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Bhupesh Bagga, Savitri Sharma, Sai Jeevan Madhuri Guda, Ritu Nagpal, Joveeta Joseph, Kodiganti Manjulatha, Ashik Mohamed, Prashant Garg
BACKGROUND: Pythium insidiosum is a parafungus that causes keratitis resembling fungal keratitis. This study compares outcome in a large cohort of patients with P insidiosum keratitis treated with antifungal drugs, to a pilot group treated with antibacterial antibiotics. METHODS: Between January 2014 and December 2016, 114 patients with culture positive P insidiosum keratitis were included in the study. A subset of culture isolates was tested in vitro for response to nine antibacterial antibiotics by disc diffusion and E test...
March 15, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Carol Kelly, James D Chalmers, Iain Crossingham, Nicola Relph, Lambert M Felix, David J Evans, Stephen J Milan, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation and distortion of the smaller airways. Bacterial colonisation of the damaged airways leads to chronic cough and sputum production, often with breathlessness and further structural damage to the airways. Long-term macrolide antibiotic therapy may suppress bacterial infection and reduce inflammation, leading to fewer exacerbations, fewer symptoms, improved lung function, and improved quality of life...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Albert Boada, Mariona Pons-Vigués, Jordi Real, Elisabet Grezner, Bonventura Bolíbar, Carl Llor
INTRODUCTION: Commensal flora of healthy people is becoming an important reservoir of resistant bacteria. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship of previous antibiotic-dispensed and resistance pattern of strains of Staphylococcus aureus in primary care patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in seven primary care centres in Catalonia, Spain, from October 2010 to May 2011, as part of the APRES (The appropriateness of prescribing antibiotics in primary care in Europe concerning antibiotic resistance) study...
December 2018: European Journal of General Practice
Haili Luo, Shaohong Wang, Tongmei Yuan, Jingtao Liu, Ling Yao, Xianguo Pan, Xuemei Long, Juncheng Wu, Feng Shen
BACKGROUND: More and more cases of human infections with avian influenza A H7N9 have been reported since it was first mentioned in 2013 in China, but concurrence of influenza A H7N9 with Mycoplasma pneumoniae, however, has never been described. Here, we reported the case of a woman co-infected by influenza A H7N9 and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, whose treatment process was a little bit longer and a little bit complicated as well. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient was an 80-year-old Chinese woman who presented with fever, cough, chest tightness, and shortness of breath...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Xinfeng Zhang, Lei Wang, Renpeng Li, Peiqiang Hou, Yuanqing Zhang, Ming Fang, Bin Hu
The objective of this study was to investigate the presence and characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) from the intestinal tract. 43 KP strains were isolated from 551 stool specimens from diarrhea patients from 2013 to 2016,with a carriage rate of 7.80%. All isolates were hypervirulent KP (hvKp) strains with hypermucoviscosity (HM) phenotype. The virulence factors and antibiotic resistance exhibited diverse distribution. 2.33% (1/43), 2.33% (1/43), 6.98% (3/43), 6.98% (3/43), 4.65% (2/43), 11.63% (5/43) and 18...
March 14, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Alejandro Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro Margareto, Alejandro Rodriguez-Sanchez, Chiara Pesciaroli, Silvia Diaz-Cruz, Damia Barcelo, Riku Vahala
The emergence and spread of antibiotics resistance in wastewater treatment systems have been pointed as a major environmental health problem. Nevertheless, research about adaptation and antibiotics resistance gain in wastewater treatment systems subjected to antibiotics has not been successfully developed considering bioreactor performance, microbial community dynamics and microbial activity dynamics at the same time. To observe this in autotrophic nitrogen removal systems, a partial-nitritation biofilter was subjected to a continuous loading of antibiotics mix of azithromycin, norfloxacin, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Prabahs Prasun Giri, Joydeb Roy, Agnisekhar Saha
Aim of the Study: Scrub typhus has been globally recognized as an emerging infectious disease contributing significantly to pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) and a potential cause of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS). We studied the incidence of scrub typhus as a cause of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission and MODS in our hospital and its clinical and laboratory characteristics to measure the incidence of MODS caused by scrub typhus. Materials and Methods: This study was done in a pediatric teaching hospital in Kolkata, India...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Chuan Wan, Yang Li, Wen-Jing Le, Yu-Rong Liu, Sai Li, Baoxi Wang, Peter A Rice, Xiao-Hong Su
Azithromycin resistance (AZM-R) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is emerging as a clinical and public health challenge. We determined molecular characteristics of recent AZM-R Nanjing gonococcal isolates and tracked the emergence of AZM-R isolates in eastern Chinese cities in recent years. 384 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Nanjing collected from 2013 to 2014 were tested for susceptibility to AZM and six additional antibiotics; all AZM-R strains were characterized genetically for resistance determinants by sequencing and were genotyped using N...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Andreas Brandt Gormsen, Jon Erik-Fraes Diernæs, Jørgen Skov Jensen, Uffe Koppelhus
This is a case report of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) manifesting as haemorrhagic proctocolitis in a homosexual HIV-positive male. The primary symptom was a rectal abscess, which was initially surgically treated and subsequently insufficiently treated with single-dose tablet azithromycin. The patient's symptoms were successfully treated after a 21-day doxycycline regime. LGV is a sexually transmitted infection with a rising incidence among persons with risk behaviour. This case report underlines the importance, that all positive rectal screenings for Chlamydia trachomatis should be routinely serotyped...
March 12, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Chris A Whitehouse, Shenia Young, Cong Li, Chih-Hao Hsu, Gordon Martin, Shaohua Zhao
Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has become a rapid and affordable tool for public health surveillance and outbreak detection. In this study, we used the Illuminia MiSeq® to sequence 589 Campylobacter isolates obtained in 2015 from retail poultry meats as part of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). WGS data were used to identify the Campylobacter species and to compare the concordance between resistance genotypes and phenotypes. WGS accurately identified 386 C. jejuni and 203 C. coli using gyrA sequence information...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Magnus Unemo, Kimberly Workowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Helen Fifer, Michelle Cole, Gwenda Hughes, Simon Padfield, Christa Smolarchuk, Neil Woodford, Adrian Wensley, Nazim Mustafa, Ulf Schaefer, Richard Myers, Kate Templeton, Jill Shepherd, Anthony Underwood
BACKGROUND: Between Nov 3, 2014, and Feb 24, 2017, 70 cases of high-level azithromycin-resistant (HL-AziR; minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≥256 mg/L) Neisseria gonorrhoeae were reported from across England. Whole-genome sequencing was done to investigate this outbreak to determine whether the ongoing outbreak represented clonal spread of an HL-AziR N gonorrhoeae strain identified in Leeds. We also wanted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of azithromycin resistance in N gonorrhoeae in the UK...
March 6, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Anna Lena Zogg, Katrin Zurfluh, Sarah Schmitt, Magdalena Nüesch-Inderbinen, Roger Stephan
Among 64 uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolated from 13 cats and 51 dogs, 35 were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers, and 29 were non-ESBL producers. Forty-six (71.9%) of the isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). Among the ESBL producers, blaCTX-M-15 (n = 17/48.6% of the blaESBLs ), blaCTX-M-1 (n = 10/28.6%), blaCTX-M-55 (n = 4/11.4%), blaCTX-M-14 (n = 3/8.6%), and blaCTX-M-27 (n = 1/2.9%) were identified. The plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance genes aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrB and the azithromycin resistance gene mph(A) were detected in 17 (26...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Runjun Dowarah, Ashok Kumar Verma, Neeta Agarwal, Putan Singh, Bhoj Raj Singh
The present study was aimed to develop an effective probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from piglet feces and in vitro characterization of probiotic properties. To confirm host-species specificity of probiotics, the efficacy of isolated LAB on growth, nutrient utilization, health and antioxidant status was observed in early weaned piglets. A total of 30 LAB were isolated from feces of five healthy piglets (28d old). All isolates were Gram positive, cocco-bacilli and catalase negative. Out of thirty LAB isolates, twenty were shortlisted on the basis of their tolerance to pH (3...
2018: PloS One
Frank A Post, Alexander J Szubert, Andrew J Prendergast, Victoria Johnston, Hermione Lyall, Felicity Fitzgerald, Victor Musiime, Godfrey Musoro, Priscilla Chepkorir, Clara Agutu, Jane Mallewa, Chathurika Rajapakse, Helen Wilkes, James Hakim, Peter Mugyenyi, A Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb, Sarah L Pett
Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, 20%-25% of people starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) have severe immunosuppression; approximately 10% die within 3 months. In the Reduction of EArly mortaLITY (REALITY) randomized trial, a broad enhanced anti-infection prophylaxis bundle reduced mortality vs cotrimoxazole. We investigate the contribution and timing of different causes of mortality/morbidity. Methods: Participants started ART with a CD4 count <100 cells/µL; enhanced prophylaxis comprised cotrimoxazole plus 12 weeks of isoniazid + fluconazole, single-dose albendazole, and 5 days of azithromycin...
March 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004927.].
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Weihua Wang, Wanfeng Zhang, Hong Liang, Dawen Gao
A method was established for coupled solid phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, to simultaneously detect 12 common antibiotics belonging to 4 types (sulfonamides, macrolides, fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins) in surface water environments. The characteristic distribution and seasonal variation in antibiotic content was investigated in the Harbin section of the Songhua River basin, Northeastern China. The results showed that the 12 antibiotics monitored were all detected to varying degrees, with 100% detection rates for sulfamethoxazole (SMX), cefazolin (CFZ), ofloxacin (OFL), flumequine (FLU), azithromycin (AZI) and roxithromycin (ROX) in all sampling sites...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Technology
Pooja Agarwal, A R Anvikar, C R Pillai, Kumkum Srivastava
Background & objectives: : The in vitro assays for susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to antimalarial drugs are important tools for monitoring drug resistance. During the present study, efforts were made to establish long-term continuous in vitro culture of Indian field isolates of P. falciparum and to determine their sensitivity to standard antimalarial drugs and antibiotics. Methods: Four (MZR-I, -II, -III and -IV) P. falciparum isolates were obtained from four patients who showed artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) from Mizoram, a north-eastern State of India, and characterized for their in vitro susceptibility to chloroquine diphosphate (CQ), quinine hydrochloride dehydrate, mefloquine, piperaquine, artemether, arteether, dihydro-artemisinin (DHA), lumefantrine and atovaquone and antibiotics, azithromycin and doxycycline...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Soazig Clifton, Katy Town, Martina Furegato, Michelle Cole, Hamish Mohammed, Sarah C Woodhall, J Kevin Dunbar, Helen Fifer, Gwenda Hughes
OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that treatment of STIs with azithromycin may facilitate development of azithromycin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) by exposing the organism to suboptimal doses. We investigated whether treatment history for non-rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) or NG (proxies for azithromycin exposure) in sexual health (GUM) services was associated with susceptibility of NG to azithromycin. METHODS: Azithromycin susceptibility data from the Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobials Surveillance Programme (GRASP 2013-2015, n=4606) and additional high-level azithromycin-resistant isolates (HL-AziR) identified by the Public Health England reference laboratory (2013-2016, n=54) were matched to electronic patient records in the national GUMCAD STI surveillance dataset (2012-2016)...
March 6, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Vikram Singh, Manju Bala, Aradhana Bhargava, Monika Kakran, Ravi Bhatnagar
BACKGROUND: Recent WHO guidelines recommend dual therapy with ceftriaxone or cefixime plus azithromycin for gonorrhea. Azithromycin in combination with gentamicin or spectinomycin has been recommended in treatment failure cases. Due to emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug resistant (XDR) Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains, it is important to look for efficacy of these combinations and also of others that might be used in future. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate in vitro synergy of 21 dual combinations including current and alternative WHO recommended treatment regimens and other dual combinations...
2018: PloS One
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