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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979189/uncorrelated-neural-firing-in-mouse-visual-cortex-during-spontaneous-retinal-waves
#1
Matthew T Colonnese, Jing Shen, Yasunobu Murata
Synchronous firing among the elements of forming circuits is critical for stabilization of synapses. Understanding the nature of these local network interactions during development can inform models of circuit formation. Within cortex, spontaneous activity changes throughout development. Unlike the adult, early spontaneous activity occurs in discontinuous population bursts separated by long silent periods, suggesting a high degree of local synchrony. However, whether the micro-patterning of activity within early bursts is unique to this early age and specifically tuned for early development is poorly understood, particularly within the column...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976321/droplet-size-aware-and-error-correcting-sample-preparation-using-micro-electrode-dot-array-digital-microfluidic-biochips
#2
Zipeng Li, Kelvin Yi-Tse Lai, Krishnendu Chakrabarty, Tsung-Yi Ho, Chen-Yi Lee
Sample preparation in digital microfluidics refers to the generation of droplets with target concentrations for on-chip biochemical applications. In recent years, digital microfluidic biochips (DMFBs) have been adopted as a platform for sample preparation. However, there remain two major problems associated with sample preparation on a conventional DMFB. First, only a (1:1) mixing/splitting model can be used, leading to an increase in the number of fluidic operations required for sample preparation. Second, only a limited number of sensors can be integrated on a conventional DMFB; as a result, the latency for error detection during sample preparation is significant...
September 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968384/a-theoretical-framework-for-analyzing-coupled-neuronal-networks-application-to-the-olfactory-system
#3
Andrea K Barreiro, Shree Hari Gautam, Woodrow L Shew, Cheng Ly
Determining how synaptic coupling within and between regions is modulated during sensory processing is an important topic in neuroscience. Electrophysiological recordings provide detailed information about neural spiking but have traditionally been confined to a particular region or layer of cortex. Here we develop new theoretical methods to study interactions between and within two brain regions, based on experimental measurements of spiking activity simultaneously recorded from the two regions. By systematically comparing experimentally-obtained spiking statistics to (efficiently computed) model spike rate statistics, we identify regions in model parameter space that are consistent with the experimental data...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966573/a-chronically-implantable-bidirectional-neural-interface-for-non-human-primates
#4
Misako Komatsu, Eriko Sugano, Hiroshi Tomita, Naotaka Fujii
Optogenetics has potential applications in the study of epilepsy and neuroprostheses, and for studies on neural circuit dynamics. However, to achieve translation to clinical usage, optogenetic interfaces that are capable of chronic stimulation and monitoring with minimal brain trauma are required. We aimed to develop a chronically implantable device for photostimulation of the brain of non-human primates. We used a micro-light-emitting diode (LED) array with a flexible polyimide film. The array was combined with a whole-cortex electrocorticographic (ECoG) electrode array for simultaneous photostimulation and recording...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953287/hierarchical-bilayered-hybrid-nanostructural-arrays-of-nico2o4-micro-urchins-and-nanowires-as-a-free-standing-electrode-with-high-loading-for-high-performance-lithium-ion-batteries
#5
Yu Wang, Pengcheng Liu, Kongjun Zhu, Jing Wang, Jinsong Liu
Fabrication of free -standing binary transition metal oxides, especially NiCo2O4, has attracted significant research interests since these metal oxides are promising candidates for free-standing anodes of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, there remain some problems, especially low loading, for the existing NiCo2O4 anodes. To address the abovementioned issue, it will be a quite feasible solution to combine the advantages of both hierarchical micro/nano-structures and free-standing electrodes to fabricate a free-standing hierarchical micro/nano-structural NiCo2O4 electrode...
October 12, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951350/estimating-cortical-column-sensory-networks-in-rodents-from-micro-electrocorticograph-%C3%AE-ecog-recordings
#6
Ricardo Pizarro, Tom Richner, Sarah Brodnick, Sanitta Thongpang, Justin Williams, Barry Van Veen
Micro-electrocorticograph (μECoG) arrays offer the flexibility to record local field potentials (LFPs) from the surface of the cortex, using high density electrodes that are sub-mm in diameter. Research to date has not provided conclusive evidence for the underlying signal generation of μECoG recorded LFPs, or if μECoG arrays can capture network activity from the cortex. We studied the pervading view of the LFP signal by exploring the spatial scale at which the LFP can be considered elemental. We investigated the underlying signal generation and ability to capture functional networks by implanting, μECoG arrays to record sensory-evoked potentials in four rats...
September 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917552/crispr-correction-of-the-prkag2-gene-mutation-in-a-patient-s-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-eliminates-electrophysiological-and-structural-abnormalities
#7
Ronen Ben Jehuda, Binyamin Eisen, Yuval Shemer, Lucy N Mekies, Agnes Szantai, Irina Reiter, Huanhuan Cui, Kaomei Guan, Shiraz Haron-Khun, Dov Freimark, Silke R Sperling, Mihaela Gherghiceanu, Michael Arad, Ofer Binah
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the PRKAG2 gene encoding the γ-subunit of adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK) cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and familial Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Patients carrying the R302Q mutation in PRKAG2 present with sinus bradycardia, escape rhythms, ventricular preexcitation, supraventricular tachycardia, and atrioventricular block. This mutation affects AMPK activity and increases glycogen storage in cardiomyocytes. The link between glycogen storage, WPW syndrome, HCM, and arrhythmias remains unknown...
September 14, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888021/simultaneous-monitoring-of-single-cell-and-of-micro-organ-activity-by-pedot-pss-covered-multi-electrode-arrays
#8
Dimitrios A Koutsouras, Romain Perrier, Ariana Villarroel Marquez, Antoine Pirog, Eileen Pedraza, Eric Cloutet, Sylvie Renaud, Matthieu Raoux, George G Malliaras, Jochen Lang
Continuous and long-term monitoring of cellular and micro-organ activity is required for new insights into physiology and novel technologies such as Organs-on-Chip. Moreover, recent advances in stem cell technology and especially in the field of diabetes call for non-invasive approaches in quality testing of the large quantities of surrogate pancreatic islets to be generated. Electrical activity of such a micro-organ results in single cell action potentials (APs) of high frequency and in low frequency changes in local field potentials (slow potentials or SPs), reflecting coupled cell activity and overall organ physiology...
December 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873212/simulation-analysis-of-rectifying-microfluidic-mixing-with-field-effect-tunable-electrothermal-induced-flow
#9
Weiyu Liu, Yukun Ren, Ye Tao, Bobin Yao, You Li
We report herein field-effect control on in-phase electrothermal streaming from a theoretical point of view, a phenomenon termed "alternating-current electrothermal-flow field effect transistor" (ACET-FFET), in the context of a new technology for handing analytes in microfluidics. Field-effect control through a gate terminal endows ACET-FFET the ability to generate arbitrary symmetry breaking in the transverse vortex flow pattern, which makes it attractive for mixing microfluidic samples. A computational model is developed to study the feasibility of this new microfluidic device design for micromixing...
September 5, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868212/high-density-mapping-of-brain-slices-using-a-large-multi-functional-high-density-cmos-microelectrode-array-system
#10
Vijay Viswam, Raziyeh Bounik, Amir Shadmani, Jelena Dragas, Marie Obien, Jan Müller, Yihui Chen, Andreas Hierlemann
We present a CMOS-based high-density microelectrode array (HD-MEA) system that enables high-density mapping of brain slices in-vitro with multiple readout modalities. The 4.48×2.43 mm(2) array consists of 59,760 micro-electrodes at 13.5 µm pitch (5487 electrodes/mm(2)). The overall system features 2048 action-potential, 32 local-field-potential and 32 current recording channels, 32 impedance-measurement and 28 neurotransmitter-detection channels and 16 voltage/current stimulation channels. The system enables real-time and label-free monitoring of position, size, morphology and electrical activity of brain slices...
June 2017: Int Solid State Sens Actuators Microsyst Conf
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851973/frequency-dependent-drug-screening-using-optogenetic-stimulation-of-human-ipsc-derived-cardiomyocytes
#11
Hendrik Lapp, Tobias Bruegmann, Daniela Malan, Stephanie Friedrichs, Carsten Kilgus, Alexandra Heidsieck, Philipp Sasse
Side effects on cardiac ion channels are one major reason for new drugs to fail during preclinical evaluation. Herein we propose a simple optogenetic screening tool measuring extracellular field potentials (FP) from paced cardiomyocytes to identify drug effects over the whole physiological heart range, which is essential given the rate-dependency of ion channel function and drug action. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were transduced with an adeno-associated virus to express Channelrhodopsin2 and plated on micro-electrode arrays...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842772/pdms-based-multielectrode-arrays-for-superior-in-vitro-retinal-stimulation-and-recording
#12
Satarupa Biswas, Debdeep Sikdar, Debanjan Das, Manjunatha Mahadevappa, Soumen Das
Understanding of the neural response to electrical stimulation requires simultaneous recording from the various neurons of retina. Electrodes form the physical interface with the neural or retinal tissue. Successful retinal stimulation and recording demands conformal integration of these electrodes with the soft tissue to ensure establishment of proper electrical connection with the excitable tissue. Mechanical impedance of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) being compliant with that of retinal tissue, offers excellent potential as a substrate for metal electrodes...
August 25, 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841276/tuning-surface-and-topographical-features-to-investigate-competitive-guidance-of-spiral-ganglion-neurons
#13
Braden L Leigh, Kristy Truong, Reid Bartholomew, Mark Ramirez, Marlan R Hansen, C Allan Guymon
Cochlear Implants (CIs) suffer from limited tonal resolution due, in large part, to spatial separation between stimulating electrode arrays and primary neural receptors. In this work, a combination of physical and chemical micropatterns, formed on acrylate polymers, are used to direct the growth of primary spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), the inner ear neurons. Utilizing the inherent temporal and spatial control of photopolymerization, physical microgrooves are fabricated using a photomask in a single step process...
September 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831071/stimulation-triggers-endogenous-activity-patterns-in-cultured-cortical-networks
#14
Valentina Pasquale, Sergio Martinoia, Michela Chiappalone
Cultures of dissociated cortical neurons represent a powerful trade-off between more realistic experimental models and abstract modeling approaches, allowing to investigate mechanisms of synchronized activity generation. These networks spontaneously alternate periods of high activity (i.e. network bursts) with periods of quiescence in a dynamic state which recalls the fluctuation of in vivo UP and DOWN states. Network bursts can also be elicited by external stimulation and their spatial propagation patterns tracked by means of multi-channel micro-electrode arrays...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821753/dynamic-reconfiguration-of-cortical-functional-connectivity-across-brain-states
#15
Iain Stitt, Karl J Hollensteiner, Edgar Galindo-Leon, Florian Pieper, Eva Fiedler, Thomas Stieglitz, Gerhard Engler, Guido Nolte, Andreas K Engel
Throughout each day, the brain displays transient changes in state, as evidenced by shifts in behavior and vigilance. While the electrophysiological correlates of brain states have been studied for some time, it remains unclear how large-scale cortico-cortical functional connectivity systematically reconfigures across states. Here, we investigate state-dependent shifts in cortical functional connectivity by recording local field potentials (LFPs) during spontaneous behavioral transitions in the ferret using chronically implanted micro-electrocorticographic (µECoG) arrays positioned over occipital, parietal, and temporal cortical regions...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749411/advances-in-testing-techniques-for-digital-microfluidic-biochips
#16
REVIEW
Vineeta Shukla, Fawnizu Azmadi Hussin, Nor Hisham Hamid, Noohul Basheer Zain Ali
With the advancement of digital microfluidics technology, applications such as on-chip DNA analysis, point of care diagnosis and automated drug discovery are common nowadays. The use of Digital Microfluidics Biochips (DMFBs) in disease assessment and recognition of target molecules had become popular during the past few years. The reliability of these DMFBs is crucial when they are used in various medical applications. Errors found in these biochips are mainly due to the defects developed during droplet manipulation, chip degradation and inaccuracies in the bio-assay experiments...
July 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745480/controllable-photovoltaic-effect-of-microarray-derived-from-epitaxial-tetragonal-bifeo3-films
#17
Zengxing Lu, Peilian Li, Jian-Guo Wan, Zhifeng Huang, Guo Tian, Danfeng Pan, Zhen Fan, Xingsen Gao, Jun-Ming Liu
Recently, the ferroelectric photovoltaic (FePV) effect has attracted great interest due to its potential in developing optoelectronic devices such as solar cell and electric-optical sensors. It is important for actual applications to realize a controllable photovoltaic process in ferroelectric-based materials. In this work, we prepared well-ordered microarrays based on epitaxially tetragonal BiFeO3 (T-BFO) films by the pulsed laser deposition technique. The polarization-dependent photocurrent image was directly observed by a conductive atomic force microscope under ultraviolet illumination...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743131/the-spatial-extent-of-epiretinal-electrical-stimulation-in-the-healthy-mouse-retina
#18
Zohreh Hosseinazdeh, Archana Jalligampala, Eberhart Zrenner, Daniel Lleweylln Rathbun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Retinal prostheses use electrical stimulation to restore functional vision to patients blinded by retinitis pigmentosa. A key detail is the spatial pattern of ganglion cells activated by stimulation. Therefore, we characterized the spatial extent of network-mediated electrical activation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the epiretinal monopolar electrode configuration. METHODS: Healthy mouse RGC activities were recorded with a micro-electrode array (MEA)...
July 26, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733001/degradation-of-endocrine-disruptor-bisphenol-a-by-ultrasound-assisted-electrochemical-oxidation-in-water
#19
Matz Dietrich, Marcus Franke, Michael Stelter, Patrick Braeutigam
Micropollutants are becoming an increasing problem for the environment and wastewater treatment. One example is Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrinic disruptor, which is widely used in plastic production. Due to its endocrine disrupting effects on aquatic (micro-)organisms and its ubiquity, in surface- and wastewater alike, adequate treatment techniques are necessary. In this study, the degradation of BPA by a sonoelectrochemical hybrid system was investigated, using a low frequency (24kHz) ultrasound horn and two boron doped diamond electrodes...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695839/rapid-prototyping-of-flexible-intrafascicular-electrode-arrays-by-picosecond-laser-structuring
#20
Matthias Mueller, Natalia de la Oliva, Jaume Del Valle, Ignacio Delgado Martinez, Xavier Navarro, Thomas Stieglitz
Interfacing the peripheral nervous system can be performed with a large variety of electrode arrays. However, stimulating and recording a nerve while having a reasonable amount of channels limits the number of available systems. Translational research towards human clinical trial requires device safety and biocompatibility but would benefit from design flexibility in the development process to individualize probes. Approach. We selected established medical grade implant materials like precious metals and parylene C to develop a rapid prototyping process for novel intrafascicular electrode arrays using a picosecond laser structuring...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
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