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Etsuko Itabashi, Kenji Osabe, Ryo Fujimoto, Tomohiro Kakizaki
Epigenetic regulation, covalent modification of DNA and changes in histone proteins are closely linked to plant development and stress response through flexibly altering the chromatin structure to regulate gene expression. In this review, we will illustrate the importance of epigenetic influences by discussing three agriculturally important traits of Brassicaceae. (1) Vernalization, an acceleration of flowering by prolonged cold exposure regulated through epigenetic silencing of a central floral repressor, FLOWERING LOCUS C...
October 20, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
Li Ren, Jialin Cui, Jing Wang, Hui Tan, Wuhui Li, Chenchen Tang, Qinbo Qin, Shaojun Liu
Rediploidization is considered to be a part of the evolutionary history of allotetraploids, and resulted in the emergence of novel epigenetic regulatory activities. To study the changing patterns of gene expression following the reduction of a genome by 50%, we used RNA-seq and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to investigate total gene expression and homoeolog expression in three hybrids of a C. auratus red var. (2n = 100, ♀) (R) and C. carpio (2n = 100, ♂) (C) (i.e., F1, F18, and G4) and their original parents...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Diana Matos Neves, Lucas Aragão da Hora Almeida, Dayse Drielly Souza Santana-Vieira, Luciano Freschi, Claudia Fortes Ferreira, Walter Dos Santos Soares Filho, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso Costa, Fabienne Micheli, Maurício Antônio Coelho Filho, Abelmon da Silva Gesteira
The present study evaluated the physiological, molecular and hormonal parameters from scion/rootstock interaction of citrus plants during recurrent water deficit. Responses of the Valencia (VO) scion variety grafted on two rootstocks with different soil water extraction capacities, Rangpur Lime (RL) and Sunki Maravilha (SM), during three successive periods of water deficit: plants exposed to a single episode of water deficit (WD1) and plants exposed to two (WD2) and three (WD3) recurrent periods of WD were compared...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xuena Huang, Shiguo Li, Ping Ni, Yangchun Gao, Bei Jiang, Zunchun Zhou, Aibin Zhan
Dissecting complex interactions between species and their environments has long been a research hotspot in the fields of ecology and evolutionary biology. The well-recognized Darwinian evolution has well explained long-term adaptation scenarios; however, "rapid" processes of biological responses to environmental changes remain largely unexplored, particularly moleculare mechanisms such as DNA methylation that have recently been proposed to play crucial roles in rapid environmental adaptation. Invasive species, which have capacities to successfully survive rapidly changing environments during biological invasions, provide great opportunities to study molecular mechanisms of rapid environemental adaptation...
October 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Eleni-Marina Kalogirou, Evangelia P Piperi, Konstantinos I Tosios, Evangelos Tsiambas, Galinos Fanourakis, Alexandra Sklavounou
BACKGROUND: Type I interferon activation is a hallmark event in Sjögren's syndrome. L1 retroelements stimulate plasmacytoid dendritic cells, activating the type I interferons, and are regulated by various mechanisms, including the APOBEC3 deaminases. As L1s are potential trigger factors in autoimmunity, we aimed to investigate the immunohistochemical localization of L1 ORF2 and its inhibitor APOBEC3B protein in minor salivary glands of Sjögren's syndrome patients. METHODS: Twenty minor salivary gland-tissue samples from 20 Sjögren's syndrome patients, classified according to Tarpley's histological criteria, and 10 controls were evaluated for L1 ORF2p and APOBEC3B expression via immunohistochemistry...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
N A Kutchy, E S B Menezes, A Chiappetta, W Tan, R W Wills, A Kaya, E Topper, A A Moura, A D Perkins, E Memili
Epigenetic modifications in histones are crucial for proper sperm physiology, egg activation and reproductive development of males. The objectives of this study were to determine the conservation and interactomes of histone three (H3) and ascertain the expression dynamics of acetylated and methylated H3 lysine 27 (H3K27ac and H3K27me3) in spermatozoa from Holstein bulls with different fertility. Methods in immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry were used to evaluate the expression dynamics of H3K27ac and H3K27me3 in spermatozoa from 10 bulls with different in vivo fertility...
October 23, 2017: Andrologia
Atsushi Tanakaa, Patrick Sc Leung, Howard A Young, M Eric Gershwin
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is considered a model autoimmune disease due to its signature AMA autoantibody, female predominance and relatively specific portal infiltration and cholestasis. The identification and cloning of the major mitochondrial autoantigens, recognized by AMA, have served as an immunologic platform to identify the earliest events involved in loss of tolerance. Despite the relative high concordance rate in identical twins, genome wide association studies have not proven clinically useful and have led to suggestions of epigenetic events...
June 2017: Hepatol Commun
David Cheng, Renyi Wu, Yue Guo, Ah-Ng Tony Kong
Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2/Nrf2) signaling pathway is a pivotal player in the antioxidant response to oxidative and electrophilic stress and can play a role in many human diseases. Activation or inhibition of Nrf2 has been an approach to treating many diseases such as cancer and regulation of this pathway has been thoroughly studied. Recently, epigenetics has emerged as another layer for regulating Keap1-Nrf2. Epigenetics modification is defined as heritable changes to gene expression without changing DNA sequence and various modifications have been found to be involved in regulating Keap1-Nrf2...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Toxicology
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.21037/atm.2017.04.45.].
September 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
Kah Weng Lau, Claudia Seng, Tony K H Lim, Daniel S W Tan
The advent of targeted therapies has established new standards of care for defined molecular subsets of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Not only has this led to significant changes in the routine clinical management of lung cancer e.g., multiplexed genomic testing, but it has provided important principles and benchmarks for determining "actionability". At present, the clinical paradigms are most evolved for EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangements, where multiple randomized phase III trials have determined optimal treatment strategies in both treatment naïve and resistant settings...
September 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
Renny T Franceschi, Chunxi Ge
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review will provide a timely assessment of MAP kinase actions in bone development and homeostasis with particular emphasis on transcriptional control of the osteoblast lineage. RECENT FINDINGS: ERK and p38 MAP kinases function as transducers of signals initiated by the extracellular matrix, mechanical loading, TGF-β, BMPs and FGF2. MAPK signals may also affect and/or interact with other important pathways such as WNT and HIPPO. ERK and p38 MAP kinase pathways phosphorylate specific osteogenic transcription factors including RUNX2, Osterix, ATF4 and DLX5...
June 2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
Gennaro Scutiero, Piergiorgio Iannone, Giulia Bernardi, Gloria Bonaccorsi, Savino Spadaro, Carlo Alberto Volta, Pantaleo Greco, Luigi Nappi
Endometriosis is one of the most common gynaecologic diseases in women of reproductive age. It is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. The women affected suffer from pelvic pain and infertility. The complex etiology is still unclear and it is based on three main theories: retrograde menstruation, coelomic metaplasia, and induction theory. Genetics and epigenetics also play a role in the development of endometriosis. Recent studies have put the attention on the role of oxidative stress, defined as an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, which may be implicated in the pathophysiology of endometriosis causing a general inflammatory response in the peritoneal cavity...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Lauren M Goddard, Anne-Laure Duchemin, Harini Ramalingan, Bingruo Wu, Mei Chen, Sharika Bamezai, Jisheng Yang, Li Li, Michael P Morley, Tao Wang, Marielle Scherrer-Crosbie, David B Frank, Kurt A Engleka, Stephen C Jameson, Edward E Morrisey, Thomas J Carroll, Bin Zhou, Julien Vermot, Mark L Kahn
Hemodynamic forces play an essential epigenetic role in heart valve development, but how they do so is not known. Here, we show that the shear-responsive transcription factor KLF2 is required in endocardial cells to regulate the mesenchymal cell responses that remodel cardiac cushions to mature valves. Endocardial Klf2 deficiency results in defective valve formation associated with loss of Wnt9b expression and reduced canonical WNT signaling in neighboring mesenchymal cells, a phenotype reproduced by endocardial-specific loss of Wnt9b...
October 13, 2017: Developmental Cell
Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Shashi Bala
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is characterized by genomic and epigenomic alterations. However, the mechanisms underlying oral squamous cell carcinoma tumorigenesis and progression remain to be elucidated. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), circular RNAs (circRNAs), and extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) are emerging groups of regulatory RNAs, which possess low or no protein-coding potential. Emerging lines of evidence indicates that deregulated expression of lncRNAs and circular RNAs are associated with the induction and progression of various cancers, including oral cancer, through epigenetic, transcriptional, and post-transcriptional alterations...
October 19, 2017: Cellular Signalling
Hume Stroud, Susan C Su, Sinisa Hrvatin, Alexander W Greben, William Renthal, Lisa D Boxer, M Aurel Nagy, Daniel R Hochbaum, Benyam Kinde, Harrison W Gabel, Michael E Greenberg
In mammals, the environment plays a critical role in promoting the final steps in neuronal development during the early postnatal period. While epigenetic factors are thought to contribute to this process, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that in the brain during early life, the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A transiently binds across transcribed regions of lowly expressed genes, and its binding specifies the pattern of DNA methylation at CA sequences (mCA) within these genes...
October 16, 2017: Cell
Simona Tomassi, Sarah Tosato
Childhood Trauma (CT) mediation of the epigenome and its impact on gene expression profile could provide a mechanism for the gene-environment interaction underling psychosis. We reviewed the evidence concerning epigenetic and gene expression modifications associated with CT in both First-Episode Psychosis (FEP) and healthy subjects. In order to explore the relative role of psychosis itself in determining these modifications, evidence about FEP and epigenetics/gene expression was also summarized. We performed a systematic search on PubMed, last updated in December 2016...
October 19, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Ilda P Ribeiro, Leonor Barroso, Francisco Marques, André Santos, Francisco Caramelo, Maria J Julião, Joana B Melo, Isabel M Carreira
The tongue is the most common and aggressive site for tumors in the oral cavity. These tumors are usually located in the lateral border of the tongue and are often related to the use of tobacco and alcohol. Clinical management of these tumors is predominantly based on anatomic location and TNM classification. The identification of molecular signatures with ability to explain the different outcomes observed in these patients is of paramount importance to guide and help their management. CASE PRESENTATION: we herein describe an 88-year-old woman diagnosed with synchronous bilateral tongue carcinoma...
October 4, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
Y Q Zhang, J S Guo
Epigenetic modification refers to a variety of regulating processes that may induce the changes in gene expression without altering DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation, histone modification, and regulatory non-coding RNAs are involved in hepatic stellate cell activation and liver fibrogenesis. A deep understanding of epigenetic mechanisms in liver fibrosis helps to identify new markers and therapies for liver fibrosis.
August 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Elisabeth Karg, Martha Smets, Joel Ryan, Ignasi Forné, Weihua Qin, Christopher B Mulholland, Georgia Kalideris, Axel Imhof, Sebastian Bultmann, Heinrich Leonhardt
Ubiquitination is a multifunctional posttranslational modification controlling the activity, subcellular localization and stability of proteins. The E3 ubiquitin ligase UHRF1 is an essential epigenetic factor that recognizes repressive histone marks as well as hemi-methylated DNA and recruits DNMT1. To explore enzymatic functions of UHRF1 beyond epigenetic regulation we conducted a comprehensive screen in mouse embryonic stem cells to identify novel ubiquitination targets of UHRF1 and its paralogue UHRF2. We found differentially ubiquitinated peptides associated with a variety of biological processes such as transcriptional regulation and DNA damage response...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
Xiao-Yuan Mao, Ming-Zhu Jin, Jin-Fei Chen, Hong-Hao Zhou, Wei-Lin Jin
Diet sources are closely involved in the pathogenesis of diverse neuropsychiatric disorders and cancers, in addition to inherited factors. Currently, natural products or nutraceuticals (commonly called medical foods) are increasingly employed for adjunctive therapy of these patients. However, the potential molecular mechanisms of the nutrient efficacy remain elusive. In this review, we summarized the neuroprotective and anti-cancer mechanisms of nutraceuticals. It was concluded that the nutraceuticals exerted neuroprotection and suppressed tumor growth possibly through the differential modulations of redox homeostasis...
October 18, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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