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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821753/dynamic-reconfiguration-of-cortical-functional-connectivity-across-brain-states
#1
Iain Stitt, Karl J Hollensteiner, Edgar Galindo-Leon, Florian Pieper, Eva Fiedler, Thomas Stieglitz, Gerhard Engler, Guido Nolte, Andreas K Engel
Throughout each day, the brain displays transient changes in state, as evidenced by shifts in behavior and vigilance. While the electrophysiological correlates of brain states have been studied for some time, it remains unclear how large-scale cortico-cortical functional connectivity systematically reconfigures across states. Here, we investigate state-dependent shifts in cortical functional connectivity by recording local field potentials (LFPs) during spontaneous behavioral transitions in the ferret using chronically implanted micro-electrocorticographic (µECoG) arrays positioned over occipital, parietal, and temporal cortical regions...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749411/advances-in-testing-techniques-for-digital-microfluidic-biochips
#2
REVIEW
Vineeta Shukla, Fawnizu Azmadi Hussin, Nor Hisham Hamid, Noohul Basheer Zain Ali
With the advancement of digital microfluidics technology, applications such as on-chip DNA analysis, point of care diagnosis and automated drug discovery are common nowadays. The use of Digital Microfluidics Biochips (DMFBs) in disease assessment and recognition of target molecules had become popular during the past few years. The reliability of these DMFBs is crucial when they are used in various medical applications. Errors found in these biochips are mainly due to the defects developed during droplet manipulation, chip degradation and inaccuracies in the bio-assay experiments...
July 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745480/controllable-photovoltaic-effect-of-microarray-derived-from-epitaxial-tetragonal-bifeo3-films
#3
Zengxing Lu, Peilian Li, Jian-Guo Wan, Zhifeng Huang, Guo Tian, Danfeng Pan, Zhen Fan, Xingsen Gao, Jun-Ming Liu
Recently, the ferroelectric photovoltaic (FePV) effect has attracted great interest due to its potential in developing optoelectronic devices such as solar cell and electric-optical sensors. It is important for actual applications to realize a controllable photovoltaic process in ferroelectric-based materials. In this work, we prepared well-ordered microarrays based on epitaxially tetragonal BiFeO3 (T-BFO) films by the pulsed laser deposition technique. The polarization-dependent photocurrent image was directly observed by a conductive atomic force microscope under ultraviolet illumination...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743131/the-spatial-extent-of-epiretinal-electrical-stimulation-in-the-healthy-mouse-retina
#4
Zohreh Hosseinazdeh, Archana Jalligampala, Eberhart Zrenner, Daniel Lleweylln Rathbun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Retinal prostheses use electrical stimulation to restore functional vision to patients blinded by retinitis pigmentosa. A key detail is the spatial pattern of ganglion cells activated by stimulation. Therefore, we characterized the spatial extent of network-mediated electrical activation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the epiretinal monopolar electrode configuration. METHODS: Healthy mouse RGC activities were recorded with a micro-electrode array (MEA)...
July 26, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733001/degradation-of-endocrine-disruptor-bisphenol-a-by-ultrasound-assisted-electrochemical-oxidation-in-water
#5
Matz Dietrich, Marcus Franke, Michael Stelter, Patrick Braeutigam
Micropollutants are becoming an increasing problem for the environment and wastewater treatment. One example is Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrinic disruptor, which is widely used in plastic production. Due to its endocrine disrupting effects on aquatic (micro-)organisms and its ubiquity, in surface- and wastewater alike, adequate treatment techniques are necessary. In this study, the degradation of BPA by a sonoelectrochemical hybrid system was investigated, using a low frequency (24kHz) ultrasound horn and two boron doped diamond electrodes...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695839/rapid-prototyping-of-flexible-intrafascicular-electrode-arrays-by-picosecond-laser-structuring
#6
Matthias Mueller, Natalia de la Oliva, Jaume Del Valle, Ignacio Delgado Martinez, Xavier Navarro, Thomas Stieglitz
Interfacing the peripheral nervous system can be performed with a large variety of electrode arrays. However, stimulating and recording a nerve while having a reasonable amount of channels limits the number of available systems. Translational research towards human clinical trial requires device safety and biocompatibility but would benefit from design flexibility in the development process to individualize probes. Approach. We selected established medical grade implant materials like precious metals and parylene C to develop a rapid prototyping process for novel intrafascicular electrode arrays using a picosecond laser structuring...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682595/scalable-fabrication-and-integration-of-graphene-microsupercapacitors-through-full-inkjet-printing
#7
Jiantong Li, Szymon Sollami Delekta, Panpan Zhang, Sheng Yang, Martin R Lohe, Xiaodong Zhuang, Xinliang Feng, Mikael Östling
A simple full-inkjet-printing technique is developed for the scalable fabrication of graphene-based microsupercapacitors (MSCs) on various substrates. High-performance graphene inks are formulated by integrating the electrochemically exfoliated graphene with a solvent exchange technique to reliably print graphene interdigitated electrodes with tunable geometry and thickness. Along with the printed polyelectrolyte, poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid), the fully printed graphene-based MSCs attain the highest areal capacitance of ∼0...
July 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682082/nanoelectronic-coating-enabled-versatile-multifunctional-neural-probes
#8
Zhengtuo Zhao, Lan Luan, Xiaoling Wei, Hanlin Zhu, Xue Li, Shengqing Lin, Jennifer J Siegel, Raymond A Chitwood, Chong Xie
Brain function can be best studied by simultaneous measurements and modulation of the multifaceted signaling at the cellular scale. Extensive efforts have been made to develop multifunctional neural probes, typically involving highly specialized fabrication processes. Here, we report a novel multifunctional neural probe platform realized by applying ultrathin nanoelectronic coating (NEC) on the surfaces of conventional microscale devices such as optical fibers and micropipettes. We fabricated the NECs by planar photolithography techniques using a substrate-less and multilayer design, which host arrays of individually addressed electrodes with an overall thickness below 1 μm...
July 11, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665426/a-paper-based-touch-sensor-with-an-embedded-micro-probe-array-fabricated-by-double-sided-laser-printing
#9
Gui-Wen Huang, Na Li, Hong-Mei Xiao, Qing-Ping Feng, Shao-Yun Fu
Touch sensor is one of the key components for human interfacing devices. However, although various touch sensors have been demonstrated, their sophisticated fabrication processes and complicated structures make them expensive and delicate, and thus they are not considered to be practical for wide application in daily life. Herein, we present a low-cost and scalable paper-based touch sensor suitable for practical applications. The sensor is based on the novel structure of embedded silver nanowire micro-probe arrays in a paper substrate, which exhibits high sensitivity to multiple touch inputs and compact structure with a total thickness of ca...
July 13, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618377/ring-and-peg-electrodes-for-minimally-invasive-and-long-term-sub-scalp-eeg-recordings
#10
Y B Benovitski, A Lai, C C McGowan, O Burns, V Maxim, D A X Nayagam, R Millard, G D Rathbone, M A le Chevoir, R A Williams, D B Grayden, C N May, M Murphy, W J D'Souza, M J Cook, C E Williams
OBJECTIVE: Minimally-invasive approaches are needed for long-term reliable Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to assist with epilepsy diagnosis, investigation and more naturalistic monitoring. This study compared three methods for long-term implantation of sub-scalp EEG electrodes. METHODS: Three types of electrodes (disk, ring, and peg) were fabricated from biocompatible materials and implanted under the scalp in five ambulatory ewes for 3months. Disk electrodes were inserted into sub-pericranial pockets...
June 12, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606117/investigating-the-impact-of-electrical-stimulation-temporal-distribution-on-cortical-network-responses
#11
Francesca Scarsi, Jacopo Tessadori, Michela Chiappalone, Valentina Pasquale
BACKGROUND: The brain is continuously targeted by a wealth of stimuli with complex spatio-temporal patterns and has presumably evolved in order to cope with those inputs in an optimal way. Previous studies investigating the response capabilities of either single neurons or intact sensory systems to external stimulation demonstrated that stimuli temporal distribution is an important, if often overlooked, parameter. RESULTS: In this study we investigated how cortical networks plated over micro-electrode arrays respond to different stimulation sequences in which inter-pulse intervals followed a 1/f (β) distribution, for different values of β ranging from 0 to ∞...
June 12, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605385/time-dependent-increase-in-the-network-response-to-the-stimulation-of-neuronal-cell-cultures-on-micro-electrode-arrays
#12
Monica L Gertz, Zachary Baker, Sharon Jose, Nathalia Peixoto
Micro-electrode arrays (MEAs) can be used to investigate drug toxicity, design paradigms for next-generation personalized medicine, and study network dynamics in neuronal cultures. In contrast with more traditional methods, such as patch-clamping, which can only record activity from a single cell, MEAs can record simultaneously from multiple sites in a network, without requiring the arduous task of placing each electrode individually. Moreover, numerous control and stimulation configurations can be easily applied within the same experimental setup, allowing for a broad range of dynamics to be explored...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605368/murine-short-axis-ventricular-heart-slices-for-electrophysiological-studies
#13
Gabriel Peinkofer, Juergen Hescheler, Marcel Halbach
Murine cardiomyocytes have been extensively used for in vitro studies of cardiac physiology and new therapeutic strategies. However, multicellular preparations of dissociated cardiomyocytes are not representative of the complex in vivo structure of cardiomyocytes, non-myocytes and extracellular matrix, which influences both mechanical and electrophysiological properties of the heart. Here we describe a technique to prepare viable ventricular slices of adult mouse hearts with a preserved in vivo like tissue structure, and demonstrate their suitability for electrophysiological recordings...
June 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597847/mapping-the-fine-structure-of-cortical-activity-with-different-micro-ecog-electrode-array-geometries
#14
Xi Wang, C Alexis Gkogkidis, Olga Iljina, Lukas D J Fiederer, Christian Henle, Irina Mader, Jan Kaminsky, Thomas Stieglitz, Mortimer Gierthmuehlen, Tonio Ball
OBJECTIVE: Innovations in micro-electrocorticography (µECoG) electrode array manufacturing now allow for intricate designs with smaller contact diameters and/or pitch (i.e. inter-contact distance) down to the sub-mm range. The aims of the present study were: (i) to investigate whether frequency ranges up to 400 Hz can be reproducibly observed in µECoG recordings and (ii) to examine how differences in topographical substructure between these frequency bands and electrode array geometries can be quantified...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534411/intracellular-and-extracellular-recording-of-spontaneous-action-potentials-in-mammalian-neurons-and-cardiac-cells-with-3d-plasmonic-nanoelectrodes
#15
Michele Dipalo, Hayder Amin, Laura Lovato, Fabio Moia, Valeria Caprettini, Gabriele C Messina, Francesco Tantussi, Luca Berdondini, Francesco De Angelis
Three-dimensional vertical micro- and nanostructures can enhance the signal quality of multielectrode arrays and promise to become the prime methodology for the investigation of large networks of electrogenic cells. So far, access to the intracellular environment has been obtained via spontaneous poration, electroporation, or by surface functionalization of the micro/nanostructures; however, these methods still suffer from some limitations due to their intrinsic characteristics that limit their widespread use...
June 14, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531985/enhancement-of-electro-chemical-properties-of-tio2-nanotubes-for-biological-interfacing
#16
D Khudhair, H Amani Hamedani, J Gaburro, S Shafei, S Nahavandi, H Garmestani, A Bhatti
Micro/nano electrodes employing nanotubes has attracted paramount attention in recent years due to their inherent superior mechanical and structural properties. Electrical interfaces with different geometries and sizes have been developed as electrodes for measuring action potentials and investigating neural information processing in neural networks. In this work, we investigated the possibility of using TiO2 nanotube arrays that were grown using electrochemical anodization technique, as a micro/nano electrode for neural interfacing...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493361/vertically-aligned-niobium-nanowire-arrays-for-fast-charging-micro-supercapacitors
#17
Seyed M Mirvakili, Ian W Hunter
Planar micro-supercapacitors are attractive for system on chip technologies and surface mount devices due to their large areal capacitance and energy/power density compared to the traditional oxide-based capacitors. In the present work, a novel material, niobium nanowires, in form of vertically aligned electrodes for application in high performance planar micro-supercapacitors is introduced. Specific capacitance of up to 1 kF m(-2) (100 mF cm(-2) ) with peak energy and power density of 2 kJ m(-2) (6.2 MJ m(-3) or 1...
May 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454981/neuropharmacological-characterization-of-the-new-psychoactive-substance-methoxetamine
#18
Laura Hondebrink, Emma E J Kasteel, Anke M Tukker, Fiona M J Wijnolts, Anouk H A Verboven, Remco H S Westerink
The use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is steadily increasing. One commonly used NPS is methoxetamine (MXE), a ketamine analogue. Several adverse effects have been reported following MXE exposure, while only limited data are available on its neuropharmacological modes of action. We investigated the effects of MXE and ketamine on several endpoints using multiple in vitro models. These included rat primary cortical cells, human SH-SY5Y cells, human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived iCell(®) Neurons, DopaNeurons and astrocyte co-cultures, and human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells...
April 25, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442997/high-spatiotemporal-resolution-ecog-recording-of-somatosensory-evoked-potentials-with-flexible-micro-electrode-arrays
#19
Taro Kaiju, Keiichi Doi, Masashi Yokota, Kei Watanabe, Masato Inoue, Hiroshi Ando, Kazutaka Takahashi, Fumiaki Yoshida, Masayuki Hirata, Takafumi Suzuki
Electrocorticogram (ECoG) has great potential as a source signal, especially for clinical BMI. Until recently, ECoG electrodes were commonly used for identifying epileptogenic foci in clinical situations, and such electrodes were low-density and large. Increasing the number and density of recording channels could enable the collection of richer motor/sensory information, and may enhance the precision of decoding and increase opportunities for controlling external devices. Several reports have aimed to increase the number and density of channels...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397927/colloidal-assembly-and-3d-shaping-by-dielectrophoretic-confinement
#20
Ahmet Faik Demirörs, Jérôme J Crassous
For decades, scientists and engineers have strived to design means of assembling colloids into ordered structures. By now, the literature is quite peppered with reports of colloidal assemblies. However, the available methods can assemble only a narrow range of structures or are applicable to specific types of colloids. There are still only few generic methods that would lead to arbitrary colloidal arrays or would shape colloidal assemblies into predesigned structures. Here, we first discuss in detail how to spatially control the assembly and crystallization of colloids through the balance of dielectrophoretic and dipolar forces...
May 3, 2017: Soft Matter
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