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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044049/acute-in-vivo-testing-of-a-conformal-polymer-microelectrode-array-for-multi-region-hippocampal-recordings
#1
Huijing Xu, Ahuva Weltman Hirschberg, Kee Scholten, Ted W Berger, Dong Song, Ellis Meng
OBJECTIVE: The success of a cortical prosthetic device relies upon its ability to attain resolvable spikes from many neurons in particular neural networks over long periods of time. Traditionally, lifetimes of neural recordings are greatly limited by the body's immune response against the foreign implant which causes neuronal death and glial scarring. This immune reaction is posited to be exacerbated by micromotion between the implant, which is often rigid, and the surrounding, soft brain tissue and attenuates the quality of recordings over time...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042271/blockade-of-the-orexin-receptors-in-the-ca1-region-of-hippocampus-decreased-the-lateral-hypothalamic-induced-antinociceptive-responses-in-the-model-of-orofacial-formalin-test-in-the-rats
#2
Amir Haghparast, Iman Shafiei, Amir-Mohammad Alizadeh, Somayeh Ezzatpanah, Abbas Haghparast
The role of hippocampus and lateral hypothalamus (LH) in modulation of formalin-induced nociception has been established. The present study aims to examine the role of orexin receptors in the Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) region of hippocampus in modulation of the LH-induced antinociception in the orofacial formalin test. Male Wistar rats were unilaterally implanted with two cannulae into the LH and CA1. Intra-LH microinjection of carbachol was done 5min after intra-CA1 administration of SB-334867 (OX1R antagonist) or TCS OX2 29 (OX2R antagonist)...
October 14, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037893/gelatin-promotes-rapid-restoration-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-after-acute-brain-injury
#3
Lucas S Kumosa, Valdemar Zetterberg, Jens Schouenborg
Gelatin coating of brain implants is known to provide considerable benefits in terms of reduced inflammatory sequalae and long-term neuroprotective effects. However, the mechanisms for gelatin's protective role in brain injury are still unknown. To address this question, cellular and molecular markers were studied with quantitative immunohistochemical microscopy at acute (<2 hours, 1, 3 days), intermediate (1-2 weeks) and long-term time points (6 weeks) after transient insertion of stainless steel needles into female rat cortex cerebri with or without gelatin coating...
October 13, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034586/avoiding-internal-capsule-stimulation-with-a-new-eight-channel-steering-deep-brain-stimulation-lead
#4
Kees J van Dijk, Rens Verhagen, Lo J Bour, Ciska Heida, Peter H Veltink
OBJECTIVE: Novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) lead designs are currently entering the market, which are hypothesized to provide a way to steer the stimulation field away from neural populations responsible for side effects and towards populations responsible for beneficial effects. The objective of this study is to assess the performances of a new eight channel steering-DBS lead and compare this with a conventional cylindrical contact (CC) lead. APPROACH: The two leads were evaluated in a finite element electric field model combined with multicompartment neuron and axon models, representing the internal capsule (IC) fibers and subthalamic nucleus (STN) cells...
October 15, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027094/multimodal-functional-neuroimaging-by-simultaneous-bold-fmri-and-fiber-optic-calcium-recordings-and-optogenetic-control
#5
REVIEW
Franziska Albers, Lydia Wachsmuth, Timo Mauritz van Alst, Cornelius Faber
Recent developments of optogenetic tools and fluorescence-based calcium recording techniques enable the manipulation and monitoring of neural circuits on a cellular level. Non-invasive imaging of brain networks, however, requires the application of methods such as blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which is commonly used for functional neuroimaging. While BOLD fMRI provides brain-wide non-invasive reading of the hemodynamic response, it is only an indirect measure of neural activity...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022921/current-progress-in-the-derivation-and-therapeutic-application-of-neural-stem-cells
#6
REVIEW
Yuewen Tang, Pei Yu, Lin Cheng
Neural stem cells (NSCs) have a unique role in neural regeneration. Cell therapy based on NSC transplantation is a promising tool for the treatment of nervous system diseases. However, there are still many issues and controversies associated with the derivation and therapeutic application of these cells. In this review, we summarize the different sources of NSCs and their derivation methods, including direct isolation from primary tissues, differentiation from pluripotent stem cells and transdifferentiation from somatic cells...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021670/preliminary-experience-with-lumbar-facet-distraction-and-fixation-as-treatment-for-lumbar-spinal-stenosis
#7
Giovanni Grasso, Alessandro Landi
OBJECTIVES: To assess the properties of facet fixation with the Facet Wedge system in patients affected by lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Implant of intra-articular spacers is an emerging technique for lumbar degenerative disease. METHODS: This study included forty patients (Group 1) with symptomatic LSS in whom intra-articular spacers have been implanted along with microdecompression (MD) of the neural structures...
July 2017: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993678/erratum-characterization-of-mechanically-matched-hydrogel-coatings-to-improve-the-biocompatibility-of-neural-implants
#8
Kevin C Spencer, Jay C Sy, Khalil B Ramadi, Ann M Graybiel, Robert Langer, Michael J Cima
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986946/effect-of-decellularized-spinal-scaffolds-on-spinal-axon-regeneration-in-rats
#9
Junyi Zhu, Yingfeng Lu, Fangzheng Yu, Lebin Zhou, Jiawei Shi, Qihui Chen, Weili Ding, Xin Wen, Yu-Qiang Ding, Jin Mei, Jian Wang
A series of complex influencing factors lead to failure of neural regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). Up to now, there is no robust treatment that can restore the loss of function caused by injury. Because damaged spinal axons do not spontaneously regenerate in their naturally inhibitory microenvironments, biomaterials that induce neural regeneration to appear as attractive treatments to improve the microenvironmental conditions after SCI. In this study, we report the novel use of decellularized (DC) scaffolds to provide contact guidance for axonal regrowth in vivo...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981509/differential-temperature-sensitivity-of-synaptic-and-firing-processes-in-a-neural-mass-model-of-epileptic-discharges-explains-heterogeneous-response-of-experimental-epilepsy-to-focal-brain-cooling
#10
Jaymar Soriano, Takatomi Kubo, Takao Inoue, Hiroyuki Kida, Toshitaka Yamakawa, Michiyasu Suzuki, Kazushi Ikeda
Experiments with drug-induced epilepsy in rat brains and epileptic human brain region reveal that focal cooling can suppress epileptic discharges without affecting the brain's normal neurological function. Findings suggest a viable treatment for intractable epilepsy cases via an implantable cooling device. However, precise mechanisms by which cooling suppresses epileptic discharges are still not clearly understood. Cooling experiments in vitro presented evidence of reduction in neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals and loss of dendritic spines at post-synaptic terminals offering a possible synaptic mechanism...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980161/sciatic-nerve-regeneration-by-transplantation-of-menstrual-blood-derived-stem-cells
#11
Saeed Farzamfar, Mahdi Naseri-Nosar, Alireza Ghanavatinejad, Ahmad Vaez, Amir Hassan Zarnani, Majid Salehi
This is the first study demonstrating the efficacy of menstrual blood-derived stem cell (MenSC) transplantation via a neural guidance conduit, for peripheral nerve regeneration. The synthesized poly (ɛ-caprolactone)/Gelatin conduit, filled with collagen type I and seeded with 3 × 10(4) MenSCs, was implanted into a rat's 10 mm sciatic nerve defect. The results of hot plate latency, sciatic functional index and weight-loss percentage of wet gastrocnemius muscle demonstrated that the MenSC transplantation had comparable nerve regeneration outcome to autograft, as the gold standard of nerve bridging...
October 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971013/presurgical-thalamocortical-connectivity-is-associated-with-response-to-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-children-with-intractable-epilepsy
#12
George M Ibrahim, Priya Sharma, Ann Hyslop, Magno R Guillen, Benjamin R Morgan, Simeon Wong, Taylor J Abel, Lior Elkaim, Iahn Cajigas, Ashish H Shah, Aria Fallah, Alexander G Weil, Nolan Altman, Byron Bernal, Santiago Medina, Elysa Widjaja, Prasanna Jayakar, John Ragheb, Sanjiv Bhatia
Although chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an established treatment for medically-intractable childhood epilepsy, there is considerable heterogeneity in seizure response and little data are available to pre-operatively identify patients who may benefit from treatment. Since the therapeutic effect of VNS may be mediated by afferent projections to the thalamus, we tested the hypothesis that intrinsic thalamocortical connectivity is associated with seizure response following chronic VNS in children with epilepsy...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971005/auditory-cross-modal-reorganization-in-cochlear-implant-users-indicates-audio-visual-integration
#13
Maren Stropahl, Stefan Debener
There is clear evidence for cross-modal cortical reorganization in the auditory system of post-lingually deafened cochlear implant (CI) users. A recent report suggests that moderate sensori-neural hearing loss is already sufficient to initiate corresponding cortical changes. To what extend these changes are deprivation-induced or related to sensory recovery is still debated. Moreover, the influence of cross-modal reorganization on CI benefit is also still unclear. While reorganization during deafness may impede speech recovery, reorganization also has beneficial influences on face recognition and lip-reading...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970782/putative-auditory-evoked-neurophonic-measurements-using-a-novel-signal-processing-technique-a-pilot-case-study
#14
Alison M Cook, Ashleigh J Allsop, Greg A O'Beirne
With changes to cochlear implant candidacy and improvements in surgical technique, there is a need for accurate intraoperative assessment of low-frequency hearing thresholds during cochlear implantation. In electrocochleography, onset compound action potentials (CAPs) typically allow estimation of auditory threshold for frequencies above 1 kHz, but they are less accurate at lower frequencies. Auditory nerve neurophonic (ANN) waveforms, on the other hand, may overcome this limitation by allowing phase-locked neural activity to be tracked during a prolonged low-frequency stimulus rather than just at its onset (Henry, 1995)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968281/the-electrically-evoked-auditory-change-complex-evoked-by-temporal-gaps-using-cochlear-implants-or-auditory-brainstem-implants-in-children-with-cochlear-nerve-deficiency
#15
Shuman He, Tyler C McFayden, Bahar S Shahsavarani, Holly F B Teagle, Matthew Ewend, Lillian Henderson, Craig A Buchman
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to (1) establish the feasibility of measuring the electrically evoked auditory change complex (eACC) in response to temporal gaps in children with cochlear nerve deficiency (CND) who are using cochlear implants (CIs) and/or auditory brainstem implants (ABIs); and (2) explore the association between neural encoding of, and perceptual sensitivity to, temporal gaps in these patients. DESIGN: Study participants included 5 children (S1 to S5) ranging in age from 3...
September 29, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966573/a-chronically-implantable-bidirectional-neural-interface-for-non-human-primates
#16
Misako Komatsu, Eriko Sugano, Hiroshi Tomita, Naotaka Fujii
Optogenetics has potential applications in the study of epilepsy and neuroprostheses, and for studies on neural circuit dynamics. However, to achieve translation to clinical usage, optogenetic interfaces that are capable of chronic stimulation and monitoring with minimal brain trauma are required. We aimed to develop a chronically implantable device for photostimulation of the brain of non-human primates. We used a micro-light-emitting diode (LED) array with a flexible polyimide film. The array was combined with a whole-cortex electrocorticographic (ECoG) electrode array for simultaneous photostimulation and recording...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965958/secretome-released-from-hydrogel-embedded-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells-protects-against-the-parkinson-s-disease-related-toxin-6-hydroxydopamine
#17
Armando Chierchia, Nino Chirico, Lucia Boeri, Ilaria Raimondi, Giovanni A Riva, Manuela Teresa Raimondi, Marta Tunesi, Carmen Giordano, Gianluigi Forloni, Diego Albani
Neurodegenerative diseases, as Parkinson's disease (PD), involve irreversible neural cell damage and impairment. In PD, there is a selective degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons leading to motor symptoms. A common finding in PD neurodegeneration is the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress. To date there are only interventions to relieve PD symptoms, however progress has been made in the development of therapies that target the immune system or use its components as therapeutic agents; among these, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are able to express neuroprotective factors as cytokines, chemokines and angiogenic molecules, collectively named secretome, that accumulate in MSC culture medium...
September 28, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961089/on-the-verge-of-neuro-motion-chad-bouton-and-his-team-are-developing-breakthrough-neural-decoding-methods-that-help-people-with-paralysis-move-again
#18
Cynthia Weber
Chad Bouton, director of the Center for Bioelectronic Medicine and vice president of advanced engineering at the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, which serves as the research arm of one of the largest health systems in the United States, has spent nearly two decades developing innovative medical technology and products that help diagnose and treat conditions including cancer, stroke, diabetes, and paralysis. Last year, in a groundbreaking effort, Bouton and his colleagues published their findings in Nature on neural-decoding methods that helped Ian Burkhart become the first paralyzed person with a brain implant to move again with his own thoughts...
September 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960154/report-of-a-patient-undergoing-chronic-responsive-deep-brain-stimulation-for-tourette-syndrome-proof-of-concept
#19
Rene Molina, Michael S Okun, Jonathan B Shute, Enrico Opri, P Justin Rossi, Daniel Martinez-Ramirez, Kelly D Foote, Aysegul Gunduz
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a promising intervention for the treatment of select movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. Current DBS therapies deliver electrical stimulation continuously and are not designed to adapt to a patient's symptoms. Continuous DBS can lead to rapid battery depletion, which necessitates frequent surgery for battery replacement. Next-generation neurostimulation devices can monitor neural signals from implanted DBS leads, where stimulation can be delivered responsively, moving the field of neuromodulation away from continuous paradigms...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959183/foreign-body-response-to-intracortical-microelectrodes-is-not-altered-with-dip-coating-of-polyethylene-glycol-peg
#20
Heui C Lee, Janak Gaire, Seth W Currlin, Matthew D McDermott, Kinam Park, Kevin J Otto
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a frequently used polymer for neural implants due to its biocompatible property. As a follow-up to our recent study that used PEG for stiffening flexible neural probes, we have evaluated the biological implications of using devices dip-coated with PEG for chronic neural implants. Mice (wild-type and CX3CR1-GFP) received bilateral implants within the sensorimotor cortex, one hemisphere with a PEG-coated probe and the other with a non-coated probe for 4 weeks. Quantitative analyses were performed using biomarkers for activated microglia/macrophages, astrocytes, blood-brain barrier leakage, and neuronal nuclei to determine the degree of foreign body response (FBR) resulting from the implanted microelectrodes...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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