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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900767/anesthesia-of-aquarium-housed-walrus-odobenus-rosmarus-a-case-series
#1
Johanna Kaartinen, Stéphane Lair, Michael T Walsh, Patrick Burns, Marion Desmarchelier, Jessica M Pang, Daniel S J Pang
  Walruses are a challenging species to anesthetize as a result of their large mass, limited access for drug delivery, unique physiology, and small number of reports describing anesthetic procedures. Three aquarium-housed walruses ( Odobenus rosmarus) ranging in age from 3 to 11 yr old (344-1,000 kg) were anesthetized for dental or ophthalmic surgical procedures, with one animal anesthetized twice and one anesthetized three times. Preanesthetic medication was with intramuscular midazolam (0.1-0.2 mg/kg) and meperidine (2-3 mg/kg)...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891214/attaining-in-vivo-selectivity-of-positive-modulation-of-%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-2-gaba-a-receptors-in-rats-a-hard-task
#2
Bojan Batinić, Tamara Stanković, Michael Rajesh Stephen, Revathi Kodali, Veera V Tiruveedhula, Guanguan Li, Petra Scholze, Bojan D Marković, Aleksandar Lj Obradović, Margot Ernst, James M Cook, Miroslav M Savić
It is unclear whether GABAA receptors (GABAA Rs) that contain the α3-subunit are substantially involved in the anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines (BDZs). In the present study, we tested YT-III-31, a newer BDZ ligand with functional preference for α3βγ2 GABAA Rs, in two paradigms of unconditioned anxiety, the open field and elevated plus maze in rats. The effective dose of YT-III-31 (2 mg/kg) displayed a clear anxiolytic-like profile, unhampered by sedative action, in both tests. At a higher dose (10 mg/kg), YT-III-31 induced ataxia in the rotarod and sedation in spontaneous locomotor activity test...
June 8, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888272/aminophylline-and-ephedrine-but-not-flumazenil-inhibit-the-activity-of-the-excitatory-amino-acid-transporter-3-expressed-in-xenopus-oocytes-and-reverse-the-increased-activity-by-propofol
#3
Sohyeon Moon, Hee Jung Baik
We investigated the effects of flumazenil, aminophylline, and ephedrine on the excitatory amino acid transporter type 3 (EAAT3) activity and the interaction with propofol. EAAT3 was expressed in the Xenopus oocytes. L-Glutamate-induced membrane currents were measured using the two-electrode voltage clamp at various drug concentrations. Oocytes were preincubated with protein kinase C- (PKC-) activator, or inhibitor, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. To study the interaction with propofol, oocytes were exposed to propofol, propofol + aminophylline, or ephedrine...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886239/anticonvulsive-effects-of-protodioscin-against-pilocarpine-induced-epilepsy
#4
Shiwei Song, Abul Fajol, Yan Chen, Baogang Ren, Songsheng Shi
Epilepsy is associated with increased morbidity and mortality together and places a large financial burden on individuals and society. To evaluate the anticonvulsant action of protodioscin (PDSN) in experiments with animals with pilocarpine-induced convulsions. We assessed the activity of PDSN in pilocarpine induced seizures in combination with different agents which are acting via diverse receptors, such as atropine, memantine, nimodipine, diazepam, and flumazenil, to determine the exact receptors responsible for the action of PDSN...
June 7, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859204/neuroprotective-effect-of-zolpidem-against-glutamate-induced-toxicity-is-mediated-via-the-pi3k-akt-pathway-and-inhibited-by-pk11195
#5
Maja Jazvinšćak Jembrek, Vedrana Radovanović, Josipa Vlainić, Lidija Vuković, Nikolina Hanžić
Excitotoxicity is a pathological process in which neuronal dysfunction and death are induced by excessive glutamate stimulation, the major fast excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. Excitotoxicity-induced neurodegeneration is a contributing factor in ischemia-induced brain damage, traumatic brain injury, and various neurodegenerative diseases. It is triggered by calcium overload due to prolonged over-activation of ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Enhanced Ca2+ release results in neuronal vulnerability through several intertwined mechanisms, including activation of proteolytic enzymes, increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial dysfunction and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways...
May 30, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848467/trigger-tool-based-automated-adverse-event-detection-in-electronic-health-records-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Sarah N Musy, Dietmar Ausserhofer, René Schwendimann, Hans Ulrich Rothen, Marie-Madlen Jeitziner, Anne Ws Rutjes, Michael Simon
BACKGROUND: Adverse events in health care entail substantial burdens to health care systems, institutions, and patients. Retrospective trigger tools are often manually applied to detect AEs, although automated approaches using electronic health records may offer real-time adverse event detection, allowing timely corrective interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to describe current study methods and challenges regarding the use of automatic trigger tool-based adverse event detection methods in electronic health records...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782207/the-benzodiazepine-anesthetic-midazolam-prevents-hyperglycemia-induced-microvascular-leakage-in-the-retinas-of-diabetic-mice
#7
Yeon-Ju Lee, Minsoo Kim, Jee-Yeon Lee, Se-Hui Jung, Hye-Yoon Jeon, Seung Ah Lee, Seongsik Kang, Eun-Taek Han, Won Sun Park, Seok-Ho Hong, Young-Myeong Kim, Kwon-Soo Ha
We investigated the beneficial effects of midazolam against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced vascular leakage and its molecular mechanism of action in human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) and the retinas of diabetic mice. Midazolam inhibited VEGF-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+ , generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and transglutaminase activation in HRECs; these effects were reversed by the GABA, type A (GABAA ) receptor antagonist flumazenil but not by the translocator protein antagonist PK11195...
May 21, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746644/relationships-between-selective-neuronal-loss-and-microglial-activation-after-ischaemic-stroke-in-man
#8
Rhiannon S Morris, P Simon Jones, Josef A Alawneh, Young T Hong, Tim D Fryer, Franklin I Aigbirhio, Elizabeth A Warburton, Jean-Claude Baron
Modern ischaemic stroke management involves intravenous thrombolysis followed by mechanical thrombectomy, which allows markedly higher rates of recanalization and penumbral salvage than thrombolysis alone. However, <50% of treated patients eventually enjoy independent life. It is therefore important to identify complementary therapeutic targets. In rodent models, the salvaged penumbra is consistently affected by selective neuronal loss, which may hinder recovery by interfering with plastic processes, as well as by microglial activation, which may exacerbate neuronal death...
May 9, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720938/isolation-and-characterization-of-two-new-secondary-metabolites-from-quercus-incana-and-their-antidepressant-and-anxiolytic-like-potential
#9
Rizwana Sarwar, Umar Farooq, Sadia Naz, Ajmal Khan, Syed M Bukhari, Haroon Khan, Nasiara Karim, Imran Khan, Ayaz Ahmed, Ahmed Al-Harrasi
The ethyl acetate fraction of Quercus incana yielded two new compounds [ 1 and 2 ]. The characterization and structure elucidation of these compounds were carried out through various spectroscopic techniques such as mass spectrometry along with one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques. The structural formula was deduced to be 2-(4-hydroxybutan-2-yl)-5-methoxyphenol [ 1 ] and 4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl) pentanoic acid [ 2 ]. The elevated plus maze (EPM) and light-dark box (LDB) tests (classical mouse models) were performed in order to reveal the anxiolytic potential of both compounds [ 1 and 2 ]...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703020/flumazenil-reduces-respiratory-complications-during-anesthesia-emergence-in-children-with-preoperative-upper-respiratory-tract-infections
#10
Ruiqiang Sun, Guolin Wang, Xuesong Gao, Shuzhen Wang
Despite its benignity, upper respiratory infections (URIs) 1 increase the risk of postoperative respiratory complications during the perioperative and postoperative periods. Flumazenil could improve the symptoms of respiratory obstruction.To evaluate the effect of flumazenil on the occurrence of respiratory complications during anesthesia emergence of children with preoperative URI.This was a prospective study of 164 consecutive pediatric patients who underwent strabismus surgery under general anesthesia at the Tianjin Eye Hospital between August 2016 and April 2017...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696118/anesthetic-considerations-for-angelman-syndrome-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Mary Ellen Warner, David P Martin, Mark A Warner, Ralitza H Gavrilova, Juraj Sprung, Toby N Weingarten
Background: Angelman syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, ataxia, seizures, happy demeanor, distinctive craniofacial features, high vagal tone, and gamma-amino butyric acid receptor abnormalities. The aim of this report is to review our experience of patients with Angelman syndrome undergoing anesthetic management. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed perioperative course of patients with Angelman syndrome who underwent procedures under anesthesia from 2000 to 2016...
October 2017: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670567/gaba-a-receptor-availability-changes-underlie-symptoms-in-isolated-cervical-dystonia
#12
Brian D Berman, Rebecca Tran Pollard, Erika Shelton, Ramesh Karki, Peter M Smith-Jones, Yubin Miao
GABAA receptor availability changes within sensorimotor regions have been reported in some isolated forms of dystonia. Whether similar abnormalities underlie symptoms in cervical dystonia is not known. In the present study, a total of 15 cervical dystonia patients and 15 age- and sex-matched controls underwent 11 C-flumazenil PET/CT scanning. The density of available GABAA receptors was estimated using a Simplified Reference Tissue Model 2. Group differences were evaluated using a two-sample T -test, and correlations with dystonia severity, as measured by the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale, and disease duration were evaluated using a regression analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627297/neuropharmacological-effects-of-essential-oil-from-the-leaves-of-croton-conduplicatus-kunth-and-possible-mechanisms-of-action-involved
#13
Raimundo Gonçalves de Oliveira Júnior, Christiane Adrielly Alves Ferraz, Juliane Cabral Silva, Roxana Braga de Andrade Teles, Mariana Gama Silva, Tâmara Coimbra Diniz, Uiliane Soares Dos Santos, Ana Valéria Vieira de Souza, Carlos Eduardo Pereira Nunes, Marcos José Salvador, Vitor Prates Lorenzo, Lucindo José Quintans Júnior, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Croton conduplicatus Kunth (Euphorbiaceae) is a Brazilian aromatic medicinal plant, widely known as "quebra-faca". In folk medicine, its leaves and stem-barks are used as a natural analgesic for the treatment of headaches. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we describe for the first time the neuropharmacological potential of the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Croton conduplicatus (EO) in experimental models of pain, anxiety and insomnia...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615898/antihyperalgesic-properties-of-honokiol-in-inflammatory-pain-models-by-targeting-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-nrf2-signaling
#14
Sidra Khalid, Muhammad Z Ullah, Ashraf U Khan, Ruqayya Afridi, Hina Rasheed, Adnan Khan, Hussain Ali, Yeong S Kim, Salman Khan
The present study investigates the possible anti-nociceptive effect of intraperitoneal (i.p.) honokiol: a phenolic compound originally isolated from Magnolia officinalis , in acute and chronic inflammatory pain models. Doses of 0.1, 5, and 10 mg/kg honokiol were administered in carrageenan induced pain and the dose (honokiol 10 mg/kg i.p.) with most significant response among behavioral tests was selected for further experiments. The i.p. administration of honokiol inhibits mechanical hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, and thermal hyperalgesia, without causing any apparent toxicity...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573147/anxiolytic-effect-of-anacardic-acids-from-cashew-anacardium-occidentale-nut-shell-in-mice
#15
Antonio Luiz Gomes Júnior, Jana Dimitrova Tchekalarova, Keylla da Conceição Machado, Arkellau Kenned Silva Moura, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim Paz, Ana Maria Oliveira Ferreira da Mata, Tiago Rocha Nogueira, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Maria Alexsandra de Sousa Rios, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes Citó, Shaikh Jamal Uddin, Jamil A Shilpi, Asish K Das, Luciano da Silva Lopes, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante
Antianxiety drugs currently in use are associated with a number of serious side effects. Present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of anacardic acids (AAs) isolated from cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) shell liquid (CNSL) to treat anxiety as well as its role in oxidative stress in mice model. Anxiolytic effect of AA was evaluated using rota-rod and a set of behavioral tests in male Swiss albino mice at the doses of 10, 25, and 50 mg/kg. Flumazenil was used to evaluate the possible involvement of GABAergic system in the mechanism of action of AA...
May 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572072/effects-of-isopentyl-ferulate-on-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-and-a-possible-gabaergic-anxiolytic-like-trait-in-swiss-mice
#16
Keylla da Conceição Machado, George Layson da Silva Oliveira, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Antonia Amanda Cardoso de Almeida, Antonio Luiz Gomes Junior, Katia da Conceiçao Machado, Damião Pergentino de Sousa, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas
This study aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic-like effect and the possible neuronal mechanism of action of isopentyl ferulate (IF). For this purpose, we used the marble burying test in Swiss albino mice. The biomarkers involved in oxidative stress were measured in the hippocampus homogenate of the test animals. In addition, the toxicity and antioxidant capacities were tested in Artemia salina and rat erythrocytes, respectively. The results suggest that, an acute administration of the IF at doses of 25, 50, 75 and 150 mg/kg (intraperitoneal, i...
June 1, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555147/evaluation-of-sedative-and-antinociceptive-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-midazolam-and-dexmedetomidine-midazolam-in-tegus-salvator-merianae
#17
Shayne P Bisetto, Cristiano F Melo, Adriano B Carregaro
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate dexmedetomidine, midazolam and dexmedetomidine-midazolam for sedation and antinociception in tegus. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, crossover, randomized, blinded study. ANIMALS: Six healthy tegus (Salvator merianae) weighing 1.6±0.3 kg. METHODS: Tegus were administered intramuscularly saline (0.5 mL; CON), dexmedetomidine (0.2 mg kg-1 ; DX), midazolam (1 mg kg-1 ; MZ) and dexmedetomidine-midazolam (same doses; DM)...
May 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543325/pharmacological-interventions-for-benzodiazepine-discontinuation-in-chronic-benzodiazepine-users
#18
REVIEW
Lone Baandrup, Bjørn H Ebdrup, Jesper Ø Rasmussen, Jane Lindschou, Christian Gluud, Birte Y Glenthøj
BACKGROUND: Prolonged treatment with benzodiazepines is common practice despite clinical recommendations of short-term use. Benzodiazepines are used by approximately 4% of the general population, with increased prevalence in psychiatric populations and the elderly. After long-term use it is often difficult to discontinue benzodiazepines due to psychological and physiological dependence. This review investigated if pharmacological interventions can facilitate benzodiazepine tapering. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pharmacological interventions to facilitate discontinuation of chronic benzodiazepine use...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530810/vascular-metabolic-and-gabaergic-inhibitory-correlates-of-neural-variability-modulation-a-combined-fmri-and-pet-study
#19
Pengmin Qin, Niall W Duncan, David Yen-Ting Chen, Chi-Jen Chen, Li-Kai Huang, Zirui Huang, Chien-Yuan E Lin, Christine Wiebking, Che-Ming Yang, Georg Northoff, Timothy J Lane
Neural activity varies continually from moment to moment. Such temporal variability (TV) has been highlighted as a functionally specific brain property playing a fundamental role in cognition. We sought to investigate the mechanisms involved in TV changes between two basic behavioral states, namely having the eyes open (EO) or eyes closed (EC) in vivo in humans. To these ends we acquired BOLD fMRI, ASL, and [18 F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose PET in a group of healthy participants (n = 15), along with BOLD fMRI and [18 F]-flumazenil PET in a separate group (n = 19)...
May 21, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515437/polymethoxyflavones-from-nicotiana-plumbaginifolia-solanaceae-exert-antinociceptive-and-neuropharmacological-effects-in-mice
#20
Md Shafiullah Shajib, Ridwan B Rashid, Long C Ming, Shanta Islam, Md Moklesur R Sarker, Lutfun Nahar, Satyajit D Sarker, Bidyut K Datta, Mohammad A Rashid
Polymethoxylavones (PMFs) are known to exhibit significant anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Nicotiana plumbaginifolia , an annual Bangladeshi herb, is rich in polymethoxyflavones that possess significant analgesic and anxiolytic activities. The present study aimed to determine the antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of polyoxygenated flavonoids namely- 3,3',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxy-4',5'-methylenedioxyflavone ( 1 ), 3,3',4',5',5,6,7,8-octamethoxyflavone (exoticin) ( 2 ), 6,7,4',5'-dimethylenedioxy-3,5,3'-trimethoxyflavone ( 3 ), and 3,3',4',5,5',8-hexamethoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone ( 4 ), isolated and identified from N...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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