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flexible electronics

Johannes W de Greeff, Roel J Bosker, Jaap Oosterlaan, Chris Visscher, E Hartman
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide a systematic review of intervention studies that investigated the effects of physical activity on multiple domains of executive functions, attention and academic performance in preadolescent children (6-12 years of age). In addition, a systematic quantification of the effects of physical activity on these domains is provided. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Searches of electronic databases and examining relevant reviews between 2000 and April 2017 resulted in 31 intervention studies meeting the inclusion criteria...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
João P Vareda, Pedro Maximiano, Luís P Cunha, André F Ferreira, Pedro N Simões, Luísa Durães
HYPOTHESIS: Surfactants interfere with sol-gel particle/pore growth, influencing the structure and properties of silica aerogels. Their ability to induce microscopic changes in the aerogel's structure may be useful to improve/control the thermal insulation performance of aerogels. EXPERIMENTS: The influence of different types of surfactants (anionic, cationic and non-ionic) on the microstructural arrangement and macroscopic properties of methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS)-based aerogels was evaluated for the first time, using an experimental and computational comparative approach...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Bohayra Mortazavi, Aurélien Lherbier, Zheyong Fan, Ari Harju, Timon Rabczuk, Jean-Christophe Charlier
For centuries, cutting and folding papers with special patterns have been used to build beautiful, flexible and complex three-dimensional structures. Inspired by the old idea of kirigami (paper cutting), and the outstanding properties of graphene, recently graphene kirigami structures were fabricated to enhance the stretchability of graphene. However, the possibility of further tuning the electronic and thermal transport along the 2D kirigami structures has remained original to investigate. We therefore performed extensive atomistic simulations to explore the electronic, heat and load transfer along various graphene kirigami structures...
October 20, 2017: Nanoscale
Xin Yao, Junhui Liang, Yuelong Li, Jingshan Luo, Biao Shi, Changchun Wei, Dekun Zhang, Baozhang Li, Yi Ding, Ying Zhao, Xiaodan Zhang
Intensive studies on low-temperature deposited electron transport materials have been performed to improve the efficiency of n-i-p type planar perovskite solar cells to extend their application on plastic and multijunction device architectures. Here, a TiO2 film with enhanced conductivity and tailored band edge is prepared by magnetron sputtering at room temperature by hydrogen doping (HTO), which accelerates the electron extraction from perovskite photoabsorber and reduces charge transfer resistance, resulting in an improved short circuit current density and fill factor...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Ki Seok Kim, Ki Hyun Kim, You Jin Ji, Jin Woo Park, Jae Hee Shin, Albert Rogers Ellingboe, Geun Young Yeom
Depositing a barrier film for moisture protection without damage at a low temperature is one of the most important steps for organic-based electronic devices. In this study, the authors investigated depositing thin, high-quality SiNx film on organic-based electronic devices, specifically, very high-frequency (162 MHz) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF-PECVD) using a multi-tile push-pull plasma source with a gas mixture of NH3/SiH4 at a low temperature of 80 °C. The thin deposited SiNx film exhibited excellent properties in the stoichiometry, chemical bonding, stress, and step coverage...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
M Rudolph, E L Ratcliff
Conductive polymer electrodes have exceptional promise for next-generation bioelectronics and energy conversion devices due to inherent mechanical flexibility, printability, biocompatibility, and low cost. Conductive polymers uniquely exhibit hybrid electronic-ionic transport properties that enable novel electrochemical device architectures, an advantage over inorganic counterparts. Yet critical structure-property relationships to control the potential-dependent rates of charge transfer at polymer/electrolyte interfaces remain poorly understood...
October 19, 2017: Nature Communications
Benjamin R Mullaney, Laurence Goux-Capes, David J Price, Guillaume Chastanet, Jean-François Létard, Cameron J Kepert
External control over the mechanical function of materials is paramount in the development of nanoscale machines. Yet, exploiting changes in atomic behaviour to produce controlled scalable motion is a formidable challenge. Here, we present an ultra-flexible coordination framework material in which a cooperative electronic transition induces an extreme abrupt change in the crystal lattice conformation. This arises due to a change in the preferred coordination character of Fe(II) sites at different spin states, generating scissor-type flexing of the crystal lattice...
October 20, 2017: Nature Communications
Cobin D Soelberg, Raeford E Brown, Derick Du Vivier, John E Meyer, Banu K Ramachandran
The United States is in the midst of a devastating opioid misuse epidemic leading to over 33,000 deaths per year from both prescription and illegal opioids. Roughly half of these deaths are attributable to prescription opioids. Federal and state governments have only recently begun to grasp the magnitude of this public health crisis. In 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released their Guidelines for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain. While not comprehensive in scope, these guidelines attempt to control and regulate opioid prescribing...
November 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Susanne Löffler, Axel Wuttke, Bo Zhang, Julian J Holstein, Ricardo A Mata, Guido H Clever
A halide-triggered metallosupramolecular host was systematically studied for the uptake of small neutral molecules using NMR and MS experiments. Starting from benzene, cyclic guests were screened with respect to size (ring count), shape (flatness, 3D structure, substitution pattern, flexibility) and hetero atom content (number, position, donor character). 5-Rings and substituted 5/6-rings bind only weakly, while oversized (e.g. naphthalene, adamantane, ferrocene) and linear alkanes do not bind at all. Bridged 6-rings of the norbornane type and in particular DABCO bind strongly, likewise other guests with oppositely arranged hetero atoms...
October 19, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Sonia Huecas, Erney Ramírez-Aportela, Albert Vergoñós, Rafael Núñez-Ramírez, Oscar Llorca, J Fernando Díaz, David Juan-Rodríguez, María A Oliva, Patricia Castellen, José M Andreu
FtsZ is a self-assembling GTPase that forms, below the inner membrane, the mid-cell Z-ring guiding bacterial division. FtsZ monomers polymerize head to tail forming tubulin-like dynamic protofilaments, whose organization in the Z-ring is an unresolved problem. Rather than forming a well-defined structure, FtsZ protofilaments laterally associate in vitro into polymorphic condensates typically imaged on surfaces. We describe here nanoscale self-organizing properties of FtsZ assemblies in solution that underlie Z-ring assembly, employing time-resolved x-ray scattering and cryo-electron microscopy...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Gwenaelle Rousse, Hania Ahouari, Vladimir Pomjakushin, Jean-Marie Tarascon, Nadir Recham, Artem M Abakumov
We report on a thorough structural study on two members of layered fluorocarbonates KMCO3F (M = Ca, Mn). The Ca-based member demonstrates a phase transition at ∼320 °C, evidenced for the first time. The crystal structure of the high temperature phase (HT-KCaCO3F) was solved using neutron powder diffraction. A new Mn-based phase KMnCO3F was synthesized, and its crystal structure was solved from electron diffraction tomography data and refined from a combination of X-ray synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction...
October 18, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Chunlei Wan, Ruoming Tian, Mami Kondou, Ronggui Yang, Pengan Zong, Kunihito Koumoto
Hybrid inorganic-organic superlattice with an electron-transmitting but phonon-blocking structure has emerged as a promising flexible thin film thermoelectric material. However, the substantial challenge in optimizing carrier concentration without disrupting the superlattice structure prevents further improvement of the thermoelectric performance. Here we demonstrate a strategy for carrier optimization in a hybrid inorganic-organic superlattice of TiS2[tetrabutylammonium] x [hexylammonium] y , where the organic layers are composed of a random mixture of tetrabutylammonium and hexylammonium molecules...
October 18, 2017: Nature Communications
Badri Narayanan, Henry Chan, Alper Kinaci, Fatih G Sen, Stephen K Gray, Maria K Y Chan, Subramanian K R S Sankaranarayanan
A fundamental understanding of the inter-relationships between structure, morphology, atomic scale dynamics, chemistry, and physical properties of mixed metallic-covalent systems is essential to design novel functional materials for applications in flexible nano-electronics, energy storage and catalysis. To achieve such knowledge, it is imperative to develop robust and computationally efficient atomistic models that describe atomic interactions accurately within a single framework. Here, we present a unified Tersoff-Brenner type bond order potential (BOP) for a Co-C system, trained against lattice parameters, cohesive energies, equation of state, and elastic constants of different crystalline phases of cobalt as well as orthorhombic Co2C derived from density functional theory (DFT) calculations...
October 18, 2017: Nanoscale
Thangavel Kanagasekaran, Hidekazu Shimotani, Ryota Shimizu, Taro Hitosugi, Katsumi Tanigaki
Organic semiconductors have attracted much attention for low-cost, flexible and human-friendly optoelectronics. However, achieving high electron-injection efficiency is difficult from air-stable electrodes and cannot be equivalent to that of holes. Here, we present a novel concept of electrode composed of a bilayer of tetratetracontane (TTC) and polycrystalline organic semiconductors (pc-OSC) covered by a metal layer. Field-effect transistors of single-crystal organic semiconductors with the new electrodes of M/pc-OSC/TTC (M: Ca or Au) show both highly efficient electron and hole injection...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
Alexis Cooke, Haneefa Saleem, Dorothy Mushi, Jessie Mbwambo, Saria Hassan, Barrot H Lambdin
BACKGROUND: Though timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a vital component of effective HIV prevention, care and treatment, people who inject drugs are less likely to receive ART than their non-drug using counterparts. In an effort to increase access to ART for people who inject drugs, we examined perceived benefits, challenges, and recommendations for implementing an integrated methadone and ART service delivery model at an opioid treatment program (OTP) clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania...
October 18, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Palanisamy Kannan, Thandavarayan Maiyalagan, Enrico Marsili, Srabanti Ghosh, Longhua Guo, Youju Huang, Jahangir Ahmed Rather, Dharmaraj Thiruppathi, Joanna Niedziolka-Jönsson, Martin Jönsson-Niedziolka
The demand for electrochemical sensors with high sensitivity and reliability, fast response, and excellent selectivity has stimulated intensive research on developing highly active nanomaterials. In this work, freestanding 3D/Co3O4 thorn-like and wire-like (nanowires) nanostructures are directly grown on a flexible carbon fiber paper (CFP) substrate by a single-step hydrothermal process without using surfactants or templates. The 3D/Co3O4 thorn-like nanostructures show higher electrochemical activity than wire-like because of their high conductivity, large specific surface areas, and mesopores on their surface...
October 17, 2017: Analyst
Parikshit Sahatiya, Sushmee Badhulika
Electronic structure and carrier behavior in semiconductor junctions can be effectively modulated on the application of strain. This work represents the first demonstration of a large-area, flexible, paper-based graphene-molybdenum disulfide (Gr/MoS2) broadband photodetector using a low-cost solution-processed hydrothermal method and enhancement in photodetection through strain modulation by assembling the device on polydimethylsiloxane. Optimization, in terms of process parameters, was carried out to obtain trilayer MoS2 over Gr-cellulose paper...
October 17, 2017: Nanotechnology
Guoqing Zhao, Myungkwan Song, Hee-Suk Chung, Soo Min Kim, Sang-Geul Lee, Jong-Seong Bae, Tae Sung Bae, Donghwan Kim, Gun-Hwan Lee, Seung Zeon Han, Hae-Seok Lee, Eun-Ae Choi, Jungheum Yun
The development of highly efficient flexible transparent conducting electrodes (FTCEs) supported on polymer substrates is of great importance to the realization of portable and bendable photovoltaic devices. Highly conductive, low-cost Cu has attracted attention as a promising alternative for replacing expensive indium tin oxide (ITO) and Ag. However, highly efficient, Cu-based FTCEs are currently unavailable because of the absence of an efficient means of attaining an atomically thin, completely continuous Cu film that simultaneously exhibits enhanced optical transmittance and electrical conductivity...
October 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lanlan Jiang, Yuanyuan Shi, Fei Hui, Kechao Tang, Qian Wu, Chengbin Pan, Xu Jing, Hasan J Uppal, Felix Roberto Mario Palumbo, Guangyuan Lu, Tianru Wu, Haomin Wang, Marco A Villena, Xiaoming Xie, Paul C McIntyre, Mario Lanza
Insulating films are essential in multiple electronic devices because they can provide essential functionalities, such as capacitance effects and electrical fields. Two dimensional (2D) layered materials have superb electronic, physical, chemical, thermal and optical properties, and they can be effectively used to provide additional performances (flexibility, transparency). 2D layered insulators are called to be essential in future electronic devices, but their reliability, degradation kinetics and dielectric breakdown process are still not understood...
October 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Satish Patel, Shikha Srivastava, Manju Rawat Singh, Deependra Singh
Lupeol entrapped chitosan-gelatin hydrogel (LCGH) films were prepared by solution cast method by blending chitosan and gelatin solution using glycerol as plasticizer, followed by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. LCGH films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), equilibrium water content (EWC), Water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and in vitro release studies. SEM confirmed presence of the uniform porous network of both blank and LCGH films...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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