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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525604/decomposing-tool-action-observation-a-stereo-eeg-study
#1
F Caruana, P Avanzini, R Mai, V Pelliccia, G LoRusso, G Rizzolatti, G A Orban
A description of the spatiotemporal dynamics of human cortical activity during cognitive tasks is a fundamental goal of neuroscience. In the present study, we employed stereo-EEG in order to assess the neural activity during tool-action observation. We recorded from 49 epileptic patients (5502 leads) implanted with intracerebral electrodes, while they observed tool and hand actions. We deconstructed actions into 3 events-video onset, action onset, and tool-object contact-and assessed how different brain regions respond to these events...
May 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518084/subcutaneous-trigeminal-nerve-field-stimulation-for-refractory-facial-pain
#2
Martin Jakobs, Sigrid Schuh-Hofer, Andreas Unterberg, Rezvan Ahmadi
Chronic or neuropathic trigeminal facial pain can be challenging to treat. Neurosurgical procedures should be applied when conservative treatment fails. Neuromodulation techniques for chronic facial pain include deep brain stimulation and motor cortex stimulation, which are complex to perform. Subcutaneous nerve field stimulation is certified for chronic back pain and is the least invasive form of neuromodulation. We applied this technique to treat chronic and neuropathic trigeminal pain as an individual therapy concept...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512633/an-ambulatory-electroencephalography-system-for-freely-moving-horses-an-innovating-approach
#3
Hugo Cousillas, Martial Oger, Céline Rochais, Claire Pettoello, Mathilde Ménoret, Séverine Henry, Martine Hausberger
Electroencephalography (EEG) that has been extensively studied in humans presents also a large interest for studies on animal brain processes. However, since the quality of the recordings is altered by muscular activity, most EEG recordings on animals are obtained using invasive methods with deeply implanted electrodes. This requires anesthesia and can thus only be used in laboratory or clinical settings. As EEG is a very useful tool both for detecting brain alterations due to diseases or accidents and to evaluate the arousal and attentional state of the animal, it seemed crucial to develop a tool that would make such recordings possible in the horse's home environment, with a freely moving horse...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509682/new-neurosurgical-approaches-for-tremor-and-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Alfonso Fasano, Andres M Lozano, Esther Cubo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to gather the newest advances in the surgical treatment of tremor and Parkinson's disease. We will briefly discuss the potential applications of the new technologies of deep brain stimulation (DBS), and we will focus on MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS). RECENT FINDINGS: Novel DBS devices are being progressively adopted, particularly electrodes allowing a longer stimulating surface (suitable for multiple targets stimulation) and current radial steering (to minimize side effects of stimulation)...
May 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508994/disease-modifying-effects-of-neural-regeneration-peptide-2945-in-the-gaers-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#5
Gabi Dezsi, Frank Sieg, Mark Thomas, Terence J O'Brien, Marieke van der Hart, Nigel C Jones
Epilepsy is a common neurological condition characterised by spontaneous recurrent seizures. Current anti-epileptic drugs are only effective and tolerated in ~70% of patients, leaving a substantial proportion of patients untreated. As such, there is a pressing need to develop new therapies. We assessed the anti-seizure activity of Neural Regeneration Peptide 2945 (NRP 2945) in the GAERS model of absence epilepsy. Drug effects on seizures were assessed using two study designs. Male adult GAERS were implanted with EEG electrodes to measure seizure frequency...
May 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508720/human-kinematics-of-cochlear-implant-surgery-an-investigation-of-insertion-micro-motions-and-speed-limitations
#6
Kyle Kesler, Neal P Dillon, Loris Fichera, Robert F Labadie
Objectives Document human motions associated with cochlear implant electrode insertion at different speeds and determine the lower limit of continuous insertion speed by a human. Study Design Observational. Setting Academic medical center. Subjects and Methods Cochlear implant forceps were coupled to a frame containing reflective fiducials, which enabled optical tracking of the forceps' tip position in real time. Otolaryngologists (n = 14) performed mock electrode insertions at different speeds based on recommendations from the literature: "fast" (96 mm/min), "stable" (as slow as possible without stopping), and "slow" (15 mm/min)...
May 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508439/conventional-and-right-sided-screening-for-subcutaneous-icd-in-a-population-with-congenital-heart-disease-at-high-risk-of-sudden-cardiac-death
#7
Pau Alonso, Joaquín Osca, Joaquín Rueda, Oscar Cano, Pedro Pimenta, Ana Andres, María José Sancho, Luis Martinez
BACKGROUND: Information regarding suitability for subcutaneous defibrillator (sICD) implantation in tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) and systemic right ventricle is scarce and needs to be further explored. The main objective of our study was to determine the proportion of patients with ToF and systemic right ventricle eligible for sICD with both, standard and right-sided screening methods. Secondary objectives were: (i) to study sICD eligibility specifically in patients at high risk of sudden cardiac death, (ii) to identify independent predictors for sICD eligibility, and (iii) to compare the proportion of eligible patients in a nonselected ICD population...
May 15, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506001/motor-cortex-stimulation-does-not-lead-to%C3%A2-functional-recovery-after-experimental-cortical-injury-in-rats
#8
Lisa-Maria Schönfeld, Ali Jahanshahi, Evi Lemmens, Matthias Bauwens, Sarah-Anna Hescham, Sandra Schipper, Melanie Lagiere, Sven Hendrix, Yasin Temel
BACKGROUND: Motor impairments are among the major complications that develop after cortical damage caused by either stroke or traumatic brain injury. Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) can improve motor functions in animal models of stroke by inducing neuroplasticity. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, the therapeutic effect of chronic MCS was assessed in a rat model of severe cortical damage. METHODS: A controlled cortical impact (CCI) was applied to the forelimb area of the motor cortex followed by implantation of a flat electrode covering the lesion area...
May 9, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505158/investigation-of-the-effect-of-cochlear-implant-electrode-length-on-speech-comprehension-in-quiet-and-noise-compared-with-the-results-with-users-of-electro-acoustic-stimulation-a-retrospective-analysis
#9
Andreas Büchner, Angelika Illg, Omid Majdani, Thomas Lenarz
OBJECTIVES: This investigation evaluated the effect of cochlear implant (CI) electrode length on speech comprehension in quiet and noise and compare the results with those of EAS users. METHODES: 91 adults with some degree of residual hearing were implanted with a FLEX20, FLEX24, or FLEX28 electrode. Some subjects were postoperative electric-acoustic-stimulation (EAS) users; the other subjects were in the groups of electric stimulation-only (ES-only). Speech perception was tested in quiet and noise at 3 and 6 months of ES or EAS use...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503316/recovery-of-supraspinal-control-of-leg-movement-in-a-chronic-complete-flaccid-paraplegic-man-after-continuous-low-frequency-pelvic-nerve-stimulation-and-fes-assisted-training
#10
Marc Possover, Axel Forman
INTRODUCTION: More than 30 years ago, functional electrical stimulation (FES) was developed as an orthotic system to be used for rehabilitation for SCI patients. In the present case report, FES-assisted training was combined with continuous low-frequency stimulation of the pelvic somatic nerves in a SCI patient. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on unexpected findings in a 41-year-old man with chronic complete flaccid paraplegia, since he was 18 years old, who underwent spinal stem cell therapy and a laparoscopic implantation of neuroprosthesis (LION procedure) in the pelvic lumbosacral nerves...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502217/hippocampal-low-frequency-stimulation-inhibits-afterdischarge-and-increases-gaba-a-receptor-expression-in-amygdala-kindled-pharmacoresistant-epileptic-rats
#11
Guofeng Wu, Likun Wang, Zhen Hong, Siying Ren, Feng Zhou
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to observe the effects of hippocampal low-frequency stimulation (Hip-LFS) on amygdala afterdischarge and GABA (A) receptor expression in pharmacoresistant epileptic (PRE) rats. METHODS: A total of 110 healthy adult male Wistar rats were used to generate a model of epilepsy by chronic stimulation of the amygdala. Sixteen PRE rats were selected from 70 amygdala-kindled rats by testing their response to Phenytoin and Phenobarbital, and they were randomly assigned to a pharmacoresistant stimulation group (PRS group, 8 rats) or a pharmacoresistant control group (PRC group, 8 rats)...
May 14, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499298/-cochlear-implant-state-of-the-art
#12
Thomas Lenarz
Cochlear implants are the treatment of choice for the auditory rehabilitation of patients with sensory deafness. They restore the missing function of inner hair cells by transforming the acoustic signal into electrical stimuli for activation of auditory nerve fibers. Due to the very fast technology development cochlear implants provide open-set speech understanding in the majority of patients including the use of the telephone. Children can achieve a near to normal speech and language development provided their deafness is detected early after onset and implantation is performed quickly thereafter...
April 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498488/slotted-labyrinthotomy-approach-with-customized-electrode-for-patients-with-common-cavity-deformity
#13
Xingmei Wei, Yongxin Li, Qian-Jie Fu, Yue Gong, Biao Chen, Jingyuan Chen, Ying Shi, Qiaotong Su, Danmo Cui, Ting Liu
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Cochlear implantation for patients with common cavity deformity (CCD) can be difficult, with a higher incidence of intra- and postoperative complications; outcomes with CCD patients are also highly variable. In this study, surgical time was compared between the traditional facial recess approach (TFRA) and the transmastoid slotted labyrinthotomy approach (TSLA). Audiological outcomes and the benefit of using customized electrode arrays for CCD patients are also discussed...
May 12, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498269/real-time-intracochlear-electrocochleography-obtained-directly-through-a-cochlear-implant
#14
Michael S Harris, William Jason Riggs, Kanthaiah Koka, Leonid M Litvak, Prashant Malhotra, Aaron C Moberly, Brendan P O'Connell, Jourdan Holder, Federico Alberto Di Lella, Carlos Mario Boccio, George B Wanna, Robert F Labadie, Oliver F Adunka
HYPOTHESIS: Utilizing the cochlear implant to record electrophysiologic responses during device placement is a feasible and efficacious technique for monitoring near real-time cochlear physiology during and following electrode insertion. BACKGROUND: Minimizing intracochlear trauma during cochlear implantation has emerged as a highly researched area to help improve patient performance. Currently, conventional cochlear implant technology allows for the recording of electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAPs)...
May 11, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498265/the-effect-of-systemic-steroid-on-hearing-preservation-after-cochlear-implantation-via-round-window-approach-a-guinea-pig-model
#15
Mun Young Chang, Yoon Chan Rah, Jun Jae Choi, Shin Wook Woo, Yu-Jung Hwang, Hayden Eastwood, Stephen J O'Leary, Jun Ho Lee
HYPOTHESIS: When administered perioperatively, systemic dexamethasone will reduce the hearing loss associated with cochlear implantation (CI) performed via the round window approach. BACKGROUND: The benefits of electroacoustic stimulation have led to interest in pharmacological interventions to preserve hearing after CI. METHODS: Thirty guinea pigs were randomly divided into three experimental groups: a control group; a 3-day infusion group; and a 7-day infusion group...
May 11, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498076/cochlear-implantation-in-mondini-s-deformity-could-the-straight-electrode-array-with-length-of-31%C3%A2-mm-be-fully-inserted
#16
Jia-Qiang Sun, Jing-Wu Sun, Xiao-Yan Hou
CONCLUSIONS: The straight electrode array with length of 31 mm can be fully inserted using round window insertion in cochlear implantation with Mondini's deformity. It is a safe and effective process, but also a challenging task of the full implantation in children with Mondini's deformity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to discuss whether the straight electrode array with a length of 31 mm could be fully inserted in cochlear implantation with Mondini's deformity...
February 22, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495609/acute-low-level-alcohol-consumption-reduces-phase-locking-of-event-related-oscillations-in-rodents
#17
Leslie R Amodeo, Derek N Wills, Cindy L Ehlers
Event-related oscillations (EROs) are rhythmic changes that are evoked by a sensory and/or cognitive stimulus that can influence the dynamics of the EEG. EROs are defined by the decomposition of the EEG signal into magnitude (energy) and phase information and can be elicited in both humans and animals. EROs have been linked to several relevant genes associated with ethanol dependence phenotypes in humans and are altered in selectively bred alcohol-preferring rats. However, pharmacological studies are only beginning to emerge investigating the impact low intoxicating doses of ethanol can have on event-related neural oscillations...
May 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493386/a-ferroelectric-ceramic-polymer-composite-based-capacitive-electrode-array-for-in-vivo-recordings
#18
Changyong Chen, Miaomiao Xue, Yige Wen, Guang Yao, Yan Cui, Feiyi Liao, Zhuocheng Yan, Long Huang, Saeed Ahmed Khan, Min Gao, Taisong Pan, Hulin Zhang, Wei Jing, Daqing Guo, Sanfeng Zhang, Hailiang Yao, Xiong Zhou, Qiang Li, Yang Xia, Yuan Lin
A new implantable capacitive electrode array for electrocorticography signal recording is developed with ferroelectric ceramic/polymer composite. This ultrathin and electrically safe capacitive electrode array is capable of attaching to the biological tissue conformably. The barium titanate/polyimide (BaTiO3 /PI) nanocomposite with high dielectric constant is successfully synthesized and employed as the ultrathin dielectric layer of the capacitive BaTiO3 /PI electrode array. The performance of the capacitive BaTiO3 /PI electrode array is evaluated by electrical characterization and 3D finite-element modeling...
May 11, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490377/cochlear-implant-electrode-sealing-techniques-and-related-intracochlear-pressure-changes
#19
Ingo Todt, Julica Utca, Dania Karimi, Arne Ernst, Philipp Mittmann
BACKGROUND: The inserted cochlear implanted electrode is covered at the site of the round window or cochleostomy to prevent infections and leakage. In a surgically hearing preservational concept, low intracochlear pressure changes are of high importance. The aim of this study was to observe intracochlear pressure changes due to different sealing techniques in a cochlear model. METHODS: Cochlear implant electrode insertions were performed in an artifical cochlear model and the intracochlear pressure changes were recorded in parallel with a micro-pressure sensor positioned in the apical region of the cochlea model to follow the maximum amplitude of intracochlear pressure...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489913/human-perception-of-electrical-stimulation-on-the-surface-of-somatosensory-cortex
#20
Shivayogi V Hiremath, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Jesse J Wheeler, Daniel W Moran, Robert A Gaunt, Jennifer L Collinger, Stephen T Foldes, Douglas J Weber, Weidong Chen, Michael L Boninger, Wei Wang
Recent advancement in electrocorticography (ECoG)-based brain-computer interface technology has sparked a new interest in providing somatosensory feedback using ECoG electrodes, i.e., cortical surface electrodes. We conducted a 28-day study of cortical surface stimulation in an individual with arm paralysis due to brachial plexus injury to examine the sensation produced by electrical stimulation of the somatosensory cortex. A high-density ECoG grid was implanted over the somatosensory and motor cortices. Stimulation through cortical surface electrodes over the somatosensory cortex successfully elicited arm and hand sensations in our participant with chronic paralysis...
2017: PloS One
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