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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932936/riboflavin-along-with-antibiotics-balances-reactive-oxygen-species-and-inflammatory-cytokines-and-controls-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-by-boosting-murine-macrophage-function-and-regulates-inflammation
#1
Somrita Dey, Biswadev Bishayi
BACKGROUND: Macrophages serve as intracellular reservoirs of S. aureus. Recent in vitro studies have confirmed high level resistance by S. aureus to macrophage mediated killing and the intracellular persistence of Staphylococci may play an important role in the pathogenesis. Since this localization protects them from both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses, therefore, a successful anti-staphylococcal therapy should include the elimination of intracellular bacteria, further protecting the host cells from staphylococci-induced cell death...
2016: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929242/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults-diagnosis-and-management
#2
Alexander Kaysin, Anthony J Viera
Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of death. Risk factors include older age and medical comorbidities. Diagnosis is suggested by a history of cough, dyspnea, pleuritic pain, or acute functional or cognitive decline, with abnormal vital signs (e.g., fever, tachycardia) and lung examination findings. Diagnosis should be confirmed by chest radiography or ultrasonography. Validated prediction scores for pneumonia severity can guide the decision between outpatient and inpatient therapy. Using procalcitonin as a biomarker for severe infection may further assist with risk stratification...
November 1, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928188/impact-of-the-fda-warning-for-azithromycin-and-risk-for-qt-prolongation-on-utilization-at-an-academic-medical-center
#3
Abby Dunker, Denise M Kolanczyk, Caitlin M Maendel, Amit R Patel, Natasha N Pettit
A US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug safety communication was released in March 2013, warning prescribers of the risk of QT prolongation associated with azithromycin. Overall azithromycin utilization and adherence to an inpatient QTc monitoring guideline during 8-month time periods before and after the warning were assessed to evaluate the impact of this warning on inpatient azithromycin utilization and QTc monitoring. Fifty-five patients were included in the prewarning time period and 50 were included in the postwarning period...
November 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922234/long-term-azithromycin-therapy-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#4
Nagehan Emiralioğlu, Zeynelabidin Öztürk, Ebru Yalçın, Deniz Doğru, Uğur Özçelik, Nural Kiper
Inflammation is a central contributor to the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF) pulmonary disease; so limiting the excessive production of inflammatory mediators represents a major therapeutic strategy for slowing the decline in lung function and improving survival. The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZM) has anti-inflammatory properties and immunomodulatory effects that may be beneficial in CF. The aim of this study was to document the long term use of AZM effect on pulmonary function, nutritional status and number of pulmonary exacerbations in patients with CF...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919896/cephalosporin-3-diazeniumdiolate-no-donor-prodrug-pyrro-c3d-enhances-azithromycin-susceptibility-of-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-biofilms
#5
Samuel A Collins, Michael J Kelso, Ardeshir Rineh, Nageshwar R Yepuri, Janice Coles, Claire L Jackson, Georgia D Halladay, Woolf T Walker, Jeremy S Webb, Luanne Hall-Stoodley, Gary J Connett, Martin Feelisch, Saul N Faust, Jane S A Lucas, Raymond N Allan
OBJECTIVES: PYRRO-C3D is a cephalosporin-3-diazeniumdiolate nitric oxide (NO)-donor prodrug designed to selectively deliver NO to bacterial infection sites. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of PYRRO-C3D against non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) biofilms and examine the role of NO in reducing biofilm-associated antibiotic tolerance. METHODS: The activity of PYRRO-C3D on in vitro NTHi biofilms was assessed through CFU enumeration and confocal microscopy...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918528/origin-of-modern-syphilis-and-emergence-of-a-pandemic-treponema-pallidum-cluster
#6
Natasha Arora, Verena J Schuenemann, Günter Jäger, Alexander Peltzer, Alexander Seitz, Alexander Herbig, Michal Strouhal, Linda Grillová, Leonor Sánchez-Busó, Denise Kühnert, Kirsten I Bos, Leyla Rivero Davis, Lenka Mikalová, Sylvia Bruisten, Peter Komericki, Patrick French, Paul R Grant, María A Pando, Lucía Gallo Vaulet, Marcelo Rodríguez Fermepin, Antonio Martinez, Arturo Centurion Lara, Lorenzo Giacani, Steven J Norris, David Šmajs, Philipp P Bosshard, Fernando González-Candelas, Kay Nieselt, Johannes Krause, Homayoun C Bagheri
The abrupt onslaught of the syphilis pandemic that started in the late fifteenth century established this devastating infectious disease as one of the most feared in human history(1). Surprisingly, despite the availability of effective antibiotic treatment since the mid-twentieth century, this bacterial infection, which is caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA), has been re-emerging globally in the last few decades with an estimated 10.6 million cases in 2008 (ref. 2). Although resistance to penicillin has not yet been identified, an increasing number of strains fail to respond to the second-line antibiotic azithromycin(3)...
December 5, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918229/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-trachoma-in-southern-nations-nationalities-and-peoples-region-ethiopia-results-of-40-population-based-prevalence-surveys-carried-out-with-the-global-trachoma-mapping-project
#7
Tesfaye Haileselassie Adera, Colin Macleod, Misganu Endriyas, Michael Dejene, Rebecca Willis, Brian K Chu, Yohannes Letamo, Tebeje Misganaw, Tamiru Mesele, Emebet Mekonnen, Alemayehu Sisay, Yeneneh Mulugeta, Wondu Alemayehu, Khumbo Kalua, Tezera Kifle Destu, Yilikal Adamu, Jennifer L Smith, Abu Beyene, Addisu Tadesse, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: We sought to estimate the prevalence of trachoma at sufficiently fine resolution to allow elimination interventions to begin, where required, in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia. METHODS: We carried out cross-sectional population-based surveys in 14 rural zones. A 2-stage cluster randomized sampling technique was used. A total of 40 evaluation units (EUs) covering 110 districts ("woredas") were surveyed from February 2013 to May 2014 as part of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP), using the standardized GTMP training package and methodology...
December 5, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916734/azithromycin-ameliorates-airway-remodeling-via-inhibiting-airway-epithelium-apoptosis
#8
Yuanqi Liu, Yue Pu, Diandian Li, Liming Zhou, Lihong Wan
AIMS: Azithromycin can benefit treating allergic airway inflammation and remodeling. In the present study, we hypothesized that azithromycin alleviated airway epithelium injury through inhibiting airway epithelium apoptosis via down regulation of caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl2 ratio in vivo and in vitro. MAIN METHODS: Ovalbumin induced rat asthma model and TGF-β1-induced BEAS-2B cell apoptosis model were established, respectively. In vivo experiments, airway epithelium was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) to histologically evaluate the airway inflammation and remodeling...
December 1, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912925/cardiac-arrest-in-pediatric-patients-receiving-azithromycin
#9
Santiago O Valdés, Jeffrey J Kim, Mary C Niu, Caridad M de la Uz, Christina Y Miyake, Brady S Moffett
OBJECTIVE: To compare outcomes of pediatric patients treated with azithromycin compared with penicillin or cephalosporin. We hypothesized that azithromycin use would not be associated with increased cardiac mortality in the pediatric population. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study from the Pediatric Health Information System database between 2008 and 2012. Patients <19 years of age with a principal diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia who received an antibiotic were included...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911847/zika-virus-cell-tropism-in-the-developing-human-brain-and-inhibition-by-azithromycin
#10
Hanna Retallack, Elizabeth Di Lullo, Carolina Arias, Kristeene A Knopp, Matthew T Laurie, Carmen Sandoval-Espinosa, Walter R Mancia Leon, Robert Krencik, Erik M Ullian, Julien Spatazza, Alex A Pollen, Caleigh Mandel-Brehm, Tomasz J Nowakowski, Arnold R Kriegstein, Joseph L DeRisi
The rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) and its association with abnormal brain development constitute a global health emergency. Congenital ZIKV infection produces a range of mild to severe pathologies, including microcephaly. To understand the pathophysiology of ZIKV infection, we used models of the developing brain that faithfully recapitulate the tissue architecture in early to midgestation. We identify the brain cell populations that are most susceptible to ZIKV infection in primary human tissue, provide evidence for a mechanism of viral entry, and show that a commonly used antibiotic protects cultured brain cells by reducing viral proliferation...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908909/dtb-select-12-december-2016
#11
(no author information available yet)
Azithromycin of no benefit for asthma attacks ● Risk of heart failure with NSAIDs ● Bisphosphonates and steroid-induced osteoporosis ● Triple therapy for moderate-to-severe COPD: marginal benefits ● Much data on adverse events remains unpublished ● Rising placebo response rates in antidepressant trials a 'myth' ● Prenatal fetal RhD testing recommended.
December 1, 2016: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907030/sensitive-and-simplified-detection-of-antibiotic-influence-on-the-dynamic-and-versatile-changes-of-fecal-short-chain-fatty-acids
#12
Xiaoya Zhao, Zhenzuo Jiang, Fan Yang, Yan Wang, Xiumei Gao, Yuefei Wang, Xin Chai, Guixiang Pan, Yan Zhu
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced by anaerobic fermentation of mainly indigestible dietary carbohydrates by gut microbiota, have a profound influence on intestinal function and host energy metabolism. Antibiotics may seriously disturb the balance of fecal SCFAs. To evaluate the impacts of antibiotics on fecal SCFAs produced by gut microbiota, a simple, reproducible and accurate gas chromatography (GC) method, which can simultaneously analyze seven SCFAs in fecal samples, was developed and validated...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902646/macrolide-and-clindamycin-resistance-in-group-a-streptococci-isolated-from-children-with-pharyngitis
#13
Gregory P DeMuri, Alana K Sterkel, Phillip A Kubica, Megan N Duster, Kurt D Reed, Ellen R Wald
Group A streptococcus (GAS) is responsible for 15-30% of cases of acute pharyngitis in children. Macrolides such as azithromycin have become popular for treating GAS pharyngitis. We report macrolide resistance rates in a primary care setting in our geographic area over the past 5 years and discuss the implications of resistance in making treatment decisions. Throat swabs were collected from children with pharyngitis from May 2011 to May 2015 in a primary care setting in Madison, WI. Susceptibility testing was performed for erythromycin and clindamycin using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902389/antimicrobial-susceptibility-to-azithromycin-among-salmonella-enterica-typhi-and-paratyphi-a-isolates-from-india
#14
Richa Misra, Kashi N Prasad
Decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS) and multi-drug resistance (MDR) in typhoidal Salmonella isolates in areas of endemicity is a significant therapeutic problem. Guidelines for azithromycin disk diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretive criteria for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi were published recently by CLSI in 2015.We investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of azithromycin in 100 isolates of Salmonella Typhi (n=80), Paratyphi A (n=18) and B (n=2) recovered from blood stream infections from January 2013 to December 2015...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900974/disseminated-mycobacteria-chelonae-infection-in-a-kidney-pancreas-transplant-recipient-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Shafi Malik, Ananda Ghosh, Shahid Husain
A 40-year-old male with a long-standing history of type 1 diabetes with end-stage renal failure underwent combined kidney-pancreas (KP) transplant from a standard criteria donor. Post-operative course was uncomplicated with good primary function of both transplant grafts. Induction was with thymoglobulin and maintenance immunosuppression was with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. Nine weeks post-transplant, the patient developed dysfunction of both grafts. Panel reactive antibody testing revealed that the patient had developed a de novo donor-specific antibody and considering an antibody-mediated rejection the patient was treated with intravenous pulse methyl prednisone 500 mg ×3 doses, IV immunoglobulin 2 mg/kg in two divided doses, and ATG 7 mg/kg (total dose of 700 mg)...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898574/factors-associated-with-primary-care-physician-knowledge-of-the-recommended-regimen-for-treating-gonorrhea
#16
Marta Bornstein, Faruque Ahmed, Roxanne Barrow, Jami Fraze Risley, Sheena Simmons, Kimberly A Workowski
BACKGROUND: The recommended regimen for treating uncomplicated gonorrhea has changed over time, due to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. We assessed physician knowledge of the recommendation for treating uncomplicated urogenital gonorrhea in adolescents and adults using ceftriaxone and azithromycin dual therapy. METHODS: We analyzed DocStyles 2015 survey data from 1357 primary care physicians practicing for at least 3 years who provided screening, diagnosis, or treatment for sexually transmitted diseases to one or more patients in an average month...
January 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898572/sexually-transmitted-infections-and-associated-risk-factors-among-street-based-and-residence-based-female-sex-workers-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#17
Rasheda Khanam, Masud Reza, Dilruba Ahmed, Mustafizur Rahman, M Shah Alam, Salima Sultana, Anadil Alam, Sharful I Khan, Kenneth H Mayer, Tasnim Azim
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangladesh remain at elevated risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) although the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among them is low. Recent information on the burden and etiological diagnosis of STIs among them has been lacking. This study examines prevalence and risk behaviors of selected STIs among FSWs in Dhaka in 2014. METHODS: Between August and October 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among street-based and residence-based FSWs receiving HIV prevention services at 24 drop in centers in Dhaka...
January 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895643/azithromycin-attenuates-pseudomonas-induced-lung-inflammation-by-targeting-bacterial-proteins-secreted-in-the-cultured-medium
#18
Teresinha Leal, Gabriella Bergamini, François Huaux, Nadtha Panin, Sabrina Noel, Barbara Dhooghe, Jeremy B Haaf, Pierluigi Mauri, Sara Motta, Dario Di Silvestre, Paola Melotti, Claudio Sorio
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Azithromycin improves the related clinical outcomes, but its mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that azithromycin downregulates P. aeruginosa-induced pro-inflammatory responses by modifying release of bacterial proteins. METHODS: We monitored inflammatory markers in lungs of CF mutant mice and their littermate controls in response to conditioned media (CM) collected from the reference P...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894983/a-case-of-clinical-and-microbiological-failure-of-azithromycin-therapy-in-salmonella-enterica-serotype-typhi-despite-low-azithromycin-mic
#19
Abi Manesh, Veeraraghavan Balaji, Devanga Ragupathi Naveen Kumar, Priscilla Rupali
Typhoid fever remains a serious problem in many developing countries. Due to resistance to multiple first line drugs, azithromycin has evolved as an important drug in the treatment of Typhoid. While therapy with azithromycin is highly effective, no clinically validated mean inhibitory concentration (MIC) break points or disc diffusion cutoff guidelines are available so far. We describe an Indian adult with clinical and microbiological failure to azithromycin despite low azithromycin MIC.
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893820/azithromycin-vs-placebo-for-the-clinical-outcome-in-campylobacter-concisus-diarrhoea-in-adults-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#20
Hans Linde Nielsen, Karina Frahm Kirk, Jacob Bodilsen, Tove Ejlertsen, Henrik Nielsen
: Campylobacter concisus has been associated with prolonged mild diarrhoea, but investigations regarding the efficacy of antimicrobial treatment have not been reported previously. We initiated a phase 3, single-centre, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study comparing the efficacy of 500 mg once-daily dose of azithromycin with a 500 mg once-daily dose of placebo for three days, for the treatment of C. concisus diarrhoea in adult patients with a follow-up period of ten days...
2016: PloS One
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