Read by QxMD icon Read

shark cartilage

Michael I Coates, John A Finarelli, Ivan J Sansom, Plamen S Andreev, Katharine E Criswell, Kristen Tietjen, Mark L Rivers, Patrick J La Riviere
Although relationships among the major groups of living gnathostomes are well established, the relatedness of early jawed vertebrates to modern clades is intensely debated. Here, we provide a new description of Gladbachus, a Middle Devonian (Givetian approx. 385-million-year-old) stem chondrichthyan from Germany, and one of the very few early chondrichthyans in which substantial portions of the endoskeleton are preserved. Tomographic and histological techniques reveal new details of the gill skeleton, hyoid arch and jaws, neurocranium, cartilage, scales and teeth...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Zhenkun Ren, Yuanyuan Ji, Yi Wang, Liyuan Dong
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease characterized by cartilage degradation. Chondroitin sulfate from shark (CS-S) has a good effect on OA in clinical, but due to source limited of CS from shark. Therefore, it is important to find a novel CS source with similar efficacy to CS-S in the treatment of OA. Herein, we reported a therapeutic effect of CS from scophthalmus maximus (CS-SM) for treating OA in rats. The OA model was established. After intervention with CS-SM by intragastric administration. Our results showed that CS-SM could protect articular cartilage in OA, inhibit the degradation of cartilage, decrease the apoptosis of chondrocytes, decline the content of interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α and Prostaglandins E2 in synovial fluid, down-regulate the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and up-regulate the protein expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1...
March 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mason N Dean, Joseph J Bizzarro, Brett Clark, Charlie J Underwood, Zerina Johanson
The shapes of vertebrate teeth are often used as hallmarks of diet. Here, however, we demonstrate evidence of frequent piscivory by cartilaginous fishes with pebble-like teeth that are typically associated with durophagy, the eating of hard-shelled prey. High-resolution micro-computed tomography observation of a jaw specimen from one batoid species and visual investigation of those of two additional species reveal large numbers of embedded stingray spines, arguing that stingray predation of a scale rivalling that of the largest carnivorous sharks may not be uncommon for large, predatory batoids with rounded, non-cutting dentition...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
John A Mohan, Thomas C TinHan, Nathan R Miller, R J David Wells
RATIONALE: Application of vertebral chemistry in elasmobranchs has the potential to progress our understanding of individual migration patterns and population dynamics. However, the influence of handling artifacts such as sample cleaning and storage on vertebral chemistry is unclear and requires experimental investigation. METHODS: Vertebrae centra from blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) were cleaned with bleach (NaOCl) for five minutes (m), 1 hour (h) and 24 (h) in a cleaning experiment and stored frozen, in 70% ethanol, and 10% formalin treatments for 20 days in a storage experiment...
September 20, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Ronald Seidel, Michael Blumer, Elisabeth-Judith Pechriggl, Kady Lyons, Brian K Hall, Peter Fratzl, James C Weaver, Mason N Dean
The primary skeletal tissue in elasmobranchs -sharks, rays and relatives- is cartilage, forming both embryonic and adult endoskeletons. Only the skeletal surface calcifies, exhibiting mineralized tiles (tesserae) sandwiched between a cartilage core and overlying fibrous perichondrium. These two tissues are based on different collagens (Coll II and I, respectively), fueling a long-standing debate as to whether tesserae are more like calcified cartilage or bone (Coll 1-based) in their matrix composition. We demonstrate that stingray (Urobatis halleri) tesserae are bipartite, having an upper Coll I-based 'cap' that merges into a lower Coll II-based 'body' zone, although tesserae are surrounded by cartilage...
October 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
Jesus Valcarcel, Ramon Novoa-Carballal, Ricardo I Pérez-Martín, Rui L Reis, José Antonio Vázquez
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in marine animals are different to those of terrestrial organisms, mainly in terms of molecular weight and sulfation. The therapeutic properties of GAGs are related to their ability to interact with proteins, which is very much influenced by sulfation position and patterns. Since currently GAGs cannot be chemically synthesized, they are sourced from natural products, with high intra- but also inter-species variability, in terms of chain length, disaccharide composition and sulfation pattern...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
Yeong Ok Song, Mijeong Kim, Minji Woo, Jang-Mi Baek, Keon-Hee Kang, Sang-Ho Kim, Seong-Soo Roh, Chan Hum Park, Kap-Seop Jeong, Jeong-Sook Noh
The protective effects of a chondroitin sulfate-rich extract (CSE) from skate cartilage against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic damage were investigated, and its mechanism of action was compared with that of chondroitin sulfate (CS) from shark cartilage. ICR mice were orally administrated 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) of CS or 400 mg/kg BW of CSE for 3 consecutive days, followed by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of LPS (20 mg/kg BW). The experimental groups were vehicle treatment without LPS injection (NC group), vehicle treatment with LPS injection (LPS group), CS pretreatment with LPS injection (CS group), and CSE pretreatment with LPS injection (CSE group)...
June 15, 2017: Marine Drugs
Nadezhda V Kryukova
Musculo-skeletal morphology is an indispensable source for understanding functional adaptations. Analysis of morphology of the branchial apparatus of Hexanchiform sharks can provide insight into aspects of their respiration that are difficult to observe directly. In this study, I compare the structure of the musculo-skeletal system of the gill apparatus of Heptranchias perlo and Squalus acanthias in respect to their adaptation for one of two respiratory mechanisms known in sharks, namely, the active two-pump (oropharyngeal and parabranchial) ventilation and the ram-jet ventilation...
August 2017: Journal of Morphology
Martha Richter, Elvio P Bosetti, Rodrigo S Horodyski
We report on the pioneering discovery of Devonian fish remains in the Paraná Basin, which represents the southernmost record of fishes from that period in mainland South America. The material comes from an outcrop at the lower portion of the São Domingos Formation, within Sequence C of the Paraná-Apucarana sub-basin in Tibagi, State of Paraná. Marine invertebrates are abundant in the same strata. The dark colored fish remains were collected in situ and represent natural moulds of partially articulated shark fin rays (radials)...
January 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Gustavo R C Santos, Adriana A Piquet, Bianca F Glauser, Ana M F Tovar, Mariana S Pereira, Eduardo Vilanova, Paulo A S Mourão
Glycosaminoglycans are carbohydrate-based compounds widely employed as nutraceuticals or prescribed drugs. Oral formulations of chondroitin sulfate combined with glucosamine sulfate have been increasingly used to treat the symptoms of osteoarthritis and osteoarthrosis. The chondroitin sulfate of these combinations can be obtained from shark or bovine cartilages and hence presents differences regarding the proportions of 4- and 6-sulfated N-acetyl β-d-galactosamine units. Herein, we proposed a systematic protocol to assess pharmaceutical batches of this combination drug...
April 1, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
A K Jayasankar, R Seidel, J Naumann, L Guiducci, A Hosny, P Fratzl, J C Weaver, J W C Dunlop, M N Dean
Tilings are constructs of repeated shapes covering a surface, common in both manmade and natural structures, but in particular are a defining characteristic of shark and ray skeletons. In these fishes, cartilaginous skeletal elements are wrapped in a surface tessellation, comprised of polygonal mineralized tiles linked by flexible joints, an arrangement believed to provide both stiffness and flexibility. The aim of this research is to use two-dimensional analytical models to evaluate the mechanical performance of stingray skeleton-inspired tessellations, as a function of their material and structural parameters...
February 28, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Ronald Seidel, Michael Blumer, Paul Zaslansky, David Knötel, Daniel R Huber, James C Weaver, Peter Fratzl, Sidney Omelon, Luca Bertinetti, Mason N Dean
The cartilaginous endoskeletons of elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) are reinforced superficially by minute, mineralized tiles, called tesserae. Unlike the bony skeletons of other vertebrates, elasmobranch skeletons have limited healing capability and their tissues' mechanisms for avoiding damage or managing it when it does occur are largely unknown. Here we describe an aberrant type of mineralized elasmobranch skeletal tissue called endophytic masses (EPMs), which grow into the uncalcified cartilage of the skeleton, but exhibit a strikingly different morphology compared to tesserae and other elasmobranch calcified tissues...
April 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
Liza Merly, Sylvia L Smith
The popular murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, is often used to initially screen natural products for bioactivity and to predict their potential effect in vivo or on primary cells. The cell line response is considered to reflect the potential human de novo response, and is used to evaluate the effective bioactivity of the product. Here, we compared the cytokine response of RAW 264.7 cells to shark cartilage (SC) with that of human leukocytes to determine whether the cell line response was a reliable predictor of the cytokine response one can expect from similarly stimulated human primary cells...
April 2017: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Katharine E Criswell, Michael I Coates, J Andrew Gillis
The morphological patterns and molecular mechanisms of vertebral column development are well understood in bony fishes (osteichthyans). However, vertebral column morphology in elasmobranch chondrichthyans (e.g., sharks and skates) differs from that of osteichthyans, and its development has not been extensively studied. Here, we characterize vertebral development in an elasmobranch fish, the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea, using microCT, paraffin histology, and whole-mount skeletal preparations. Vertebral development begins with the condensation of mesenchyme, first around the notochord, and subsequently around the neural tube and caudal artery and vein...
March 2017: Journal of Morphology
Claire D Erlacher-Reid, Hendrik H Nollens, Todd L Schmitt, Judy St Leger, Sarena Sunico
A female, captive bred, juvenile swell shark ( Cephaloscyllium ventriosum ) was observed swimming in tight circles and rolling. Radiographs and computed tomography of this individual revealed extensive cartilage mineralization of the skull and cranial cervical vertebrae compared with diagnostic images of clinically healthy conspecifics. Gross necropsy and histopathologic examination revealed ossification and fibrosis of the cartilaginous matrix of the skull and cervical vertebrae with deep invasion by a pigmented hyphal fungus...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Qingsen Shang, Qinying Li, Meifang Zhang, Guanrui Song, Jingjing Shi, Hao Jiang, Chao Cai, Jiejie Hao, Guoyun Li, Guangli Yu
Keratan sulfate (KS) represents an important family of glycosaminoglycans that are critical in diverse physiological processes. Recently, accumulating evidence has provided a wealth of information on the bioactivity of KS, which established it as an attractive candidate for drug development. However, although KS has been widely explored, less attention has been given to its effect on gut microbiota. Therefore, given that gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in health homeostasis and disease pathogenesis, we investigated here in detail the effect of KS on gut microbiota by high-throughput sequencing...
December 8, 2016: Marine Drugs
Lian Li, Yan Li, Danyang Feng, Linghua Xu, Fengxin Yin, Hengchang Zang, Chunhui Liu, Fengshan Wang
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) plays important roles in the complement system. However, the CS structure is complicated due to different sources and the number and positions of sulfate groups. The objective of this study was to prepare different low molecular weight chondroitin sulfates (LMWCSs) and to investigate the biological activity in anti-complement capacity. A series of LMWCSs was prepared from different sources and characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV) spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jayne M Gardiner, Jelle Atema, Robert E Hueter, Philip J Motta
The ability of predators to modulate prey capture in response to the size, location, and behavior of prey is critical to successful feeding on a variety of prey types. Modulating in response to changes in sensory information may be critical to successful foraging in a variety of environments. Three shark species with different feeding morphologies and behaviors were filmed using high-speed videography while capturing live prey: the ram-feeding blacktip shark, the ram-biting bonnethead, and the suction-feeding nurse shark...
February 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Ronald Seidel, Kady Lyons, Michael Blumer, Paul Zaslansky, Peter Fratzl, James C Weaver, Mason N Dean
The endoskeleton of elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) is comprised largely of unmineralized cartilage, differing fundamentally from the bony skeletons of other vertebrates. Elasmobranch skeletons are further distinguished by a tessellated surface mineralization, a layer of minute, polygonal, mineralized tiles called tesserae. This 'tessellation' has defined the elasmobranch group for more than 400 million years, yet the limited data on development and ultrastructure of elasmobranch skeletons (e.g. how tesserae change in shape and mineral density with age) have restricted our abilities to develop hypotheses for tessellated cartilage growth...
November 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Neil Hammerschlag, David A Davis, Kiyo Mondo, Matthew S Seely, Susan J Murch, William Broc Glover, Timothy Divoll, David C Evers, Deborah C Mash
Sharks have greater risk for bioaccumulation of marine toxins and mercury (Hg), because they are long-lived predators. Shark fins and cartilage also contain β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a ubiquitous cyanobacterial toxin linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Today, a significant number of shark species have found their way onto the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Many species of large sharks are threatened with extinction due in part to the growing high demand for shark fin soup and, to a lesser extent, for shark meat and cartilage products...
August 16, 2016: Toxins
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"