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implantable electrodes

Zsófia Bérces, Kinga Tóth, Gergely Márton, Ildikó Pál, Bálint Kováts-Megyesi, Zoltán Fekete, István Ulbert, Anita Pongrácz
Neural interface technologies including recording and stimulation electrodes are currently in the early phase of clinical trials aiming to help patients with spinal cord injuries, degenerative disorders, strokes interrupting descending motor pathways, or limb amputations. Their lifetime is of key importance; however, it is limited by the foreign body response of the tissue causing the loss of neurons and a reactive astrogliosis around the implant surface. Improving the biocompatibility of implant surfaces, especially promoting neuronal attachment and regeneration is therefore essential...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Katarina Lazic, Jelena Petrovic, Jelena Ciric, Aleksandar Kalauzi, Jasna Saponjic
Postoperative sleep disorders, particularly the REM sleep disorder, may have a significant deleterious impact on postoperative outcomes and may contribute to the genesis of certain delayed postoperative complications. We have followed the effect of distinct anesthesia regimens (ketamine/diazepam vs. pentobarbital) over 6days following the induction of a stable anesthetized state in adult male Wistar rats, chronically instrumented for sleep recording. In order to compare the effect of both anesthetics in the physiological controls vs...
October 19, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Yazan M Dweiri, Matthew A Stone, Dustin J Tyler, Grant A McCallum, Dominique M Durand
Many attempts have been made to manufacture multi-contact nerve cuff electrodes that are safe, robust and reliable for long term neuroprosthetic applications. This protocol describes a fabrication technique of a modified cylindrical nerve cuff electrode to meet these criteria. Minimum computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD and CAM) skills are necessary to consistently produce cuffs with high precision (contact placement 0.51 ± 0.04 mm) and various cuff sizes. The precision in spatially distributing the contacts and the ability to retain a predefined geometry accomplished with this design are two criteria essential to optimize the cuff's interface for selective recording and stimulation...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
P Han, X R Niu, X Y Du, Z C Chen, Y Xu, Y Cheng, Y Gao, Q Zhang, M Xu
Cochlear implant (CI) is an artificial electronic device which can provide a sense of sound to a patient with severe or profound hearing loss. Pathological changes have been observed after CI surgery, which might influence the effectiveness of the CI procedure. In this review, we divided the postoperative pathological changes of the temporal bone into two categories according to different stages: immediate trauma and delayed side effects. Immediate trauma might arise from traumatic insertion of the electrode during CI surgery, which included trauma at cochleostomy site, lateral wall trauma, basilar membrane injury, osseous lamina fracture and modiolar injury...
October 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
David S Freedman, Joseph B Schroeder, Gregory I Telian, Zhengyang Zhang, Smrithi Sunil, Jason T Ritt
OBJECTIVE: Behavioral neuroscience studies in freely moving rodents require small, light-weight implants to facilitate neural recording and stimulation. Our goal was to develop an integrated package of 3D printed parts and assembly aids for labs to rapidly fabricate, with minimal training, an implant that combines individually positionable microelectrodes, an optical fiber, zero insertion force (ZIF-clip) headstage connection, and secondary recording electrodes, e.g. for electromyography (EMG)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Xin Wang, Jing Wang, Haikang Zhao, Nan Li, Shunnan Ge, Lei Chen, Jiaming Li, Jiangpeng Jing, Mingming Su, Zhaohui Zheng, Jinan Zhang, Guodong Gao, Xuelian Wang
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) may lead to permanent neurological disability of patients and has impeded the extensive clinical application of deep brain stimulation (DBS). The present study was conducted to discuss the incidence, prevention, and treatment of symptomatic ICH after DBS surgery. METHODS: From January 2009 to December 2014, 396 patients underwent DBS with a total of 691 implanted leads. In all, 10 patients had symptomatic ICH...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Cyril G Eleftheriou, Jonas B Zimmermann, Henrik D Kjeldsen, Moshe David-Pur, Yael Hanein, Evelyne Sernagor
The choice of electrode material is of paramount importance in neural prosthetic devices. Electrodes must be biocompatible yet able to sustain repetitive current injections in a highly corrosive environment. We explored the suitability of carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes to stimulate retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a mouse model of outer retinal degeneration. We investigated morphological changes at the bio-hybrid interface and changes in RGC responses to electrical stimulation following prolonged in vitro coupling to CNT electrodes...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Saul Wilson, Kingsley O Abode-Iyamah, John W Miller, Chandan G Reddy, Sina Safayi, Douglas C Fredericks, Nicholas D Jeffery, Nicole A DeVries-Watson, Sara K Shivapour, Stephanus Viljoen, Brian D Dalm, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Michael D Johnson, George T Gillies, Matthew A Howard
OBJECTIVE: To develop a large animal model of spinal cord injury (SCI), for use in translational studies of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in the treatment of spasticity. We seek to establish thresholds for the SCS parameters associated with reduction of post-SCI spasticity in the pelvic limbs, with implications for patients. STUDY DESIGN: The weight-drop method was used to create a moderate SCI in adult sheep, leading to mild spasticity in the pelvic limbs. Electrodes for electromyography (EMG) and an epidural spinal cord stimulator were then implanted...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Joke A Debruyne, Tom Francart, A Miranda L Janssen, Kim Douma, Jan P L Brokx
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the hypotheses that (1) prelingually deafened CI users do not have perfect electrode discrimination ability and (2) the deactivation of non-discriminable electrodes can improve auditory performance. DESIGN: Electrode discrimination difference limens were determined for all electrodes of the array. The subjects' basic map was subsequently compared to an experimental map, which contained only discriminable electrodes, with respect to speech understanding in quiet and in noise, listening effort, spectral ripple discrimination and subjective appreciation...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Audiology
S K Plontke, G Götze, T Rahne, A Liebau
Local drug application to the inner ear offers a number of advantages over systemic delivery. Local drug therapy currently encompasses extracochlear administration (intratympanic injection); intracochlear administration, particularly for gene and stem cell therapy; as well as various combinations with auditory neurosensory prostheses, either evaluated in preclinical or clinical studies, or off-label. To improve rehabilitation with cochlear implants (CI), one focus is the development of drug-releasing electrode carriers, e...
October 18, 2016: HNO
Dirk De Ridder, Sook Ling Leong, Patrick Manning, Sven Vanneste, Paul Glue
BACKGROUND: Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a brain disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 2.3%, causing severe functional impairment as a result of anxiety and distress, persistent and repetitive, unwanted, intrusive thoughts (obsessions), and repetitive ritualized behavior (compulsions). Approximately 40-60% of patients with OCD fail to satisfactorily respond to standard treatments. Intractable OCD has been treated by anterior capsulotomy and cingulotomy, but more recently neurostimulation approaches have become more popular due to their reversibility...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Yichuan Hu, Bo Liang, Lu Fang, Guanglong Ma, Guang Yang, Qin Zhu, Shengfu Chen, Xuesong Ye
In this work, a versatile fabrication method of coating enzyme-based biosensors with ultra-thin antifouling zwitterionic polymer films to meet the challenge of the long-time stability of sensors in vivo was developed. Electrochemically mediated atom transfer radical polymerization (eATRP) was applied to polymerize zwitterionic sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA) monomers on the rough enzyme-absorbed electrode surfaces, meanwhile a refined overall bromination was developed to improve the coverage of polymers on the biosensor surfaces, and maintain the enzyme activity simultaneously for the first time...
October 18, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ahmet Cakir, Robert F Labadie, M Geraldine Zuniga, Benoit M Dawant, Jack H Noble
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the accuracy of rigid cochlear models in measuring intra-cochlear positions of cochlear implant (CI) electrodes. PATIENTS: Ninety three adults who had undergone CI and pre- and postoperative computed tomographic (CT) imaging. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Seven rigid models of cochlear anatomy were constructed using micro-CTs of cochlear specimens. Using each of the seven models, the position of each electrode in each of the 98 ears in our dataset was measured as its depth along the length of the cochlea, its distance to the basilar membrane, and its distance to the modiolus...
October 14, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Juul Verberne, Frank Risis, Luke Campbell, Scott Chambers, Stephen O'Leary
HYPOTHESIS: Scala tympani morphology influences the insertion dynamics and intra-scalar position of straight electrode arrays. BACKGROUND: Hearing preservation is the goal of cochlear implantation with current thin straight electrode arrays. These hug the lateral wall, facilitating full, atraumatic insertions. However, most studies still report some postoperative hearing loss. This study explores the influence of scala tympani morphology on array position relative to the basilar membrane and its possible contribution to postoperative hearing loss...
October 12, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Laura K Holden, Jill B Firszt, Ruth M Reeder, Rosalie M Uchanski, Noël Y Dwyer, Timothy A Holden
OBJECTIVE: To identify primary biographic and audiologic factors contributing to cochlear implant (CI) performance variability in quiet and noise by controlling electrode array type and electrode position within the cochlea. BACKGROUND: Although CI outcomes have improved over time, considerable outcome variability still exists. Biographic, audiologic, and device-related factors have been shown to influence performance. Examining CI recipients with consistent array type and electrode position may allow focused investigation into outcome variability resulting from biographic and audiologic factors...
October 12, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Matthew L Bush, Robin Thompson, Catherine Irungu, John Ayugi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of live telemedicine applications in hearing amplification and cochlear implantation. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: A systematic search was performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINALH, and Web of Science to identify peer-reviewed research. Inclusion criteria were titles containing words from the search terms 1) audiology, otolaryngology, and hearing impairment, 2) rehabilitative methods, and 3) telemedicine...
October 12, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Maja Svrakic, J Thomas Roland, Sean O McMenomey, Mario A Svirsky
OBJECTIVE: To describe our initial operative experience and hearing preservation results with the Advanced Bionics (AB) Mid Scala Electrode (MSE). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Sixty-three MSE implants in pediatric and adult patients were compared with age- and sex-matched 1j electrode implants from the same manufacturer. All patients were severe to profoundly deaf. INTERVENTION: Cochlear implantation with either the AB 1j electrode or the AB MSE...
October 12, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Yuan Liu, Benoit M Dawant
Deep brain stimulation, as a primary surgical treatment for various neurological disorders, involves implanting electrodes to stimulate target nuclei within millimeter accuracy. Accurate pre-operative target selection is challenging due to the poor contrast in its surrounding region in MR images. In this paper, we present a learning-based method to automatically and rapidly localize the target using multi-modal images. A learning-based technique is applied first to spatially normalize the images in a common coordinate space...
February 2016: ... IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics. IEEE-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics
Nathaniel T Greene, Jameson K Mattingly, Renee M Banakis Hartl, Daniel J Tollin, Stephen P Cass
HYPOTHESIS: Cochlear implant (CI) electrode insertion into the round window induces pressure transients in the cochlear fluid comparable to high-intensity sound transients. BACKGROUND: Many patients receiving a CI have some remaining functional hearing at low frequencies; thus, devices and surgical techniques have been developed to use this residual hearing. To maintain functional acoustic hearing, it is important to retain function of any hair cells and auditory nerve fibers innervating the basilar membrane; however, in a subset of patients, residual low-frequency hearing is lost after CI insertion...
October 5, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Alexander I Tröster, Joseph Jankovic, Michele Tagliati, DeLea Peichel, Michael S Okun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the neurobehavioral safety of constant-current subthalamic deep brain stimulation and to compare the neuropsychological effects of stimulation versus electrode placement alone. METHODS: A total of 136 patients with Parkinson's disease underwent bilateral subthalamic device implantation in this randomized trial. Patients received stimulation either immediately after device implantation (n = 101; active stimulation) or beginning 3 months after surgery (n = 35; delayed activation control)...
October 18, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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