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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644975/a-neural-blood-pressure-marker-for-bioelectronic-medicines-for-treatment-of-hypertension
#1
Cristian Sevcencu, Thomas N Nielsen, Johannes J Struijk
A novel therapeutic approach for treating resistant hypertension could be the use of bioelectronic medicines to achieve blood pressure (BP) control in implanted patients by closed-loop stimulation of the left vagus nerve (LVN). However, such a technology would require an implantable BP marker, which is not available yet. As it is known that the LVN conducts afferent BP-related signals, this study aimed to investigate if such signals could be recorded with implantable means and used to derive BP markers. The present experiments were performed in anesthetized pigs subjected to a transient or stable BP increase induced by adrenaline administration...
June 17, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643185/keeping-disability-in-mind-a-case-study-in-implantable-brain-computer-interface-research
#2
Laura Specker Sullivan, Eran Klein, Tim Brown, Matthew Sample, Michelle Pham, Paul Tubig, Raney Folland, Anjali Truitt, Sara Goering
Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research is an interdisciplinary area of study within Neural Engineering. Recent interest in end-user perspectives has led to an intersection with user-centered design (UCD). The goal of user-centered design is to reduce the translational gap between researchers and potential end users. However, while qualitative studies have been conducted with end users of BCI technology, little is known about individual BCI researchers' experience with and attitudes towards UCD. Given the scientific, financial, and ethical imperatives of UCD, we sought to gain a better understanding of practical and principled considerations for researchers who engage with end users...
June 22, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641265/a-new-method-for-neural-spike-alignment-the-centroid-filter
#3
Benjamin Metcalfe, Chris Clarke, Nick Donaldson, John Taylor
Recordings made directly from the nervous system are a key tool in experimental electrophysiology and the development of bioelectronic medicines. Analysis of these recordings involves the identification of signals from individual neurons, a process known as spike sorting. A critical and limiting feature of spike sorting is the need to align individual spikes in time. However, electrophysiological recordings are made in extremely noisy environments that seriously limit the performance of the spike-alignment process...
June 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641240/placing-sites-on-the-edge-of-planar-silicon-microelectrodes-enhances-chronic-recording-functionality
#4
Heui Chang Lee, Janak Gaire, Badrinath Roysam, Kevin J Otto
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify the impact of using edge sites over center sites on a planar silicon microelectrode array. METHODS: We used custom-designed, silicon-substrate multi-site microelectrode arrays with sites on the center, edge, and tip. We compared their single unit recording capability, noise level, impedance, and histology to identify the differences between each site location. Wide and narrow devices were used to evaluate if the differences are consistent and meets theoretical expectations...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638591/replicable-in-vivo-physiological-and-behavioral-phenotypes-of-the-shank3b-null-mutant-mouse-model-of-autism
#5
Sameer C Dhamne, Jill L Silverman, Chloe E Super, Stephen H T Lammers, Mustafa Q Hameed, Meera E Modi, Nycole A Copping, Michael C Pride, Daniel G Smith, Alexander Rotenberg, Jacqueline N Crawley, Mustafa Sahin
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a clinically and biologically heterogeneous condition characterized by social, repetitive, and sensory behavioral abnormalities. No treatments are approved for the core diagnostic symptoms of ASD. To enable the earliest stages of therapeutic discovery and development for ASD, robust and reproducible behavioral phenotypes and biological markers are essential to establish in preclinical animal models. The goal of this study was to identify electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioral phenotypes that are replicable between independent cohorts in a mouse model of ASD...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634306/representations-of-time-varying-cochlear-implant-stimulation-in-auditory-cortex-of-awake-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#6
Luke A Johnson, Charles C Della Santina, Xiaoqin Wang
Electrical stimulation of the auditory periphery organ by cochlear implant (CI) generates highly synchronized inputs to the auditory system. It has long been thought such inputs would lead to highly synchronized neural firing along the ascending auditory pathway. However, neurophysiological studies with hearing animals have shown that the central auditory system progressively converts temporal representations of time-varying sounds to firing rate-based representations. It is not clear whether this coding principle also applies to highly synchronized CI inputs...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632137/electrospun-silk-polyaniline-conduits-for-functional-nerve-regeneration-in-rat-sciatic-nerve-injury-model
#7
Suradip Das, Manav Sharma, Dhiren Saharia, Kushal Sarma, Elizabeth Muir, Utpal Bora
The present study describes the fabrication of polyaniline-silk fibroin nanocomposite based nerve conduits and its subsequent implantation in a rat sciatic nerve injury model for peripheral nerve regeneration. This is the first in vivo study of polyaniline based nerve conduit describing the safety and efficacy of the conduits in treating peripheral nerve injuries. The nanocomposite was synthesised by electrospinning a mixture of silk fibroin protein and polyaniline wherein the silk nanofibers were observed to be uniformly coated with polyaniline nanoparticles...
June 20, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630884/evaluation-of-a-high-resolution-patient-specific-model-of-the-electrically-stimulated-cochlea
#8
Ahmet Cakir, Robert T Dwyer, Jack H Noble
Cochlear implants (CIs) are surgically implanted medical devices used to treat individuals with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss. Although these devices have been remarkably successful at restoring audibility, many patients experience poor outcomes. Our group has developed the first image-guided CI programming technique where the electrode positions are found in CT images and used to estimate neural activation patterns, which is unique information that audiologists can use to define patient-specific processor settings...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628101/dynamic-illumination-of-spatially-restricted-or-large-brain-volumes-via-a-single-tapered-optical-fiber
#9
Ferruccio Pisanello, Gil Mandelbaum, Marco Pisanello, Ian A Oldenburg, Leonardo Sileo, Jeffrey E Markowitz, Ralph E Peterson, Andrea Della Patria, Trevor M Haynes, Mohamed S Emara, Barbara Spagnolo, Sandeep Robert Datta, Massimo De Vittorio, Bernardo L Sabatini
Optogenetics promises precise spatiotemporal control of neural processes using light. However, the spatial extent of illumination within the brain is difficult to control and cannot be adjusted using standard fiber optics. We demonstrate that optical fibers with tapered tips can be used to illuminate either spatially restricted or large brain volumes. Remotely adjusting the light input angle to the fiber varies the light-emitting portion of the taper over several millimeters without movement of the implant...
June 19, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628030/a-novel-flexible-cuff-like-microelectrode-for-dual-purpose-acute-and-chronic-electrical-interfacing-with-the-mouse-cervical-vagus-nerve
#10
April Shawn Caravaca, Téa Tsaava, Laura Goldman, Harold Silverman, Gary Riggott, Sangeeta Chavan, Chad Bouton, Kevin J Tracey, Robert Desimone, Ed Boyden, Harbaljit Singh Sohal, Peder S Olofsson
OBJECTIVE: Neural reflexes establish homeostasis and regulate the immune system. Advances in bioelectronic medicine indicate that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve can be used to treat inflammatory disease, yet the understanding of neural signals that regulate inflammation is incomplete. Current interfaces with the vagus nerve do not permit effective chronic stimulation or recording in mouse models, which is vital to studying the molecular and neurophysiological mechanisms that control inflammation homeostasis in health and disease...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626362/nanoporous-gold-biointerfaces-modifying-nanostructure-to-control-neural-cell-coverage-and-enhance-electrophysiological-recording-performance
#11
Christopher A R Chapman, Ling Wang, Hao Chen, Joshua Garrison, Pamela J Lein, Erkin Seker
Nanostructured neural interface coatings have significantly enhanced recording fidelity in both implantable and in vitro devices. As such, nano-porous gold (np-Au) has shown promise as a multifunctional neural interface coating due, in part, to its ability to promote nanostructure-mediated reduction in astrocytic surface coverage while not affecting neuronal coverage. The goal of this study is to provide insight into the mechanisms by which the np-Au nanostructure drives the differential response of neurons versus astrocytes in an in vitro model...
January 19, 2017: Advanced Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623139/the-co-expression-of-neogenin-with-sox2-in-hippocampal-neurons
#12
Namgue Hong, Mi-Hye Kim, Churl K Min, Hee Jung Kim, Jae Ho Lee
Dementia has been shown to be closely related with neuronal degeneration and/or a decrease in the activity of neural stem cells in many brain regions, including the hippocampus. It has been recently established that Neogenin is involved in the cell fate determination by regulating Oct3/4, SOX and Nanog, notable embryonic cell markers, expressions in pre-implantation mouse embryos. Further, Neogenin expression at both mRNA and protein levels is manifest in many brain regions in mice, but it remains unclear whether Neogenin expression is prerequisite for the maintenance of neural stem cells, particularly, playing a critical role in the hippocampus, a brain region known to be involved in memory generation and consolidation...
June 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620162/characterization-of-an-iron-oxide-nanoparticle-labelling-and-mri-based-protocol-for-inducing-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-neural-like-cells
#13
Chen-Wen Lu, Jong-Kai Hsiao, Hon-Man Liu, Chung-Hsin Wu
The aim of the current study was to develop an iron oxide nanoparticle (ION) labelling and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based protocol to allow visualization of the differentiation process of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into neural-like cells (NCs) in vitro. Ferucarbotran, a clinically available ION, which can be visualized under MRI, is used for tracking cells implanted in vivo. The NCs were verified morphologically and histologically by light microscopy, and their functions were verified by measuring their action potentials...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612758/recording-nerve-signals-in-canine-sciatic-nerves-with-a-flexible-penetrating-microelectrode-array
#14
Donghak Byun, Sung-Joon Cho, Byeong Han Lee, Joongkee Min, Jong-Hyun Lee, Sohee Kim
OBJECTIVE: Previously, we presented the fabrication and characterization of a flexible penetrating microelectrode array (FPMA) as a neural interface device. In the present study, we aim to prove the feasibility of the developed FPMA as a chronic intrafascicular recording tool for peripheral applications. APPROACH: For recording from the peripheral nerves of medium-sized animals, the FPMA was integrated with an interconnection cable and other parts that were designed to fit canine sciatic nerves...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607560/characterization-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-like-cells-derived-from-human-ipscs-via-neural-crest-development-and-their-application-for-osteochondral-repair
#15
Ryota Chijimatsu, Makoto Ikeya, Yukihiko Yasui, Yasutoshi Ikeda, Kosuke Ebina, Yu Moriguchi, Kazunori Shimomura, David A Hart, Yoshikawa Hideki, Nakamura Norimasa
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising cell source for the repair of skeletal disorders. Recently, neural crest cells (NCCs) were reported to be effective for inducing mesenchymal progenitors, which have potential to differentiate into osteochondral lineages. Our aim was to investigate the feasibility of MSC-like cells originated from iPSCs via NCCs for osteochondral repair. Initially, MSC-like cells derived from iPSC-NCCs (iNCCs) were generated and characterized in vitro...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607224/evaluation-of-focused-multipolar-stimulation-for-cochlear-implants-a-preclinical-safety-study
#16
Robert K Shepherd, Andrew K Wise, Ya Lang Enke, Paul M Carter, James B Fallon
OBJECTIVE: Cochlear implants (CIs) have a limited number of independent stimulation channels due to the highly conductive nature of the fluid-filled cochlea. Attempts to develop highly focused stimulation to improve speech perception in CI users includes the use of simultaneous stimulation via multiple current sources. Focused multipolar (FMP) stimulation is an example of this approach and has been shown to reduce interaction between stimulating channels. However, compared with conventional biphasic current pulses generated from a single current source, FMP is a complex stimulus that includes extended periods of stimulation before charge recovery is achieved, raising questions on whether chronic stimulation with this strategy is safe...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606693/etiological-diagnosis-prognostic-significance-and-role-of-electrophysiological-study-in-patients-with-brugada-ecg-and-syncope
#17
Carla Giustetto, Natascia Cerrato, Enrico Ruffino, Elena Gribaudo, Chiara Scrocco, Lorella Barbonaglia, Francesca Bianchi, Miriam Bortnik, Guido Rossetti, Paula Carvalho, Riccardo Riccardi, Davide Castagno, Matteo Anselmino, Laura Bergamasco, Fiorenzo Gaita
BACKGROUND: Syncope is considered a risk factor for life-threatening arrhythmias in Brugada patients. Distinguishing a benign syncope from one due to ventricular arrhythmias is often difficult, unless an ECG is recorded during the episode. Aim of the study was to analyze the characteristics of syncopal episodes in a large population of Brugada patients and evaluate the role of electrophysiological study (EPS) and the prognosis in the different subgroups. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred ninety-five Brugada patients with history of syncope were considered...
August 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605376/anatomically-inspired-three-dimensional-micro-tissue-engineered-neural-networks-for-nervous-system-reconstruction-modulation-and-modeling
#18
Laura A Struzyna, Dayo O Adewole, Wisberty J Gordián-Vélez, Michael R Grovola, Justin C Burrell, Kritika S Katiyar, Dmitriy Petrov, James P Harris, D Kacy Cullen
Functional recovery rarely occurs following injury or disease-induced degeneration within the central nervous system (CNS) due to the inhibitory environment and the limited capacity for neurogenesis. We are developing a strategy to simultaneously address neuronal and axonal pathway loss within the damaged CNS. This manuscript presents the fabrication protocol for micro-tissue engineered neural networks (micro-TENNs), implantable constructs consisting of neurons and aligned axonal tracts spanning the extracellular matrix (ECM) lumen of a preformed hydrogel cylinder hundreds of microns in diameter that may extend centimeters in length...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602745/systemic-estradiol-administration-to-ovariectomized-rats-facilitates-thermoregulatory-behavior-in-a-cold-environment
#19
Yuki Uchida, Kei Nagashima, Kazunari Yuri
Rats place their tails underneath their bodies in the cold (tail-hiding behavior), which is a behavioral indicator of thermoregulation. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of estradiol (E2) on tail-hiding behavior and neural activity assessed by immunohistochemistry. Ovariectomized rats were implanted with a silastic tube with or without E2 underneath the dorsal skin (E2(-) and E2(+) groups), and exposed to 27°C, 16°C, and 10°C for 2h with continuous body temperature (Tb), tail skin temperature (Ttail), and behavioral measurements...
June 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601530/spectro-temporal-cues-enhance-modulation-sensitivity-in-cochlear-implant-users
#20
Yi Zheng, Monty Escabí, Ruth Y Litovsky
Although speech understanding is highly variable amongst cochlear implants (CIs) subjects, the remarkably high speech recognition performance of many CI users is unexpected and not well understood. Numerous factors, including neural health and degradation of the spectral information in the speech signal of CIs, likely contribute to speech understanding. We studied the ability to use spectro-temporal modulations, which may be critical for speech understanding and discrimination, and hypothesize that CI users adopt a different perceptual strategy than normal-hearing (NH) individuals, whereby they rely more heavily on joint spectro-temporal cues to enhance detection of auditory cues...
May 26, 2017: Hearing Research
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