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Corticotrophin releasing hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334933/disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1is-essential-for-normal-hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal-hpi-axis-function
#1
Helen Eachus, Charlotte Bright, Vincent T Cunliffe, Marysia Placzek, Jonathan D Wood, Penelope J Watt
Psychiatric disorders arise due to an interplay of genetic and environmental factors, including stress. Studies in rodents have shown that mutants for Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), a well-accepted genetic risk factor for mental illness, display abnormal behaviours in response to stress, but the mechanisms through which DISC1 affects stress responses remain poorly understood. Using two lines of zebrafish homozygous mutant for disc1, we investigated behaviour and functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis, the fish equivalent of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
March 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293470/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-depression-symptom-effects-of-an-arginine-vasopressin-type-1b-receptor-antagonist-in-a-one-week-randomized-phase-1b-trial
#2
David A Katz, Charles Locke, Nicholas Greco, Wei Liu, Katherine A Tracy
BACKGROUND: Arginine vasopressin 1B receptor (V1B) antagonists may have utility for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: The V1B antagonist ABT-436 (N = 31) or matching placebo (N = 20) was administered to MDD subjects for 7 days. The main study objectives were to assess the safety and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) effects of ABT-436 in MDD subjects. MDD symptoms were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17) and the subject-rated Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ)...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249734/role-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-nerve-growth-factor-in-the-regulation-of-neuropeptide-w-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#3
Rikang Wang, Fengxia Yan, Rifang Liao, Pei Wan, Peter J Little, Wenhua Zheng
Nerve growth factor (NGF) and Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are neurotrophic factors involved in the growth, survival and functioning of neurons. In addition, a possible role of neurotrophins, particularly BDNF, in HPA axis hyperactivation has recently been proposed. Neuropeptide W (NPW) is an endogenous peptide ligand for the GPR7 and GPR8 and a stress mediator in the hypothalamus. It activates the HPA axis by working on hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH). No information is available about the interrelationships between neurotrophines like NGF/BDNF and NPW...
February 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239333/postnatal-light-effects-on-pup-stress-axis-development-are-independent-of-maternal-behavior
#4
Georgia Coleman, Maria M Canal
Postnatal environment shapes brain development during key critical periods. We have recently found that postnatal light environment has long-term effects on the stress and circadian systems, which can lead to altered stress responses, circadian behavior and a depressive phenotype in adulthood. However, it is still unclear how light experience affects the postnatal development of specific stress markers in the pup brain and the role played by maternal behavior and stress. To test this, we raised mice under either light-dark cycles (LD), constant light (LL) or constant darkness (DD) during the suckling stage...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220108/adaptations-in-basal-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-activated-deoxycorticosterone-responses-following-ethanol-self-administration-in-cynomolgus-monkeys
#5
Vanessa A Jimenez, Patrizia Porcu, A Leslie Morrow, Kathleen A Grant
Acute ethanol activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, while long-term exposure results in a blunted neuroendocrine state, particularly with regards to the primary endpoint, cortisol, the primary glucocorticoid produced in the adrenal cortex. However, it is unknown if this dampened neuroendocrine status also influences other adrenocortical steroids. Plasma concentration of the mineralocorticoid and neuroactive steroid precursor deoxycorticosterone (DOC) is altered by pharmacological challenges of the HPA axis in cynomolgus monkeys...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219987/a-unique-angiotensin-sensitive-neuronal-population-coordinates-neuroendocrine-cardiovascular-and-behavioral-responses-to-stress
#6
Annette D de Kloet, Lei Wang, Soledad Pitra, Helmut Hiller, Justin A Smith, Yalun Tan, Dani Nguyen, Karlena M Cahill, Colin Sumners, Javier E Stern, Eric G Krause
Stress elicits neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses that mitigate homeostatic imbalance and ensure survival; however, chronic engagement of such responses promotes psychological, cardiovascular and metabolic impairments. Over recent years, the renin-angiotensin system has emerged as a key mediator of stress responding and its related pathologies, but the neuronal circuits that orchestrate these interactions are not known. These studies combine the use of the Cre-recombinase/loxP system in mice with optogenetics to structurally and functionally characterize angiotensin type-1a receptor-containing neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the goal being to determine the extent of their involvement in the regulation of stress responses...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189027/the-flame-retardant-2-2-4-4-tetrabromodiphenyl-ether-enhances-the-expression-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-the-placental-cell-model-jeg-3
#7
Yun Zhu, Yan Qin Tan, Chi Chiu Wang, Lai K Leung
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are chemicals used as flame retardants in household products. After disposing of these items, PBDEs leach from the products by surface water. BDE-47 is a PBDE congener commonly isolated from contaminated food and is the most studied isomer. The placenta is the major source of hormones during pregnancy, and an elevated level of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is associated with premature delivery. In the present study, we examined changes in the placental CRH expression under BDE-47 exposure in the JEG-3 cell model system...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162848/altered-functionality-of-the-corticotrophin-releasing-hormone-receptor-2-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-of-hyperphagic-maternally-separated-rats
#8
V Alcántara-Alonso, M I Amaya, G Matamoros-Trejo, P de Gortari
Early-life stress induces endocrine and metabolic alterations that increase food intake and overweight in adulthood. The stress response activates the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and urocortins' (Ucns) system in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). These peptides induce anorexic effects through CRH-R2 receptor activation; however, chronic stressed animals develop hyperphagia despite of high PVN CRH expression. We analyzed this paradoxical behavior in adult rats subjected to maternal separation (MS) for 180min/daily during post-natal days 2-14, evaluating their body weight gain, food intake, serum corticosterone and vasopressin concentrations, PVN mRNA expression of CRH-R1, CRH-R2, CRH, Ucn2, Ucn3, vasopressin and CRH-R2 protein levels...
February 1, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134998/endocannabinoid-signaling-and-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#9
Cecilia J Hillard, Margaret Beatka, Jenna Sarvaideo
The elucidation of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol as the active principal of Cannabis sativa in 1963 initiated a fruitful half-century of scientific discovery, culminating in the identification of the endocannabinoid signaling system, a previously unknown neuromodulatory system. A primary function of the endocannabinoid signaling system is to maintain or recover homeostasis following psychological and physiological threats. We provide a brief introduction to the endocannabinoid signaling system and its role in synaptic plasticity...
December 6, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117839/the-genetic-overlap-between-mood-disorders-and-cardiometabolic-diseases-a-systematic-review-of-genome-wide-and-candidate-gene-studies
#10
REVIEW
A T Amare, K O Schubert, M Klingler-Hoffmann, S Cohen-Woods, B T Baune
Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (meta-GWASs) and candidate gene studies have identified genetic variants associated with cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases and mood disorders. Although previous efforts were successful for individual disease conditions (single disease), limited information exists on shared genetic risk between these disorders. This article presents a detailed review and analysis of cardiometabolic diseases risk (CMD-R) genes that are also associated with mood disorders...
January 24, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988176/anxiogenic-like-effects-of-fluoxetine-render-adult-male-rats-vulnerable-to-the-effects-of-a-novel-stress
#11
Francisca Gomez, Luis García-García
Fluoxetine (FLX) has paradoxical anxiogenic-like effects during the acute phase of treatment. In adolescent (35d-old) male rats, the stress-like effects induced by short-term (3d-4d) FLX treatment appear to involve up-regulation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) arginine vasopressin (AVP) mRNA. However, studies on FLX-induced anxiety-like effects in adult rodents are inconclusive. Herein, we sought to study the response of adult male rats (60-65d-old) to a similar FLX treatment, also investigating how the stressful component, inherent to our experimental conditions, contributed to the responses...
February 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908768/acute-stress-diminishes-m-current-contributing-to-elevated-activity-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#12
Jing-Jing Zhou, Yonggang Gao, Therese A Kosten, Zongmao Zhao, De-Pei Li
Acute stress stimulates corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)-expressing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which is an essential component of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The M-channel is a voltage-dependent K(+) channel involved in stabilizing the neuronal membrane potential and regulating neuronal excitability. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that acute stress suppresses expression of Kv7 channels to stimulate PVN-CRH neurons and the HPA axis...
March 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908212/are-crh-ngf-as-psychoneuroimmune-regulators-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#13
F Z Zangeneh, M M Naghizadeh, M Bagheri, M Jafarabadi
PURPOSE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects quality of life and can worsen anxiety and depression either due to the features of PCOS or due to the diagnosis of a chronic disease. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and nerves growth factor (NGF) are the modulator for the actions of the sympathetic nervous and immune systems. METHODS: In total, 171 women divided into two groups: study and control groups. Serum CRH, NGF, and interleukins: IL-1α. IL-1β, 17A, and TNFα were determined by ELISA Kits in both groups...
December 2, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816005/assessing-placental-corticotrophin-releasing-hormone-disruption-by-hexestrol-in-a-cell-model
#14
Yun Zhu, Yan Qin Tan, Lai K Leung
Studies have shown that corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and relaxin are associated with early delivery. Our lab previously has shown the mycotoxin zeranol increases placental CRH expression. The mycotoxin is used in the farming industry to promote cattle growth, and some synthetic hormones are also used for the same purposes. In order to complete the picture of these growth promoting agents, we attempted to examine the synthetic hormones on the placental gene expression in the current study. Among the tested compounds, hexestrol induced the CRH mRNA and protein expression at 100nM in JEG-3 cells...
December 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784217/role-of-central-and-peripheral-crh-in-skin
#15
Maria Venihaki, Olga Rassouli, George Liapakis
Hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) has a key role in coordinating and controlling complex responses to stress, both systemically, by stimulating the expression of the pituitary POMC gene, and thus, resulting in increased production of ACTH and adrenal glucocorticoid release, and locally since CRH has been identified in several peripheral tissues. CRH seems to exert its effects through interaction with two known so far receptors, CRF1R and CRF2R. The mRNA and protein of CRH family of peptides and their receptors are expressed at several peripheral tissues including rodent and human skin...
October 26, 2016: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742460/behavioural-and-neurochemical-consequences-of-chronic-gut-microbiota-depletion-during-adulthood-in-the-rat
#16
A E Hoban, R D Moloney, A V Golubeva, K A McVey Neufeld, O O'Sullivan, E Patterson, C Stanton, T G Dinan, G Clarke, J F Cryan
Gut microbiota colonization is a key event for host physiology that occurs early in life. Disruption of this process leads to altered brain development which ultimately manifests as changes in brain function and behaviour in adulthood. Studies using germ-free (GF) mice highlight the extreme impact on brain health that results from life without commensal microbes. However, the impact of microbiota disturbances occurring in adulthood is less studied. To this end, we depleted the gut microbiota of 10-week-old male SpragueDawley rats via chronic antibiotic treatment...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738527/safety-needs-mediate-stressful-events-induced-mental-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Zheng Zheng, Simeng Gu, Yu Lei, Shanshan Lu, Wei Wang, Yang Li, Fushun Wang
"Safety first," we say these words almost every day, but we all take this for granted for what Maslow proposed in his famous theory of Hierarchy of Needs: safety needs come second to physiological needs. Here we propose that safety needs come before physiological needs. Safety needs are personal security, financial security, and health and well-being, which are more fundamental than physiological needs. Safety worrying is the major reason for mental disorders, such as anxiety, phobia, depression, and PTSD. The neural basis for safety is amygdala, LC/NE system, and corticotrophin-releasing hormone system, which can be regarded as a "safety circuitry," whose major behavior function is "fight or flight" and "fear and anger" emotions...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728996/social-stress-predicts-preterm-birth-in-twin-pregnancies
#18
David J Owen, Lorna Wood, Barbara Tomenson, Francis Creed, James P Neilson
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether stress, anxiety and depression predict preterm birth in twin pregnancies. METHODS: A prospective cohort study with a convenience sample of women pregnant with dichorionic, diamniotic twins. They were interviewed at 24-28 weeks using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone, ACTH and cortisol levels were assessed at 28 weeks. The main outcome was premature delivery; there were 42 preterm and 73 term births...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692363/exogenous-melatonin-reduced-blood-pressure-in-late-term-ovine-fetus-via-mt1-mt2-receptor-pathways
#19
Jianying Tao, Juanxiu Lv, Weisheng Li, Pengjie Zhang, Caiping Mao, Zhice Xu
Melatonin is involved in the regulation of blood pressure through the receptor dependent or independent route. However, the effect of melatonin on fetal blood pressure is unknown. This study investigated the effect of melatonin on blood pressure of the late-term ovine fetus in utero. Melatonin and/or antagonists were intravenously administered into the fetuses. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were recorded. Fetal blood samples were analyzed for biochemical parameters and hormones, including cortisol, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and endothelin...
September 2016: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591429/postnatal-light-alters-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-function-and-induces-a-depressive-like-phenotype-in-adult-mice
#20
Georgia Coleman, John Gigg, Maria Mercè Canal
The postnatal light environment that a mouse experiences during the critical first three postnatal weeks has long-term effects on both its circadian rhythm output and clock gene expression. Furthermore, data from our lab suggest that postnatal light may also impact the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is a key regulator of stress. To test the effect of postnatal light exposure on adult stress responses and circadian rhythmicity, we raised mice under either 24-h light-dark cycles (LD), constant light (LL) or constant dark (DD) during the first three postnatal weeks...
November 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
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