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Henrik J Johansson, Helen Vallhov, Tina Holm, Ulf Gehrmann, Anna Andersson, Catharina Johansson, Hans Blom, Marta Carroni, Janne Lehtiö, Annika Scheynius
Malassezia sympodialis is a dominant commensal fungi in the human skin mycobiome but is also associated with common skin disorders including atopic eczema (AE). M. sympodialis releases extracellular vesicles, designated MalaEx, which are carriers of small RNAs and allergens, and they can induce inflammatory cytokine responses. Here we explored how MalaEx are involved in host-microbe interactions by comparing protein content of MalaEx with that of the parental yeast cells, and by investigating interactions of MalaEx with cells in the skin...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nilesh Umakant Deshpande, Manickam Jayakannan
Biotin-conjugated multi-stimuli-responsive polysaccharide vesicular nanocarriers are designed and developed, for the first time, to accomplish receptor-mediated endocytosis in cancer cells and to deliver anticancer drugs at the intracellular compartments. For this purpose, a new renewable hydrophobic unit was custom designed with redox-degradable disulphide and enzyme-biodegradable aliphatic ester chemical linkages and it was conjugated along with biotin on the dextran backbone. The dextran derivative self-assembled into nanovesicles of < 200 nm in size which were characterized by dynamic and static light scattering, electron and atomic force microscopes...
June 15, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Francesca Raimondo, Clizia Chinello, Martina Stella, Lucia Santorelli, Fulvio Magni, Marina Pitto
Hematuria is a common sign of many renal and urologic pathologic conditions and it may affect the proteomic analysis of urinary extracellular vesicles (UEv), nanovesicles released from all cells in contact with the urinary space. This condition hinders UEv based proteomic studies aiming to discover biomarkers. Therefore, we studied the effects of hematuria on the proteome of UEv, and introduced a possible solution to reduce its misleading impact. We mimicked hematuria by adding increasing amount of blood to non-affected urine, and investigated its effects on UEv isolation, purity and proteomic composition...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Fang He, Jing Wang, Bin-Cheng Yin, Bang-Ce Ye
Exosomes, a class of small extracellular vesicles, play important roles in various physiological and pathological processes by serving as vehicles for transferring and delivering membrane and cytosolic molecules between cells. Since exosomes widely exist in various body fluids and carry molecular information of their originating cells, they are being regarded as potential noninvasive biomarkers. Nevertheless, the development of convenient and quantitative exosome analysis methods is still technically challenging...
June 12, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
D Bellavia, L Raimondi, V Costa, A De Luca, V Carina, M Maglio, M Fini, R Alessandro, G Giavaresi
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are nanovesicles actively secreted by potentially all cell types, including tumour cells, with the primary role of extracellular systemic communication mediators, both at autocrine and paracrine levels, at short and long distances. Recently, different studies have used exosomes as a delivery system for a plethora of different molecules, such as drugs, microRNAs and proteins. This has been made possible thanks to the simplicity in exosomes engineering, their great stability and versatility for applications in oncology as well as in regenerative medicine...
June 6, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Tamara Sáez, Paul de Vos, Jeroen Kuipers, Luis Sobrevia, Marijke M Faas
INTRODUCTION: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with fetoplacental endothelial dysfunction, which may be induced by hyperglycemia. We hypothesized that endothelial exosomes, which are extracellular nanovesicles affecting endothelial function, play a role in the high glucose (HG)-induced endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: Exosomes were isolated from HUVECs incubated with basal glucose (5.5 mmol/L; HUVEC- BG; exo-BG) and from HUVECs incubated with HG for 24 h (25 mmol/L; HUVEC-HG; exo-HG) in exosome-free medium...
June 2018: Placenta
Jaume Veciana, Antonio Ardizzone, Davide Blasi, Natascia Grimaldi, Santi Sala, Imma Ratera, Danilo Vona, Arnulf Rosspeintner, Angela Punzi, Emiliano Altamura, Eric Vauthey, Gianluca M Farinola, Nora Ventosa
Diketopyrrolopyrroles (DPPs) have recently attracted large interest as highly bright and photostable red-emitting molecules. However, their tendency to form non-fluorescent aggregates in water via the so-called Aggregation Caused Quenching (ACQ) effect is a major issue that limits their application under the microscope. In this work, two DPP molecules have been incorporated in the membrane of highly stable and water-soluble Quatsomes (QS, nanovesicles made by surfactants and sterols), allowing their nanostructuration in water limiting at the same time the ACQ effect...
June 5, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Atefe Abak, Alireza Abhari, Sevda Rahimzadeh
Cancer progression is a polygenic procedure in which the exosomes can function as substantial roles. Exosomes are tiny, phospholipid bilayer membrane nanovesicles of endocytic derivation with a diameter of 40-100 nm. These nanovesicles can transport bioactive molecules containing mRNAs, proteins, DNA fragments, and non-coding RNAs from a donor cell to recipient cells, and cause the alteration in genetic and epigenetic factors and reprogramming of the target cells. Many diverse cell types such as mesenchymal cells, immune cells, and cancer cells can induce the release of exosomes...
2018: PeerJ
Siddhi Inchanalkar, Nilesh Umakant Deshpande, Vishakha Kasherwal, Manickam Jayakannan, Nagaraj Balasubramanian
The small GTPase RalA is a known mediator of anchorage-independent growth in cancers and differentially regulated by adhesion and Aurora Kinase A (AURKA). Inhibiting AURKA hence offers a means of specifically targeting RalA (over RalB) in cancer cells. MLN8237 (alisertib) is a known inhibitor of Aurora Kinases, its specificity for AURKA, however, is compromised by its poor solubility and transport across the cell membrane. A Polymer nanovesicle platform is used for the first time to deliver and differentially inhibit Aurora kinase A (AURKA) in cancer cells...
June 4, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Junnan Tang, Teng Su, Ke Huang, Phuong-Uyen Dinh, Zegen Wang, Adam Vandergriff, Michael T Hensley, Jhon Cores, Tyler Allen, Taosheng Li, Erin Sproul, Emily Mihalko, Leonard J Lobo, Laura Ruterbories, Alex Lynch, Ashley Brown, Thomas G Caranasos, Deliang Shen, George A Stouffer, Zhen Gu, Jinying Zhang, Ke Cheng
Stem cell transplantation, as used clinically, suffers from low retention and engraftment of the transplanted cells. Inspired by the ability of platelets to recruit stem cells to sites of injury on blood vessels, we hypothesized that platelets might enhance the vascular delivery of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) to sites of myocardial infarction injury. Here, we show that CSCs with platelet nanovesicles fused onto their surface membranes express platelet surface markers that are associated with platelet adhesion to injury sites...
2018: Nature Biomedical Engineering
Feng-Xia Ding, Bo Liu, Wen-Jing Zou, Qu-Bei Li, Dai-Yin Tian, Zhou Fu
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are nanovesicles originating from multivesicular bodies that have complex functions and significant therapeutic effects in many diseases. In the present study, we successfully extracted exosomes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and assessed the effect of those exosomes on the development of the allergic response in two types of classic asthma models. METHODS: Female BALB/c mice were administrated with P. aeruginosa-derived exosomes 1 week before ovalbumin (OVA) or house dust mite (HDM) sensitization...
May 23, 2018: Pediatric Research
Dunwan Zhu, Fan Fan, Chenlu Huang, Zhiming Zhang, Yu Qin, Li Lu, Hai Wang, Xu Jin, Hanxue Zhao, Hu Yang, Chao Zhang, Jun Yang, Zhipeng Liu, Hongfan Sun, Xigang Leng, Deling Kong, Linhua Zhang
The combination of chemotherapy and photothermaltherapy (PTT) via stimuli-responsive nanovesicles has great potential in tumor treatment. In the present study, bubble-generating polymersomes, which can generate bubbles in response to low pH or hyperthermia, were fabricated to simultaneously encapsulate chemotherapeutic drug and photosensitizing agent for the synergistic chemo-photothermal tumor therapy. Photosensitizer indocyanine green (ICG) was encapsulated into the bilayer of polymersomes formed by amphiphilic triblock copolymer PCL8000 -PEG8000 -PCL8000 through thin film re-hydration method, while chemotherapeutic doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded into the hydrophilic lumen using a transmembrane ammonium bicarbonate gradient loading procedure...
May 21, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Pengyu Li, Qianfang Yao, Baozhong Lü, Guiping Ma, Meizhen Yin
A photoresponsive host-guest supramolecular complex (WP5⊃G) constructed by water-soluble pillar[5]arene (WP5) and spiropyran derivative (G) is presented. The spontaneous isomerization of G from spiropyran (SP) form to ring-opened merocyanine (MC) form happens either alone or in WP5⊃G in aqueous media. Irradiated by visible light, G can be converted into SP form completely and the hydrophilicity will be changed. G and WP5⊃G are both verified to self-assemble into nanospheres. Upon exposure to visible light, WP5⊃G reassemble into nanovesicles due to the change of supra-amphiphilicity, while G alone does not have this transition...
May 22, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Qingfu Zhu, Mikala Heon, Zheng Zhao, Mei He
Study of extracellular vesicles (EVs), particularly exosomes, holds significant promise; however, it is technically challenging to define these small and molecularly diverse nanovesicles. With intrinsic molecular payload and biodegradability, molecular engineering of exosomes opens new avenues for mediating cellular responses and developing novel nano-delivery systems in precision therapeutics. Microfluidic lab-on-chip technology is playing pivotal roles in this emerging field. In this review, we have examined scientific advancements of microfluidic technology for engineering exosomes and assessed future applications and perspectives in developing precision therapeutics; this can serve the community via identification of potential new research areas or technologies that are urgently needed in precision therapeutics...
May 21, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Linhua Zhang, Yu Qin, Zhiming Zhang, Fan Fan, Chenlu Huang, Li Lu, Hai Wang, Xu Jin, Hanxue Zhao, Deling Kong, Chun Wang, Hongfan Sun, Xigang Leng, Dunwan Zhu
The combination of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy in multifunctional nanovesicles has emerged as a promising strategy to improve cancer therapeutic efficacy. Herein, we designed new pH/reduction dual-responsive and folate decorated polymeric micelles (FA Co-PMs) as theranostic nanocarrier to co-encapsulate doxorubicin (DOX) and indocyanine green (ICG) for targeted NIR imaging and chemo-photothermal combination therapy. The Co-PMs exhibited nano-sized structure (∼100 nm) with good monodispersity, high encapsulation efficiency of both ICG and DOX, triggered DOX release in response to acid pH and reduction environment, and excellent temperature conversion with laser irradiation...
May 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Mikhail Skliar, Vasiliy S Chernyshev, David M Belnap, German V Sergey, Samer M Al-Hakami, Philip S Bernard, Inge J Stijleman, Rakesh Rachamadugu
Exosomes are membrane nanovesicles implicated in cell-to-cell signaling in which they transfer their molecular cargo from the parent to the recipient cells. This role essentially depends on the exosomes' small size, which is the prerequisite for their rapid migration through the crowded extracellular matrix and into and out of circulation. Here we report much lower exosome mobility than expected from the size of their vesicles, implicate membrane proteins in a substantially impeded rate of migration, and suggest an approach to quantifying the impact...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Byeongho Park, Heehong Yang, Tai Hwan Ha, Hyun Seo Park, Seung Ja Oh, Yong-Sang Ryu, Youngho Cho, Hyo-Suk Kim, Juyeong Oh, Dong Kyu Lee, Chulki Kim, Taikjin Lee, Minah Seo, Jaebin Choi, Young Min Jhon, Deok Ha Woo, Seok Lee, Seok Hwan Kim, Hyuk-Jae Lee, Seong Chan Jun, Hyun Seok Song, Tai Hyun Park, Jae Hun Kim
Photosensitive materials contain biologically engineered elements and are constructed using delicate techniques, with special attention devoted to efficiency, stability, and biocompatibility. However, to date, no photosensitive material has been developed to replace damaged visual-systems to detect light and transmit the signal to a neuron in the human body. In the current study, artificial nanovesicle-based photosensitive materials are observed to possess the characteristics of photoreceptors similar to the human eye...
May 18, 2018: Advanced Materials
Meryl Rodrigues, Jia Fan, Christopher Lyon, Meihua Wan, Ye Hu
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), or exosomes, are nanovesicles of endocytic origin that carry host and pathogen-derived protein, nucleic acid, and lipid cargos. They are secreted by most cell types and play important roles in normal cell-to-cell communications but can also spread pathogen- and host-derived molecules during infections to alter immune responses and pathophysiological processes. New research is beginning to decipher how EVs influence viral and bacterial pathogenesis. In this review, we will describe how EVs influence viral and bacterial pathogenesis by spreading pathogen-derived factors and how they can promote and inhibit the immune response to these pathogens...
2018: Theranostics
Francesco Piacenza, Antje Biesemeier, Marco Farina, Francesco Piva, Xin Jin, Eleonora Pavoni, Lorenzo Nisi, Maurizio Cardelli, Laura Costarelli, Robertina Giacconi, Andrea Basso, Elisa Pierpaoli, Mauro Provinciali, James C M Hwang, Antonio Morini, Andrea di Donato, Marco Malavolta
Exosomes are nanovesicles known to mediate intercellular communication. Although it is established that zinc ions can act as intracellular signaling factors, the measurement of zinc in circulating nanovesicles has not yet been attempted. Providing evidence of the existence of this zinc fraction and methods for its measurement might be important to advance our knowledge of zinc status and its relevance in diseases. Exosomes from 0.5 ml of either fresh or frozen human plasma were isolated by differential centrifugation...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Kazuki Ito, Yuta Ogawa, Keiji Yokota, Sachiko Matsumura, Tamiko Minamisawa, Kanako Suga, Kiyotaka Shiba, Yasuo Kimura, Ayumi Hirano-Iwata, Yuzuru Takamura, Toshio Ogino
Exosomes are extracellular nanovesicles released from any cells and found in any body-fluid. Because exosomes exhibit information of their host cells (secreting cells), their analysis is expected to be a powerful tool for early diagnosis of cancers. To predict the host cells, we extracted multi-dimensional feature data about size, shape, and deformation of exosomes immobilized on solid surfaces by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The key idea is combination of support vector machine (SVM) learning for individual exosome particles and their interpretation by principal component analysis (PCA)...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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