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P A J van Oort
Maps of abiotic stresses for rice can be useful for (1) prioritizing research and (2) identifying stress hotspots, for directing technologies and varieties to those areas where they are most needed. Large-scale maps of stresses are not available for Africa. This paper considers four abiotic stresses relevant for rice in Africa (drought, cold, iron toxicity and salinity/sodicity). Maps showing hotspots of the stresses, the countries most affected and total potentially affected area are presented. In terms of relative importance, the study identified drought as the most important stress (33% of rice area potentially affected), followed by iron toxicity (12%) and then cold (7%) and salinity/sodicity (2%)...
April 15, 2018: Field Crops Research
George H Allen, Tamlin M Pavelsky, Eric A Barefoot, Michael P Lamb, David Butman, Arik Tashie, Colin J Gleason
The morphology and abundance of streams control the rates of hydraulic and biogeochemical exchange between streams, groundwater, and the atmosphere. In large river systems, the relationship between river width and abundance is fractal, such that narrow rivers are proportionally more common than wider rivers. However, in headwater systems, where many biogeochemical reactions are most rapid, the relationship between stream width and abundance is unknown. To constrain this uncertainty, we surveyed stream hydromorphology (wetted width and length) in several headwater stream networks across North America and New Zealand...
February 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Vania Rosolen, Guilherme Taitson Bueno, Daniel Marcos Bonotto
This paper presents the use of U-series radionuclides 238 U and 234 U to evaluate the biogeochemical disequilibrium in soil cover under a contrasted soil-water regime. The approach was applied in three profiles located in distinct topographical positions, from upslope ferralitic to downslope hydromorphic domain. The U fractionation data was obtained in the samples representing the saprolite and the superficial and subsuperficial soil horizons. The results showed a significant and positive correlation between U and the Total Organic Carbon (TOC)...
February 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Arnaud R Schneider, Maxime Gommeaux, Jérôme Duclercq, Nicolas Fanin, Alexandra Conreux, Abdelrahman Alahmad, Jérôme Lacoux, David Roger, Fabien Spicher, Marie Ponthieu, Benjamin Cancès, Xavier Morvan, Béatrice Marin
Anthropogenic inputs of trace elements (TE) into soils constitute a major public and environmental health problem. Bioavailability of TE is strongly related to the soil physicochemical parameters and thus to the ecosystem type. In order to test whether soil parameters influence the response of the bacterial community to TE pollution, we collected soil samples across contrasting ecosystems (hardwood, coniferous and hydromorphic soils), which have been contaminated in TE and especially lead (Pb) over several decades due to nearby industrial smelting activities...
December 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Francisco Diogo R Sousa, Lourdes M A Elmoor-Loureiro, Eliana A Panarelli
The main goal of this paper is to describe three new species of the genus Monospilus Sars, 1862 (Crustacea: Cladocera). Monospilus macroerosus sp. nov. differs from other species of the genus in several peculiar morphological traits, the most striking being the presence of a saw-shaped pecten of teeth on the postabdominal claw. This species inhabits semiterrestrial habitats (wet leaf litter on hydromorphic soil from gallery forest), exhibiting adaptations related to movement and food handling in this type of habitat...
March 13, 2017: Zootaxa
Bruno A F DE Mendonça, Elpídio I Fernandes, Carlos E G R Schaefer, Júlia G F DE Mendonça, Bruno N F Vasconcelos
Viruá National Park encompasses a vast and complex system of hydromorphic sandy soils covered largely by the white sand vegetation ("Campinarana") ecosystem. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vegetation gradient of "terra-firme"-white sand vegetation at the Viruá National Park. Nine plots representing three physiognomic units were installed for floristic and phytosociological surveys as well as to collect composite soil samples. The data were subjected to assessments of floristic diversity and similarity, phytosociological parameters and to statistical analyses, focused on principal components (PC) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA)...
April 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Meiling Chen, Johannes Frueh, Daolin Wang, Xiankun Lin, Hui Xie, Qiang He
Hydromorphic biological systems, such as morning glory flowers, pinecones, and awns, have inspired researchers to design moisture-sensitive soft actuators capable of directly converting the change of moisture into motion or mechanical work. Here, we report a moisture-sensitive poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) nanofiber (PBONF)-reinforced carbon nanotube/poly(vinyl alcohol) (CNT/PVA) bilayer soft actuator with fine performance on conductivity and mechanical properties. The embedded PBONFs not only assist CNTs to form a continuous, conductive film, but also enhance the mechanical performance of the actuators...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
José Alexandre Melo Demattê, Ingrid Horák-Terra, Raphael Moreira Beirigo, Fabrício da Silva Terra, Karina Patrícia Prazeres Marques, Caio Troula Fongaro, Alexandre Christófaro Silva, Pablo Vidal-Torrado
Wetlands are important ecosystems characterized by redoximorphic environments producing typical soil forming processes and organic carbon accumulation. Assessments and management of these areas are dependent on knowledge about soil characteristics and variability. By reflectance spectroscopy, information about soils can be obtained since their spectral behaviors are directly related to their chemical, physical, and mineralogical properties reflecting the pedogenetic processes and environment conditions. Our aims were: (a) to characterize the main soil classes of wetlands regarding their spectral behaviors in VIS-NIR-SWIR (350-2500 nm) and relate them to pedogenesis and environmental conditions, (b) to determine spectral ranges (bands) with greater expression of the main soil properties, (c) to identify spectral variations and similarities between hydromorphic soils from wetlands and other soils under different moisture conditions, and (d) to propose spectral models to quantify some chemical and physical soil properties used as environmental quality indicators...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Folkert van Oort, Médard Thiry, Eddy Foy, Kenji Fujisaki, Ghislaine Delarue, Romain Dairon, Toine Jongmans
Discharge of wastewater leading to notable soil surface contamination is widely reported. But few works highlight the fast dynamics of soils and their morphological transformations that may result from such anthropogenic activities. Near Paris (France), sandy Luvisols were irrigated with urban wastewater since the 1890s. Within and outside the discharge area, the soil cover presents decameter-sized cryogenic structures. We studied macro morphological soil characteristics, soil chemistry and clay mineralogy on selected bulk samples, as well as contemporary pedofeatures and related metal pollutant distribution patterns in soil thin sections from subsurface horizons...
July 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Suzana Maria Costa, Tiago Domingos Mouzinho Barbosa, Volker Bittrich, Maria do Carmo Estanislau do Amaral
We provide and discuss a floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park (VNP). The VNP is located in the northern Amazon basin and displays phytophysiognomies distributed in a mosaic where these plants occur, as flooded forests, hydromorphic white-sand savannas, "buritizais" and waterbodies. After expeditions between February/2010 and January/2015 and the analysis of specimens from regional herbaria, we list 207 species of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms for the VNP, distributed in 85 genera in 37 families...
2016: PhytoKeys
Elodie Allié, Raphaël Pélissier, Julien Engel, Pascal Petronelli, Vincent Freycon, Vincent Deblauwe, Laure Soucémarianadin, Jean Weigel, Christopher Baraloto
We examined tree-soil habitat associations in lowland forest communities at Paracou, French Guiana. We analyzed a large dataset assembling six permanent plots totaling 37.5 ha, in which extensive LIDAR-derived topographical data and soil chemical and physical data have been integrated with precise botanical determinations. Map of relative elevation from the nearest stream summarized both soil fertility and hydromorphic characteristics, with seasonally inundated bottomlands having higher soil phosphate content and base saturation, and plateaus having higher soil carbon, nitrogen and aluminum contents...
2015: PloS One
Maria Ecilene N S Meneses, Marcondes L Costa, Dirk Enters, Hermann Behling
The environmental changes and the dynamics of the savanna-forest mosaic, over the last 1050 years, have been reconstructed by pollen, charcoal, radiocarbon dating mineralogical and geochemical analyses of sediment cores taken from three different Mauritia flexuosapalm swamps in the northernmost part of the Brazilian Amazon region (northern state of Roraima). Studies on the relationship between the modern pollen rain and the regional vegetation provide additional information for the interpretation of the fossil pollen records...
September 2015: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Alvaro Larran, Emiliano Jozami, Lionel Vicario, Susana R Feldman, Florencio E Podestá, Hugo R Permingeat
Second generation bioethanol obtained from native perennial grasses offers a promising alternative for biofuel production, avoiding land use competition for crops production. Spartina argentinensis is a native perennial C4 grass with high photosynthetic rates, well adapted to halo-hydromorphic soils, though its forage quality (palatability and digestibility) for livestock is quite low due to its high lignin content. Hence, cattle raisers burn these grasslands frequently in order to stimulate the emergence of new leaves with higher digestibility for cattle feeding...
October 2015: Bioresource Technology
R J Bowell, R K Ansah
Geochemical mapping of soils and selected plant species has been carried out in the Mole National Park, Ghana. The distribution of the essential nutrients: cobalt, copper and manganese is largely controlled by bedrock geology, while the geochemical dispersion of Ca, I, Fe, Mg, Mo, P, K, Se, Na and Zn has been modified by soil and hydromorphic processes. From selective extraction experiments, Fe, Mn and Co are found to be largely fixed in the soil mineral fraction. Larger proportions of Cu, I, Mo, Se and Zn are EDTA extractable and have a high chelation potential...
June 1994: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Louise Brousseau, Damien Bonal, Jeremy Cigna, Ivan Scotti
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In habitat mosaics, plant populations face environmental heterogeneity over short geographical distances. Such steep environmental gradients can induce ecological divergence. Lowland rainforests of the Guiana Shield are characterized by sharp, short-distance environmental variations related to topography and soil characteristics (from waterlogged bottomlands on hydromorphic soils to well-drained terra firme on ferralitic soils). Continuous plant populations distributed along such gradients are an interesting system to study intrapopulation divergence at highly local scales...
October 2013: Annals of Botany
Tobias Scharnweber, Michael Manthey, Martin Wilmking
Climate scenarios for northern Central Europe project rising temperatures and increasing frequency and intensity of droughts but also a shift in precipitation pattern with more humid winters. This in turn may result in soil waterlogging during the following spring, leading to increasing stress for trees growing on hydric sites. The influence of waterlogging on growth of common beech and pedunculate oak has been studied intensively on seedlings under experimental conditions. However, the question remains whether results of these studies can be transferred to mature trees growing under natural conditions...
April 2013: Tree Physiology
A N Perevolotskiĭ, T V Perevolotskaia
The study analyzes the distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr in the vertical profile of soil of forest biogeocenoses with different modes of moisture and species composition of woody vegetation on the "long" trail of radioactive fallout in the Republic of Belarus. The parameters of radionuclide migration are calculated for the two component quasi-diffusion equation, also based on this equation, pollution of root zone soil layers is predicted, as well as semi-refined periods and the contribution of migration in this process are defined...
November 2012: Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia
Jun Wang, De-Jian Wang, Gang Zhang, Yuan Wang
An experiment using monolith lysimeter was conducted to compare the characteristic of N loss by ammonia (NH3) volatilization between the gleyed paddy soil (G soil) and hydromorphic paddy soil (H soil) the Changshu National Agro-ecological Experimental Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(31 degrees 33' N, 123 degrees 38' E). Three treatments were designed for each soil type, i. e. control (no urea and straw applied), nitrogen solely and nitrogen plus wheat straw. Ammonia volatilization, flood water NH4(+) -N concentration, pH and top soil Eh were measured during the rice-growing season...
January 2013: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
S A F Bonnett, M S A Blackwell, R Leah, V Cook, M O'Connor, E Maltby
Soils are predicted to exhibit significant feedback to global warming via the temperature response of greenhouse gas (GHG) production. However, the temperature response of hydromorphic wetland soils is complicated by confounding factors such as oxygen (O2 ), nitrate (NO3-) and soil carbon (C). We examined the effect of a temperature gradient (2-25 °C) on denitrification rates and net nitrous oxide (N2 O), methane (CH4 ) production and heterotrophic respiration in mineral (Eutric cambisol and Fluvisol) and organic (Histosol) soil types in a river marginal landscape of the Tamar catchment, Devon, UK, under non-flooded and flooded with enriched NO3- conditions...
May 2013: Geobiology
Yuanyuan Zhang, Junfeng Liu, Yujing Mu, Zhu Xu, Shuwei Pei, Xiaoxiu Lun, Ying Zhang
Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from a maize field in the North China Plain (Wangdu County, Hebei Province, China) were investigated using static chambers during two consecutive maize growing seasons in the 2008 and 2009. The N2O pulse emissions occurred with duration of about 10 days after basal and additional fertilizer applications in the both years. The average N20 fluxes from the CK (control plot, without crop, fertilization and irrigation), NP (chemical N fertilizer), SN (wheat straw returning plus chemical N fertilizer), OM-1/2N (chicken manure plus half chemical N fertilizer) and OMN (chicken manure plus chemical N fertilizer) plots in 2008 were 8...
2012: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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