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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207576/relationship-between-peripheral-and-psychophysical-measures-of-amplitude-modulation-detection-in-cochlear-implant-users
#1
Viral D Tejani, Paul J Abbas, Carolyn J Brown
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the relationship between electrophysiological and psychophysical measures of amplitude modulation (AM) detection. Prior studies have reported both measures of AM detection recorded separately from cochlear implant (CI) users and acutely deafened animals, but no study has made both measures in the same CI users. Animal studies suggest a progressive loss of high-frequency encoding as one ascends the auditory pathway from the auditory nerve to the cortex...
February 15, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205023/low-serum-culture-with-novel-medium-promotes-maxillary-mandibular-bone-marrow-stromal-cell-proliferation-and-osteogenic-differentiation-ability
#2
Fumio Suehiro, Masakazu Ishii, Izumi Asahina, Hiroshi Murata, Masahiro Nishimura
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-serum STK2 medium on the isolation and osteogenic differentiation of human maxillary/mandibular bone marrow stromal cells (MBMSCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human MBMSCs were obtained from patients undergoing dental implant treatment. These cells were cultured in serum-free medium or STK2 medium containing 1  % fetal bovine serum (low-serum) or α-MEM containing 10  % fetal bovine serum (control)...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202647/longitudinal-and-transversal-displacements-between-triceps-surae-muscles-during-locomotion-of-the-rat
#3
Michel Bernabei, Jaap H van Dieën, Huub Maas
The functional consequences of differential muscle activation and contractile behavior between mechanically coupled synergists are still poorly understood. Even though synergistic muscles exert similar mechanical effects at the joint they span, differences in the anatomy, morphology and neural drive may lead to non-uniform contractile conditions. This study aimed to investigate the patterns of activation and contractile behavior of triceps surae muscles, to understand how these contribute to the relative displacement between the one-joint soleus (SO) and two-joint lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscle bellies and their distal tendons during locomotion in the rat...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198704/simultaneous-in-vivo-recording-of-local-brain-temperature-and-electrophysiological-signals-with-a-novel-neural-probe
#4
Zoltan Fekete, Márton Csernai, Kinga Kocsis, Ágoston Csaba Horváth, Anita Pongrácz, Péter Barthó
Temperature is an important factor for neural function both in normal and pathological states, nevertheless, the simultaneous monitoring of local brain temperature and neuronal activity has not yet been undertaken. In our work, we propose an implantable, calibrated multimodal biosensor that facilitates the complex investigation of thermal changes in both cortical and deep brain regions, while records multiunit activity of neuronal populations in mice. The fabricated neural probe contains four electrical recording sites and a platinum temperature sensor filament integrated on the same probe shaft within a distance of 30 µm from the closest recording site...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198703/implantable-optoelectronic-probes-for-in-vivo-optogenetics
#5
Ege Iseri, Duygu Kuzum
More than a decade has passed since optics and genetics came together and lead to the emerging technologies of optogenetics. The advent of light-sensitive opsins made it possible to optically trigger the neurons into activation or inhibition by using visible light. The importance of spatiotemporally isolating a segment of a neural network and controlling nervous signaling in a precise manner has driven neuroscience researchers and engineers to invest great efforts in designing high precision in-vivo implantable devices...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198124/long-distance-axonal-growth-and-protracted-functional-maturation-of-neurons-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-after-intracerebral-transplantation
#6
Jonathan C Niclis, Christopher Turner, Jennifer Durnall, Stuart McDougal, Jessica A Kauhausen, Bryan Leaw, Mirella Dottori, Clare L Parish, Lachlan H Thompson
The capacity for induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to be differentiated into a wide range of neural cell types makes them an attractive donor source for autologous neural transplantation therapies aimed at brain repair. Translation to the in vivo setting has been difficult, however, with mixed results in a wide variety of preclinical models of brain injury and limited information on the basic in vivo properties of neural grafts generated from human iPS cells. Here we have generated a human iPS cell line constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein as a basis to identify and characterize grafts resulting from transplantation of neural progenitors into the adult rat brain...
February 15, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196820/combined-use-of-neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-nava-and-vertical-expandable-prostethic-titanium-rib-veptr-in-a-patient-with-spondylocostal-dysostosis-and-associated-bronchomalacia
#7
Martí Pons-Odena, Alba Verges, Natalia Arza, Francisco José Cambra
Jarcho-Levin syndrome is a rare disorder characterised by defects in vertebral and costal segmentation of varying severity. Respiratory complications are the main cause of death or severe comorbidity due to a restrictive rib cage. A 3 months old infant with Spondylocostal dysostosis and associated bronchomalacia experiencing severe asynchrony during the weaning process is reported. The Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) mode was used to improve adaptation to mechanical ventilation after Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Ribs (VEPTRs) were implanted...
February 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196320/flexible-and-highly-biocompatible-nanofiber-based-electrodes-for-neural-surface-interfacing
#8
Dong Nyoung Heo, Han-Jun Kim, Yijae Lee, Min Heo, Sang Jin Lee, Donghyun Lee, Sun Hee Do, Soo Hyun Lee, Il Keun Kwon
Polyimide (PI)-based electrodes have been widely used as flexible biosensors in implantable device applications for recording biological signals. However, the long-term quality of neural signals obtained from PI-based nerve electrodes tends to decrease due to nerve damage by neural tissue compression, mechanical mismatch and insufficient fluid exchange between the neural tissue and electrodes. Here, we resolve these problems with a developed PI nanofiber (NF)-based nerve electrode for stable neural signal recording, which can be fabricated via electrospinning and inkjet printing...
February 14, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193459/epileptiform-activity-and-behavioral-arrests-in-mice-overexpressing-the-calcium-channel-subunit-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-1
#9
Leonardo C Faria, Feng Gu, Isabel Parada, Ben Barres, Z David Luo, David A Prince
: The alpha2delta-1 subunit (α2δ-1) of voltage-gated calcium channels is a receptor for astrocyte-secreted thrombospondins that promote developmental synaptogenesis.Alpha2delta-1 receptors are upregulated in models of injury-induced peripheral pain and epileptogenic neocortical trauma associated with an enhancement of excitatory synaptic connectivity. These results lead to the hypothesis that overexpression of α2δ-1 alone in neocortex of uninjured transgenic (TG) mice might result in increased excitatory connectivity and consequent cortical hyperexcitability and epileptiform activity...
February 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190556/cotransplantation-of-neuroepithelial-stem-cells-with-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-improves-neuronal-differentiation-in-a-rat-aganglionic-model
#10
Lijuan Zhang, Bin Zhao, Wei Liu, Rui Ma, Rongde Wu, Yingmao Gao
BACKGROUND: Recent advances have raised the possibility of treating Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) with transplanted neural stem cells. Although these cells have been shown to migrate and differentiate after transplantation, the restoration of intestinal motility by grafted cells is also mediated via the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). We therefore aimed to evaluate the effect of cografting with ICC on neural stem cells after transplanted into aganglionic bowel. METHODS: Neuroepithelial stem cells (NESCs) and ICCs were isolated from neural tube of embryonic rat (embryonic day 11...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185910/ultrasoft-microwire-neural-electrodes-improve-chronic-tissue-integration
#11
Zhanhong Jeff Du, Christi L Kolarcik, Takashi D Y Kozai, Silvia D Luebben, Shawn A Sapp, Xin Sally Zheng, James A Nabity, X Tracy Cui
: Chronically implanted neural multi-electrode arrays (MEA) are an essential technology for recording electrical signals from neurons and/or modulating neural activity through stimulation. However, current MEAs, regardless of the type, elicit an inflammatory response that ultimately leads to device failure. Traditionally, rigid materials like tungsten and silicon have been employed to interface with the relatively soft neural tissue. The large stiffness mismatch is thought to exacerbate the inflammatory response...
February 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185615/clinical-study-of-neuroregen-scaffold-combined-with-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-the-repair-of-chronic-complete-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Yannan Zhao, Fengwu Tang, Guang Han, Nuo Wang, Na Yin, Bing Chen, Xianfeng Jiang, Chen Yun, Wanjun Han, Changyu Zhao, Shixiang Cheng, Zhifeng Xiao, Sai Zhang, Jianwu Dai
Regeneration of damaged neurons and recovery of sensation and motor function after complete spinal cord injury (SCI) are challenging. We previously developed a collagen scaffold, NeuroRegen scaffold, to promote axonal growth along collagen fibers and inhibit glial scar formation after SCI. When functionalized with multiple biomolecules, this scaffold promoted neurological regeneration and functional recovery in animals with SCI. In this study, eight patients with chronic complete SCI were enrolled to examine the safety and efficacy of implanting NeuroRegen scaffold with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
February 9, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183673/attenuation-of-the-in-vitro-neurotoxicity-of-316l-ss-by-graphene-oxide-surface-coating
#13
Nishat Tasnim, Alok Kumar, Binata Joddar
A persistent theme in biomaterials research comprises of surface engineering and modification of bare metallic substrates for improved cellular response and biocompatibility. Graphene Oxide (GO), a derivative of graphene, has outstanding chemical and mechanical properties; its large surface to volume ratio, ease of surface modification and processing make GO an attractive coating material. GO-coatings have been extensively studied as biosensors. Further owing to its surface nano-architecture, GO-coated surfaces promote cell adhesion and growth, making it suitable for tissue engineering applications...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183580/effect-of-total-intravenous-vs-volatile-anesthetics-on-intraoperatively-acquired-electrically-evoked-compound-action-potential-in-children-undergoing-cochlear-implant-surgery-a-randomized-prospective-study
#14
Ala A Alhowary, Khaled El-Radaideh, Anas Al-Rusan, Diab Bani Hani, Wail Khraise, Ahmad Al Omari, Firas Alzoubi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of inhalational anesthesia to those of total intravenous anesthesia on intraoperative electrically evoked compound action potential (e-ECAP) thresholds in children undergoing cochlear implantation. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized prospective study. SETTING: Tertiary referral teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Forty children aged 6 months to 17years with bilateral severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss and undergoing cochlear implantation were enrolled in the study...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169834/development-of-biomimetic-micro-patterned-device-incorporated-with-neurotrophic-gradient-and-supportive-schwann-cells-for-the-applications-in-neural-tissue-engineering
#15
Chia-Wei Yeh, Li-Wen Wang, Hsi-Chin Wu, Yi-Kong Hsieh, Jane Wang, Ming-Hong Chen, Tzu-Wei Wang
In these years, the artificial nerve guidance conduit has been developed as an alternative way to repair peripheral nerve injury. Unlike autologous nerve graft, the artificial nerve guidance conduit without proper stimulating factors and guidance cues still cannot obtain satisfactory prognosis for clinical patients. In this study, a biodegradable polymer-based implantable device has been developed and characterized. By incorporating three stimulating factors: 1) micro-patterned surface that can directionally guide the axon as physical cue; 2) neurotrophic gradient membrane that can continually attract axon outgrowth from the proximal to distal stump as chemical cue; 3) Schwann cells that can support the growth of neurite and form myelin sheath around axon as biological cue, we expect that this construct can be used as a promising nerve guidance conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration...
February 7, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167393/biodegradable-scaffolds-promote-tissue-remodeling-and-functional-improvement-in-non-human-primates-with-acute-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Jonathan R Slotkin, Christopher D Pritchard, Brian Luque, Janice Ye, Richard T Layer, Mathew S Lawrence, Timothy M O'Shea, Roland R Roy, Hui Zhong, Isabel Vollenweider, V Reggie Edgerton, Grégoire Courtine, Eric J Woodard, Robert Langer
Tissue loss significantly reduces the potential for functional recovery after spinal cord injury. We previously showed that implantation of porous scaffolds composed of a biodegradable and biocompatible block copolymer of Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid and Poly-l-lysine improves functional recovery and reduces spinal cord tissue injury after spinal cord hemisection injury in rats. Here, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of porous scaffolds in non-human Old-World primates (Chlorocebus sabaeus) after a partial and complete lateral hemisection of the thoracic spinal cord...
January 25, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159330/neurosurgery-of-the-future-deep-brain-stimulations-and-manipulations
#17
Stylianos Nicolaidis
Important advances are afoot in the field of neurosurgery-particularly in the realms of deep brain stimulation (DBS), deep brain manipulation (DBM), and the newly introduced refinement "closed-loop" deep brain stimulation (CLDBS). Use of closed-loop technology will make both DBS and DBM more precise as procedures and will broaden their indications. CLDBS utilizes as feedback a variety of sources of electrophysiological and neurochemical afferent information about the function of the brain structures to be treated or studied...
January 11, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155844/enhanced-biocompatibility-of-neural-probes-by-integrating-microstructures-and-delivering-anti-inflammatory-agents-via-microfluidic-channels
#18
Bin Liu, Eric Kim, Anika Meggo, Sachin Gandhi, Hao Luo, Srinivas Kallakuri, Yong Xu, Jinsheng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Biocompatibility is a major issue for chronic neural implants, involving inflammatory and wound healing responses of neurons and glial cells. To enhance biocompatibility, we developed silicon-parylene hybrid neural probes with open architecture electrodes, microfluidic channels and a reservoir for drug delivery to suppress tissue responses. APPROACH: We chronically implanted our neural probes in the rat auditory cortex and investigated (1) whether open architecture electrode reduces inflammatory reaction by measuring glial responses; and (2) whether delivery of antibiotic minocycline reduces inflammatory and tissue reaction...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151957/correlation-based-model-of-artificially-induced-plasticity-in-motor-cortex-by-a-bidirectional-brain-computer-interface
#19
Guillaume Lajoie, Nedialko I Krouchev, John F Kalaska, Adrienne L Fairhall, Eberhard E Fetz
Experiments show that spike-triggered stimulation performed with Bidirectional Brain-Computer-Interfaces (BBCI) can artificially strengthen connections between separate neural sites in motor cortex (MC). When spikes from a neuron recorded at one MC site trigger stimuli at a second target site after a fixed delay, the connections between sites eventually strengthen. It was also found that effective spike-stimulus delays are consistent with experimentally derived spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) rules, suggesting that STDP is key to drive these changes...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150534/evaluating-multipulse-integration-as-a-neural-health-correlate-in-human-cochlear-implant-users
#20
Ning Zhou, Lixue Dong
In electrical hearing, multipulse integration (MPI) describes the rate at which detection threshold decreases with increasing stimulation rate in a fixed-duration pulse train. In human subjects, MPI has been shown to be dependent on the psychophysically estimated spread of neural excitation at a high stimulation rate, with broader spread predicting greater integration. The first aim of the present study was to replicate this finding using alternative methods for measuring MPI and spread of neural excitation...
January 2017: Trends in Hearing
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