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Nanovesicles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039925/exosomes-secreted-by-hela-cells-shuttle-on-their-surface-the-plasma-membrane-associated-sialidase-neu3
#1
Lucia Paolini, Flavia Orizio, Sara Busatto, Annalisa Radeghieri, Roberto Bresciani, Paolo Bergese, Eugenio Monti
Sialidases are glycohydrolases that remove terminal sialic acid residues from oligosaccharides, glycolipids and glycoproteins. The plasma membrane-associated sialidase NEU3 is involved in the fine tuning of sialic acid containing glycans directly on the cell surface and plays relevant roles in important biological phenomena such as cell differentiation, molecular recognition and cancer transformation. Extracellular vesicles are membranous structures with a diameter of 0.03-1 m released by cells and detectable in blood, urine, as well as in culture media...
October 17, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038428/denervation-related-alterations-and-biological-activity-of-mirnas-contained-in-exosomes-released-by-skeletal-muscle-fibers
#2
Rita De Gasperi, Sayyed Hamidi, Lauren M Harlow, Hanna Ksiezak-Reding, William A Bauman, Christopher P Cardozo
Exosomes are vesicles released by many eukaryotic cells; their cargo includes proteins, mRNA and microRNA (miR) that can be transferred to recipient cells and regulate cellular processes in an autocrine or paracrine manner. While cells of the myoblast lineage secrete exosomes, it is not known whether skeletal muscle fibers (myofibers) release exosomes. In this study, we found that cultured myofibers release nanovesicles that have bilamellar membranes and an average size of 60-130 nm, contain typical exosomal proteins and miRNAs and are taken up by C2C12 cells...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034757/nano-alterations-of-membrane-structure-on-both-%C3%AE-irradiated-and-stored-human-erythrocytes
#3
M A Acosta-Elías, A J Burgara-Estrella, J A Sarabia-Sainz, E Silva-Campa, A Angulo-Molina, K J Santacruz-Gómez, B Castaneda, D Soto-Puebla, A I Ledesma-Osuna, R Melendrez-Amavizca, M Pedroza-Montero
PURPOSE: Storage and ionizing radiation of human red blood cells (RBC) produce alterations on RBC membranes and modify their normal shape and functionality. We investigated early morphological and biochemical changes in RBC due to those stressing agents at the nanoscale level and their impact on blood quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole blood samples from healthy donors were γ-irradiated with 15, 25, 35 and 50 Gy. Non-irradiated and non-stored RBC were used as control samples...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030127/a-method-for-the-isolation-and-enrichment-of-purified-bovine-milk-exosomes
#4
Kanchan Vaswani, Yong Qin Koh, Fatema B Almughlliq, Hassendrini N Peiris, Murray D Mitchell
Exosomes are nanovesicles that play important roles in intercellular communication as they carry information to target cells. Isolation of high purity exosomes will aid in studying the exosomal cargo and quantity as well as how cell-specific messages are carried. We describe a new method incorporating size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to enrich milk-derived exosomes from extracellular vesicles (EVs). This involved the initial isolation of EVs from bovine milk via milk processing and ultracentrifugation; followed by a new method to enrich exosomes using SEC...
October 10, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019351/hot-news-exosomes-as-new-players-in-hiv-pathogenesis-new-data-from-the-ias-2017
#5
Eva Poveda, Michael L Freeman
Exosomes are nanovesicles that can be released into the extracellular medium by different cell types and are considered an important system of intercellular communication. In some instances, on secretion, exosomes break down and release their content into the extracellular space. Alternatively, intact exosomes can interact with other cells and discharge their content directly into the target cell cytoplasm. Exosomes are rich in endosome-associated proteins (i.e., the tetraspanin family) but also carry different molecules in their lumen including proteins, RNAs (i...
October 11, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972460/tumor-regression-and-modulation-of-gene-expression-via-tumor-targeted-tocotrienol-niosomes
#6
Doryn Meam-Yee Tan, Ju-Yen Fu, Fu-Shun Wong, Hui-Meng Er, Yu-Sui Chen, Kalanithi Nesaretnam
AIM: To develop 6-O-palmitoyl-ascorbic acid-based niosomes targeted to transferrin receptor for intravenous administration of tocotrienols (T3) in breast cancer. MATERIALS & METHODS: Niosomes were prepared using film hydration and ultrasonication methods. Transferrin was coupled to the surface of niosomes via chemical linker. Nanovesicles were characterized for size, zeta potential, morphology, stability and biological efficacy. RESULTS: When evaluated in MDA-MB-231 cells, entrapment of T3 in niosomes caused 1...
October 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950048/development-of-next-generation-cardiovascular-therapeutics-through-bio-assisted-nanotechnology
#7
REVIEW
Rajesh Lakshmanan, Nilanjana Maulik
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) rank, next to cancer and stroke, among the deadliest diseases in the world. Among the major CVDs, acute myocardial infarction is a life-threatening disorder resulting from permanent damage to the left ventricular cardiac tissue. The major coronary arteries that supply blood to the functional left ventricle become blocked due to thrombotic plaque occlusion. During myocardial ischemia, oxidative stress and free radicals destroy healthy cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells, followed by degradation of the extracellular matrix, which results in ventricular wall-thinning and dilation...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932838/engineered-biomimetic-nanovesicles-show-intrinsic-anti-inflammatory-properties-for-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#8
Claudia Corbo, Walter E Cromer, Roberto Molinaro, Naama E Toledano Furman, Kelly A Hartman, Enrica De Rosa, Christian Boada, Xin Wang, David C Zawieja, Marco Agostini, Francesco Salvatore, Bincy P Abraham, Ennio Tasciotti
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Currently, it is treated with immunosuppressant or biologics that often induce severe adverse effects. Thus, there is an urgent clinical need for more specific treatments. To provide a valid therapeutic tool for IBD therapy, in this work we developed biomimetic nanovesicles by manipulating leukocyte membranes to exploit mechanisms of T-cell recruitment during inflammation...
October 5, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916504/going-skin-deep-a-direct-comparison-of-penetration-potential-of-lipid-based-nanovesicles-on-the-isolated-perfused-human-skin-flap-model
#9
Selenia Ternullo, Louis de Weerd, Ann Mari Holsæter, Gøril Eide Flaten, Nataša Škalko-Basnet
Phospholipid-based nanocarriers are attractive drug carriers for improved local skin therapy. In the present study, the recently developed isolated perfused human skin flap (IPHSF) model was used to directly compare the skin penetration enhancing potential of the three commonly used nanocarriers, namely conventional liposomes (CLs), deformable liposomes (DLs) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). Two fluorescent markers, calcein (hydrophilic) or rhodamine (lipophilic), were incorporated individually in the three nanosystems...
September 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914500/comprehensive-proteomics-analysis-of-exosomes-derived-from-human-seminal-plasma
#10
C Yang, W-B Guo, W-S Zhang, J Bian, J-K Yang, Q-Z Zhou, M-K Chen, W Peng, T Qi, C-Y Wang, C-D Liu
Exosomes are membranous nanovesicles of endocytic origin that carry and transfer regulatory bioactive molecules and mediate intercellular communication between cells and tissues. Although seminal exosomes have been identified in human seminal plasma, their exact composition and possible physiologic function remain unknown. The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive proteomics analysis of exosomes derived from human seminal plasma. Seminal exosomes were isolated and purified from 12 healthy donors using a 30% sucrose cushion-based exosome-isolation protocol, followed by characterization by western blot, transmission electron microscopy, and nanoparticle tracking analysis before performing extensive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry proteomics analysis...
September 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880029/fluorescence-labelling-of-extracellular-vesicles-using-a-novel-thiol-based-strategy-for-quantitative-analysis-of-cellular-delivery-and-intracellular-traffic
#11
H D Roberts-Dalton, A Cocks, J M Falcon-Perez, E J Sayers, J P Webber, P Watson, A Clayton, A T Jones
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, are naturally derived nanovesicles generated in and released by numerous cell types. As extracellular entities they have the capacity to interact with neighbouring cells and distant tissues and affect physiological processes as well as being implicated in numerous diseases including tumorigenesis and neurodegeneration. They are also under intense investigation as delivery vectors for biotherapeutics. The ways in which EVs interact with recipient cells to influence cell physiology and deliver a macromolecular payload are at the early stages of exploration...
September 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873676/encapsulation-of-lutein-in-liposomes-using-supercritical-carbon-dioxide
#12
Lisha Zhao, Feral Temelli, Jonathan M Curtis, Lingyun Chen
Liposomes loaded with lutein were prepared utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). The effects of pressure, depressurization rate, temperature and lutein-to-lipid ratio on particle size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency (EE), bioactive loading, morphology, phase transition and crystallinity were investigated. Liposomes prepared by the SC-CO2 method had a particle size of 147.6±1.9nm-195.4±2.3nm, an encapsulation efficiency of 56.7±0.7%-97.0±0.8% and a zeta potential of -54...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858664/fullerene-based-amino-acid-ester-chlorides-self-assembled-as-spherical-nano-vesicles-for-drug-delayed-release
#13
Min-Song Lin, Rui-Ting Chen, Nan-Yi Yu, Li-Chao Sun, Yuxiu Liu, Cun-Hao Cui, Su-Yuan Xie, Rong-Bin Huang, Lan-Sun Zheng
Fullerenes with novel structures find numerous potential applications, particularly in the fields of biology and pharmaceutics. Among various fullerene derivatives, those exhibiting amphiphilic character and capable of self-assembly into vesicles are particularly interesting, being suitable for delayed drug release. Herein, we report the synthesis and self-assembly of biocompatible hollow nanovesicles with bilayer shells from amphiphilic functionalized fullerenes C60R5Cl (R=methyl ester of 4-aminobutyric/glutamic acid or phenylalanine)...
August 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855522/separation-of-extracellular-nanovesicles-and-apoptotic-bodies-from-cancer-cell-culture-broth-using-tunable-microfluidic-systems
#14
Soojeong Shin, Daeyoung Han, Min Chul Park, Ji Young Mun, Jonghoon Choi, Honggu Chun, Sunghoon Kim, Jong Wook Hong
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are the cell-secreted nano- and micro-sized particles consisted of lipid bilayer containing nucleic acids and proteins for diagnosis and therapeutic applications. The inherent complexity of EVs is a source of heterogeneity in various potential applications of the biological nanovesicles including analysis. To diminish heterogeneity, EV should be isolated and separated according to their sizes and cargos. However, current technologies do not meet the requirements. We showed noninvasive and precise separation of EVs based on their sizes without any recognizable damages...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842968/insulin-mediated-activation-of-pi3k-akt-signalling-pathway-modifies-the-proteomic-cargo-of-extracellular-vesicles
#15
Michael Liem, Ching-Seng Ang, Suresh Mathivanan
Epidemiological studies suggest that diabetes and obesity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and lowers the patient survival rate. An important attribute in diabetes and obesity is the presence of high levels of growth factors including insulin in blood which can activate the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. Dysregulation of PI3K/Akt signalling pathway leads to sustained proliferative signals thereby allowing the cells susceptible to cancer. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), secreted nanovesicles of endocytic origin, are implicated in mediating the transfer of oncogenic cargo in the tumour microenvironment...
August 26, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842467/role-of-lymphocyte-subsets-in-the-immune-response-to-primary-b-cell-derived-exosomes
#16
Sarah C Saunderson, Alexander D McLellan
Exosomes are lipid nanovesicles released after fusion of the endosomal limiting membrane with the plasma membrane. In this study, we investigated the requirement for CD4 T cells, B cells, and NK cells to provide help for CD8 T cell-mediated response to B cell-derived exosomes. CTL responses to Ag-loaded exosomes were dependent on host MHC class I, with a critical role for splenic langerin(+) CD8α(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in exosomal Ag cross-presentation. In addition, there was an absolute dependence on the presence of CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, and NK cells, where the loss of any one of these subsets led to a complete loss of CTL response...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828667/an-adaptable-polyethylene-glycol-based-workflow-for-proteomic-analysis-of-extracellar-vesicles
#17
Stephanie N Hurwitz, David G Meckes
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes are endocytically derived nanovesicles expelled from cells that contain molecular information in the form of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Transfer of this information to other cells in local or distant microenvironments facilitates cell-to-cell communication. Importantly, diseased cells release exosomes containing specific cargo that may contribute to pathology and can be harnessed for diagnostic or prognostic use. The broad potential medical utility of exosomes has fueled rapidly expanding research on understanding the composition and functions of exosomes in normal and pathological conditions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828659/microcapillary-chip-based-extracellular-vesicle-profiling-system
#18
Takanori Akagi, Takanori Ichiki
A microcapillary chip-based particle electrophoresis system developed for characterizing extracellular vesicles (EVs) is described. So far, it is technologically difficult to analyze or identify a heterogeneous population of particles ranging from several tens to one hundred nanometers, and hence, there is a growing demand for a new analytical method of nanoparticles among researchers working on extracellular vesicles. The analytical platform presented in this chapter allows detection of individual nanoparticles or nanovesicles of less than 50 nm in diameter and enables the characterization of nanoparticles based on multiple indexes such as concentration, diameter, zeta potential, and surface antigenicity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821634/lipidomic-and-proteomic-analysis-of-exosomes-from-mouse-cortical-collecting-duct-cells
#19
Viet D Dang, Kishore Kumar Jella, Ragy R T Ragheb, Nancy D Denslow, Abdel A Alli
Exosomes are endosome-derived nanovesicles that are involved in cellular communication and signaling. Exosomes are produced by epithelial cells and are found in biologic fluids including blood and urine. The packaged material within exosomes includes proteins and lipids, but the molecular comparison within exosome subtypes is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between exosomes derived from the apical plasma membrane and basolateral plasma membrane of polarized murine cortical collecting duct principal cells...
August 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819459/exosomes-derived-from-natural-killer-cells-exert-therapeutic-effect-in-melanoma
#20
Liya Zhu, Senthilkumar Kalimuthu, Prakash Gangadaran, Ji Min Oh, Ho Won Lee, Se Hwan Baek, Shin Young Jeong, Sang-Woo Lee, Jaetae Lee, Byeong-Cheol Ahn
Objective: Exosomes are nanovesicles that are released from normal and tumor cells and are detectable in cell culture supernatant and human biological fluids. Although previous studies have explored exosomes released from cancer cells, little is understood regarding the functions of exosomes released by normal cells. Natural killer (NK) cells display rapid immunity to metastatic or hematological malignancies, and efforts have been undertaken to clinically exploit the antitumor properties of NK cells. However, the characteristics and functions of exosomes derived from NK cells remain unknown...
2017: Theranostics
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