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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667119/a-novel-neural-electrode-with-micro-motion-attenuation-capability-based-on-compliant-mechanisms-physical-design-concepts-and-evaluations
#1
Wenguang Zhang, Jiaqi Tang, Zhengwei Li, Yakun Ma
In order to solve the problem of the short lifespan of the neural electrode caused by micro motion, this study designed a novel neural electrode based on lumped compliance compliant mechanism to control different modes of micro-motion in a more effective way. According to the mathematical modeling of the novel neural electrode, the equivalent bending stiffness and equivalent tensile (compression) stiffness were calculated. The results of the finite element analysis based on the mathematical modeling revealed that the novel neural electrode showed excellent micro-motion-attenuation capability...
April 18, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666407/an-implantable-peripheral-nerve-recording-and-stimulation-system-for-experiments-on-freely-moving-animal-subjects
#2
Byunghun Lee, Mukhesh K Koripalli, Yaoyao Jia, Joshua Acosta, M S E Sendi, Yoonsu Choi, Maysam Ghovanloo
A new study with rat sciatic nerve model for peripheral nerve interfacing is presented using a fully-implanted inductively-powered recording and stimulation system in a wirelessly-powered standard homecage that allows animal subjects move freely within the homecage. The Wireless Implantable Neural Recording and Stimulation (WINeRS) system offers 32-channel peripheral nerve recording and 4-channel current-controlled stimulation capabilities in a 3 × 1.5 × 0.5 cm3 package. A bi-directional data link is established by on-off keying pulse-position modulation (OOK-PPM) in near field for narrow-band downlink and 433 MHz OOK for wideband uplink...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651947/transplantation-of-bdnf-gene-recombinant-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-adhesive-peptide-modified-hydrogel-scaffold-for-spinal-cord-repair
#3
Li-Ming Li, Ling-Ling Huang, Xin-Chi Jiang, Jia-Chen Chen, Hong-Wei OuYang, Jian-Qing Gao
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for nerve tissue engineering. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) secreted by MSCs can function to increase neural differentiation and relieve inflammation response. Gene transfection technology is an efficient strategy to increase the secretion levels of cytokines and enhance cellular functions. However, transfection and in vivo gene expression of environmentally sensitive stem cells have been one of the most challenging subjects due to the requirement in both safety and transfection efficiency...
April 13, 2018: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650304/the-design-and-validation-of-a-hybrid-digital-signal-processing-plug-in-for-traditional-cochlear-implant-speech-processors
#4
Fatemeh Hajiaghababa, Hamid R Marateb, Saeed Kermani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cochlear implants (CIs) are electronic devices restoring partial hearing to deaf individuals with profound hearing loss. In this paper, a new plug-in for traditional IIR filter-banks (FBs) is presented for cochlear implants based on wavelet neural networks (WNNs). Having provided such a plug-in for commercially available CIs, it is possible not only to use available hardware in the market but also to optimize their performance compared with the-state-of-the-art...
June 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649894/use-of-neural-response-telemetry-for-pediatric-cochlear-implants-current-practice
#5
Galit Almosnino, Samantha Anne, Seth R Schwartz
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate usage trends of neural response telemetry (NRT) in cochlear implant centers across the nation and assess reported benefits of intraoperative NRT for pediatric cochlear implant recipients. STUDY DESIGN: Survey. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: All US cochlear implant centers (n = 110). METHODS: A 15-question multiple-choice survey was distributed electronically to all centers. The survey captured demographic information of all centers, practice patterns surrounding the use of NRT, and the extent to which intraoperative NRT is of benefit...
April 1, 2018: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649583/noradrenergic-%C3%AE-receptor-antagonism-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-impairs-reconsolidation-but-not-extinction-of-alcohol-self-administration-intra-bla-propranolol-impairs-reconsolidation-of-alcohol-self-administration
#6
Rose Chesworth, Laura H Corbit
A critical barrier to recovery from alcohol addiction is relapse propensity. Alcohol cues can trigger relapse, and pharmacologically facilitating processes such as extinction, which decreases cue associations, may help prevent relapse. The noradrenergic system mediates extinction learning for alcohol; however, the neural locus of this effect is unknown. This study sought to determine whether the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a region critical for fear extinction, also mediates extinction of alcohol seeking. Hooded Wistar rats (N = 12-15 per experiment) were implanted with bilateral cannula targeting the BLA and trained to lever press for 10% ethanol during auditory or visual cues...
April 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649048/improved-speech-perception-in-cochlear-implant-users-with-interleaved-high-rate-pulse-trains
#7
Christina L Runge, Fang Du, Yi Hu
OBJECTIVE: Electrical stimulation with a cochlear implant (CI) elicits abnormally high neural synchrony, which poses significant challenges for speech perception. Previous investigations showed that constant-amplitude high-rate pulse trains (HRPs) desynchronize neural responses and improve stimulus encoding. The study objective was to investigate the effects of HRP on speech perception in adult CI users. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, within-subject design. SETTING: Tertiary CI center...
April 11, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629880/influence-of-nerve-cuff-channel-count-and-implantation-site-on-the-separability-of-afferent-eng
#8
Ana Carolina Pinto da Silveira, Emma Brunton, Sally Spendiff, Kianoush Nazarpour
Recording of neural signals from intact peripheral nerves in patients with spinal cord injury or stroke survivors offers the possibility for the development of closed-loop sensorimotor prostheses. Nerve cuffs have been found to provide stable recordings from peripheral nerves for prolonged periods of time. However, questions remain over the design and positioning of nerve cuffs such that the separability of neural data recorded from the peripheral nerves is improved.
 
 Approach. Afferent electroneurographic (ENG) signals were recorded with nerve cuffs placed on the sciatic nerve of rats in response to various mechanical stimuli to the hindpaw...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629879/a-nanofabricated-optoelectronic-probe-for-manipulating-and-recording-neural-dynamics
#9
Bingzhao Li, Kwang Lee, Sotiris C Masmanidis, Mo Li
OBJECTIVE: The convergence of optogenetic and large-scale neural recording technologies opens enormous opportunities for studying brain function. However, compared to the widespread use of optogenetics or recordings as standalone methods, the joint use of these techniques in behaving animals is much less well developed. A simple but poorly scalable solution has been to implant conventional optical fibers together with extracellular microelectrodes. A more promising approach has been to combine microfabricated light emission sources with multielectrode arrays...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626167/intracranial-electrophysiology-reveals-reproducible-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-within-human-brain-networks
#10
Aaron Kucyi, Jessica Schrouff, Stephan Bickel, Brett L Foster, James M Shine, Josef Parvizi
Evidence for intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) within the human brain is largely from neuroimaging studies of hemodynamic activity. Data are lacking from anatomically precise electrophysiological recordings in the most widely studied nodes of human brain networks. Here we used a combination of fMRI and electrocorticography (ECoG) in five human neurosurgical patients with electrodes in the canonical "default" (medial prefrontal and posteromedial cortex), "dorsal attention" (frontal eye fields and superior parietal lobule) and "frontoparietal control" (inferior parietal lobule and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) networks...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623942/combined-acupuncture-and-huangdisan-treatment-affects-behavior-and-synaptophysin-levels-in-the-hippocampus-of-senescence-accelerated-mouse-prone-8-after-neural-stem-cell-transplantation
#11
Chun-Lei Zhou, Lan Zhao, Hui-Yan Shi, Jian-Wei Liu, Jiang-Wei Shi, Bo-Hong Kan, Zhen Li, Jian-Chun Yu, Jing-Xian Han
Sanjiao acupuncture and HuangDiSan can promote the proliferation, migration and differentiation of exogenous neural stem cells in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice and can improve learning and memory impairment and behavioral function in dementia-model mice. Thus, we sought to determine whether Sanjiao acupuncture and HuangDiSan can elevate the effect of neural stem cell transplantation in Alzheimer's disease model mice. Sanjiao acupuncture was used to stimulate Danzhong (CV17), Zhongwan (CV12), Qihai (CV6), bilateral Xuehai (SP10) and bilateral Zusanli (ST36) 15 days before and after implantation of neural stem cells (5 × 105 ) into the hippocampal dentate gyrus of SAMP8 mice...
March 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603666/opto-electro-thermal-optimization-of-photonic-probes-for-optogenetic-neural-stimulation
#12
Na Dong, Rolando Berlinguer-Palmini, Ahmed Soltan, Nikhil Ponon, Anthony O'Neil, Andrew Travelyan, Pleun Maaskant, Patrick Degenaar, Xiaohan Sun
Implantable photonic probes are of increasing interest to the field of biophotonics and in particular, optogenetic neural stimulation. Active probes with onboard light emissive elements allow for electronic multiplexing and can be manufactured through existing microelectronics methods. However, as the optogenetics field moves towards clinical practice, an important question arises as to whether such probes will cause excessive thermal heating of the surrounding tissue. Light emitting diodes typically produce more heat than light...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603444/femoral-vascular-conductance-and-peroneal-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-responses-to-acute-epidural-spinal-cord-stimulation-in-humans
#13
Seth W Holwerda, Marshall T Holland, Chandan G Reddy, Gary L Pierce
Clinical cases have reported increased peripheral blood flow following continuous epidural spinal cord stimulation (SCS), and that reduced muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) may be a potential mechanism. However, no studies in humans have directly examined the effects of acute SCS (< 60 min) on vascular conductance and MSNA. In study 1, we tested the hypothesis that acute SCS (< 60 min) of the thoracic spine would lead to increased common femoral vascular conductance, but not brachial vascular conductance, in 11 patients that previously underwent surgical SCS implantation for management of neuropathic pain...
March 30, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599439/fiber-optic-implant-for-simultaneous-fluorescence-based-calcium-recordings-and-bold-fmri-in-mice
#14
Felix Schlegel, Yaroslav Sych, Aileen Schroeter, Jillian Stobart, Bruno Weber, Fritjof Helmchen, Markus Rudin
Despite the growing popularity of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI), understanding of its underlying principles is still limited. This protocol describes a technique for simultaneous measurement of neural activity using fluorescent calcium indicators together with the corresponding hemodynamic BOLD fMRI response in the mouse brain. Our early work using small-molecule fluorophores in rats gave encouraging results but was limited to acute measurements using synthetic dyes. Our latest procedure combines fMRI with optical detection of cell-type-specific virally delivered GCaMP6, a genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI)...
May 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598890/closed-loop-intracranial-stimulation-alters-movement-timing-in-humans
#15
Bartlett D Moore, Adam R Aron, Nitin Tandon
BACKGROUND: A prime objective driving the recent development of human neural prosthetics is to stimulate neural circuits in a manner time-locked to ongoing brain activity. The human supplementary motor area (SMA) is a particularly useful target for this objective because it displays characteristic neural activity just prior to voluntary movement. OBJECTIVE: Here, we tested a method that detected activity in the human SMA related to impending movement and then delivered cortical stimulation with intracranial electrodes to influence the timing of movement...
March 8, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593051/adaptation-to-noise-in-human-speech-recognition-unrelated-to-the-medial-olivocochlear-reflex
#16
Miriam I Marrufo-Pérez, Almudena Eustaquio-Martín, Enrique A Lopez-Poveda
Sensory systems constantly adapt their responses to the current environment. In hearing, adaptation may facilitate communication in noisy settings, a benefit frequently (but controversially) attributed to the medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR) enhancing the neural representation of speech. Here, we show that human listeners ( N = 14; five male) recognize more words presented monaurally in ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral noise when they are given some time to adapt to the noise. This finding challenges models and theories that claim that speech intelligibility in noise is invariant over time...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589592/developing-a-hippocampal-neural-prosthetic-to-facilitate-human-memory-encoding-and-recall
#17
Robert E Hampson, Dong Song, Brian S Robinson, Dustin Fetterhoff, Alexander S Dakos, Brent M Roeder, Xiwei She, Robert T Wicks, Mark R Witcher, Daniel E Couture, Adrian W Laxton, Heidi Munger-Clary, Gautam Popli, Myriam J Sollman, Christopher T Whitlow, Vasilis Z Marmarelis, Theodore W Berger, Sam A Deadwyler
OBJECTIVE: We demonstrate here the first successful implementation in humans of a proof-of-concept system for restoring and improving memory function via facilitation of memory encoding using the patient's own hippocampal spatiotemporal neural codes for memory. Memory in humans is subject to disruption by drugs, disease and brain injury, yet previous attempts to restore or rescue memory function in humans typically involved only nonspecific, modulation of brain areas and neural systems related to memory retrieval...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577604/neurotrophin-3-released-from-implant-of-tissue-engineered-fibroin-scaffolds-inhibits-inflammation-enhances-nerve-fiber-regeneration-and-improves-motor-function-in-canine-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Ge Li, Ming-Tian Che, Xiang Zeng, Xue-Cheng Qiu, Bo Feng, Bi-Qin Lai, Hui-Yong Shen, Eng-Ang Ling, Yuan-Shan Zeng
Spinal cord injury (SCI) normally results in cell death, scarring, cavitation, inhibitory molecules release, etc., which are regarded as a huge obstacle to reconnect the injured neuronal circuits due to the lack of effective stimulus. In this study, a functional gelatin sponge scaffold was used to inhibit local inflammation, enhance nerve fiber regeneration and improve neural conduction in the canine. This scaffold had good porosity and modified with neurotrophin-3 (NT-3)/fibroin complex, which showed sustained release in vitro...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575331/retrospective-case-series-on-the-treatment-of-painful-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-with-dorsal-root-ganglion-stimulation
#19
Sam Eldabe, Anthony Espinet, Anders Wahlstedt, Porhan Kang, Liong Liem, Nikunj K Patel, Jan Vesper, Alicia Kimber, William Cusack, Jeffery Kramer
BACKGROUND: The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) has been identified as an important neural structure in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. We present a retrospective case series of patients with refractory painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (PDPN) that underwent electrical stimulation of the DRG and report on changes in their overall perceived pain and complication rates. METHODS: Ten diabetic males (mean age 65.2 [SD 8.8] years) with painful symptoms of the lower limbs were enrolled and trialed with up to four quadripolar percutaneous DRG stimulation leads between L2 and L5 spinal levels...
March 25, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572359/mapping-transcription-factor-occupancy-using-minimal-numbers-of-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#20
Luca Tosti, James Ashmore, Boon Siang Nicholas Tan, Benedetta Carbone, Tapan K Mistri, Valerie Wilson, Simon R Tomlinson, Keisuke Kaji
The identification of transcription factor (TF) binding sites in the genome is critical to understanding gene regulatory networks (GRNs). While ChIP-seq is commonly used to identify TF targets, it requires specific ChIP-grade antibodies and high cell numbers, often limiting its applicability.<u>D</u>NA<u>a</u>denine<u>m</u>ethyltransferase<u>id</u>entification (DamID), developed and widely used in Drosophila , is a distinct technology to investigate protein-DNA interactions...
March 23, 2018: Genome Research
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