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flexible electronics

Anindita Bora, Kiranjyoti Mohan, Simanta Doley, Swapan Kumar Dolui
Flexible energy storage devices are the need of the hour with the advent of flexible electronics. So far, flexible supercapacitors based on graphene analogues usually have low operating potential windows. To this end, two dissimilar electrode materials with complementary potential ranges are employed to obtain an optimum cell voltage of 1.8V. Low temperature organic sol-gel method is used to prepare functionalized reduced graphene oxide aerogel (rGOA): Ag nanorod functionalized rGOA acts as anode while polyaniline nanotube functionalized rGOA acts as cathode...
February 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hauke C Schmidt, Christopher B Larsen, Oliver S Wenger
The distance dependence of electron transfer (ET) is commonly investigated in linear rigid rod-like compounds, but studies of molecular wires with integrated corners imposing 90° angles are very rare. By using spirobifluorene as a key bridging element and by substituting it at different positions, two isomeric series of donor-bridge-acceptor compounds with either nearly linear or angled geometries were obtained. Photoinduced ET in both series is dominated by rapid through-bond hole hopping across oligo-fluorenes over distances of up to 70 Å...
February 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
André Soares Santos, Augusto Afonso Guerra-Junior, Brian Godman, Alec Morton, Cristina Mariano Ruas
INTRODUCTION: Cost-effectiveness thresholds (CETs) are used to judge if an intervention represents sufficient value for money to merit adoption in healthcare systems. The study was motivated by the Brazilian context of HTA, where meetings are being conducted to decide on the definition of a threshold. AREAS COVERED: An electronic search was conducted on Medline (via PubMed), Lilacs (via BVS) and ScienceDirect followed by a complementary search of references of included studies, Google Scholar and conference abstracts...
February 22, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Jan Hermenau, Markus Ternes, Manuel Steinbrecher, Roland Wiesendanger, Jens Wiebe
Long spin relaxation times are a prerequisite for the use of spins in data storage or nanospintronics technologies. An atomic-scale solid-state realization of such a system is the spin of a transition metal atom adsorbed on a suitable substrate. For the case of a metallic substrate, which enables directly addressing the spin by conduction electrons, the experimentally measured lifetimes reported to date are on the order of only hundreds of femtoseconds. Here, we show that the spin states of iron atoms adsorbed directly on a conductive platinum substrate have a surprisingly long spin relaxation time in the nanosecond regime, which is comparable to that of a transition metal atom decoupled from the substrate electrons by a thin decoupling layer...
February 22, 2018: Nano Letters
Ha Ju Park, Chang Woo Lee, Dockyu Kim, Hackwon Do, Se Jong Han, Jung Eun Kim, Bon-Hun Koo, Jun Hyuck Lee, Joung Han Yim
Enzymes isolated from organisms found in cold habitats generally exhibit higher catalytic activity at low temperatures than their mesophilic homologs and are therefore known as cold-active enzymes. Cold-active proteases are very useful in a variety of biotechnological applications, particularly as active ingredients in laundry and dishwashing detergents, where they provide strong protein-degrading activity in cold water. We identified a cold-active protease (Pro21717) from a psychrophilic bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas arctica PAMC 21717, and determined the crystal structure of its catalytic domain (CD) at a resolution of 1...
2018: PloS One
Min-Kyu Kim, Jang-Sik Lee
Low power consumption is the important requirement in memory devices for saving energy. In particular, improved energy-efficiency is essential in implantable electronic devices for operation under a limited power supply. Here, we demonstrate the use of κ-carrageenan (κ-car) as the resistive switching layer to achieve memory that has low power consumption. A carboxymethyl (CM) group is introduced to the κ-car to increase its ionic conductivity. Ag was doped in CM:κ-car to improve the resistive switching properties of the devices...
February 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Manuela Rebora, Jan Michels, Gianandrea Salerno, Lars Heepe, Elena Gorb, Stanislav Gorb
Based on analyses with cryo-scanning and transmission electron microscopy, the present study reports on the morphology and ultrastructure of the attachment structures of the green stinkbug Nezara viridula L. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), a cosmopolitan pest of different crops in most areas of the world. In addition, the presence and distribution of large proportions of the elastic protein resilin in these structures was revealed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The attachment structures of each leg comprise two sclerotised claws, a pair of smooth flexible pulvilli and a hairy adhesive pad located at the ventral side of the basitarsus...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Duy H K Nguyen, Vy T H Pham, Vi Khanh Truong, Igor Sbarski, James Wang, Armandas Balčytis, Saulius Juodkazis, David E Mainwaring, Russell J Crawford, Elena P Ivanova
Wrinkled patterns, which possess an extensive surface area over a limited planar space, can provide surface features ranging across the nano- and microscale that have become an engineering material with the flexibility to be tuneable for a number of technologies. Here, we investigate the surface parameters that influence the attachment response of two model bacteria (P. aeruginosa and S. aureus) to wrinkled gold-coated polystyrene surfaces having topologies at the nano- and microscale. Together with flat gold films as the controls, surface feature heights spanned 2 orders of magnitude (15 nm, 200 nm, and 1 micron)...
February 20, 2018: Nanoscale
Jeong Woo Shin, Myung Hoon Kang, Seongkook Oh, Byung Chan Yang, Kwonil Seong, Hyo-Sok Ahn, Tae Hoon Lee, Jihwan An
Atomic layer deposited (ALD) dielectric films on graphene usually show non-continuous and rough morphology owing to the inert surface of graphene. Here, we demonstrate the deposition of thin and uniform ALD ZrO2 films without any seed layer on the chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene functionalized by atmospheric oxygen plasma treatment. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that the ALD ZrO2 films are also highly crystalline despite a low ALD temperature of 150 °C. The ALD ZrO2 film serves as an effective passivation layer for graphene, which is shown by negative shifts in the Dirac voltage and the enhanced air stability of graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) after ALD of ZrO2...
February 20, 2018: Nanotechnology
Sahar Sharifzadeh
Semiconductors composed of organic molecules are promising as components for flexible and inexpensive optoelectronic devices, with many recent studies aimed at understanding their electronic and optical properties. In particular, computational modeling of these complex materials has provided new understanding of the underlying properties which give rise to their excited-state phenomena. This article provides an overview of recent many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) studies of optical excitations within organic molecules and solids...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Richa Mitra, Bhakti Jariwala, Arnab Bhattacharya, Anindya Das
ReS2 , a layered two-dimensional material popular for its in-plane anisotropic properties, is emerging as one of the potential candidates for flexible electronics and ultrafast optical applications. It is an n-type semiconducting material having a layer independent bandgap of 1.55 eV. In this paper we have characterized the intrinsic electronic noise level of few-layer ReS2 for the first time. Few-layer ReS2 field effect transistor devices show a 1/f nature of noise for frequency ranging over three orders of magnitude...
February 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
Hans-Jörg Himmel, Olaf Hübner
Metal cluster models are of high relevance for establishing new mechanistic concepts for heterogeneous catalysis. The high reactivity and particular selectivity of metal clusters is caused by the wealth of low-lying electronically excited states that are often thermally populated. Thereby the metal clusters are flexible with regard to its electronic structure and can adjust their states to be appropriate for the reaction with a particular substrate. The matrix isolation technique is ideally suited for studying excited state reactivity...
February 19, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Zongbao Yu, Xing-Qiu Chen, Xiangdong Kang, Yingpeng Xie, Huaze Zhu, Shoulong Wang, Sami Ullah, Hui Ma, Lianzhou Wang, Gang Liu, Xiuliang Ma, Hui-Ming Cheng
Although doping with appropriate heteroatoms is a powerful way of increasing visible light absorption of wide-bandgap metal oxide photocatalysts, the incorporation of heteroatoms into the photocatalysts usually leads to the increase of deleterious recombination centers of photogenerated charge carriers. Here, a conceptual strategy of increasing visible light absorption without causing additional recombination centers by constructing an ultrathin insulating heterolayer of amorphous boron oxynitride on wide-bandgap photocatalysts is shown...
February 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
Jianan Deng, Xiao Kuang, Ruiyuan Liu, Wenbo Ding, Aurelia C Wang, Ying-Chih Lai, Kai Dong, Zhen Wen, Yaxian Wang, Lili Wang, H Jerry Qi, Tong Zhang, Zhong Lin Wang
Functional polymers possess outstanding uniqueness in fabricating intelligent devices such as sensors and actuators, but they are rarely used for converting mechanical energy into electric power. Here, a vitrimer based triboelectric nanogenerator (VTENG) is developed by embedding a layer of silver nanowire percolation network in a dynamic disulfide bond-based vitrimer elastomer. In virtue of covalent dynamic disulfide bonds in the elastomer matrix, a thermal stimulus enables in situ healing if broken, on demand reconfiguration of shape, and assembly of more sophisticated structures of VTENG devices...
February 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
Yanfeng Dong, Shuanghao Zheng, Jieqiong Qin, Xuejun Zhao, Haodong Shi, Xiaohui Wang, Jian Chen, Zhong-Shuai Wu
High-energy-density lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hold promise for next-generation portable electronic devices, but are facing great challenges in rational construction of novel high-performance flexible electrode and innovative cell configuration for actual applications. Here we demonstrated an all-MXene-based flexible and integrated sulfur cathode, enabled by three dimensional alkalized Ti3C2 MXene nanoribbon (a-Ti3C2 MNR) frameworks as S/polysulfides host (a-Ti3C2-S) and two dimensional delaminated Ti3C2 MXene (d-Ti3C2) nanosheets as interlayer on polypropylene (PP) separator, for high-energy and long-cycle Li-S batteries...
February 17, 2018: ACS Nano
E J Fleming, T Woyke, A R Donatello, M M M Kuypers, A Sczyrba, S Littmann, D Emerson
Leptothrix ochracea is known for producing large volumes of iron-oxyhydroxide sheaths that alter wetland biogeochemistry. For over a century, these delicate structures have fascinated microbiologists and geoscientists. Because L. ochracea still resists long-term in vitro culture, the debate regarding its metabolic classification dates back to 1885. We developed a novel culturing technique for L. ochracea using in situ natural waters, and coupled this with single cell genomics and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrophotometry (nanoSIMS) to probe L...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Sindhrani Dars, Hayley Uden, Helen A Banwell, Saravana Kumar
BACKGROUND: Flexible pes planus (flat feet) in children is a common presenting condition in clinical practice due to concerns amongst parents and caregivers. While Foot Orthoses (FOs) are a popular intervention, their effectiveness remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to update the current evidence base for the effectiveness of FOs for paediatric flexible pes planus. METHODS: A systematic search of electronic databases (Cochrane, Medline, AMED, EMBASE, CINHAL, SportDiscus, Scopus and PEDro) was conducted from January 2011 to July 2017...
2018: PloS One
Yixiong Ji, Jun Yang, Wei Luo, Linlong Tang, Xiangxing Bai, Chongqian Leng, Chaoyan Ma, Xingzhan Wei, Jing Wang, Jun Shen, Shirong Lu, Kuan Sun, Haofei Shi
Driven by huge demand for flexible opto-electronic devices, high-performance flexible transparent electrodes are continuously sought. In this work, a flexible multilayer transparent electrode with structure of ZnO/Ag/CuSCN (ZAC) is engineered, featuring inorganic solution-processed cuprous thiocyanate (CuSCN) as a hole-transport antireflection coating. The ZAC electrode exhibits an average transmittance of 94% (discounting the substrate) in the visible range, a sheet resistance (Rsh) of 9.7 Ω/sq, a high mechanical flexibility without Rsh variation after bending 10,000 times, a long-term stability of 400 days in ambient environment and scalable fabrication process...
February 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Cheng-Ting Chiu, Dong-Hwang Chen
Three-dimensional (3D) porous Ni-Co sulfide/reduced graphene oxide composite with the appropriate incorporation of carbon nanotubes (NCS/rGO/CNT) was fabricated as a promising material for supercapacitor electrodes. It combined the high pseudo-capacitance of Ni-Co sulfide as well as the large specific surface area and electrical double layer capacitance of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were incorporated to act as the spacer for hindering the restacking of rGO and to construct a conductive network for enhancing the electron transport...
February 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
N F Davis, M R Quinlan, C Poyet, N Lawrentschuk, D M Bolton, D Webb, G S Jack
PURPOSE: This study aims to comparatively evaluate clinical outcomes of mini-PCNL and FURS for treating urinary tract calculi in a single session. METHODS: A systematic search using electronic databases was performed for studies comparing mini-PCNL and FURS for the treatment of urinary tract calculi. The primary outcome measurements were stone-free rates (SFRs) and complication rates for both techniques. Secondary outcome measurements were to compare patient demographics, operative duration, and inpatient stay...
February 16, 2018: World Journal of Urology
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