress (RS)-induced CRH elevation triggers apoptosis of ovarian cells and impairs oocyte competence through activating the Fas/FasL system...
April 16, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530929/separate-roles-for-med12-and-wnt-signaling-in-regulation-of-oxytocin-expression
#9
Emma D Spikol, Eric Glasgow
Transcriptional control of oxytocinergic cell development influences social, sexual, and appetite related behaviors and is implicated in disorders such as autism and Prader-Willi syndrome. Mediator 12 (Med12) is a transcriptional coactivator required for multiple facets of brain development including subsets of serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons. We surveyed hormone gene expression within the hypothalamo-pituitary axis of med12 mutant zebrafish embryos with a focus on oxytocin ( oxt ) expression. Some transcripts, such as oxt , vasopressin ( avp ) and corticotrophin releasing hormone ( crh ) are undetectable in the med12 mutant, while others are upregulated or downregulated to varying degrees...
March 28, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498920/update-on-the-clinicopathology-of-pituitary-adenomas
#10
Chung Thong Lim, Márta Korbonits
Pituitary adenomas are the third most common central nervous system tumours and arise from the anterior pituitary within the pituitary fossa. The signs and symptoms of patients with pituitary adenomas vary from 'mass effects' caused by a large adenoma to features secondary to excess pituitary hormones produced by the functioning pituitary adenoma. Detailed histopathological assessment, based on novel classifications and the latest WHO guidelines, helps to categorise pituitary adenomas into different subtypes and identify features that, in some cases, help to predict their behaviour...
March 2, 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487539/impact-of-air-exposure-on-vasotocinergic-and-isotocinergic-systems-in-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-new-insights-on-fish-stress-response
#11
Arleta K Skrzynska, Elisabetta Maiorano, Marco Bastaroli, Fatemeh Naderi, Jesús M Míguez, Gonzalo Martínez-Rodríguez, Juan M Mancera, Juan A Martos-Sitcha
The hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) and hypothalamus-sympathetic-chromaffin cell (HSC) axes are involved in the regulation of the stress response in teleost. In this regard, the activation of a complex network of endocrine players is needed, including corticotrophin-releasing hormone (Crh), Crh binding protein (Crhbp), proopiomelanocortin (Pomc), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (Trh), arginine vasotocin (Avt), and isotocin (It) to finally produce pleiotropic functions. We aimed to investigate, using the gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata ) as a biological model, the transcriptomic response of different endocrine factors ( crh, crhbp, pomc s, trh ), neuropeptides ( avt and it ), and their specific receptors ( avtrv1a, avtrv2 , and itr ) in four important target tissues (hypothalamus, pituitary, kidney and liver), after an acute stress situation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468732/antidepressant-effects-of-dammarane-sapogenins-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depressive-mice
#12
Ning Jiang, Bei-Yue Zhang, Li-Ming Dong, Jing-Wei Lv, Cong Lu, Qiong Wang, Lin-Xi Fan, Hong-Xia Zhang, Rui-Le Pan, Xin-Min Liu
Depression is a common, dysthymic, and psychiatric disorder, resulting in enormous social and economic burden. Dammarane sapogenins (DS), an active fraction from oriental ginseng, has shown antidepressant-like effects in chronic restraint rats and sleep interruption-induced mice, and the present study aimed to further confirm the antidepressant effects of DS in a model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and to explore the underlying mechanism. Oral administration of DS (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg) markedly improved depressant-like behaviors, increasing the sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test and reducing the latency in the novelty-suppressed feeding test, and decreasing the immobility time in both the tail suspension and forced swimming tests, compared with the CUMS mice...
February 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446232/bmal1-knockdown-suppresses-wake-and-increases-immobility-without-altering-orexin-a-corticotrophin-releasing-hormone-or-glutamate-decarboxylase
#13
Afaf Akladious, Sausan Azzam, Yufen Hu, Pingfu Feng
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of Bmal1 knockdown (KD) on sleep, activity, immobility, hypothalamic levels of orexin, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), and GABAergic glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). METHODS: We used Bmal1 siRNA, or control siRNA intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection to knock down Bmal1 in C57BL/6 mice. Sleep polysomnography, wheel-running activity, and tail suspension test were performed. Polysomnographic (PSG) recordings in both groups were preceded by ICV injection made during both the light phase and the dark phase...
February 14, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407214/impaired-glucocorticoid-mediated-hpa-axis-negative-feedback-induced-by-juvenile-social-isolation-in-male-rats
#14
Giorgia Boero, Maria Giuseppina Pisu, Francesca Biggio, Laura Muredda, Gianfranca Carta, Sebastiano Banni, Elena Paci, Paolo Follesa, Alessandra Concas, Patrizia Porcu, Mariangela Serra
We previously demonstrated that socially isolated rats at weaning showed a significant decrease in corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, associated with an enhanced response to acute stressful stimuli. Here we shown that social isolation decreased levels of total corticosterone and of its carrier corticosteroid-binding globulin, but did not influence the availability of the free active fraction of corticosterone, both under basal conditions and after acute stress exposure. Under basal conditions, social isolation increased the abundance of glucocorticoid receptors, while it decreased that of mineralocorticoid receptors...
May 1, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390057/enhanced-hypothalamic-nmda-receptor-activity-contributes-to-hyperactivity-of-hpa-axis-in-chronic-stress-in-male-rats
#15
Jing-Jing Zhou, Yonggang Gao, Xiangjian Zhang, Therese A Kosten, De-Pei Li
Chronic stress stimulates corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)-expressing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and leads to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, but the mechanisms underlying this action are unknown. Because chronic stress enhances N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity in various brain regions, we hypothesized that augmented NMDAR activity contributes to the hyperactivity of PVN-CRH neurons and the HPA axis in chronic stress. We performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings on PVN-CRH neurons expressing CRH promoter-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein in brain slices from rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and unstressed rats...
January 30, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331929/sex-related-differential-response-to-dexamethasone-in-endocrine-and-immune-measures-in-depressed-in-patients-and-healthy-controls
#16
Carina Rampp, Andreas Eichelkraut, Johanna Best, Darina Czamara, Monika Rex-Haffner, Manfred Uhr, Elisabeth B Binder, Andreas Menke
Although sex differences in major depression have been reported repeatedly, the underlying mechanisms are still disputed. The rapidly changing gonadal steroid concentrations of the postpartum period or during menopause have been shown to be associated with depressive symptoms and to modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, which is implicated in depression. The sample comprised of 128 depressed in-patients (36.7% women) and 166 healthy controls (30.0% women). Blood was collected at baseline (at 6pm) and then 3 h as well as 21 h after ingestion of 1...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275437/gene-expression-of-thyrotropin-and-corticotrophin-releasing-hormones-is-regulated-by-environmental-salinity-in-the-euryhaline-teleost-sparus-aurata
#17
Ignacio Ruiz-Jarabo, J A Martos-Sitcha, C Barragán-Méndez, G Martínez-Rodríguez, J M Mancera, F J Arjona
In euryhaline teleosts, the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axes (HPT and HPI, respectively) are regulated in response to environmental stimuli such as salinity changes. However, the molecular players participating in this physiological process in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), a species of high value for aquaculture, are still not identified and/or fully characterized in terms of gene expression regulation. In this sense, this study identifies and isolates the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (trh) mRNA sequence from S...
April 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249934/the-psychoactive-agent-crocin-can-regulate-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activity
#18
Sara Asalgoo, Mahdi Tat, Hedayat Sahraei, Gila Pirzad Jahromi
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs following life-threatening events. The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which serves as the first line of defense against stress, is dysfunctional in this disorder. The current study aimed to investigate the role of Crocin in normalizing HPA function in an animal model of PTSD induced by electric foot shock. Rats were treated with Crocin 5 min prior to stress induction. The stimulus was re-introduced after 21 days, and we measured individual behaviors such as sniffing, rearing, grooming, and freezing...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138567/resveratrol-ameliorates-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depression-like-behavior-involvement-of-the-hpa-axis-inflammatory-markers-bdnf-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-rats
#19
Xin-Hua Yang, Su-Qi Song, Yun Xu
Classic antidepressant drugs are modestly effective across the population and most are associated with intolerable side effects. Recently, numerous lines of evidence suggest that resveratrol (RES), a natural polyphenol, possesses beneficial therapeutic activity for depression. The aim of the present study was to explore whether RES exhibits an antidepressant-like effect in a depression model and to explore the possible mechanism. A depression model was established via chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), after which the model rats in the RES and fluoxetine groups received a daily injection of RES or fluoxetine, respectively...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079226/unraveling-vasotocinergic-isotocinergic-and-stress-pathways-after-food-deprivation-and-high-stocking-density-in-the-gilthead-sea-bream
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Arleta Krystyna Skrzynska, Juan Antonio Martos-Sitcha, Gonzalo Martínez-Rodríguez, Juan Miguel Mancera
The influence of chronic stress, induced by food deprivation (FD) and/or high stocking density (HSD), was assessed on stress, vasotocinergic and isotocinergic pathways of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Fish were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: (1) fed at low stocking density (LSD-F; 5kg·m-3 ); (2) fed at high stocking density (HSD-F, 40kg·m-3 ); (3) food-deprived at LSD (LSD-FD); and (4) food-deprived at HSD (HSD-FD). After 21days, samples from plasma, liver, hypothalamus, pituitary and head-kidney were collected...
January 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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