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Neonatal seizure

Andriy Temko, Gordon Lightbody
It is now generally accepted that EEG is the only reliable way to accurately detect newborn seizures and, as such, prolonged EEG monitoring is increasingly being adopted in neonatal intensive care units. Long EEG recordings may last from several hours to a few days. With neurophysiologists not always available to review the EEG during unsociable hours, there is a pressing need to develop a reliable and robust automatic seizure detection method-a computer algorithm that can take the EEG signal, process it, and output information that supports clinical decision making...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Julia Jacobs, Emily M Spelbrink
Infants born prematurely are highly vulnerable to brain injury and susceptible to seizures in the first weeks of life. Many neonatal seizures occur without reliable clinical signs and are detectable only on electroencephalogram (EEG); understanding EEG findings in these neonates is crucial for providing appropriate care. This can be challenging, as EEG background activity and patterns vary considerably with gestational age. Some physiologic preterm EEG patterns, such as rhythmic temporal theta activity or delta brushes, may be sharply contoured and appear similar to epileptic EEG patterns later in life...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Jose Maria Lloreda-García, Jose Ramón Fernández-Fructuoso, Elisabeth Gómez-Santos, Ana García-González, Jose Luis Leante-Castellanos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
C Aeberhard, C Steuer, C Saxer, A Huber, Z Stanga, S Mühlebach
BACKGROUND: Parenteral antiepileptic drugs are frequently used in critically ill patients for seizure control therapy or prevention. Many of these patients require additional parenteral nutrition (PN). Therefore, a parallel infusion of the frequently used antiepileptic drug levetiracetam (LEV) is interesting in terms of the restricted i.v. lines (e.g., neonates). The potential interactions of the complex PN admixture with the drug product and the appropriate admixing of a drug at effective dosages require physicochemical lab assessments to obtain specific and reliable pharmaceutical documentation for the intended admixing...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Jens Henrichs, Viki Verfaille, Laura Viester, Myrte Westerneng, Bert Molewijk, Arie Franx, Henriette van der Horst, Judith E Bosmans, Ank de Jonge, Petra Jellema
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a major risk factor for perinatal mortality and morbidity. Thus, there is a compelling need to introduce sensitive measures to detect IUGR fetuses. Routine third trimester ultrasonography is increasingly used to detect IUGR. However, we lack evidence for its clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness and information on ethical considerations of additional third trimester ultrasonography. This nationwide stepped wedge cluster-randomized trial examines the (cost-)effectiveness of routine third trimester ultrasonography in reducing severe adverse perinatal outcome through subsequent protocolized management...
October 13, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
A H Ansari, P J Cherian, A Dereymaeker, V Matic, K Jansen, L De Wispelaere, C Dielman, J Vervisch, R M Swarte, P Govaert, G Naulaers, M De Vos, S Van Huffel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Sudhir Adhikari, Kalipatnam Seshagiri Rao
BACKGROUND: Perinatal asphyxia with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) causes significant mortality and morbidity in developing countries. There is limited information about long term neurodevelopmental outcome of infants with neonatal encephalopathy. METHODS: Term infants with the diagnosis of perinatal asphyxia were followed up in neurodevelopmental clinics of Manipal Teaching hospital, Nepal. Study design was prospective mixed longitudinal study. Prematurity, major congenital malformations, other intracranial pathology, birth weight <2500g and chromosomal abnormalities were excluded...
September 30, 2016: Brain & Development
L Reaney, V Livingstone, C Bogue, E M Dempsey, P M Filan
Therapeutic hypothermia is now the standard of care for infants with moderate to severe hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. Sixty-three infants received therapeutic hypothermia at Cork University Maternity Hospital (CUMH) from 2010-2014. Median gestational age was 40 weeks. Eighteen (29%) infants were Sarnat grade 3, 41(65%) grade 2 and 4(6%) grade 1. Nineteen outborn infants arrived in CUMH at a median (IQR) age of 310 (270, 420) minutes. Four (21%) outborn infants were within the target temperature range on arrival...
2016: Irish Medical Journal
Zachary A Vesoulis, Christopher McPherson, Jeffrey J Neil, Amit M Mathur, Terrie E Inder
Background: Although evidence suggests that methylxanthines may lower the seizure threshold, the effect of high-dose caffeine on seizure burden in preterm infants is not known. This study reports a secondary post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial of early high-dose caffeine citrate therapy in preterm infants, evaluating the effect of caffeine on the seizure burden using amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG). Methods: Seventy-four preterm infants (≤30 weeks gestation) were randomized to receive high-dose (n = 37, 80 mg/kg over 36 hours) or standard-dose (n = 37, 30 mg/kg over 36 hours) caffeine citrate over the first 36 hours followed by standard maintenance therapy...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Caffeine Research
Azar Mehrabadi, Sarka Lisonkova, K S Joseph
BACKGROUND: Although respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is considered a disease of prematurity, there is evidence to suggest heterogeneity between early and late gestation RDS. We examined the epidemiologic features of RDS occurring at early and late gestation. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study including live births in the United States in 2005-06, with information obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics. Early (<32 weeks) and late gestation RDS (≥39 weeks) were contrasted in terms of risk factors and associations with pregnancy complications, obstetric intervention and co-morbidity...
September 27, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Martin Kirkpatrick, Alice Jollands
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 23, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Rani Ameena Bashir, Liza Espinoza, Sakeer Vayalthrikkovil, Jeffrey Buchhalter, Leigh Irvine, Luis Bello-Espinosa, Khorshid Mohammad
BACKGROUND: We report the impact of implementing continuous video electroencephalography monitoring for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy via a protocol in the context of neonatal neuro-critical care program. METHODS: Neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy were studied retrospectively two years before and after implementing continuous video electroencephalography for 72 hours as a care protocol. Before continuous video electroencephalography, a 60-minute routine electroencephalography was performed at the discretion of the provider...
August 3, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Sabina Patel, Girish Rayanagoudar, Susan Gelding
Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation and plays an essential role in neuronal, skeletal and cardiac tissue. Hypomagnesaemia can cause hypocalcaemia by inhibiting parathyroid hormone release and inducing resistance at its receptor sites. Untreated hypomagnesaemia can lead to tetany, recurrent seizures, status epilepticus and life-threatening arrhythmias. Primary hypomagnesaemia with secondary hypocalcaemia (HSH) is a rare metabolic disorder of intestinal magnesium absorption. The condition typically presents in the neonatal period with neuromuscular excitability and seizures refractory to antiepileptic therapy...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Jaime R Torres, Luiza H Falleiros-Arlant, Lourdes Dueñas, Jorge Pleitez-Navarrete, Doris M Salgado, José Brea-Del Castillo
BACKGROUND: During the years 2014 and 2015, the Region of the Americas underwent a devastating epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) of the Asian genotype, resulting in millions of affected individuals. However, epidemiological and clinical information on this experience is scarce. Prior knowledge of congenital and neonatal illness caused by CHIKV is limited and almost exclusively based on data obtained from a single outbreak of the East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype. The effect of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) on pregnancy outcomes and its consequences for infants born to infected mothers at the peak of the epidemic wave in Latin America are reviewed herein...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Sarah L Nickerson, Shanti Balasubramaniam, Philippa A Dryland, Jennifer M Love, Maina P Kava, Donald R Love, Debra O Prosser
Nonketotic hyperglycinemia, also known as glycine encephalopathy (OMIM #605899), is an autosomal recessive disorder of glycine metabolism resulting from a defect in the glycine cleavage system. We report two novel mutations of the glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) gene observed in a compound heterozygous state in a neonate of mixed Maori and Caucasian parentage: c.395C>T p.(Ser132Leu) in exon 3, and c.256-?_334+?del p.(Ser86Valfs*119), resulting in an out-of-frame deletion of exon 2. Additionally, we describe our experience of implementing the ketogenic diet, alongside standard pharmacological therapy, and highlight its potential therapeutic benefit in severe nonketotic hyperglycinemia, particularly in seizure management...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
M N Islam, M A Hossain, L Yeasmin, A Dutta, F Ahmad, R H Khan
Seizures are most common neurological emergency in the neonatal period and present as a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to clinicians worldwide. This prospective observational study was conducted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital from January 2015 to March 2015. Total 318 patients were enrolled in the study who presented with convulsion. Most of the patients were term (72.95%) and birth weight was normal (77.3%). Around 75% patients were delivered at home. Most common causes of convulsion were Perinatal Asphyxia (78%) followed by Septicemia, Hypoglycemia and Meningitis in order of frequency...
July 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Rebecca R Adami, Maureen E Grundy, Andrea Poretti, Ryan J Felling, Monica Lemmon, Ernest M Graham
OBJECTIVE: To identify perinatal risk factors that can distinguish arterial ischemic stroke from hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at birth. METHODS: This is a cohort study of all neonates born at 35 weeks of gestation or greater admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2015, that compares neonates with stroke with those with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy undergoing whole-body hypothermia with abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging...
October 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
John J Millichap, Kristen L Park, Tammy Tsuchida, Bruria Ben-Zeev, Lionel Carmant, Robert Flamini, Nishtha Joshi, Paul M Levisohn, Eric Marsh, Srishti Nangia, Vinodh Narayanan, Xilma R Ortiz-Gonzalez, Marc C Patterson, Phillip L Pearl, Brenda Porter, Keri Ramsey, Emily L McGinnis, Maurizio Taglialatela, Molly Tracy, Baouyen Tran, Charu Venkatesan, Sarah Weckhuysen, Edward C Cooper
OBJECTIVE: To advance the understanding of KCNQ2 encephalopathy genotype-phenotype relationships and to begin to assess the potential of selective KCNQ channel openers as targeted treatments. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 23 patients with KCNQ2 encephalopathy, including 11 treated with ezogabine (EZO). We analyzed the genotype-phenotype relationships in these and 70 previously described patients. RESULTS: The mean seizure onset age was 1...
October 2016: Neurology. Genetics
Abolfazl Khoshdel, Hajar Noormohammadi, Soleiman Kheiri, Roya Reisi, Seyed Mohammad-Kazem Nourbakhsh, Gholam Reza Panahandeh, Esfandiar Heidarian
OBJECTIVES: Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is very significant in perinatal medicine due to the involvement of the central nervous system. This study was conducted to investigate the biochemical, clinical, and paraclinical changes associated with phenobarbital administration in neonates with PA. METHODS: In this prospective, case-control study, 30 neonates with PA in two groups of 15 each (case and control) were investigated. The case group received 20 mg/kg intravenous phenobarbital within six hours of birth, and the control group did not receive phenobarbital...
September 2016: Oman Medical Journal
Yasunari Niimi
Intracranial arteriovenous shunts (ICAVSs) in young children are characterized with frequent high flow fistulas. In association of high flow fistulas and physiological condition of the developing brain and heart, each disease tends to present at a certain age with unique symptoms. Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) and dural sinus malformation (DSM) with arteriovenous (AV) shunts tend to present in neonate with high output cardiac failure. In infancy, VGAM, pial AVF and infantile dural AVF tend to present with hydrodynamic disorder such as macrocephaly, ventriculomegaly, prominent facial veins, and developmental delay...
September 7, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
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