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Suzana Maria Costa, Tiago Domingos Mouzinho Barbosa, Volker Bittrich, Maria do Carmo Estanislau do Amaral
We provide and discuss a floristic survey of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms of Viruá National Park (VNP). The VNP is located in the northern Amazon basin and displays phytophysiognomies distributed in a mosaic where these plants occur, as flooded forests, hydromorphic white-sand savannas, "buritizais" and waterbodies. After expeditions between February/2010 and January/2015 and the analysis of specimens from regional herbaria, we list 207 species of herbaceous and subshrubby aquatic and palustrine angiosperms for the VNP, distributed in 85 genera in 37 families...
2016: PhytoKeys
Elodie Allié, Raphaël Pélissier, Julien Engel, Pascal Petronelli, Vincent Freycon, Vincent Deblauwe, Laure Soucémarianadin, Jean Weigel, Christopher Baraloto
We examined tree-soil habitat associations in lowland forest communities at Paracou, French Guiana. We analyzed a large dataset assembling six permanent plots totaling 37.5 ha, in which extensive LIDAR-derived topographical data and soil chemical and physical data have been integrated with precise botanical determinations. Map of relative elevation from the nearest stream summarized both soil fertility and hydromorphic characteristics, with seasonally inundated bottomlands having higher soil phosphate content and base saturation, and plateaus having higher soil carbon, nitrogen and aluminum contents...
2015: PloS One
Maria Ecilene N S Meneses, Marcondes L Costa, Dirk Enters, Hermann Behling
The environmental changes and the dynamics of the savanna-forest mosaic, over the last 1050 years, have been reconstructed by pollen, charcoal, radiocarbon dating mineralogical and geochemical analyses of sediment cores taken from three different Mauritia flexuosapalm swamps in the northernmost part of the Brazilian Amazon region (northern state of Roraima). Studies on the relationship between the modern pollen rain and the regional vegetation provide additional information for the interpretation of the fossil pollen records...
September 2015: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Alvaro Larran, Emiliano Jozami, Lionel Vicario, Susana R Feldman, Florencio E Podestá, Hugo R Permingeat
Second generation bioethanol obtained from native perennial grasses offers a promising alternative for biofuel production, avoiding land use competition for crops production. Spartina argentinensis is a native perennial C4 grass with high photosynthetic rates, well adapted to halo-hydromorphic soils, though its forage quality (palatability and digestibility) for livestock is quite low due to its high lignin content. Hence, cattle raisers burn these grasslands frequently in order to stimulate the emergence of new leaves with higher digestibility for cattle feeding...
October 2015: Bioresource Technology
R J Bowell, R K Ansah
Geochemical mapping of soils and selected plant species has been carried out in the Mole National Park, Ghana. The distribution of the essential nutrients: cobalt, copper and manganese is largely controlled by bedrock geology, while the geochemical dispersion of Ca, I, Fe, Mg, Mo, P, K, Se, Na and Zn has been modified by soil and hydromorphic processes. From selective extraction experiments, Fe, Mn and Co are found to be largely fixed in the soil mineral fraction. Larger proportions of Cu, I, Mo, Se and Zn are EDTA extractable and have a high chelation potential...
June 1994: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Louise Brousseau, Damien Bonal, Jeremy Cigna, Ivan Scotti
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In habitat mosaics, plant populations face environmental heterogeneity over short geographical distances. Such steep environmental gradients can induce ecological divergence. Lowland rainforests of the Guiana Shield are characterized by sharp, short-distance environmental variations related to topography and soil characteristics (from waterlogged bottomlands on hydromorphic soils to well-drained terra firme on ferralitic soils). Continuous plant populations distributed along such gradients are an interesting system to study intrapopulation divergence at highly local scales...
October 2013: Annals of Botany
Tobias Scharnweber, Michael Manthey, Martin Wilmking
Climate scenarios for northern Central Europe project rising temperatures and increasing frequency and intensity of droughts but also a shift in precipitation pattern with more humid winters. This in turn may result in soil waterlogging during the following spring, leading to increasing stress for trees growing on hydric sites. The influence of waterlogging on growth of common beech and pedunculate oak has been studied intensively on seedlings under experimental conditions. However, the question remains whether results of these studies can be transferred to mature trees growing under natural conditions...
April 2013: Tree Physiology
A N Perevolotskiĭ, T V Perevolotskaia
The study analyzes the distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr in the vertical profile of soil of forest biogeocenoses with different modes of moisture and species composition of woody vegetation on the "long" trail of radioactive fallout in the Republic of Belarus. The parameters of radionuclide migration are calculated for the two component quasi-diffusion equation, also based on this equation, pollution of root zone soil layers is predicted, as well as semi-refined periods and the contribution of migration in this process are defined...
November 2012: Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia
Jun Wang, De-Jian Wang, Gang Zhang, Yuan Wang
An experiment using monolith lysimeter was conducted to compare the characteristic of N loss by ammonia (NH3) volatilization between the gleyed paddy soil (G soil) and hydromorphic paddy soil (H soil) the Changshu National Agro-ecological Experimental Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(31 degrees 33' N, 123 degrees 38' E). Three treatments were designed for each soil type, i. e. control (no urea and straw applied), nitrogen solely and nitrogen plus wheat straw. Ammonia volatilization, flood water NH4(+) -N concentration, pH and top soil Eh were measured during the rice-growing season...
January 2013: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
S A F Bonnett, M S A Blackwell, R Leah, V Cook, M O'Connor, E Maltby
Soils are predicted to exhibit significant feedback to global warming via the temperature response of greenhouse gas (GHG) production. However, the temperature response of hydromorphic wetland soils is complicated by confounding factors such as oxygen (O2 ), nitrate (NO3-) and soil carbon (C). We examined the effect of a temperature gradient (2-25 °C) on denitrification rates and net nitrous oxide (N2 O), methane (CH4 ) production and heterotrophic respiration in mineral (Eutric cambisol and Fluvisol) and organic (Histosol) soil types in a river marginal landscape of the Tamar catchment, Devon, UK, under non-flooded and flooded with enriched NO3- conditions...
May 2013: Geobiology
Yuanyuan Zhang, Junfeng Liu, Yujing Mu, Zhu Xu, Shuwei Pei, Xiaoxiu Lun, Ying Zhang
Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from a maize field in the North China Plain (Wangdu County, Hebei Province, China) were investigated using static chambers during two consecutive maize growing seasons in the 2008 and 2009. The N2O pulse emissions occurred with duration of about 10 days after basal and additional fertilizer applications in the both years. The average N20 fluxes from the CK (control plot, without crop, fertilization and irrigation), NP (chemical N fertilizer), SN (wheat straw returning plus chemical N fertilizer), OM-1/2N (chicken manure plus half chemical N fertilizer) and OMN (chicken manure plus chemical N fertilizer) plots in 2008 were 8...
2012: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Evgenya Shelobolina, Hiromi Konishi, Huifang Xu, Jason Benzine, Mai Yia Xiong, Tao Wu, Marco Blöthe, Eric Roden
The biogeochemistry of phyllosilicate-Fe redox cycling was studied in a Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) dominated redoximorphic soil from Shovelers Sink, a small glacial depression near Madison, WI. The clay size fraction of Shovelers Sink soil accounts for 16% of the dry weight of the soil, yet contributes 74% of total Fe. The dominant mineral in the clay size fraction is mixed layer illite-smectite, and in contrast to many other soils and sediments, Fe(III) oxides are present in low abundance. We examined the Fe biogeochemistry of Shovelers Sink soils, estimated the abundance of Fe redox cycling microorganisms, and isolated in pure culture representative phyllosilicate-Fe oxidizing and reducing organisms...
2012: Frontiers in Microbiology
Claudia Pantke, Martin Obst, Karim Benzerara, Guillaume Morin, Georges Ona-Nguema, Urs Dippon, Andreas Kappler
Green rust (GR) as highly reactive iron mineral potentially plays a key role for the fate of (in)organic contaminants, such as chromium or arsenic, and nitroaromatic compounds functioning both as sorbent and reductant. GR forms as corrosion product of steel but is also naturally present in hydromorphic soils and sediments forming as metastable intermediate during microbial Fe(III) reduction. Although already suggested to form during microbial Fe(II) oxidation, clear evidence for GR formation during microbial Fe(II) oxidation was lacking...
February 7, 2012: Environmental Science & Technology
Alan Channing, Alba Zamuner, Dianne Edwards, Diego Guido
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Dated molecular phylogenies suggest a Cenozoic origin for the crown group of Equisetum. but compression fossil equisetaleans that are morphologically indistinguishable from extant Equisetum and recently discovered anatomically preserved examples strongly suggest an earlier Mesozoic initial diversification. METHODS: In situ samples of Equisetum thermale sp. nov. from the Upper Jurassic San Agustín hot spring deposit were collected and studied with the use of polished blocks, thin sections, and light microscopy...
April 2011: American Journal of Botany
Stephane Guedron, Michel Grimaldi, Catherine Grimaldi, Daniel Cossa, Delphine Tisserand, Laurent Charlet
Total mercury (HgT) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) were investigated in a tropical head watershed (1 km(2)) of French Guiana. The watershed includes a pristine area on the hill slopes and a former gold mined flat in the bottomland. Concentrations of dissolved and particulate HgT and MMHg were measured in rain, throughfall, soil water and at three points along the stream. Samples were taken in-between and during 14 storm events at the beginning and middle of the 2005 and 2006 rainy seasons. Dissolved and particulate HgT concentrations in the stream slightly increased downstream, while dissolved and particulate MMHg concentrations were low at the pristine sub-watershed outlet (median = 0...
April 2011: Water Research
F J García Navarro, J A Amorós Ortiz-Villajos, C J Sánchez Jiménez, R Jiménez Ballesta
A geochemical study of a red soil derived from plioquaternary materials was carried out. The soil was located in a region of complex geomorphology and pedologic evolution, with particular characteristics of a Mediterranean climate associated with processes of alteration, rubification, gleying (hydromorphism) and argillization. The depth distribution of 27 trace elements was studied in order to determine the amounts of these elements in the soil and its tendency. The mineralogy of the clay fraction was also studied along with other physico-chemical properties to elucidate in terms of attributes meaningful for viticulture...
June 2011: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
T S Sedel'nikova, A V Pimenov
Chromosomal mutations and mixoploidy have been revealed in the seedlings of Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris) growing in a hydromorphic environment. A giant chromosome was detected for the first time in gymnosperms.
July 2010: Izvestiia Akademii Nauk. Seriia Biologicheskaia
Lauren A Thurgood, Tingting Wang, Timothy K Chataway, Rosemary L Ryall
The aim of this study was to compare the comprehensive intracrystalline protein profiles of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) crystals precipitated from the same human urine samples. Three separate batches of COM and COD crystals were precipitated from pooled healthy human urine by the addition of sodium oxalate at calcium concentrations of 2 and 8 mM, respectively. Proteins in whole extracts of demineralised COM and COD crystals, as well as in spots excised from 2D-PAGE gels of the extracts, were identified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
September 3, 2010: Journal of Proteome Research
Yuheng Wang, Guillaume Morin, Georges Ona-Nguema, Farid Juillot, François Guyot, Georges Calas, Gordon E Brown
The knowledge of arsenic speciation at the surface of green rusts (GRs), [Fe(II)((1-x))Fe(III)(x) (OH)(2)](x+) (CO(3), Cl, SO(4))(x-), is environmentally relevant because arsenic sorption onto GRs could contribute to arsenic retention in anoxic environments (hydromorphic soils, marine sediments, etc.). The nature of arsenic adsorption complexes on hydroxychloride green rust 1 (GR1Cl) at near-neutral pH under anoxic conditions was investigated using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy at the As K-edge...
January 1, 2010: Environmental Science & Technology
S Vicca, I A Janssens, H Flessa, S Fiedler, H F Jungkunst
Wetlands contribute considerably to the global greenhouse gas (GHG) balance. In these ecosystems, groundwater level (GWL) and temperature, two factors likely to be altered by climate change, exert important control over CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O fluxes. However, little is known about the temperature sensitivity (Q(10)) of the combined GHG emissions from hydromorphic soils and how this Q(10) varies with GWL. We performed a greenhouse experiment in which three different (plant-free) hydromorphic soils from a temperate spruce forest were exposed to two GWLs (an intermediate GWL of -20 cm and a high GWL of -5 cm)...
September 2009: Geobiology
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