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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335413/chitin-oligosaccharide-cos-reduces-antibiotics-dose-and-prevents-antibiotics-caused-side-effects-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-ais-patients-with-spinal-fusion-surgery
#1
Yang Qu, Jinyu Xu, Haohan Zhou, Rongpeng Dong, Mingyang Kang, Jianwu Zhao
Antibiotics are always considered for surgical site infection (SSI) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. However, the use of antibiotics often causes the antibiotic resistance of pathogens and side effects. Thus, it is necessary to explore natural products as drug candidates. Chitin Oligosaccharide (COS) has anti-inflammation and anti-bacteria functions. The effects of COS on surgical infection in AIS surgery were investigated. A total of 312 AIS patients were evenly and randomly assigned into control group (CG, each patient took one-gram alternative Azithromycin/Erythromycin/Cloxacillin/Aztreonam/Ceftazidime or combined daily), experiment group (EG, each patient took 20 mg COS and half-dose antibiotics daily), and placebo group (PG, each patient took 20 mg placebo and half-dose antibiotics daily)...
March 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333355/wgs-to-predict-antibiotic-mics-for-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#2
David W Eyre, Dilrini De Silva, Kevin Cole, Joanna Peters, Michelle J Cole, Yonatan H Grad, Walter Demczuk, Irene Martin, Michael R Mulvey, Derrick W Crook, A Sarah Walker, Tim E A Peto, John Paul
Background: Tracking the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major priority for national surveillance programmes. Objectives: We investigate whether WGS and simultaneous analysis of multiple resistance determinants can be used to predict antimicrobial susceptibilities to the level of MICs in N. gonorrhoeae. Methods: WGS was used to identify previously reported potential resistance determinants in 681 N. gonorrhoeae isolates, from England, the USA and Canada, with phenotypes for cefixime, penicillin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline determined as part of national surveillance programmes...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329388/healthcare-claims-data-an-underutilized-tool-for-pediatric-outpatient-antimicrobial-stewardship
#3
Joshua R Watson, Ling Wang, Jennifer Klima, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Sean Gleeson, Kelly Kelleher, Preeti Jaggi
Background: Healthcare claims are under-utilized to identify factors associated with high outpatient antibiotic use. Methods: We evaluated ambulatory encounter claims of Medicaid-insured children in 34 Ohio counties in 2014. 1) Rates of total antibiotic and azithromycin prescriptions dispensed were determined by county of patient residence. 2) Standardized treatment rates by county were estimated for uncomplicated upper respiratory tract encounters (acute otitis media, pharyngitis, sinusitis, presumed viral infection) after adjusting for patient age and encounter provider type...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329181/treatment-response-in-enteric-fever-in-an-era-of-increasing-antimicrobial-resistance-an-individual-patient-data-analysis-of-2-092-participants-enrolled-into-four-randomised-controlled-trials-in-nepal
#4
Corinne N Thompsom, Abhilasha Karkey, Sabina Dongol, Amit Ariyal, Marcel Wolbers, Thomas Darton, Jeremey J Farrar, Guy E Thwaites, Christiane Dolecek, Buddha Basnyat, Stephen Baker
Background: Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is the leading cause of bacterial febrile disease in South Asia. Methods: Individual patient data from 2,092 subjects with enteric fever randomised into four trials in Kathmandu, Nepal was pooled. All trials compared gatifloxacin with a comparator drug: cefixime, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, or ceftriaxone. Treatment outcomes were evaluated according to antimicrobial if S. Typhi/Paratyphi were isolated from blood...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327498/activity-of-sulfa-drugs-and-their-combinations-against-stationary-phase-b-burgdorferi-in-vitro
#5
Jie Feng, Shuo Zhang, Wanliang Shi, Ying Zhang
Lyme disease is a most common vector-borne disease in the US. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with the standard two- to four-week antibiotic treatment, at least 10%-20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). While the cause for this is unclear, one possibility is that persisting organisms are not killed by current Lyme antibiotics. In our previous studies, we screened an FDA drug library and an NCI compound library on B. burgdorferi and found some drug hits including sulfa drugs as having good activity against B...
March 22, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322207/first-report-of-rahnella-aquatilis-infection-in-crucian-carp-carassius-auratus-in-china
#6
Ai-Jun Lü, Rui-Xia Wang, Xiu-Cai Hu, Jing-Feng Sun, Li Li, Chao Pei, Chao Zhang, Guo-Xing Nie
Rahnella aquatilis infection is rare in aquaculture. Here, a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from diseased crucian carp Carassius auratus in Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province, eastern China. The isolate was tentatively named strain KCL-5, and subsequently identified as R. aquatilis by biochemical properties and molecular techniques. The results showed that the isolate KCL-5 was most closely related to the type strain ATCC33071 (= DSM4594) of R. aquatilis, which shared 99.67, 96.26 and 99.58% nucleotide sequence identities for 16S rDNA, gyrB and toxin yhaV genes, respectively...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298821/effect-of-azithromycin-on-gingival-overgrowth-induced-by-cyclosporine-a-nifedipine-combination-therapy-a-morphometric-analysis-in-rats
#7
Madhu Singh Ratre, Dhoom Singh Mehta
BACKGROUND: Drug-induced gingival overgrowth (DIGO) is a well-known adverse effect of cyclosporine A (CsA) and nifedipine (Nf) therapy. The aim of the present morphometric study was to evaluate the effect of azithromycin (Azi) on the combined GO in rats induced by CsA + Nf combination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided equally into three groups. Group 1 (control) received olive oil only; Group 2 received a combination of CsA and Nf in olive oil throughout the study period; Group 3 received CsA + Nf combination therapy, and Azi was added for 1 week in the 5(th) week...
July 2016: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292316/efficacy-safety-and-tolerance-of-imidocarb-dipropionate-versus-atovaquone-or-buparvaquone-plus-azithromycin-used-to-treat-sick-dogs-naturally-infected-with-the-babesia-microti-like-piroplasm
#8
Rocío Checa, Ana Montoya, Nieves Ortega, José Luis González-Fraga, Adrián Bartolomé, Rosa Gálvez, Valentina Marino, Guadalupe Miró
BACKGROUND: Piroplasmosis caused by the Babesia microti-like piroplasm (Bml) is increasingly being detected in dogs in Europe. Sick dogs show acute disease with severe anaemia associated with thrombocytopenia with a poor response to current available drugs. This study assesses the safety and tolerance of three treatments and compares their efficacy over a full year of follow up in dogs naturally infected with Bml. METHODS: Fifty-nine dogs naturally infected with Bml were randomly assigned to a treatment group: imidocarb dipropionate (5 mg/kg SC, 2 doses 14 d apart) (IMI); atovaquone (13...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288170/therapeutic-efficacy-of-azithromycin-clarithromycin-minocycline-and-tosufloxacin-against-macrolide-resistant-and-macrolide-sensitive-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-in-pediatric-patients
#9
Nobuhisa Ishiguro, Naoko Koseki, Miki Kaiho, Tadashi Ariga, Hideaki Kikuta, Takehiro Togashi, Koji Oba, Keisuke Morita, Naoko Nagano, Masanori Nakanishi, Kazuya Hara, Kyosuke Hazama, Toru Watanabe, Tatsuru Yamanaka, Satoshi Sasaki, Hideto Furuyama, Mutsuo Shibata, Satoru Shida, Akihito Ishizaka, Yuichi Tabata, Hayato Aoyagi, Hiroyuki Naito, Mikio Yoshioka, Atsuko Horino, Tsuyoshi Kenri
OBJECTIVE: To clarify therapeutic effects of azithromycin, clarithromycin, minocycline and tosufloxacin against macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MRMP) pneumonia and against macrolide-sensitive Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MSMP) pneumonia in pediatric patients. METHODS: A prospective, multicenter observational study was conducted from July 2013 to August 2015. The therapeutic effects of azithromycin, clarithromycin, minocycline and tosufloxacin were evaluated in 59 patients with pneumonia caused by MRMP and in 50 patients with pneumonia caused by MSMP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283010/-effects-of-azithromycin-and-chlorella-vulgaris-treatment-on-certain-cytokine-values-and-nk-cell-activity-in-an-acute-murine-toxoplasmosis-model
#10
Deniz Gözde Çelik Payçu, Özden Büyükbaba Boral
Toxoplasmosis is a common infection with a complicated treatment process. Azithromycin (AZT) is a macrolide antibiotic that can be effectively used in patients with cerebral and ocular toxoplasmosis and has fewer side effects. Chlorella vulgaris (CV), a single-cell green algae that contains nutrients and has various biological effects. CV extract (CVE) has been shown to have protective effects against infections via immune enhancement by increasing the cytotoxicity of NK cells, IL-12 and IFN-γ levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of AZT and CV, individually and in combination, against acute toxoplasmosis in mice, and their effects on NK cell cytotoxixity, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-2 levels...
January 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282652/treatment-outcomes-for-rectal-lymphogranuloma-venereum-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-using-doxycycline-azithromycin-or-both-a-review-of-clinical-cases
#11
Charussri Leeyaphan, Jason J Ong, Eric P F Chow, Karolina Dimovski, Fabian Y S Kong, Jane S Hocking, Ben Howden, Melanie Bissessor, Christopher K Fairley, Catriona Bradshaw, Timothy Read, Marcus Chen
Treatment for rectal lymphogranuloma venereum where doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for 21 days was used-either alone or together with azithromycin 1 g single dose-resulted in microbiological cure of 97%. These data support doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for 21 days as the preferred treatment for rectal lymphogranuloma venereum.
April 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282645/haemophilus-influenzae-isolated-from-men-with-acute-urethritis-its-pathogenic-roles-responses-to-antimicrobial-chemotherapies-and-antimicrobial-susceptibilities
#12
Shin Ito, Kyoko Hatazaki, Ken Shimuta, Hiromi Kondo, Kosuke Mizutani, Mitsuru Yasuda, Keita Nakane, Tomohiro Tsuchiya, Shigeaki Yokoi, Masahiro Nakano, Makoto Ohinishi, Takashi Deguchi
BACKGROUND: There have been few comprehensive studies on Haemophilus influenza-positive urethritis. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we enrolled 68 men with H. influenzae-positive urethritis, including coinfections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and/or genital mycoplasmas: 2, 3, 20, and 43 treated with ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, sitafloxacin, and extended-release azithromycin (azithromycin-SR), respectively. We assessed microbiological outcomes in 54 men and clinical outcomes in 46 with H...
April 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270803/vibrio-cholerae-o1-with-reduced-susceptibility-to-ciprofloxacin-and-azithromycin-isolated-from-a-rural-coastal-area-of-bangladesh
#13
Shah M Rashed, Nur A Hasan, Munirul Alam, Abdus Sadique, Marzia Sultana, Md Mozammel Hoq, R Bradley Sack, Rita R Colwell, Anwar Huq
Cholera outbreaks occur each year in the remote coastal areas of Bangladesh and epidemiological surveillance and routine monitoring of cholera in these areas is challenging. In this study, a total of 97 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates from Mathbaria, Bangladesh, collected during 2010 and 2014 were analyzed for phenotypic and genotypic traits, including antimicrobial susceptibility. Of the 97 isolates, 95 possessed CTX-phage mediated genes, ctxA, ace, and zot, and two lacked the cholera toxin gene, ctxA. Also both CTX(+) and CTX(-)V...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267637/levofloxacin-versus-azithromycin-for-treating-legionella-pneumonia-a-propensity-score-analysis
#14
Carolina Garcia-Vidal, Irene Sanchez-Rodriguez, Antonella Francesca Simonetti, Joaquín Burgos, Diego Viasus, Maria Teresa Martin, Vicenç Falco, Jordi Carratalà
OBJECTIVES: Concerns have arisen regarding the equivalence of levofloxacin and some macrolides for treating community-acquired legionella pneumonia (LP). We aimed to compare the outcomes of current patients with LP treated with levofloxacin, azithromycin and clarithromycin. METHODS: Observational retrospective multicenter study of consecutive patients with LP requiring hospitalization (2000-2014) conducted in two hospitals. The primary outcome assessed was 30-day mortality...
March 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265290/clinical-profile-and-visual-outcome-of-ocular-bartonellosis-in-malaysia
#15
Chai Lee Tan, Lai Chan Fhun, Evelyn Li Min Tai, Nor Hasnida Abdul Gani, Julieana Muhammed, Tengku Norina Tuan Jaafar, Liza Sharmini Ahmad Tajudin, Wan-Hazabbah Wan Hitam
Background. Ocular bartonellosis can present in various ways, with variable visual outcome. There is limited data on ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Objective. We aim to describe the clinical presentation and visual outcome of ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective review of patients treated for ocular bartonellosis in two ophthalmology centers in Malaysia between January 2013 and December 2015. The diagnosis was based on clinical features, supported by a positive Bartonella spp...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260517/capi-computational-model-for-apicoplast-inhibitors-prediction-against-plasmodium-parasite
#16
Surabhi Dixit, Deepak Singla
Background Discovery of apicoplast as a drug target offers a new direction in the development of novel anti-malarial compounds, especially against the drug-resistant strains. Drugs such as azithromycin were reported to block the apicoplast development that leads to unusual phenotypes affecting the parasite. This phenomenon suggeststhat identification of new apicoplast inhibitors will aid in the anti-malarial drug discovery. Therefore, in this study, we developed a computational model to predict apicoplast inhibitors by applying state-of-the-art machine learning techniques...
March 1, 2017: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258260/antimicrobial-efficacy-of-mixtures-of-nanosilver-and-zinc-oxide-eugenol-against-enterococcus-faecalis
#17
Roza Haghgoo, Motahareh Ahmadvand, Mohammad Nyakan, Mojtaba Jafari
AIM: This study aimed to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of 0, 0.5, 2, and 5 wt% nanosilver in conjunction with zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) against Enterococcus faecalis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nanosilver in 0.5, 2, and 5 wt% concentrations was added to ZOE and the antibacterial activity of the mixtures on E. faecalis was assessed using disk diffusion method, and the results were reported as the diameter of the growth inhibition zone. RESULTS: The diameters of the growth inhibition zones around 0, 0...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258107/non-antibiotic-macrolides-restore-airway-macrophage-phagocytic-function-with-potential-anti-inflammatory-effects-in-chronic-lung-diseases
#18
Sandra J Hodge, Hai Tran, Rhys Hamon, Eugene Roscioli, Greg Hodge, Hubertus Jersmann, Miranda Ween, Paul N Reynolds, Arthur Yeung, Jennifer Treiberg, Sibylle Wilbert
We reported defective efferocytosis associated with cigarette smoking and/or airway inflammation in chronic lung diseases including COPD, severe asthma and childhood bronchiectasis. We also showed defects in phagocytosis of non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi), a common colonizer of the lower airway in these diseases. These defects could be substantially overcome with low-dose Azithromycin; however, chronic usage may induce bacterial resistance. We investigated two novel macrolides, GS-459755 (2'-desoxy-9-(S)-erythromycylamine) and GS-560660 (Azithromycin-based 2'-desoxy molecule) with significantly diminished antibiotic activity against S...
March 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249578/assessment-of-primary-health-care-facilities-service-readiness-in-nigeria
#19
Abayomi Samuel Oyekale
BACKGROUND: Effective delivery of healthcare services requires availability of adequate infrastructure, diagnostic medical equipment, drugs and well-trained medical personnel. In Nigeria, poor funding and mismanagement often characterize healthcare service delivery thereby affecting coverage and quality of healthcare services. Therefore, the state of service delivery in Nigeria's health sector has come under some persistent criticisms. This paper analyzed service readiness of Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities in Nigeria with focus on availability of some essential drugs and medical equipment...
March 1, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245574/a-robust-liquid-chromatographic-method-for-confirmation-of-drug-stability-of-azithromycin-in-bulk-samples-tablets-and-suspensions
#20
Alex O Okaru, Kennedy O Abuga, Franco N Kamau, Stanley N Ndwigah, Dirk W Lachenmeier
A simple, isocratic and robust RP-HPLC method for the analysis of azithromycin was developed, validated and applied for the analysis of bulk samples, tablets and suspensions. The optimum chromatographic conditions for separation were established as a mobile phase comprised of acetonitrile-0.1 M KH₂PO₄ pH 6.5-0.1 M tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide pH 6.5-water (25:15:1:59 v/v/v/v) delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The stationary phase consisted of reverse-phase XTerra(®) (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size) maintained at a temperature of 43 °C with a UV detection at 215 nm...
February 24, 2017: Pharmaceutics
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