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micro electrode array

Buddha Deka Boruah, Arnab Maji, Abha Misra
On-chip micro-supercapacitor (MSC) pattern is obtained by layer-by-layer spray deposition of both manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanoparticles coated carbon nanotubes (MnO2-CNTs) and MnO2 nanosheets decorated reduced graphene oxide (MnO2-rGO) on mechanically robust, flexible polyethylene terephthalate. Layer-by-layer patterning of MSC electrode offers rapid in-plane diffusion of electrolyte ion in electrode with respect to the layered electrode and hence increase in the synergistic response under energy storage process...
April 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yu Shikano, Takuya Sasaki, Yuji Ikegaya
Monitoring the physiological dynamics of the brain and peripheral tissues is necessary for addressing a number of questions about how the brain controls body functions and internal organ rhythms when animals are exposed to emotional challenges and changes in their living environments. In general experiments, signals from different organs, such as the brain and the heart, are recorded by independent recording systems that require multiple recording devices and different procedures for processing the data files...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Daniele Poli, Bruce C Wheeler, Thomas B DeMarse, Gregory J Brewer
OBJECTIVE: Functions ascribed to the hippocampal sub-regions for encoding episodic memories include the separation of activity patterns propagated from the entorhinal cortex (EC) into the dentate gyrus (DG) and pattern completion in CA3 region. Since a direct assessment of these functions is lacking at the level of specific axonal inputs, our goal is to directly measure the separation and completion of distinct axonal inputs in engineered pairs of hippocampal sub-regional circuits. APPROACH: We co-cultured EC-DG, DG-CA3, CA3-CA1 or CA1-EC neurons in a two-chamber PDMS device over a micro-electrode array (MEA60), inter-connected via distinct axons that grow through the micro-tunnels between the compartments...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
M Kreir, B Van Deuren, S Versweyveld, A De Bondt, I Van den Wyngaert, H Van der Linde, H R Lu, G Teuns, D J Gallacher
Drug-induced seizures contribute to the high attrition rate of pharmaceutical compounds in development. The assessment of drug-induced seizure liability generally occurs in later phases of development using low throughput and intensive in vivo assays. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of an in vitro assay for detecting drug-induced seizure risk compared to evaluation in rats in vivo. We investigated the effects of 8 reference drugs with a known seizurogenic risk using micro-electrode array (MEA) recordings from freshly-dissociated rat primary neurons cultured on 48-well dishes for 28 days, compared to their effects on the EEG in anesthetized rats...
March 26, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Hongxiu Dai, Duo Chen, Yuan Li, Pengfei Cao, Nan Wang, Meng Lin
An array consisting of homogeneous NiCo2 S4 hollow core-shell nanoneedles was fabricated and is shown to enable sensitive electrochemical determination of dopamine (DA). The array was grown directly on a nickel foam (NF) substrate by a two-step hydrothermal process. The hierarchical nanoarray consists of a homogeneous NiCo2 S4 nanoneedle core and a NiCo2 S4 nanosheet shell. A 3-dimensional micro/nano structure is formed due to the presence of the micropores of the NF. The electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...
February 5, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
DongHyun Ryu, Yong Jae Kim, Seon Il Kim, Hyeonaug Hong, Hyun S Ahn, Kyunghoon Kim, WonHyoung Ryu
Photosynthesis converts solar energy to electricity in a highly efficient manner. Since only water is needed as fuel for energy conversion, this highly efficient energy conversion process has been rigorously investigated. In particular, photosynthetic apparatus, such as photosystem II (PSII), photosystem I (PSI), or thylakoids, have been isolated from various plants to construct bio-hybrid anodes. Although PSII or PSI decorated anodes have shown potentials, there still remain challenges, such as poor stability of PSII-based systems or need for electron donors other than water molecules of PSI-based systems...
March 25, 2018: Nanomaterials
Kai Lu, Wen Huang, Junxiong Guo, Tianxun Gong, Xiongbang Wei, Bing-Wei Lu, Si-Yi Liu, Bin Yu
A flexible 4 × 4 sensor array with 16 micro-scale capacitive units has been demonstrated based on flexible piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film. The piezoelectricity and surface morphology of the PVDF were examined by optical imaging and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). The PFM shows phase contrast, indicating clear interface between the PVDF and electrode. The electro-mechanical properties show that the sensor exhibits excellent output response and an ultra-high signal-to-noise ratio...
March 14, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Markus Westerhausen, Tanja Martin, Marcel Kappel, Boris Hofmann
We present a measurement setup consisting of two fluid-filled pressure chambers to mimic the mechanical stress likely to that of small body movements on biomedical flexible micro-electrode arrays for the analysis of various degradation mechanisms. Our main goal was the simulation of micro-motions in fluid conditions, while maintaining an electric access to the device. These micro-motions would be likely to those occurring in the human body caused by the intracranial pressure in magnitudes of 7-25 mmHg, which translates to a fluid pressure of 9-33 mbar...
February 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Akito Kosugi, Mitsuaki Takemi, Banty Tia, Elisa Castagnola, Alberto Ansaldo, Kenta Sato, Friedemann Awiszus, Kazuhiko Seki, Davide Ricci, Luciano Fadiga, Atsushi Iriki, Junichi Ushiba
Motor map has been widely used as an indicator of motor skills and learning, cortical injury, plasticity, and functional recovery. Cortical stimulation mapping using epidural electrodes is recently adopted for animal studies. However, several technical limitations still remain. Test-retest reliability of epidural cortical stimulation (ECS) mapping has not been examined in detail. Many previous studies defined evoked movements and motor thresholds by visual inspection, and thus, lacked quantitative measurements...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Pierre Champigneux, Cyril Renault-Sentenac, David Bourrier, Carole Rossi, Marie-Line Delia, Alain Bergel
Smooth and nano-rough flat gold electrodes were manufactured with controlled Ra of 0.8 and 4.5nm, respectively. Further nano-rough surfaces (Ra 4.5nm) were patterned with arrays of micro-pillars 500μm high. All these electrodes were implemented in pure cultures of Geobacter sulfurreducens, under a constant potential of 0.1V/SCE and with a single addition of acetate 10mM to check the early formation of microbial anodes. The flat smooth electrodes produced an average current density of 0.9A·m-2 . The flat nano-rough electrodes reached 2...
February 15, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Guoping Xiong, Pingge He, Zhipeng Lyu, Tengfei Chen, Boyun Huang, Lei Chen, Timothy S Fisher
Designing electrodes in a highly ordered structure simultaneously with appropriate orientation, outstanding mechanical robustness, and high electrical conductivity to achieve excellent electrochemical performance remains a daunting challenge. Inspired by the phenomenon in nature that leaves significantly increase exposed tree surface area to absorb carbon dioxide (like ions) from the environments (like electrolyte) for photosynthesis, we report a design of micro-conduits in a bioinspired leaves-on-branchlet structure consisting of carbon nanotube arrays serving as branchlets and graphene petals as leaves for such electrodes...
February 23, 2018: Nature Communications
Shulan Jiang, Tielin Shi, Zirong Tang, Shuang Xi
This paper reports the fabrication of a new micro/nano carbon architecture array which owns the characteristics of inner-porous, desired conductivity and large effective surface area. The micro/nano inner-porous carbon structures were fabricated for the first time, with ordinary and cost-effective processes, including photolithography, oxygen plasma etching and pyrolysis. Firstly, micro/nano hierarchical photoresist structures array was generated through photolithography and oxygen plasma etching processes...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Qinghe Meng, Yuzheng Lian, Jianjun Jiang, Wei Wang, Xiaohong Hou, Yao Pan, Hongqian Chu, Lanqin Shang, Xuetao Wei, Weidong Hao
OBJECTIVES: Ambient light has a vital impact on mood and cognitive functions. Blue light has been previously reported to play a salient role in the antidepressant effect via melanopsin. Whether blue light filtered white light (BFW) affects mood and cognitive functions remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate whether BFW led to depression-like symptoms and cognitive deficits including spatial learning and memory abilities in rats, and whether they were associated with the light-responsive function in retinal explants...
February 6, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Peichao Zou, Yang Wang, Sum-Wai Chiang, Xuanyu Wang, Feiyu Kang, Cheng Yang
Uncontrolled growth of lithium dendrites during cycling has remained a challenging issue for lithium metal batteries. Thus far, various approaches have been proposed to delay or suppress dendrite growth, yet little attention has been paid to the solutions that can make batteries keep working when lithium dendrites are already extensively present. Here we develop an industry-adoptable technology to laterally direct the growth of lithium dendrites, where all dendrites are retained inside the compartmented copper current collector in a given limited cycling capacity...
January 31, 2018: Nature Communications
E H Cho, M J Kim, H Sohn, W H Shin, J Y Won, Y Kim, C Kwak, C S Lee, Y S Woo
A graphene mesh with arrays of micro-holes was fabricated on a polymer substrate using photolithography for use as an electrode in flexible devices. The optimal mesh structure with high optical transmittance and electrical conductivity was designed using a finite element method, in which the conductivity of the mesh was simulated as a function of structure, size, and periodicity of the hole array. The sheet resistance of the graphene mesh was lowered to that of a graphene monolayer by chemical doping and found to be 330 Ω Sq-1 at 98...
January 3, 2018: Nanoscale
Yong Zhang, Sifeng Mao, Yuma Suzuki, Yumi Tanaka, Masato Kawaguchi, Weifei Zhang, Hulie Zeng, Hizuru Nakajima, Ming Yang, Katsumi Uchiyama
Elaborately programmed silver nanowire arrays can be prepared using a tapered push-pull nozzle system (TPPNS), which is used to directly write micro-nano wires on a substrate via a two-reagent reaction in the diffusion mixing region. The wires could be precisely positioned on the substrate and their width could be freely controlled from the micro to the nano scale, indicating an advance in the methodologies of controlling and fabricating nanowires. The as-prepared silver three-electrode device can serve as a three-electrode sensor...
January 18, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Linjing Xu, Alison E Seline, Braden Leigh, Mark Ramirez, C Allan Guymon, Marlan R Hansen
HYPOTHESIS: Microtopographical patterns generated by photopolymerization of methacrylate polymer systems will direct growth of neurites from adult neurons, including spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). BACKGROUND: Cochlear implants (CIs) provide hearing perception to patients with severe to profound hearing loss. However, their ability to encode complex auditory stimuli is limited due, in part, to poor spatial resolution caused by spread of the electrical currents in the inner ear...
January 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Dong Hae Ho, Ryungeun Song, Qijun Sun, Won-Hyeong Park, So Young Kim, Changhyun Pang, Do Hwan Kim, Sang-Youn Kim, Jinkee Lee, Jeong Ho Cho
We reported the development of a transparent stretchable crack-enhanced microfluidic capacitive sensor array for use in E-skin applications. The microfluidic sensor was fabricated through a simple lamination process involving two silver nanowire (AgNW)-embedded rubbery microfluidic channels arranged in a crisscross fashion. The sensing performance was optimized by testing a variety of sensing liquids injected into the channels. External mechanical stimuli applied to the sensor induced the liquid to penetrate the deformed microcracks on the rubber channel surface...
December 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Maria Teresa Tedesco, Donatella Di Lisa, Paolo Massobrio, Nicolò Colistra, Mattia Pesce, Tiziano Catelani, Elena Dellacasa, Roberto Raiteri, Sergio Martinoia, Laura Pastorino
The availability of 3D biomimetic in vitro neuronal networks of mammalian neurons represents a pivotal step for the development of brain-on-a-chip experimental models to study neuronal (dys)functions and particularly neuronal connectivity. The use of hydrogel-based scaffolds for 3D cell cultures has been extensively studied in the last years. However, limited work on biomimetic 3D neuronal cultures has been carried out to date. In this respect, here we investigated the use of a widely popular polysaccharide, chitosan (CHI), for the fabrication of a microbead based 3D scaffold to be coupled to primary neuronal cells...
February 2018: Biomaterials
Eva-Maria Laux, Frank F Bier, Ralph Hölzel
Employing electric phenomena for the spatial manipulation of bioparticles from whole cells down to dissolved molecules has become a useful tool in biotechnology and analytics. AC electrokinetic effects like dielectrophoresis and AC electroosmosis are increasingly used to concentrate, separate and immobilize DNA and proteins. With the advance of photolithographical micro- and nanofabrication methods, novel or improved bioanalytical applications benefit from concentrating analytes, signal enhancement and locally controlled immobilization by AC electrokinetic effects...
April 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
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