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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513782/soil-vegetation-relationships-and-community-structure-in-a-terra-firme-white-sand-vegetation-gradient-in-viru%C3%A3-national-park-northern-amazon-brazil
#1
Bruno A F DE Mendonça, Elpídio I Fernandes, Carlos E G R Schaefer, Júlia G F DE Mendonça, Bruno N F Vasconcelos
Viruá National Park encompasses a vast and complex system of hydromorphic sandy soils covered largely by the white sand vegetation ("Campinarana") ecosystem. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vegetation gradient of "terra-firme"-white sand vegetation at the Viruá National Park. Nine plots representing three physiognomic units were installed for floristic and phytosociological surveys as well as to collect composite soil samples. The data were subjected to assessments of floristic diversity and similarity, phytosociological parameters and to statistical analyses, focused on principal components (PC) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA)...
May 15, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396593/polybenzoxazole-nanofiber-reinforced-moisture-responsive-soft-actuators
#2
Meiling Chen, Johannes Frueh, Daolin Wang, Xiankun Lin, Hui Xie, Qiang He
Hydromorphic biological systems, such as morning glory flowers, pinecones, and awns, have inspired researchers to design moisture-sensitive soft actuators capable of directly converting the change of moisture into motion or mechanical work. Here, we report a moisture-sensitive poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) nanofiber (PBONF)-reinforced carbon nanotube/poly(vinyl alcohol) (CNT/PVA) bilayer soft actuator with fine performance on conductivity and mechanical properties. The embedded PBONFs not only assist CNTs to form a continuous, conductive film, but also enhance the mechanical performance of the actuators...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324781/genesis-and-properties-of-wetland-soils-by-vis-nir-swir-as-a-technique-for-environmental-monitoring
#3
José Alexandre Melo Demattê, Ingrid Horák-Terra, Raphael Moreira Beirigo, Fabrício da Silva Terra, Karina Patrícia Prazeres Marques, Caio Troula Fongaro, Alexandre Christófaro Silva, Pablo Vidal-Torrado
Wetlands are important ecosystems characterized by redoximorphic environments producing typical soil forming processes and organic carbon accumulation. Assessments and management of these areas are dependent on knowledge about soil characteristics and variability. By reflectance spectroscopy, information about soils can be obtained since their spectral behaviors are directly related to their chemical, physical, and mineralogical properties reflecting the pedogenetic processes and environment conditions. Our aims were: (a) to characterize the main soil classes of wetlands regarding their spectral behaviors in VIS-NIR-SWIR (350-2500 nm) and relate them to pedogenesis and environmental conditions, (b) to determine spectral ranges (bands) with greater expression of the main soil properties, (c) to identify spectral variations and similarities between hydromorphic soils from wetlands and other soils under different moisture conditions, and (d) to propose spectral models to quantify some chemical and physical soil properties used as environmental quality indicators...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284113/impacts-of-one-century-of-wastewater-discharge-on-soil-transformation-through-ferrolysis-and-related-metal-pollutant-distributions
#4
Folkert van Oort, Médard Thiry, Eddy Foy, Kenji Fujisaki, Ghislaine Delarue, Romain Dairon, Toine Jongmans
Discharge of wastewater leading to notable soil surface contamination is widely reported. But few works highlight the fast dynamics of soils and their morphological transformations that may result from such anthropogenic activities. Near Paris (France), sandy Luvisols were irrigated with urban wastewater since the 1890s. Within and outside the discharge area, the soil cover presents decameter-sized cryogenic structures. We studied macro morphological soil characteristics, soil chemistry and clay mineralogy on selected bulk samples, as well as contemporary pedofeatures and related metal pollutant distribution patterns in soil thin sections from subsurface horizons...
March 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884704/floristic-survey-of-herbaceous-and-subshrubby-aquatic-and-palustrine-angiosperms-of-viru%C3%A3-national-park-roraima-brazil
#5
Suzana Maria Costa, Tiago Domingos Mouzinho Barbosa, Volker Bittrich, Maria do Carmo Estanislau do Amaral
We provide and discuss a floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park (VNP). The VNP is located in the northern Amazon basin and displays phytophysiognomies distributed in a mosaic where these plants occur, as flooded forests, hydromorphic white-sand savannas, "buritizais" and waterbodies. After expeditions between February/2010 and January/2015 and the analysis of specimens from regional herbaria, we list 207 species of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms for the VNP, distributed in 85 genera in 37 families...
2016: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26535570/pervasive-local-scale-tree-soil-habitat-association-in-a-tropical-forest-community
#6
Elodie Allié, Raphaël Pélissier, Julien Engel, Pascal Petronelli, Vincent Freycon, Vincent Deblauwe, Laure Soucémarianadin, Jean Weigel, Christopher Baraloto
We examined tree-soil habitat associations in lowland forest communities at Paracou, French Guiana. We analyzed a large dataset assembling six permanent plots totaling 37.5 ha, in which extensive LIDAR-derived topographical data and soil chemical and physical data have been integrated with precise botanical determinations. Map of relative elevation from the nearest stream summarized both soil fertility and hydromorphic characteristics, with seasonally inundated bottomlands having higher soil phosphate content and base saturation, and plateaus having higher soil carbon, nitrogen and aluminum contents...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26375016/environmental-changes-during-the-last-millennium-based-on-multi-proxy-palaeoecological-records-in-a-savanna-forest-mosaic-from-the-northernmost-brazilian-amazon-region
#7
Maria Ecilene N S Meneses, Marcondes L Costa, Dirk Enters, Hermann Behling
The environmental changes and the dynamics of the savanna-forest mosaic, over the last 1050 years, have been reconstructed by pollen, charcoal, radiocarbon dating mineralogical and geochemical analyses of sediment cores taken from three different Mauritia flexuosapalm swamps in the northernmost part of the Brazilian Amazon region (northern state of Roraima). Studies on the relationship between the modern pollen rain and the regional vegetation provide additional information for the interpretation of the fossil pollen records...
September 2015: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26210146/evaluation-of-biological-pretreatments-to-increase-the-efficiency-of-the-saccharification-process-using-spartina-argentinensis-as-a-biomass-resource
#8
Alvaro Larran, Emiliano Jozami, Lionel Vicario, Susana R Feldman, Florencio E Podestá, Hugo R Permingeat
Second generation bioethanol obtained from native perennial grasses offers a promising alternative for biofuel production, avoiding land use competition for crops production. Spartina argentinensis is a native perennial C4 grass with high photosynthetic rates, well adapted to halo-hydromorphic soils, though its forage quality (palatability and digestibility) for livestock is quite low due to its high lignin content. Hence, cattle raisers burn these grasslands frequently in order to stimulate the emergence of new leaves with higher digestibility for cattle feeding...
October 2015: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24197031/mineral-status-of-soils-and-forage-in-the-mole-national-park-ghana-and-implications-for-wildlife-nutrition
#9
R J Bowell, R K Ansah
Geochemical mapping of soils and selected plant species has been carried out in the Mole National Park, Ghana. The distribution of the essential nutrients: cobalt, copper and manganese is largely controlled by bedrock geology, while the geochemical dispersion of Ca, I, Fe, Mg, Mo, P, K, Se, Na and Zn has been modified by soil and hydromorphic processes. From selective extraction experiments, Fe, Mn and Co are found to be largely fixed in the soil mineral fraction. Larger proportions of Cu, I, Mo, Se and Zn are EDTA extractable and have a high chelation potential...
June 1994: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24023042/highly-local-environmental-variability-promotes-intrapopulation-divergence-of-quantitative-traits-an-example-from-tropical-rain-forest-trees
#10
Louise Brousseau, Damien Bonal, Jeremy Cigna, Ivan Scotti
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In habitat mosaics, plant populations face environmental heterogeneity over short geographical distances. Such steep environmental gradients can induce ecological divergence. Lowland rainforests of the Guiana Shield are characterized by sharp, short-distance environmental variations related to topography and soil characteristics (from waterlogged bottomlands on hydromorphic soils to well-drained terra firme on ferralitic soils). Continuous plant populations distributed along such gradients are an interesting system to study intrapopulation divergence at highly local scales...
October 2013: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23564694/differential-radial-growth-patterns-between-beech-fagus-sylvatica-l-and-oak-quercus-robur-l-on-periodically-waterlogged-soils
#11
Tobias Scharnweber, Michael Manthey, Martin Wilmking
Climate scenarios for northern Central Europe project rising temperatures and increasing frequency and intensity of droughts but also a shift in precipitation pattern with more humid winters. This in turn may result in soil waterlogging during the following spring, leading to increasing stress for trees growing on hydric sites. The influence of waterlogging on growth of common beech and pedunculate oak has been studied intensively on seedlings under experimental conditions. However, the question remains whether results of these studies can be transferred to mature trees growing under natural conditions...
April 2013: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23516894/-the-forecasting-of-vertical-distribution-of-37cs-and-90sr-in-the-forest-soils-of-the-republic-of-belarus
#12
A N Perevolotskiĭ, T V Perevolotskaia
The study analyzes the distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr in the vertical profile of soil of forest biogeocenoses with different modes of moisture and species composition of woody vegetation on the "long" trail of radioactive fallout in the Republic of Belarus. The parameters of radionuclide migration are calculated for the two component quasi-diffusion equation, also based on this equation, pollution of root zone soil layers is predicted, as well as semi-refined periods and the contribution of migration in this process are defined...
November 2012: Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23487914/-comparing-the-ammonia-volatilization-characteristic-of-two-typical-paddy-soil-with-total-wheat-straw-returning-in-taihu-lake-region
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jun Wang, De-Jian Wang, Gang Zhang, Yuan Wang
An experiment using monolith lysimeter was conducted to compare the characteristic of N loss by ammonia (NH3) volatilization between the gleyed paddy soil (G soil) and hydromorphic paddy soil (H soil) the Changshu National Agro-ecological Experimental Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(31 degrees 33' N, 123 degrees 38' E). Three treatments were designed for each soil type, i. e. control (no urea and straw applied), nitrogen solely and nitrogen plus wheat straw. Ammonia volatilization, flood water NH4(+) -N concentration, pH and top soil Eh were measured during the rice-growing season...
January 2013: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23480257/temperature-response-of-denitrification-rate-and-greenhouse-gas-production-in-agricultural-river-marginal-wetland-soils
#14
S A F Bonnett, M S A Blackwell, R Leah, V Cook, M O'Connor, E Maltby
Soils are predicted to exhibit significant feedback to global warming via the temperature response of greenhouse gas (GHG) production. However, the temperature response of hydromorphic wetland soils is complicated by confounding factors such as oxygen (O2 ), nitrate (NO3-) and soil carbon (C). We examined the effect of a temperature gradient (2-25 °C) on denitrification rates and net nitrous oxide (N2 O), methane (CH4 ) production and heterotrophic respiration in mineral (Eutric cambisol and Fluvisol) and organic (Histosol) soil types in a river marginal landscape of the Tamar catchment, Devon, UK, under non-flooded and flooded with enriched NO3- conditions...
May 2013: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22783628/nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-a-maize-field-during-two-consecutive-growing-seasons-in-the-north-china-plain
#15
Yuanyuan Zhang, Junfeng Liu, Yujing Mu, Zhu Xu, Shuwei Pei, Xiaoxiu Lun, Ying Zhang
Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from a maize field in the North China Plain (Wangdu County, Hebei Province, China) were investigated using static chambers during two consecutive maize growing seasons in the 2008 and 2009. The N2O pulse emissions occurred with duration of about 10 days after basal and additional fertilizer applications in the both years. The average N20 fluxes from the CK (control plot, without crop, fertilization and irrigation), NP (chemical N fertilizer), SN (wheat straw returning plus chemical N fertilizer), OM-1/2N (chicken manure plus half chemical N fertilizer) and OMN (chicken manure plus chemical N fertilizer) plots in 2008 were 8...
2012: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22493596/isolation-of-phyllosilicate-iron-redox-cycling-microorganisms-from-an-illite-smectite-rich-hydromorphic-soil
#16
Evgenya Shelobolina, Hiromi Konishi, Huifang Xu, Jason Benzine, Mai Yia Xiong, Tao Wu, Marco Blöthe, Eric Roden
The biogeochemistry of phyllosilicate-Fe redox cycling was studied in a Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) dominated redoximorphic soil from Shovelers Sink, a small glacial depression near Madison, WI. The clay size fraction of Shovelers Sink soil accounts for 16% of the dry weight of the soil, yet contributes 74% of total Fe. The dominant mineral in the clay size fraction is mixed layer illite-smectite, and in contrast to many other soils and sediments, Fe(III) oxides are present in low abundance. We examined the Fe biogeochemistry of Shovelers Sink soils, estimated the abundance of Fe redox cycling microorganisms, and isolated in pure culture representative phyllosilicate-Fe oxidizing and reducing organisms...
2012: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22201257/green-rust-formation-during-fe-ii-oxidation-by-the-nitrate-reducing-acidovorax-sp-strain-bofen1
#17
Claudia Pantke, Martin Obst, Karim Benzerara, Guillaume Morin, Georges Ona-Nguema, Urs Dippon, Andreas Kappler
Green rust (GR) as highly reactive iron mineral potentially plays a key role for the fate of (in)organic contaminants, such as chromium or arsenic, and nitroaromatic compounds functioning both as sorbent and reductant. GR forms as corrosion product of steel but is also naturally present in hydromorphic soils and sediments forming as metastable intermediate during microbial Fe(III) reduction. Although already suggested to form during microbial Fe(II) oxidation, clear evidence for GR formation during microbial Fe(II) oxidation was lacking...
February 7, 2012: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21613167/equisetum-thermale-sp-nov-equisetales-from-the-jurassic-san-agust%C3%A3-n-hot-spring-deposit-patagonia-anatomy-paleoecology-and-inferred-paleoecophysiology
#18
Alan Channing, Alba Zamuner, Dianne Edwards, Diego Guido
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Dated molecular phylogenies suggest a Cenozoic origin for the crown group of Equisetum. but compression fossil equisetaleans that are morphologically indistinguishable from extant Equisetum and recently discovered anatomically preserved examples strongly suggest an earlier Mesozoic initial diversification. METHODS: In situ samples of Equisetum thermale sp. nov. from the Upper Jurassic San Agustín hot spring deposit were collected and studied with the use of polished blocks, thin sections, and light microscopy...
April 2011: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21414648/amazonian-former-gold-mined-soils-as-a-source-of-methylmercury-evidence-from-a-small-scale-watershed-in-french-guiana
#19
Stephane Guedron, Michel Grimaldi, Catherine Grimaldi, Daniel Cossa, Delphine Tisserand, Laurent Charlet
Total mercury (HgT) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) were investigated in a tropical head watershed (1 km(2)) of French Guiana. The watershed includes a pristine area on the hill slopes and a former gold mined flat in the bottomland. Concentrations of dissolved and particulate HgT and MMHg were measured in rain, throughfall, soil water and at three points along the stream. Samples were taken in-between and during 14 storm events at the beginning and middle of the 2005 and 2006 rainy seasons. Dissolved and particulate HgT concentrations in the stream slightly increased downstream, while dissolved and particulate MMHg concentrations were low at the pristine sub-watershed outlet (median = 0...
April 2011: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20872236/red-soil-geochemistry-in-a-semiarid-mediterranean-environment-and-its-suitability-for-vineyards
#20
F J García Navarro, J A Amorós Ortiz-Villajos, C J Sánchez Jiménez, R Jiménez Ballesta
A geochemical study of a red soil derived from plioquaternary materials was carried out. The soil was located in a region of complex geomorphology and pedologic evolution, with particular characteristics of a Mediterranean climate associated with processes of alteration, rubification, gleying (hydromorphism) and argillization. The depth distribution of 27 trace elements was studied in order to determine the amounts of these elements in the soil and its tendency. The mineralogy of the clay fraction was also studied along with other physico-chemical properties to elucidate in terms of attributes meaningful for viticulture...
June 2011: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
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