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shark cartilage

Lian Li, Yan Li, Danyang Feng, Linghua Xu, Fengxin Yin, Hengchang Zang, Chunhui Liu, Fengshan Wang
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) plays important roles in the complement system. However, the CS structure is complicated due to different sources and the number and positions of sulfate groups. The objective of this study was to prepare different low molecular weight chondroitin sulfates (LMWCSs) and to investigate the biological activity in anti-complement capacity. A series of LMWCSs was prepared from different sources and characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV) spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jayne M Gardiner, Jelle Atema, Robert E Hueter, Philip J Motta
The ability of predators to modulate prey capture in response to the size, location, and behavior of prey is critical to successful feeding on a variety of prey types. Modulating in response to changes in sensory information may be critical to successful foraging in a variety of environments. Three shark species with different feeding morphologies and behaviors were filmed using high-speed videography while capturing live prey: the ram-feeding blacktip shark, the ram-biting bonnethead, and the suction-feeding nurse shark...
August 25, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Ronald Seidel, Kady Lyons, Michael Blumer, Paul Zaslansky, Peter Fratzl, James C Weaver, Mason N Dean
The endoskeleton of elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) is comprised largely of unmineralized cartilage, differing fundamentally from the bony skeletons of other vertebrates. Elasmobranch skeletons are further distinguished by a tessellated surface mineralization, a layer of minute, polygonal, mineralized tiles called tesserae. This 'tessellation' has defined the elasmobranch group for more than 400 million years, yet the limited data on development and ultrastructure of elasmobranch skeletons (e.g. how tesserae change in shape and mineral density with age) have restricted our abilities to develop hypotheses for tessellated cartilage growth...
November 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Neil Hammerschlag, David A Davis, Kiyo Mondo, Matthew S Seely, Susan J Murch, William Broc Glover, Timothy Divoll, David C Evers, Deborah C Mash
Sharks have greater risk for bioaccumulation of marine toxins and mercury (Hg), because they are long-lived predators. Shark fins and cartilage also contain β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a ubiquitous cyanobacterial toxin linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Today, a significant number of shark species have found their way onto the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Many species of large sharks are threatened with extinction due in part to the growing high demand for shark fin soup and, to a lesser extent, for shark meat and cartilage products...
2016: Toxins
Olivia A Burnsed, Zvi Schwartz, Katherine O Marchand, Sharon L Hyzy, René Olivares-Navarrete, Barbara D Boyan
UNLABELLED: Limited supplies of healthy autologous or allogeneic cartilage sources have inspired a growing interest in xenogeneic cartilage matrices as biological scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. The objectives of this study were to determine if shark and pig cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels can stimulate chondrocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) without exogenous growth factors and to determine if the soluble factors retained by these ECM hydrogels are responsible...
October 1, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Cheryl A D Wilga, Stephanye E Diniz, Preston R Steele, Jordan Sudario-Cook, Elizabeth R Dumont, Lara A Ferry
The diet of dusky smoothhound sharks, Mustelus canis, shifts over ontogeny from soft foods to a diet dominated by crabs. This may be accompanied by changes in the skeletal system that facilitates the capture and processing of large and bulky prey. The hyoid arch, for example, braces the jaws against the cranium, and generates suction for prey capture and intraoral transport. In this study, ontogenetic changes in the hyoid arch were investigated by quantifying size, mineralization, and stiffness to determine whether increasingly stiffer cartilages are associated with the dietary switch...
September 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Jeevithan Elango, Jingyi Zhang, Bin Bao, Krishnamoorthy Palaniyandi, Shujun Wang, Wu Wenhui, Jeya Shakila Robinson
In the present investigation, an attempt was made to find an alternative to mammalian collagen with better osteogenesis ability. Three types of collagen scaffolds - collagen, collagen-chitosan (CCH), and collagen-hydroxyapatite (CHA) - were prepared from the cartilage of Blue shark and investigated for their physico-functional and mechanical properties in relation to biocompatibility and osteogenesis. CCH scaffold was superior with pH 4.5-4.9 and viscosity 9.7-10.9cP. Notably, addition of chitosan and HA (hydroxyapatite) improved the stiffness (11-23MPa) and degradation rate but lowered the water binding capacity and porosity of the scaffold...
October 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Agata Jabłońska-Trypuć, Marzena Matejczyk, Stanisław Rosochacki
The main group of enzymes responsible for the collagen and other protein degradation in extracellular matrix (ECM) are matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Collagen is the main structural component of connective tissue and its degradation is a very important process in the development, morphogenesis, tissue remodeling, and repair. Typical structure of MMPs consists of several distinct domains. MMP family can be divided into six groups: collagenases, gelatinases, stromelysins, matrilysins, membrane-type MMPs, and other non-classified MMPs...
March 30, 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Katsumi Ajisaka, Yutaka Oyanagi, Tatsuo Miyazaki, Yasuhiro Suzuki
The antioxidant potencies of chondroitin sulfates (CSs) from shark cartilage, salmon cartilage, bovine trachea, and porcine intestinal mucosa were compared by three representative methods for the measurement of the antioxidant activity; DPPH radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. CSs from salmon cartilage and bovine trachea showed higher potency in comparison with CSs from shark cartilage and porcine intestinal mucosa. Next, CS from salmon cartilage chelating with Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), or Zn(2+) were prepared, and their antioxidant potencies were compared...
June 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Vitor H Pomin
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of alternating N-acetyl galactosamine and glucuronic acid units within disaccharide building blocks. CS is a key functional component in proteoglycans of cartilaginous tissues. Owing to its numerous biological roles, CS is widely explored in the pharmaceutical market as nutraceutical ingredient commonly utilized against arthritis, osteoarthrosis, and sometimes osteoporosis. Tissues like shark cartilage and bovine trachea are common sources of CS...
2015: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Mason N Dean, Laura Ekstrom, Efrat Monsonego-Ornan, Jim Ballantyne, P Eckhard Witten, Cyrena Riley, Wouter Habraken, Sidney Omelon
Sharks, rays and other elasmobranch fishes are characterized by a skeletal type that is unique among living vertebrates, comprised predominantly of an unmineralized cartilage, covered by a thin outer layer of sub-millimeter, mineralized tiles called tesserae. The mineralized portion of the skeleton appears to grow only by apposition, adding material at the edges of each tessera; maintenance of non-mineralized joints between tesserae is therefore vital, with precise control of mineral deposition and inhibition at the many thousands of growth fronts in the skeleton...
October 2015: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Monique Welten, Moya Meredith Smith, Charlie Underwood, Zerina Johanson
A well-known characteristic of chondrichthyans (e.g. sharks, rays) is their covering of external skin denticles (placoid scales), but less well understood is the wide morphological diversity that these skin denticles can show. Some of the more unusual of these are the tooth-like structures associated with the elongate cartilaginous rostrum 'saw' in three chondrichthyan groups: Pristiophoridae (sawsharks; Selachii), Pristidae (sawfish; Batoidea) and the fossil Sclerorhynchoidea (Batoidea). Comparative topographic and developmental studies of the 'saw-teeth' were undertaken in adults and embryos of these groups, by means of three-dimensional-rendered volumes from X-ray computed tomography...
September 2015: Royal Society Open Science
Sébastien Enault, David N Muñoz, Willian T A F Silva, Véronique Borday-Birraux, Morgane Bonade, Silvan Oulion, Stéphanie Ventéo, Sylvain Marcellini, Mélanie Debiais-Thibaud
Understanding the evolutionary emergence and subsequent diversification of the vertebrate skeleton requires a comprehensive view of the diverse skeletal cell types found in distinct developmental contexts, tissues, and species. To date, our knowledge of the molecular nature of the shark calcified extracellular matrix, and its relationships with osteichthyan skeletal tissues, remain scarce. Here, based on specific combinations of expression patterns of the Col1a1, Col1a2, and Col2a1 fibrillar collagen genes, we compare the molecular footprint of endoskeletal elements from the chondrichthyan Scyliorhinus canicula and the tetrapod Xenopus tropicalis...
2015: Frontiers in Genetics
Peter Fratzl, Otmar Kolednik, F Dieter Fischer, Mason N Dean
Faced with a comparatively limited palette of minerals and organic polymers as building materials, evolution has arrived repeatedly on structural solutions that rely on clever geometric arrangements to avoid mechanical trade-offs in stiffness, strength and flexibility. In this tutorial review, we highlight the concept of tessellation, a structural motif that involves periodic soft and hard elements arranged in series and that appears in a vast array of invertebrate and vertebrate animal biomaterials. We start from basic mechanics principles on the effects of material heterogeneities in hypothetical structures, to derive common concepts from a diversity of natural examples of one-, two- and three-dimensional tilings/layerings...
January 21, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Zerina Johanson, Catherine Boisvert, Anton Maksimenko, Peter Currie, Kate Trinajstic
The synarcual is a structure incorporating multiple elements of two or more anterior vertebrae of the axial skeleton, forming immediately posterior to the cranium. It has been convergently acquired in the fossil group 'Placodermi', in Chondrichthyes (Holocephali, Batoidea), within the teleost group Syngnathiformes, and to varying degrees in a range of mammalian taxa. In addition, cervical vertebral fusion presents as an abnormal pathology in a variety of human disorders. Vertebrae develop from axially arranged somites, so that fusion could result from a failure of somite segmentation early in development, or from later heterotopic development of intervertebral bone or cartilage...
2015: PloS One
John A Long, Carole J Burrow, Michal Ginter, John G Maisey, Kate M Trinajstic, Michael I Coates, Gavin C Young, Tim J Senden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: PloS One
John A Long, Carole J Burrow, Michal Ginter, John G Maisey, Kate M Trinajstic, Michael I Coates, Gavin C Young, Tim J Senden
BACKGROUND: Living gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates) comprise two divisions, Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes, including euchondrichthyans with prismatic calcified cartilage, and extinct stem chondrichthyans) and Osteichthyes (bony fishes including tetrapods). Most of the early chondrichthyan ('shark') record is based upon isolated teeth, spines, and scales, with the oldest articulated sharks that exhibit major diagnostic characters of the group--prismatic calcified cartilage and pelvic claspers in males--being from the latest Devonian, c...
2015: PloS One
Varsha Kale, Ólafur Friðjónsson, Jón Óskar Jónsson, Hörður G Kristinsson, Sesselja Ómarsdóttir, Guðmundur Ó Hreggviðsson
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) saccharides from cartilage tissues have potential application in medicine or as dietary supplements due to their therapeutic bioactivities. Studies have shown that depolymerized CS saccharides may display enhanced bioactivity. The objective of this study was to isolate a CS-degrading enzyme for an efficient production of CS oligo- or disaccharides. CS-degrading bacteria from marine environments were enriched using in situ artificial support colonization containing CS from shark cartilage as substrate...
August 2015: Marine Biotechnology
Kyohei Higashi, Yoshiki Takeuchi, Ann Mukuno, Hideyuki Tomitori, Masaki Miya, Robert J Linhardt, Toshihiko Toida
Shark fin, used as a food, is a rich source of glycosaminoglyans (GAGs), acidic polysaccharides having important biological activities, suggesting their nutraceutical and pharmaceutical application. A comprehensive survey of GAGs derived from the fin was performed on 11 elasmobranchs, including several deep sea sharks. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) were found in Isurus oxyrinchus, Prionace glauca, Scyliorhinus torazame, Deania calcea, Chlamydoselachus anguineus, Mitsukurina owatoni, Mustelus griseus and Dasyatis akajei, respectively...
2015: PloS One
Tsutomu Shimada, Shunji Tomatsu, Robert W Mason, Eriko Yasuda, William G Mackenzie, Jobayer Hossain, Yuniko Shibata, Adriana M Montaño, Francyne Kubaski, Roberto Giugliani, Seiji Yamaguchi, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Kenji E Orii, Toshiyuki Fukao, Tadao Orii
Keratan sulfate (KS) is a storage material in mucopolysaccharidosis IV (MPS IV). However, no detailed analysis has been reported on subclasses of KS: mono-sulfated KS and di-sulfated KS. We established a novel method to distinguish and quantify mono- and di-sulfated KS using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and measured both KS levels in various specimens.Di-sulfated KS was dominant in shark cartilage and rat serum, while mono-sulfated KS was dominant in bovine cornea and human serum. Levels of both mono- and di-sulfated KS varied with age in the blood and urine from control subjects and patients with MPS II and IVA...
2015: JIMD Reports
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