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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145631/rifaximin-fails-to-prevent-campylobacteriosis-in-the-human-challenge-model-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#1
Joanna E Rimmer, Clayton Harro, David A Sack, Kawsar R Talaat, Ramiro L Gutierrez, Barbara DeNearing, Jessica Brubaker, Renee M Laird, Frédéric Poly, Alexander C Maue, Kayla Jaep, Ashley Alcala, Yelizaveta Mochalova, Christina L Gariepy, Subhra Chakraborty, Patricia Guerry, David R Tribble, Chad K Porter, Mark S Riddle
Background: Campylobacter species are a leading cause of diarrheal disease globally with significant morbidity. Primary prevention efforts have yielded limited results. Rifaximin chemoprophylaxis decreases travelers' diarrhea rates and may be suitable for high risk persons. We assessed the efficacy of rifaximin in the controlled human infection model (CHIM) for Campylobacter jejuni. Methods: Twenty-eight subjects were admitted to an inpatient facility and randomized to a twice daily dose of 550 mg rifaximin or placebo...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141717/diagnostic-accuracy-of-global-pharma-health-fund-minilab%C3%A2-in-assessing-pharmacopoeial-quality-of-antimicrobials
#2
Hui Pan, William Ba-Thein
Global Pharma Health Fund (GPHF) Minilab™, a semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-based commercially available test kit, is widely used in drug quality surveillance globally, but its diagnostic accuracy is unclear. We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of minilab system for antimicrobials, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as reference standard. Following the Minilab protocols and the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China protocols, Minilab-TLC and HPLC were used to test five common antimicrobials (506 batches) for relative concentration of active pharmaceutical ingredients...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141346/-etiologic-characteristics-of-shigella-sonnei-strains-isolated-from-some-areas-of-guangdong-province-and-guangxi-zhuang-autonomous-region-of-china-2014-2016
#3
B S Li, L J Chen, B X Ke, J M Lin, L Q Xu, H L Tan, D M He, Y H Liang, C W Ke, Y H Zhang
Objective: To investigated the etiologic characteristics of Shigella (S.) sonnei strains causing outbreaks and sporadic cases in some areas of Guangdong province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region during 2014-2016. Methods: Fourteen S. sonnei strains isolated from outbreaks and 6 S. sonnei strains from sporadic cases from Guangdong and Liuzhou of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region were tested for antimicrobial resistance and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Six typical strains were selected for whole genome sequencing typing and compared with 51 strains isolated both at home and abroad from NCBI genome database...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141264/comparison-of-azithromycin-versus-erythromycin-for-prolongation-of-latency-in-pregnancies-complicated-by-preterm-premature-rupture-of-membranes-podcast
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140407/targeted-treatment-of-yaws-with-household-contact-tracing-how-much-do-we-miss
#5
Louise Dyson, Michael Marks, Oliver M Crook, Oliver Sokana, Anthony W Solomon, Alex Bishop, David C W Mabey, T Déirdre Hollingsworth
Yaws is a disabling bacterial infection primarily found in warm and humid tropical areas. The World Health Organisation strategy mandates an initial round of total community treatment (TCT) with single-dose azithromycin followed either by further TCT or active case finding and treatment of cases and their contacts (the Morges strategy). We wish to investigate the effectiveness of the Morges strategy. We employ a stochastic household model to study the transmission of infection using data collected from a pre-TCT survey conducted in the Solomon Islands...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138101/primary-antibiotic-resistance-of-helicobacter-pylori-in-chinese-patients-a-multi-region-prospective-7-year-study
#6
Dong-Sheng Liu, You-Hua Wang, Zhi-Rong Zeng, Zhen-Yu Zhang, Hong Lu, Jian-Ming Xu, Yi-Qi Du, Yan Li, Jiang-Bin Wang, San-Ping Xu, Ye Chen, Chun-Hui Lan, Hong Cheng, Ming-de Jiang, Ling-Xia Zhang, Li-Juan Huo, Shi-Yao Chen, Guo-Xin Zhang, Kai-Chun Wu, Xuan Zhu, You-Xiang Chen, Yin Zhu, Xu Shu, Yong Xie, Nong-Hua Lu
OBJECTIVES: To explore the characteristics of H. pylori resistance in China and the association between antibiotic resistance and several clinical factors. METHODS: H. pylori strains were collected from patients in 13 provinces/cities in China between 2010 and 2016. Demographic data including type of disease, geographic area, age, gender and isolation year were collected to analyse their association with antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance was detected using the Epsilometer test and the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method...
November 11, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132466/-association-of-drug-resistance-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-with-dna-load-and-genotypes-in-children-with-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia
#7
Hui-Fen Zhang, Hai-Tao Bai, Ji-Ming Li, Hui Xie, Ye Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of drug resistance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) with DNA load and genotypes in children with MP pneumonia. METHODS: A total of 230 children who were hospitalized and diagnosed with MP pneumonia between January 2012 and December 2016 were enrolled. Throat swabs were collected from the 230 children, and a rapid drug sensitivity assay was used to determine the sensitivity of clinical isolates of MP to nine commonly used antibacterial agents...
November 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130018/virulence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-campylobacter-spp-from-a-peruvian-pediatric-cohort
#8
Angela Lluque, Maribel Riveros, Ana Prada, Theresa J Ochoa, Joaquim Ruiz
The presence of virulence factors (VFs) and mechanisms of quinolones and macrolide resistance was analyzed in Campylobacter spp. from a pediatric cohort study in Lima. In 149 isolates (39 Campylobacter jejuni and 24 Campylobacter coli from diarrheic cases; 57 C. jejuni and 29 C. coli from controls), the presence of the cdtABC and cadF genes and iam marker was established. Nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and azithromycin susceptibilities were established in 115 isolates and tetracycline-susceptibility was established in 100 isolates...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127369/suppression-of-th17-polarized-airway-inflammation-by-rapamycin
#9
Oana Joean, Anja Hueber, Felix Feller, Adan Chari Jirmo, Matthias Lochner, Anna-Maria Dittrich, Melanie Albrecht
Because Th17-polarized airway inflammation correlates with poor control in bronchial asthma and is a feature of numerous other difficult-to-treat inflammatory lung diseases, new therapeutic approaches for this type of airway inflammation are necessary. We assessed different licensed anti-inflammatory agents with known or expected efficacy against Th17-polarization in mouse models of Th17-dependent airway inflammation. Upon intravenous transfer of in vitro derived Th17 cells and intranasal challenge with the corresponding antigen, we established acute and chronic murine models of Th17-polarised airway inflammation...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114398/multi-system-manifestations-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-a-young-patient
#10
Ibrahim Al Busaidi, Mohammed Al-Amin, Shadin Ibrahim, Abdullah Balkhair, Zied Gaifer
Introduction.Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a small cell-wall-lacking bacterium that belongs to the mycoplasma (Mollicutes) prokaryote micro-organisms. It is a common cause of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections in all age groups. Respiratory illness is the most common manifestation of M. pneumoniae infection; however, extrapulmonary involvement may be present or predominant. The skin, mucus membranes, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, haematopoietic system, kidneys and musculoskeletal system are the most commonly involved extrapulmonary sites...
September 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112658/adding-azithromycin-to-cephalosporin-for-cesarean-delivery-infection-prophylaxis-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#11
Ashley E Skeith, Brenda Niu, Amy M Valent, Methodius G Tuuli, Aaron B Caughey
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cost-effectiveness of adding azithromycin to standard cephalosporin regimens of cesarean delivery prophylaxis by considering the maternal outcomes in the current and potential subsequent pregnancies. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness model was created using TreeAge to compare the outcomes of using azithromycin-cephalosporin with cephalosporin alone in a theoretical cohort of 700,000 women, the approximate number of nonelective cesarean deliveries annually in the United States that occur during labor or after membrane rupture...
November 3, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109879/legionnaires-disease-complicated-with-rhabdomyolysis-and-acute-kidney-injury-in-an-aids-patient
#12
Karan Seegobin, Satish Maharaj, Cherisse Baldeo, Julio Perez Downes, Pramod Reddy
Objective: To present a case of an uncommon triad of Legionella pneumonia, rhabdomyolysis, and renal failure, with review of the relevant literature. Case: A 51-year-old with a history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and hypertension presented with fever, cough, and shortness of breath over four days. Chest X-ray showed consolidation in left lower lung field; urine was positive for Legionella antigen and myoglobin; creatine kinase was 51092U/L; creatine was 6...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109165/validation-of-putative-apicoplast-targeting-drugs-using-a-chemical-supplementation-assay-in-cultured-human-malaria-parasites
#13
Taher Uddin, Geoffrey Ian McFadden, Christopher Dean Goodman
Malaria parasites contain a relict plastid, the apicoplast, which is considered an excellent drug target due to its bacterial-like ancestry. Numerous parasiticidals have been proposed to target the apicoplast, but few have had their actual targets substantiated. Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) production is the sole required function of the apicoplast in the blood stage of the parasite life cycle, and IPP supplementation rescues parasites from apicoplast perturbing drugs. Hence, any drug that kills parasites when IPP is supplied in culture must have a non-apicoplast target...
November 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107622/single-dose-azithromycin-to-treat-latent-yaws
#14
Michael Marks, David Mabey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107621/effectiveness-of-single-dose-azithromycin-to-treat-latent-yaws-a-longitudinal-comparative-cohort-study
#15
Oriol Mitjà, Camila González-Beiras, Charmie Godornes, Reman Kolmau, Wendy Houinei, Haina Abel, August Kapa, Raymond Paru, Sibauk V Bieb, James Wangi, Sergi Sanz, Kingsley Asiedu, Sheila A Lukehart, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Treatment of latent yaws is a crucial component of the WHO yaws eradication strategy to prevent relapse and the resulting transmission to uninfected children. We assessed the effectiveness of single-dose azithromycin to treat patients with latent yaws. METHODS: This population-based cohort study included children (age <20 years) living on Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea, with high-titre (rapid plasma reagin titre ≥1:8) latent or active yaws, between April, 2013, and May, 2015...
October 26, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106325/diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-and-shigella-with-high-rate-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-production-two-predominant-etiological-agents-of-acute-diarrhea-in-shiraz-iran
#16
Maneli Aminshahidi, Amir Arastehfar, Gholamreza Pouladfar, Esmayil Arman, Fereshteh Fani
This study was conducted to find the etiology of acute diarrhea in Iranian children and determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns. The pathogenic bacteria were recovered from 110/269 (40.9%) diarrheal fecal samples with the following profiles: the most predominant pathogen was diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) (43.6%), comprising enteroaggregative E. coli (23.6%), enteropathogenic E. coli (10.9%), enteroinvasive E. coli (5.5%), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (3.6%); Shigella spp. (37.3%), Salmonella spp...
November 6, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103396/prevalence-risk-factors-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-salmonella-diarrhoeal-infection-among-children-in-thi-qar-governorate-iraq
#17
A Harb, M O'Dea, Z K Hanan, S Abraham, I Habib
We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study among children aged <5 years in Thi-Qar Governorate, south-eastern Iraq, in order to examine the prevalence, risk factors and antimicrobial resistance associated with gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella infection. From 320 diarrhoea cases enrolled between March and August 2016, 33 (10·3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8·4-12·4) cases were stool culture-positive for non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica. The most commonly identified serovar was Typhimurium (54%)...
November 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103120/the-different-fate-of-antibiotics-in-the-thames-river-uk-and-the-katsura-river-japan
#18
Seiya Hanamoto, Norihide Nakada, Monika D Jürgens, Andrew C Johnson, Naoyuki Yamashita, Hiroaki Tanaka
Little is known about the mechanisms influencing the differences in attenuation of antibiotics between rivers. In this study, the natural attenuation of four antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin, sulfapyridine, and sulfamethoxazole) during transport along the Thames River, UK, over a distance of 8.3 km, and the Katsura River, Japan, over a distance of 7.6 km was compared. To assist interpretation of the field data, the individual degradation and sorption characteristics of the antibiotics were estimated by laboratory experiments using surface water or sediment taken from the same rivers...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101061/antimicrobial-efficacy-of-drug-blended-biosynthesized-colloidal-gold-nanoparticles-from-justicia-glauca-against-oral-pathogens-a-nanoantibiotic-approach
#19
Rayappan Emmanuel, Muthupandian Saravanan, Muhammad Ovais, Sethuramasamy Padmavathy, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Periyakaruppan Prakash
Antimicrobial resistance is a challenging task for researchers to develop new strategies. Green synthesis of AuNPs is an eco-friendly approach, which can be utilized in the microbistatic and microbicidal activities. The current study is focused on Justicia glauca (aqueous leaf extract) mediated AuNPs synthesis at room temperature by treating chloroaurate ions, that shows an antagonistic effect with Azithromycin (AZM) and Clarithromycin (CLR) antibiotics against oral pathogenic bacteria and fungi (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans)...
October 31, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098024/azithromycin-attenuates-acute-radiation-induced-lung-injury-in-mice
#20
Fei Tang, Rui Li, Jianxin Xue, Jie Lan, He Xu, Yongmei Liu, Lin Zhou, You Lu
Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a common and major obstacle in thoracic cancer radiotherapy, resulting in considerable morbidity and limiting the dose of radiation. However, an effective treatment option remains to be established. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of azithromycin (AZM) in acute RILI with a mouse model. In the present study, C57BL/6 mice were given a single thoracic irradiation of 16 Gy and administered orally with AZM. The lung histopathological findings, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA; an indicator of oxidative damage) and the concentration of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines in plasma were assessed on 28 day following irradiation...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
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