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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914242/molecular-lipid-species-in-urinary-exosomes-as-potential-prostate-cancer-biomarkers
#1
Tore Skotland, Kim Ekroos, Dimple Kauhanen, Helena Simolin, Therese Seierstad, Viktor Berge, Kirsten Sandvig, Alicia Llorente
BACKGROUND: Exosomes have recently appeared as a novel source of noninvasive cancer biomarkers, since these nanovesicles contain molecules from cancer cells and can be detected in biofluids. We have here investigated the potential use of lipids in urinary exosomes as prostate cancer biomarkers. METHODS: A high-throughput mass spectrometry quantitative lipidomic analysis was performed to reveal the lipid composition of urinary exosomes in prostate cancer patients and healthy controls...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910046/exosomes-based-gene-therapy-for-microrna-delivery
#2
Prabhu Mathiyalagan, Susmita Sahoo
Despite recent advances in scientific knowledge and clinical practice, cardiovascular disease management and treatment remain a major burden. While several treatment strategies using drugs and surgeries are being developed for cardiovascular manifestations, gene-based therapies hold significant promise. Recent findings from our laboratory unveiled a novel mechanism that exosomes, secreted nanovesicles from stem cells, mediate cardiac repair via transferring their unique repertoire of microRNAs (miRNA) to recipient cells in the heart...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909058/secreted-glioblastoma-nanovesicles-contain-intracellular-signaling-proteins-and-active-ras-incorporated-in-a-farnesylation-dependent-manner
#3
Natalie Luhtala, Aaron Aslanian, John R Yates, Tony Hunter
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are malignant brain tumors with a median survival of less than 18 months. Redundancy of signaling pathways represented within GBMs contributes to their therapeutic resistance. Exosomes are extracellular nanovesicles released from cells and present in human biofluids that represent a possible biomarker of tumor signaling state that could aid in personalized treatment. Herein, we demonstrate that mouse GBM cell-derived extracellular nanovesicles resembling exosomes from an H-RasV12 myr-Akt mouse model for GBM are enriched for intracellular signaling cascade proteins (GO: 0007242) and Ras protein signal transduction (GO: 0007265), and contain active Ras...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882487/delivery-of-small-interfering-rna-to-inhibit-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-zebrafish-using-natural-brain-endothelia-cell-secreted-exosome-nanovesicles-for-the-treatment-of-brain-cancer
#4
Tianzhi Yang, Brittany Fogarty, Bret LaForge, Salma Aziz, Thuy Pham, Leanne Lai, Shuhua Bai
Although small interfering RNA (siRNA) holds great therapeutic promise, its delivery to the disease site remains a paramount obstacle. In this study, we tested whether brain endothelial cell-derived exosomes could deliver siRNA across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in zebrafish. Natural exosomes were isolated from brain endothelial bEND.3 cell culture media and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) siRNA was loaded in exosomes with the assistance of a transfection reagent. While fluorescence-activated cell flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry staining studies indicated that wild-type exosomes significantly increased the uptake of fluorescence-labeled siRNA in the autologous brain endothelial cells, decreased fluorescence intensity was observed in the cells treated with the tetraspanin CD63 antibody-blocked exosome-delivered formulation (p < 0...
November 23, 2016: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873274/functional-analysis-of-exosomes-derived-from-ebv-infected-cells
#5
Gulfaraz Khan, Pretty S Philip
Exosomes are diverse bioactive extracellular nanovesicles excreted by different cell types. These tiny membrane-bound vesicles, once thought to be functionally insignificant, are now believed to be important vehicles for transport and intercellular communication. Exosomes have been shown to contain a broad range of molecules, from miRNAs to proteins to soluble factors. Moreover, an accumulating body of evidence indicates that some viruses can hijack the exosomal excretory pathway to influence the microenvironment surrounding the infected cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873273/isolation-and-characterization-of-exosomes-released-by-ebv-immortalized-cells
#6
Gulfaraz Khan, Waqar Ahmed
Epstein-Barr virus is an oncogenic herpesvirus associated with several human malignancies. Although the details of the molecular steps involved in EBV-mediated cell transformation and immune evasion are not fully known, a number of viral products, including EBV latent proteins and non-protein coding RNAs have been shown to be involved, directly or indirectly in these processes. In recent years, a growing body of data indicates that some viruses are able to transport selected products to neighboring cells and induce biological changes by exploiting the exosome secretory pathway...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860451/self-renewal-of-bone-marrow-stem-cells-by-nanovesicles-engineered-from-embryonic-stem-cells
#7
Wonju Jo, Dayeong Jeong, Junho Kim, Jaesung Park
Extracellular vesicles can enhance cell proliferation by stimulating signal transduction and delivering genetic materials, and thus may have applications in regenerative medicine and other therapeutic applications. The processes employed to isolate extracellular vesicles, however, are complex and achieve low yield. To overcome these obstacles, a large-scale, micropore device for generating extracellular vesicle-mimetic nanovesicles that have characteristics similar to those of extracellular vesicles is fabricated...
November 10, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855927/development-and-characterization-of-phosphatidylcholine-nanovesicles-containing-garlic-extract-with-antilisterial-activity-in-milk
#8
Cristian Mauricio Barreto Pinilla, Caciano Pelayo Zapata Noreña, Adriano Brandelli
Phospholipid nanovesicles were developed to improve the stability of garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract. Electron microscopy of liposomes revealed nanometric and spherical-shaped vesicles with a mean particle size of 174.6±17.3nm and polydispersity index of 0.26±0.02. The entrapment efficiency was 47.5±7.3% and the nanoliposomes had a zeta potential of -16.2±5.5mV. The antimicrobial activity of free and encapsulated garlic extract was evaluated against different strains of Listeria spp. in milk at 37°C for 24h...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853258/digital-detection-of-exosomes-by-interferometric-imaging
#9
George G Daaboul, Paola Gagni, Luisa Benussi, Paolo Bettotti, Miriam Ciani, Marina Cretich, David S Freedman, Roberta Ghidoni, Ayca Yalcin Ozkumur, Chiara Piotto, Davide Prosperi, Benedetta Santini, M Selim Ünlü, Marcella Chiari
Exosomes, which are membranous nanovesicles, are actively released by cells and have been attributed to roles in cell-cell communication, cancer metastasis, and early disease diagnostics. The small size (30-100 nm) along with low refractive index contrast of exosomes makes direct characterization and phenotypical classification very difficult. In this work we present a method based on Single Particle Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (SP-IRIS) that allows multiplexed phenotyping and digital counting of various populations of individual exosomes (>50 nm) captured on a microarray-based solid phase chip...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834857/the-cd8%C3%A2-%C2%BA-t-cell-mediated-immunity-induced-by-hpv-e6-uploaded-in-engineered-exosomes-is-improved-by-iscomatrix-tm-adjuvant
#10
Francesco Manfredi, Paola di Bonito, Barbara Ridolfi, Simona Anticoli, Claudia Arenaccio, Chiara Chiozzini, Adriana Baz Morelli, Maurizio Federico
We recently described the induction of an efficient CD8⁺ T cell-mediated immune response against a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) uploaded in engineered exosomes used as an immunogen delivery tool. This immune response cleared tumor cells inoculated after immunization, and controlled the growth of tumors implanted before immunization. We looked for new protocols aimed at increasing the CD8⁺ T cell specific response to the antigen uploaded in engineered exosomes, assuming that an optimized CD8⁺ T cell immune response would correlate with a more effective depletion of tumor cells in the therapeutic setting...
November 9, 2016: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810643/bacterial-protoplast-derived-nanovesicles-for-tumor-targeted-delivery-of-chemotherapeutics
#11
Oh Youn Kim, Nhung Thi Hong Dinh, Hyun Taek Park, Seng Jin Choi, Kahye Hong, Yong Song Gho
Increasing incidents of patients diagnosed with cancer have brought massive improvement in the delivery technologies to help patients receiving chemotherapy. However, tumor specific targeting of the chemotherapeutics still remains as a challenge mainly due to the difficulties in the conjugation and manipulation of bio-specific molecules on the surface. Herein, we genetically engineered bacterial protoplast to develop nanovesicles having no toxic outer membrane components that can specifically target and deliver chemotherapeutics to tumor tissues...
October 26, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763624/preparation-of-plasmonic-vesicles-from-amphiphilic-gold-nanocrystals-grafted-with-polymer-brushes
#12
Jibin Song, Peng Huang, Xiaoyuan Chen
Gold nanovesicles contain multiple nanocrystals within a polymeric coating. The strong plasmonic coupling between adjacent nanoparticles in their vesicular shell makes ultrasensitive biosensing and bioimaging possible. In our laboratory, multifunctional plasmonic vesicles are assembled from amphiphilic gold nanocrystals (such as gold nanoparticles and gold nanorods) coated with mixed hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymer brushes or amphiphilic diblock co-polymer brushes. To fulfill the different requirements of biomedical applications, different polymers that are either pH=responsive, photoactive or biodegradable can be used to form the hydrophobic brush, while the hydrophilicity is maintained by polyethylene glycol (PEG)...
November 2016: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738951/tumor-targeting-synergistic-drug-delivery-by-self-assembled-hybrid-nanovesicles-to-overcome-drug-resistance
#13
Meng-Qing Gong, Cong Wu, Xiao-Yan He, Jing-Yi Zong, Jin-Long Wu, Ren-Xi Zhuo, Si-Xue Cheng
PURPOSE: To overcome multi-drug resistance (MDR) in tumor chemotherapy, a polymer/inorganic hybrid drug delivery platform with tumor targeting property and enhanced cell uptake efficiency was developed. METHOD: To evaluate the applicability of our delivery platform for the delivery of different drug resistance inhibitors, two kinds of dual-drug pairs (doxorubicin/buthionine sulfoximine and doxorubicin/tariquidar, respectively) were loaded in heparin-biotin/heparin/protamine sulfate/calcium carbonate nanovesicles to realize simultaneous delivery of an anticancer drug and a drug resistance inhibitor into drug-resistant tumor cells...
October 13, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737793/effect-of-shear-stress-in-the-flow-through-the-sampling-needle-on-concentration-of-nanovesicles-isolated-from-blood
#14
Roman Štukelj, Karin Schara, Apolonija Bedina-Zavec, Vid Šuštar, Manca Pajnič, Ljubiša Pađen, Judita Lea Krek, Veronika Kralj-Iglič, Anita Mrvar-Brečko, Rado Janša
During harvesting of nanovesicles (NVs) from blood, blood cells and other particles in blood are exposed to mechanical forces which may cause activation of platelets, changes of membrane properties, cell deformation and shedding of membrane fragments. We report on the effect of shear forces imposed upon blood samples during the harvesting process, on the concentration of membrane nanovesicles in isolates from blood. Mathematical models of blood flow through the needle during sampling with vacutubes and with free flow were constructed, starting from the Navier-Stokes formalism...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722570/lipid-based-nanovesicles-for-nanomedicine
#15
REVIEW
N Grimaldi, F Andrade, N Segovia, L Ferrer-Tasies, S Sala, J Veciana, N Ventosa
Molecular self-assembly has enabled the fabrication of biologically inspired, advanced nanostructures as lipid-based nanovesicles (L-NVs). The oldest L-NVs, liposomes, have been widely proposed as potential candidates for drug delivery, diagnostic and/or theranostic applications and some liposome-based drug products have already stepped from the lab-bench to the market. This success is attributed to their ability to encapsulate both hydrophobic and/or hydrophilic molecules, efficiently carry and protect them within the body and finally deliver them at the target site...
November 21, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714381/amphiphilic-bodipy-derivatives-the-solvophobic-effect-on-their-photophysical-properties-and-bioimaging-in-living-cells
#16
Lan Yang, Ya-Jian Ji, Jia-Fu Yin, Yongquan Wu, Haiming Fan, Yi Zhang, Gui-Chao Kuang
Three novel amphiphilic BODIPY derivatives were prepared and their photophysical properties in THF/water mixtures with varying fractions of water were investigated. BDP-1 could self-assemble into different vesicle architectures in aqueous solution, while BDP-2 and BDP-3 with more hydrophilic abilities formed spherical and worm-like micelles. The BODIPY derivatives could be absorbed by HeLa cells and showed no apparent toxicity during the course of the test. In particular, unlike traditional amines or morpholinyl functionalized lysosome fluorescent probes, BDP-1 nanovesicles without targeted groups exhibit red emission and show effective lysosome biological imaging...
September 26, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698237/characterization-of-lipid-protein-interactions-using-nonquenched-fluorescent-liposomal-nanovesicles-and-yeast-proteome-microarrays
#17
Kuan-Yi Lu, Chien-Sheng Chen, Johnathan Neiswinger, Heng Zhu
Studying lipid-protein interactions is central to understanding lipid signaling, a key regulatory system in cells. To better identify lipid-binding proteins, we developed a nonquenched fluorescent (NQF) liposome that is able to carry both fluorescent molecules and a lipid of interest. By combining the strength of NQF liposomes with protein microarray technology, the method presented here facilitates high-throughput screening of lipid-protein interactions. This protocol describes how to prepare NQF liposomes and apply the fabricated liposomes to yeast proteome microarrays...
October 3, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677883/exosomes-secreted-by-cardiosphere-derived-cells-reduce-scarring-attenuate-adverse-remodelling-and-improve-function-in-acute-and-chronic-porcine-myocardial-infarction
#18
Romain Gallet, James Dawkins, Jackelyn Valle, Eli Simsolo, Geoffrey de Couto, Ryan Middleton, Eleni Tseliou, Daniel Luthringer, Michelle Kreke, Rachel R Smith, Linda Marbán, Bijan Ghaleh, Eduardo Marbán
AIMS: Naturally secreted nanovesicles known as exosomes are required for the regenerative effects of cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs), and exosomes mimic the benefits of CDCs in rodents. Nevertheless, exosomes have not been studied in a translationally realistic large-animal model. We sought to optimize delivery and assess the efficacy of CDC-secreted exosomes in pig models of acute (AMI) and convalescent myocardial infarction (CMI). METHODS AND RESULTS: In AMI, pigs received human CDC exosomes (or vehicle) by intracoronary (IC) or open-chest intramyocardial (IM) delivery 30 min after reperfusion...
September 27, 2016: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665565/isolation-of-exosome-like-vesicles-from-plants-by-ultracentrifugation-on-sucrose-deuterium-oxide-d2o-density-cushions
#19
Christopher Stanly, Immacolata Fiume, Giovambattista Capasso, Gabriella Pocsfalvi
Exosomes are nanovesicles of endocytic origin that are about 30-100 nm in diameter, surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane, and contain proteins, nucleic acids, and other molecules. Mammalian cells- and biological fluids-derived exosomes have become the subject for a wide range of investigations in biological and biomedical sciences. More recently, a new interest is on the verge of rising: the presence of nanovesicles in plants. Lipoprotein vesicles from apoplastic fluid and exosome-like vesicles (ELVs) from fruit juice have been isolated and shown that they could be loaded with drugs and uptaken by recipient cells...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640113/exosome-levels-in-human-body-fluids-a-tumor-marker-by-themselves
#20
Francesco Cappello, Mariantonia Logozzi, Claudia Campanella, Celeste Caruso Bavisotto, Antonio Marcilla, Francesca Properzi, Stefano Fais
Despite considerable research efforts, the finding of reliable tumor biomarkers remains challenging and unresolved. In recent years a novel diagnostic biomedical tool with high potential has been identified in extracellular nanovesicles or exosomes. They are released by the majority of the cells and contain detailed molecular information on the cell of origin including tumor hallmarks. Exosomes can be isolated from easy accessible body fluids, and most importantly, they can provide several biomarkers, with different levels of specificity...
September 14, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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