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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221340/archaeogenomic-evidence-reveals-prehistoric-matrilineal-dynasty
#1
Douglas J Kennett, Stephen Plog, Richard J George, Brendan J Culleton, Adam S Watson, Pontus Skoglund, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Kristin Stewardson, Logan Kistler, Steven A LeBlanc, Peter M Whiteley, David Reich, George H Perry
For societies with writing systems, hereditary leadership is documented as one of the hallmarks of early political complexity and governance. In contrast, it is unknown whether hereditary succession played a role in the early formation of prehistoric complex societies that lacked writing. Here we use an archaeogenomic approach to identify an elite matriline that persisted between 800 and 1130 CE in Chaco Canyon, the centre of an expansive prehistoric complex society in the Southwestern United States. We show that nine individuals buried in an elite crypt at Pueblo Bonito, the largest structure in the canyon, have identical mitochondrial genomes...
February 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220680/an-environmental-sociology-for-the-anthropocene
#2
Gary Bowden
Attention to the relationship between nature and society has been a defining feature of environmental sociology since its inception. Early research, incorporating insights from ecology, argued for the need to (1) theorize the causal connections between nature and society and (2) contextualize those connections in terms of biophysical limits resulting from resource scarcity. Over the past two decades, partly in response to new forms of existential threat such as climate change, the treatment of nature and society as distinct entities has given way to a focus on socio-natural assemblages...
February 2017: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212675/sex-differences-in-the-association-of-skin-advanced-glycation-endproducts-with-knee-osteoarthritis-progression
#3
Charles B Eaton, Maria Sayeed, Syeda Ameernaz, Mary B Roberts, John D Maynard, Jeffrey B Driban, Timothy E McAlindon
BACKGROUND: The accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts in articular cartilage has been suggested as an etiologic factor in the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of skin advanced glycation endproducts (sAGEs) measured non-invasively by skin intrinsic fluorescence and the relationship between sAGE KOA progression in 160 men and 287 women in a sub-cohort of the Osteoarthritis Initiative at a single site...
February 17, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203042/relationship-between-dose-of-antithyroid-drugs-and-adverse-events-in-pediatric-patients-with-graves-disease
#4
Kie Yasuda, Yoko Miyoshi, Makiko Tachibana, Noriyuki Namba, Kazunori Miki, Yukiko Nakata, Toru Takano, Keiichi Ozono
Graves' disease (GD) accounts for a large proportion of pediatric hyperthyroidism, and the first-line treatment is antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy. Methimazole (MMI) is effective in most patients but is associated with significant adverse events (AEs). We reviewed the medical records of GD patients (n = 56) with onset age of <15 yr and investigated the relationship between MMI dose and AEs. The study population comprised 11 male and 45 female patients and the median age at diagnosis was 11 yr. All patients were initially treated with ATDs...
January 2017: Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology: Case Reports and Clinical Investigations: Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202587/it-s-cool-to-be-dominant-social-status-alters-short-term-risks-of-heat-stress
#5
Susan J Cunningham, Michelle L Thompson, Andrew E McKechnie
Climate change has potential to trigger social change. As a first step towards understanding mechanisms determining the vulnerability of animal societies to rising temperatures, we investigated interactions between social rank and thermoregulation in three arid-zone bird species: fawn-coloured lark (Mirafra africanoides, territorial); African red-eyed bulbul (Pycnonotus nigricans, loosely social) and sociable weaver (Philetairus socius, complex cooperative societies). We assessed relationships between body temperature (Tb), air temperature (Ta) and social rank in captive groups in the Kalahari Desert...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202136/foreign-aid-allocation-from-a-network-perspective-the-effect-of-global-ties
#6
Liam Swiss
This article examines competing explanations for foreign aid allocation on the global level and argues for a new approach to understanding aid from an institutionalist perspective. Using network data on all official bilateral aid relationships between countries in the period from 1975 through 2006 and data on recipient country ties to world society, the article offers an alternative explanation for the allocation of global foreign aid. Fixed effects negative binomial regression models on a panel sample of 117 developing countries reveal that global ties to world society in the form of non-governmental memberships and treaty ratifications are strong determinants of the network centrality of recipient countries in the global foreign aid network...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199782/social-independence-among-adult-congenital-heart-disease-patients-in-japan
#7
Ryota Ochiai, Yukitaka Ikeda, Hitoshi Kato, Isao Shiraishi
BACKGROUND: As treatment outcomes for congenital heart disease have improved, the social independence of adult congenital heart disease patients has become a key goal. We aimed to (1) determine the relationship between social independence and psychological profiles in these patients, and (2) identify patient anxieties, difficulties, and demands related to life in society. METHODS: A total of 143 patients aged ≥15 years who had physical disability certificates were selected using a questionnaire distributed by a patients association...
February 15, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199774/sarcopenia-predicts-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#8
Tatsunori Hanai, Makoto Shiraki, Satoshi Watanabe, Takahiro Kochi, Kenji Imai, Atsushi Suetsugu, Koji Takai, Hisataka Moriwaki, Masahito Shimizu
AIM: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and sarcopenia impair the health-related quality of life and prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis; however, the relationship between MHE and sarcopenia remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate their relationship and to identify the predictors of MHE in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated 120 cirrhotic patients who were tested for MHE and sarcopenia. MHE was diagnosed by using the computer-aided neuropsychiatric test...
February 15, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199424/-madness-poverty-and-society-when-poverty-becomes-mental-illness
#9
Andrés Rousseaux
The aim of this article is to review the literature on the relationship between homeless and serious mental illness. For both concepts there are different definitions, which will be promptly worked according to the analysis. The study of this issue, particularly outside the scope of our country just highlights the lack of information about this topic in our country. In addition, the following work aims to discuss the relationship between homeless and serious mental illness, as well as a new perspective of work with respect to this issue...
March 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199006/symptom-incidence-distress-cancer-related-distress-and-adherence-to-chemotherapy-among-african-american-women-with-breast-cancer
#10
Melissa K Yee, Susan M Sereika, Catherine M Bender, Adam M Brufsky, Mary C Connolly, Margaret Q Rosenzweig
BACKGROUND: There is a persistent racial survival disparity between African American (AA) and white women with breast cancer. There is evidence that symptom incidence, associated distress, and overall cancer-related distress may be unexplored, important contributing factors. The purpose of the current study was to: 1) describe and compare the number of chemotherapy-related symptoms and associated distress among AA women with breast cancer over the course of chemotherapy at 3 time points (at baseline before initiating chemotherapy, midpoint, and at the completion of chemotherapy); and 2) to describe the relationship between the number of chemotherapy-related symptoms and overall cancer distress compared with the ability to receive at least 85% of the prescribed chemotherapy within the prescribed timeframe...
February 15, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196999/indian-psychiatric-society-multicentric-study-correlates-of-prescription-patterns-of-psychotropics-in-india
#11
Sandeep Grover, Ajit Avasthi, Vishal Sinha, Bhavesh Lakdawala, Manish Bathla, Sujata Sethi, D M Mathur, Puneet Kathuria, Sandip Shah, D Sai Baalasubramanian, Vivek Agarwal, Kamla Deka
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of information on the clinical and sociodemographic correlates of prescription of psychotropics by psychiatrists. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship of prescription patterns with various clinical and sociodemographic variables. METHODOLOGY: Data of prescription patterns, psychiatric diagnosis, sociodemographic variables, and comorbid physical illnesses were collected for 4480 patients, across 11 centers...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196638/japanese-guidelines-for-adult-asthma-2017
#12
REVIEW
Masakazu Ichinose, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Hiroyuki Nagase, Masao Yamaguchi, Hiromasa Inoue, Hironori Sagara, Jun Tamaoki, Yuji Tohda, Mitsuru Munakata, Kohei Yamauchi, Ken Ohta
Adult bronchial asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, and presents clinically with variable airway narrowing (wheezes and dyspnea) and cough. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling, leading to intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased; however, the number of patients who die of asthma has decreased (1.2 per 100,000 patients in 2015). The goal of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to attain normal pulmonary function and lead a normal life, without any symptoms...
February 11, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195638/significant-changes-in-sexual-behavior-after-a-diagnosis-of-human-papillomavirus-positive-and-human-papillomavirus-negative-oral-cancer
#13
Miren Taberna, Ronald C Inglehart, Robert K L Pickard, Carole Fakhry, Amit Agrawal, Mira L Katz, Maura L Gillison
BACKGROUND: Sexual behavior and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The effects of OSCC diagnosis and treatment on subsequent relationship stress and sexual behavior are unknown. METHODS: Incident cases of HPV-positive or HPV-negative OSCC in patients who had a partnered relationship and partners of patients with oropharyngeal cancer were eligible for a study in which surveys were administered at diagnosis and at the 6-month follow-up time point to assess relationship distress, HPV transmission and concerns about health consequences, and sexual behavior...
February 14, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195021/the-role-of-school-principals-in-shaping-children-s-values
#14
Yair Berson, Shaul Oreg
Instilling values in children is among the cornerstones of every society. There is wide agreement that beyond academic teaching, schools play an important role in shaping schoolchildren's character, imparting in them values such as curiosity, achievement, benevolence, and citizenship. Despite the importance of this topic, we know very little about whether and how schools affect children's values. In this large-scale longitudinal study, we examined school principals' roles in the development of children's values...
December 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192596/integrating-next-generation-sequencing-into-pediatric-oncology-practice-an-assessment-of-physician-confidence-and-understanding-of-clinical-genomics
#15
Liza-Marie Johnson, Jessica M Valdez, Emily A Quinn, April D Sykes, Rose B McGee, Regina Nuccio, Stacy J Hines-Dowell, Justin N Baker, Chimene Kesserwan, Kim E Nichols, Belinda N Mandrell
BACKGROUND: The incorporation of genomic testing to identify targetable somatic alterations and predisposing germline mutations into the clinical setting is becoming increasingly more common. Despite its potential usefulness, to the authors' knowledge physician confidence with regard to understanding and applying genomic testing remains unclear, particularly within the realm of pediatric oncology. METHODS: Before initiating an institutional feasibility study regarding the integration of clinical genomic testing, the authors surveyed pediatric oncologists regarding their confidence around understanding of genomic testing, perceived usefulness of test results, preferences around the disclosure of germline test results, and possible risks and benefits of testing...
February 13, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191646/non-invasive-evaluation-of-blood-oxygen-saturation-and-hematocrit-from-t1-and-t2-relaxation-times-in-vitro-validation-in-fetal-blood
#16
Sharon Portnoy, Mike Seed, John G Sled, Christopher K Macgowan
PURPOSE: We propose an analytical method for calculating blood hematocrit (Hct) and oxygen saturation (sO2 ) from measurements of its T1 and T2 relaxation times. THEORY: Through algebraic substitution, established two-compartment relationships describing R1=T1-1 and R2=T2-1 as a function of hematocrit and oxygen saturation were rearranged to solve for Hct and sO2 in terms of R1 and R2 . Resulting solutions for Hct and sO2 are the roots of cubic polynomials. METHODS: Feasibility of the method was established by comparison of Hct and sO2 estimates obtained from relaxometry measurements (at 1...
February 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190937/belonging-and-unbelonging-jewish-refugee-and-survivor-women-in-1950s-britain
#17
Angela Davis
This article analyses the life stories of female Jewish refugees and survivors in 1950s Britain in order to explore their relationship with the existing Jewish community and wider society. The paper is based on an analysis of twenty-one oral history testimonies from the Jewish survivors of the Holocaust collection held at the British library. Around 50,000 Jewish refugees from Central Europe came to Britain in the 1930s after fleeing from Hitler. In addition, a relatively small number of camp survivors and former hidden children settled in the country after the war; the Board of Deputies of British Jews Demographic Unit estimates the figure at 2000...
January 2, 2017: Women's History Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186656/phenotype-and-genotype-specific-structural-alterations-in-spasmodic-dysphonia
#18
Serena Bianchi, Giovanni Battistella, Hailey Huddleston, Rebecca Scharf, Lazar Fleysher, Anna F Rumbach, Steven J Frucht, Andrew Blitzer, Laurie J Ozelius, Kristina Simonyan
BACKGROUND: Spasmodic dysphonia is a focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles that occur selectively during speaking. Although hereditary trends have been reported in up to 16% of patients, the causative etiology of spasmodic dysphonia is unclear, and the influences of various phenotypes and genotypes on disorder pathophysiology are poorly understood. In this study, we examined structural alterations in cortical gray matter and white matter integrity in relationship to different phenotypes and putative genotypes of spasmodic dysphonia to elucidate the structural component of its complex pathophysiology...
February 10, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185350/development-of-a-strategy-for-the-total-chemical-synthesis-of-an-allergenic-protein-the-peach-ltp-pru-p-3
#19
Sofie Buhler, Jaap H Akkerdaas, Thelma A Pertinhez, Ronald Van Ree, Arnaldo Dossena, Stefano Sforza, Tullia Tedeschi
The possibility to obtain allergenic proteins by means of total chemical synthesis would be a big step forward in the development of cures to food allergy and in the study of the mechanism of allergic reactions, because this would allow to achieve control at the molecular level over the structure of the product and to study its relationship with the allergenic activity in fine details. This is instead not possible by using allergens produced by extraction from natural sources or by recombinant DNA techniques...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184156/lung-and-kidney-a-dangerous-liaison-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-copd-patients-in-italy
#20
Ugo Fedeli, Alfredo De Giorgi, Nicola Gennaro, Eliana Ferroni, Massimo Gallerani, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Roberto Manfredini, Fabio Fabbian
BACKGROUND: COPD is among the major causes of death, and it is associated with several comorbid conditions. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is frequently diagnosed in older people living in Western societies and could impact COPD patients' mortality. We evaluated the relationship between burden of comorbidities, CKD, and mortality in a population-based cohort of patients discharged with a diagnosis of COPD. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted evaluating 27,272 COPD patients...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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