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Nanovesicles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450143/purified-horse-milk-exosomes-contain-an-unpredictable-small-number-of-major-proteins
#1
Sergey E Sedykh, Lada V Purvinish, Artem S Monogarov, Evgeniya E Burkova, Alina E Grigor'eva, Dmitrii V Bulgakov, Pavel S Dmitrenok, Valentin V Vlassov, Elena I Ryabchikova, Georgy A Nevinsky
Exosomes are 40-100 nm nanovesicles containing RNA and different proteins. Exosomes containing proteins, lipids, mRNAs, and microRNAs are important in intracellular communication and immune function. Exosomes from different sources are usually obtained by combination of centrifugation and ultracentrifugation and according to published data can contain from a few dozens to thousands of different proteins. Crude exosome preparations from milk of eighteen horses were obtained for the first time using several standard centrifugations...
June 2017: Biochimie Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448966/exosomes-taken-up-by-neurons-hijack-the-endosomal-pathway-to-spread-to-interconnected-neurons
#2
Juan Carlos Polanco, Chuanzhou Li, Nela Durisic, Robert Sullivan, Jürgen Götz
In Alzheimer disease and related disorders, the microtubule-associated protein tau aggregates and forms cytoplasmic lesions that impair neuronal physiology at many levels. In addition to affecting the host neuron, tau aggregates also spread to neighboring, recipient cells where the misfolded tau aggregates, in a manner similar to prions, actively corrupt the proper folding of soluble tau, and thereby impair cellular functions. One vehicle for the transmission of tau aggregates are secretory nanovesicles known as exosomes...
February 15, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430178/engineered-exosome-mediated-delivery-of-functionally-active-mir-26a-and-its-enhanced-suppression-effect-in-hepg2-cells
#3
Gaofeng Liang, Shu Kan, Yanliang Zhu, Shuying Feng, Wenpo Feng, Shegan Gao
Introduction: Exosomes are closed-membrane nanovesicles that are secreted by a variety of cells and exist in most body fluids. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of exosomes as natural vehicles that target delivery of functional small RNA and chemotherapeutics to diseased cells. Methods: In this study, we introduce a new approach for the targeted delivery of exosomes loaded with functional miR-26a to scavenger receptor class B type 1-expressing liver cancer cells...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416686/exosomes-released-by-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-1-grm1-expressing-melanoma-cells-increase-cell-migration-and-invasiveness
#4
Allison L Isola, Kevinn Eddy, Krzysztof Zembrzuski, James S Goydos, Suzie Chen
Exosomes are naturally occurring membrane-bound nanovesicles generated constitutively and released by various cell types, and often in higher quantities by tumor cells. Exosomes may facilitate communication between the primary tumor and its local microenvironment, supporting cell invasion and other early events in metastasis. A neuronal receptor, metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (GRM1), when ectopically expressed in melanocytes, induces in vitro melanocytic transformation and spontaneous malignant melanoma development in vivo in a transgenic mouse model...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410409/exosome-mimetic-nanovesicles-from-hepatocytes-promote-hepatocyte-proliferation-in-vitro-and-liver-regeneration-in-vivo
#5
Jun-Yi Wu, An-Lai Ji, Zhong-Xia Wang, Guang-Hui Qiang, Zhen Qu, Jun-Hua Wu, Chun-Ping Jiang
The liver has great regenerative capacity after functional mass loss caused by injury or disease. Many studies have shown that primary hepatocyte-derived exosomes, which can deliver biological information between cells, promote the regenerative process of the liver. However, the yield of exosomes is very limited. Recent studies have demonstrated that exosome-mimetic nanovesicles (NVs) can be prepared from cells with almost 100 times the production yield compared with exosomes. Thus, this study investigated the therapeutic capacity of exosome-mimetic NVs from primary hepatocytes in liver regeneration...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407555/enhanced-transdermal-delivery-of-ondansetron-using-nanovesicular-systems-fabrication-characterization-optimization-and-ex-vivo-permeation-study-box-cox-transformation-practical-example
#6
Basant A Habib, Sinar Sayed, Ghada M Elsayed
This study aimed to formulate suitable nanovesicles (NVs) for transdermal delivery of Ondansetron. It also illustrated a practical example for the importance of Box-Cox transformation. A 23 full factorial design was used to enable testing transfersomes, ethosomes, and transethosomes of Ondansetron simultaneously. The independent variables (IVs) studied were sodium taurocholate amount, ethanol volume in hydration medium and sonication time. The studied dependent variables (DVs) were: particle size (PS), zeta potential (ZP) and entrapment efficiency (EE)...
January 30, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397741/biomimetic-nanovesicles-for-enhanced-antitumor-activity-of-combinational-photothermal-and-chemotherapy
#7
Tingting Wu, Dan Zhang, Qi Qiao, Xianya Qin, Conglian Yang, Miao Kong, Huan Deng, Zhiping Zhang
Combination of multiple modalities has shown great potential in cancer treatment with improved therapeutic effects and minimized side effects. Here we fabricated a kind of doxorubicin encapsulated biomimetic nanovesicles (NVs) by a facile method with near-infrared dye insertion in the membrane for combinatorial photothermal and chemotherapy. With innate biomimetic properties, NVs enhanced the uptake by tumor cells while reduced the phagocytosis of macrophages. Upon laser irradiation, NVs can convert the absorbed fluorescent energy into heat for effective tumor killing...
February 4, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377463/physical-exosome-exosome-interactions
#8
Elie Beit-Yannai, Saray Tabak, W Daniel Stamer
Exosomes are extracellular nanovesicles that mediate a number of cellular processes, including intracellular signalling. There are many published examples of exosome-exosome dimers; however, their relevance has not been explored. Here, we propose that cells release exosomes to physically interact with incoming exosomes, forming dimers that we hypothesize attenuate incoming exosome-mediated signalling. We discuss experiments to test this hypothesis and potential relevance in health and disease.
January 29, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376493/placental-exosomes-during-gestation-liquid-biopsies-carrying-signals-for-the-regulation-of-human-parturition
#9
Carlos Salomon, Zarin Nuzhat, Christopher L Dixon, Ramkumar Menon
Parturition is defined as the action or process of giving birth to offspring. Normal term human parturition ensues following the maturation of fetal organ systems typically between 37 and 40 weeks of gestation. Our conventional understanding of how parturition initiation is signaled revolves around feto-maternal immune and endocrine changes occurring in the intrauterine cavity. These changes in turn correlate with the sequence of fetal growth and development. These important physiological changes also result in homeostatic imbalances which result in heightened inflammatory signaling...
January 25, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373816/extracellular-vesicle-therapeutics-for-liver-disease
#10
REVIEW
David Borrelli, Kiera Yankson, Neha Shukla, George Vilanilam, Taylor Ticer, Joy Wolfram
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are endogenous nanoparticles that play important roles in intercellular communication. Unmodified and engineered EVs can be utilized for therapeutic purposes. For instance, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived EVs have shown promise for tissue repair, while drug-loaded EVs have the potential to be used for cancer treatment. The liver is an ideal target for EV therapy due to the intrinsic regenerative capacity of hepatic tissue and the tropism of systemically injected nanovesicles for this organ...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372401/exosomes-in-extracellular-matrix-bone-biology
#11
REVIEW
Adrienn Pethő, Yinghua Chen, Anne George
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exosomes are membrane vesicles that are released by most cell types into the extracellular environment. The purpose of this article is to discuss the main morphological features and contents of bone-derived exosomes, as well as their major isolation and physical characterization techniques. Furthermore, we present various scenarios and discuss potential clinical applications of bone-derived exosomes in bone repair and regeneration. RECENT FINDINGS: Exosomes were believed to be nanosized vesicles derived from the multivesicular body...
January 25, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355630/fabrication-of-cationic-nanostructures-from-short-self-assembling-amphiphilic-mixed-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-pentapeptide-potential-candidates-for-drug-delivery-gene-delivery-and-antimicrobial-applications
#12
Rahul Goel, Charu Garg, Hemant Kumar Gautam, Ashwani Kumar Sharma, Pradeep Kumar, Alka Gupta
The present article describes designing and fabrication of nanostructures from a mixed α/β-pentapeptide, Lys-βAla-βAla-Lys-βAla, which majorly contains non-natural β-alanine residues in the backbone with two α-lysine residues at 1- and 4-positions. The amphiphilic pentapeptide showed the ability to self-assemble into cationic nanovesicles in an aqueous solution. The average size of peptide nanostructures was found to be ~270 nm with a very high cationic charge of ~+40 mV. TEM micrographs revealed the average size of the same nanostructures ~80 nm bearing vesicular morphology...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339375/tusc2-immunogene-synergizes-with-anti-pd1-through-enhanced-proliferation-and-infiltration-of-natural-killer-cells-in-syngeneic-kras-mutant-mouse-lung-cancer-models
#13
Ismail M Meraz, Mourad Majidi, Xiaobo Cao, Heather Lin, Lerong Li, Jing Wang, Veerabhadran Baladandayuthapani, David Rice, Boris Sepesi, Lin Ji, Jack A Roth
Expression of the multikinase inhibitor encoded by tumor suppressor gene TUSC2 (also known as FUS1) is lost or decreased in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). TUSC2 delivered systemically by nanovesicles has mediated tumor regression in clinical trials. Because of the role of TUSC2 in regulating immune cells, we assessed TUSC2 efficacy on antitumor immune responses alone and in combination with anti-PD-1 in two Kras-mutant syngeneic mouse lung cancer models. TUSC2 alone significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival compared with anti-PD-1...
January 16, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339034/extracellular-matrix-proteins-and-carcinoembryonic-antigen-related-cell-adhesion-molecules-characterize-pancreatic-duct-fluid-exosomes-in-patients-with-pancreatic%C3%A2-cancer
#14
Jian Zheng, Jonathan M Hernandez, Alexandre Doussot, Linda Bojmar, Constantinos P Zambirinis, Bruno Costa-Silva, Elke J A H van Beek, Milica T Mark, Henrik Molina, Gokce Askan, Olca Basturk, Mithat Gonen, T Peter Kingham, Peter J Allen, Michael I D'Angelica, Ronald P DeMatteo, David Lyden, William R Jarnagin
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are nanovesicles that have been shown to mediate carcinogenesis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Given the direct communication of pancreatic duct fluid with the tumor and its relative accessibility, we aimed to determine the feasibility of isolating and characterizing exosomes from pancreatic duct fluid. METHODS: Pancreatic duct fluid was collected from 26 patients with PDAC (n = 13), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 8) and other benign pancreatic diseases (n = 5) at resection...
January 12, 2018: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338184/design-of-ph-sensitive-nanovesicles-via-cholesterol-analogue-incorporation-for-improving-in-vivo-delivery-of-chemotherapeutics
#15
Lina Liang, Jun Fu, Liyan Qiu
pH-responsive polymersomes have emerged as promising nanocarriers for antitumor drugs to realize their fast release and action in weak acidic microenvironment of tumor cells. Herein, however, we designed a remarkably pH-responsive polymersome self-assembled from amphiphilic benzimidazole-based polyphosphazenes via the incorporation of cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CholHS), a type of cholesteric molecule, into the polymersome bilayers to inhibit the drug release during blood circulation. Actually, unwanted premature drug leakage before arriving at acidic tumor site has become a serious problem for polymersomes encapsulating water-soluble drugs, especially when the drug-loading is at a high level, thus limiting the therapeutic efficacy...
January 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334272/extracellular-vesicle-mimetic-nanovesicles-transport-lncrna-h19-as-competing-endogenous-rna-for-the-treatment-of-diabetic-wounds
#16
Shi-Cong Tao, Bi-Yu Rui, Qi-Yang Wang, Ding Zhou, Yang Zhang, Shang-Chun Guo
Diabetic wounds, one of the most enervating complications of diabetes mellitus, affect millions of people worldwide annually. Vascular insufficiency, caused by hyperglycemia, is one of the primary causes and categories of diabetic impaired wound healing. Recently, long noncoding RNA (LncRNA)-H19, which is significantly decreased in diabetes and may be crucial in triggering angiogenesis, has attracted increasing interest. The possible relationship between the decrease of LncRNA-H19 and the impairment of angiogenesis in diabetes could involve impairment of the insulin-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway via the interdiction of LncRNA-H19...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319291/ph-responsive-nanovesicles-with-enhanced-emission-co-assembled-by-ag-i-nanoclusters-and-polyethyleneimine-as-a-superior-sensor-for-al3
#17
Jinglin Shen, Zhi Wang, Di Sun, Congxin Xia, Shiling Yuan, Panpan Sun, Xia Xin
Metal nanoclusters (NCs) have been engineered as a new kind of luminescent material. Whereas, the application of metal NCs in aqueous solution was subjected to great limitations owing to their poor solubility, stability and strong luminescence quenching in a single molecule state. Herein, facile supramolecular self-assembly strategy was carried out to enhance the luminescence of Ag(I) nanoclusters (Ag6-NCs) through multiple electrostatic interactions with polyethyleneimine (PEI). Functional colloid aggregates of Ag6-NCs such as nanospheres and nanovesicles were formed along with the enhanced emission due to the formation of compact ordered self-assemblies, which effectively restrict intramolecular vibration (RIV) of the capping ligands on Ag6-NCs to diminish the non-radiative decay...
January 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319093/nutriosomes-prebiotic-delivery-systems-combining-phospholipids-a-soluble-dextrin-and-curcumin-to-counteract-intestinal-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#18
Ana Catalán-Latorre, Maria Pleguezuelos-Villa, Ines Castangia, Maria Letizia Manca, Carla Caddeo, Amparo Nácher, Octavio Díez-Sales, José Esteban Peris, Ramon Pons, Elvira Escribano-Ferrer, Anna Maria Fadda, Maria Manconi
Nutriosomes, new phospholipid nanovesicles specifically designed for intestinal protection were developed by simultaneously loading a water-soluble dextrin (Nutriose® FM06) and a natural antioxidant (curcumin). Nutriosomes were easily fabricated in a one-step, organic solvent-free procedure. The stability and delivery performances of the vesicles were improved by adding hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. All the vesicles were small in size (mean diameter ∼168 nm), negatively charged (zeta potential ∼-38 mV, irrespective of their composition), and self-assembled predominantly in unilamellar vesicles stabilized by the presence of Nutriose®, which was located in both the inter-lamellar and inter-vesicle media, as confirmed by cryo-TEM and SAXS investigation...
January 10, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318969/confronting-penetration-threshold-via-fluidic-terpenoid-nanovesicles
#19
Kamla Pathak, Ankur Vaidya, Vijay Sharma
BACKGROUND: Improvisation of the nanosized vesicular systems has led to a series of useful developments including the deformable vesicles namely transfersomes, ethosomes and invasomes. While the former two have been explored extensively, literature on invasomes is relatively scanty. METHOD: Invasomal formulations researched for various applications have been reviewed using search engine "Scopus". The present review focuses on the update on the research activity on effectiveness and permeation enhancing effects of invasomes for dermal and topical delivery...
January 8, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290805/exosome-theranostics-biology-and-translational-medicine
#20
REVIEW
Chuanjiang He, Shu Zheng, Yan Luo, Ben Wang
Exosomes are common membrane-bound nanovesicles that contain diverse biomolecules, such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Exosomes are derived from cells through exocytosis, are ingested by target cells, and can transfer biological signals between local or distant cells. Exosome secretion is a constitutive phenomenon that is involved in both physiological and pathological processes and determines both the exosomal surface molecules and the contents. Hence, we can exploit exosomes as biomarkers, vaccines and drug carriers and modify them rationally for therapeutic interventions...
2018: Theranostics
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