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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914826/pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis-a-case-report
#1
Luis Alberto Concepción-Urteaga, Luis Alejandro Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Jorge Luis Cornejo-Portella, Oscar Neri Alquizar-Horna, Daniel Anderson Aguilar-Villanueva, Marcio José Concepción-Zavaleta, Mario Gustavo Azañero-Luján
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare, diffuse interstitial lung disease, characterized by alveolar obstruction due to the accumulation of pulmonary surfactant. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 30-year-old male with progressively worsening dyspnea and non-productive cough for one year. He was a sugar cane plantation worker and had prior recurrent respiratory infections. Physical exam revealed cyanosis, and bilateral coarse and fine rales. Chest computed tomography showed diffuse crazy paving pattern...
September 14, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913327/in-vivo-evaluation-of-the-acute-pulmonary-response-to-poractant-alfa-and-bovactant-treatments-in-lung-lavaged-adult-rabbits-and-in-preterm-lambs-with-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#2
Francesca Ricci, Fabrizio Salomone, Elke Kuypers, Daan Ophelders, Maria Nikiforou, Monique Willems, Tobias Krieger, Xabier Murgia, Matthias Hütten, Boris W Kramer, Federico Bianco
BACKGROUND: Poractant alfa (Curosurf(®)) and Bovactant (Alveofact(®)) are two animal-derived pulmonary surfactants preparations approved for the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (nRDS). They differ in their source, composition, pharmaceutical form, and clinical dose. How much these differences affect the acute pulmonary response to treatment is unknown. OBJECTIVES: Comparing these two surfactant preparations in two different animal models of respiratory distress focusing on the short-term response to treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910374/expression-of-surfactant-protein-b-is-dependent-on-cell-density-in-h441-lung-epithelial-cells
#3
Markus Fehrholz, Silvia Seidenspinner, Steffen Kunzmann
BACKGROUND: Expression of surfactant protein (SP)-B, which assures the structural stability of the pulmonary surfactant film, is influenced by various stimuli, including glucocorticoids; however, the role that cell-cell contact plays in SP-B transcription remains unknown. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of cell-cell contact on SP-B mRNA and mature SP-B expression in the lung epithelial cell line H441. METHODS: Different quantities of H441 cells per growth area were either left untreated or incubated with dexamethasone...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902364/functional-roles-of-c-ebp%C3%AE-and-sumo%C3%A2-modification-in-lung-development
#4
Yuan-Dong Chen, Jiang-Yan Liu, Yan-Min Lu, Hai-Tao Zhu, Wei Tang, Qiu-Xia Wang, Hong-Yan Lu
CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) is a transcription factor regulating the core aspects of cell growth and differentiation. The present study investigated the level and functional role of C/EBPα during the development of the rat lung. C/EBPα protein exhibits a dynamic expression pattern. The correlation between the expression of C/EBPα protein and the content of glycogen during lung maturation was analyzed to understand the function of C/EBPα in lung differentiation. The high expression of C/EBPα coincides with the reduction of glycogen in the fetal lung...
August 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894173/lipidomes-of-lung-cancer-and-tumour-free-lung-tissues-reveal-distinct-molecular-signatures-for-cancer-differentiation-age-inflammation-and-pulmonary-emphysema
#5
Lars F Eggers, Julia Müller, Chakravarthy Marella, Verena Scholz, Henrik Watz, Christian Kugler, Klaus F Rabe, Torsten Goldmann, Dominik Schwudke
Little is known about the human lung lipidome, its variability in different physiological states, its alterations during carcinogenesis and the development of pulmonary emphysema. We investigated how health status might be mirrored in the lung lipidome. Tissues were sampled for both lipidomic and histological analysis. Using a screening approach, we characterised lipidomes of lung cancer tissues and corresponding tumour-free alveolar tissues. We quantified 311 lipids from 11 classes in 43 tissue samples from 26 patients...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887056/quantification-of-volume-and-lipid-filling-of-intracellular-vesicles-carrying-the-abca3-transporter
#6
Stefanie Höppner, Susanna Kinting, Adriano A Torrano, Ulrike Schindlbeck, Christoph Bräuchle, Ralf Zarbock, Thomas Wittman, Matthias Griese
The ABCA3 lipid transporter is located in the limiting membrane of lamellar bodies (LBs) in type-II-pneumocytes. Mutations within the ABCA3 gene may functionally impair the transporter, causing lung diseases in newborns, children and adults. Assays to quantify volume and lipid filling of the LBs on the level of the vesicular structures and thereby assess the function of ABCA3 are still lacking. In the present study human influenza haemagglutinin- (HA-) tagged wild type and mutant ABCA3 proteins were stably expressed in lung A549 cells...
September 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881145/secondhand-tobacco-smoke-and-severity-in-wheezing-children-nasal-oxidant-stress-and-inflammation
#7
Ozge Yilmaz, Ahmet Turkeli, Ece Onur, Sema Bilge, Hasan Yuksel
OBJECTIVES: Prenatal and postnatal smoke exposures are associated with many lung diseases in children due to impaired lung function, increased inflammation, and oxidative stress. We aimed to determine the influence of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on the levels of nasal glutathione, IL-8, IL-17, MMP-9, and TIMP-1, as well as serum surfactant protein-D (SP-D) in wheezy children. METHODS: We enrolled 150 children with recurrent wheezing and recorded wheezing characteristics at enrollment...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878025/gallbladder-derived-surfactant-protein-d-regulates-gut-commensal-bacteria-for-maintaining-intestinal-homeostasis
#8
Hana Sarashina-Kida, Hideo Negishi, Junko Nishio, Wataru Suda, Yuki Nakajima, Mika Yasui-Kato, Keiko Iwaisako, Sujin Kang, Nobuyasu Endo, Hideyuki Yanai, Masataka Asagiri, Hiroshi Kida, Masahira Hattori, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Tadatsugu Taniguchi
The commensal microbiota within the gastrointestinal tract is essential in maintaining homeostasis. Indeed, dysregulation in the repertoire of microbiota can result in the development of intestinal immune-inflammatory diseases. Further, this immune regulation by gut microbiota is important systemically, impacting health and disease of organ systems beyond the local environment of the gut. What has not been explored is how distant organs might in turn shape the microbiota via microbe-targeted molecules. Here, we provide evidence that surfactant protein D (SP-D) synthesized in the gallbladder and delivered into intestinal lumen binds selectively to species of gut commensal bacteria...
September 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877748/a-pilot-clinical-trial-of-recombinant-human-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#9
Akram Khan, Cody Benthin, Brian Zeno, Timothy E Albertson, John Boyd, Jason D Christie, Richard Hall, Germain Poirier, Juan J Ronco, Mark Tidswell, Kelly Hardes, William M Powley, Tracey J Wright, Sarah K Siederer, David A Fairman, David A Lipson, Andrew I Bayliffe, Aili L Lazaar
BACKGROUND: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) signaling and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We postulated that repleting ACE2 using GSK2586881, a recombinant form of human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (rhACE2), could attenuate acute lung injury. METHODS: We conducted a two-part phase II trial comprising an open-label intrapatient dose escalation and a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase in ten intensive care units in North America...
September 7, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877030/radiation-mitigating-properties-of-intranasally-administered-kl4-surfactant-in-a-murine-model-of-radiation-induced-lung-damage
#10
Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou, Ralph A Pietrofesa, Evguenia Arguiri, Constantinos Koumenis, Robert Segal
The threat of exposure to ionizing radiation from a nuclear reactor accident or deliberate terrorist actions is a significant public health concern. The lung is particularly susceptible to radiation-induced injury from external sources or inhalation of radioactive particles from radioactive fallout. Radiation-induced lung disease can manifest with an acute radiation pneumonitis and/or delayed effects leading to pulmonary fibrosis. As prior warning of radiation exposure is unlikely, medical countermeasures (MCMs) to mitigate radiation-induced lung disease that can be given in mass-casualty situations many hours or days postirradiation are needed to prevent both early and late lung damage...
September 6, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875146/importance-of-serial-changes-in-biomarkers-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#11
Akihiko Sokai, Kiminobu Tanizawa, Tomohiro Handa, Kumiko Kanatani, Takeshi Kubo, Kohei Ikezoe, Yoshinari Nakatsuka, Shinsaku Tokuda, Toru Oga, Toyohiro Hirai, Sonoko Nagai, Kazuo Chin, Michiaki Mishima
The clinical significance of serial changes in serum biomarkers in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains to be established. This retrospective study was conducted to clarify the associations of serial changes in serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) and surfactant protein-D (SP-D) with changes in physiological indices and overall mortality in IPF. The study subjects were 75 patients with IPF. The 6 month change in serum KL-6 was significantly correlated with changes in the percentage of the predicted forced vital capacity (FVC % pred) and the percentage of the predicted diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (% DLCO), while the 6 month change in serum SP-D was correlated only with % DLCO...
July 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874611/how-should-aerosols-be-delivered-during-invasive-mechanical-ventilation
#12
Rajiv Dhand
The delivery of aerosols to mechanically ventilated patients presents unique challenges and differs from inhaled drug delivery in spontaneously breathing patients in several respects. Successful aerosol delivery during invasive mechanical ventilation requires careful consideration of a host of factors that influence the amount of drug inhaled by the patient. Pressurized metered-dose inhalers and nebulizers (jet, ultrasonic, and vibrating mesh) are the most commonly used aerosol delivery devices in these patients, although other delivery devices, such as dry powder inhalers, soft mist inhalers, and intratracheal nebulizing catheters, could also be adapted for in-line use...
September 5, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873200/mac-1-deficiency-induces-respiratory-failure-by-affecting-type-i-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#13
J Wang, Y B Ci, C L Liu, H M Sun
As a β2 integrin family member, Mac-1 plays an important role in the inflammatory response. Inflammation and lung injury are closely associated, but the involvement of Mac-1 in the occurrence and development of such pathologies remains poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the relationship between Mac-1 deficiency and respiratory failure in Mac-1 knockout {Mac-1(-/-)} mice, using C57BL/6J mice as a control. The newborn survival rate of Mac-1(-/-) mice was calculated, and mouse lung tissue was treated with hematoxylin and eosin and subjected to immunofluorescent staining...
August 31, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871103/lipidomic-dysregulation-within-the-lung-parenchyma-following-whole-thorax-lung-irradiation-markers-of-injury-inflammation-and-fibrosis-detected-by-maldi-msi
#14
Claire L Carter, Jace W Jones, Ann M Farese, Thomas J MacVittie, Maureen A Kane
Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a delayed effect of acute radiation exposure that can limit curative cancer treatment therapies and cause lethality following high-dose whole-thorax lung irradiation (WTLI). To date, the exact mechanisms of injury development following insult remain ill-defined and there are no FDA approved pharmaceutical agents or medical countermeasures. Traditionally, RILI development is considered as three phases, the clinically latent period, the intermediate acute pneumonitis phase and the later fibrotic stage...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865477/rig-i-overexpression-decreases-mortality-of-cigarette-smoke-exposed-mice-during-influenza-a-virus-infection
#15
Xiaoqiu Wang, Wenxin Wu, Wei Zhang, J Leland Booth, Elizabeth S Duggan, Lili Tian, Sunil More, Yan D Zhao, Ravindranauth N Sawh, Lin Liu, Ming-Hui Zou, Jordan P Metcalf
BACKGROUND: Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is an important regulator of virus-induced antiviral interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines which participate in clearing viral infections. Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure increases the frequency and severity of respiratory tract infections. METHODS: We generated a RIG-I transgenic (TG) mouse strain that expresses the RIG-I gene product under the control of the human lung specific surfactant protein C promoter...
September 2, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865463/carbon-ion-radiotherapy-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-with-interstitial-lung-disease-a%C3%A2-retrospective-analysis
#16
Mio Nakajima, Naoyoshi Yamamoto, Kazuhiko Hayashi, Masataka Karube, Daniel K Ebner, Wataru Takahashi, Makoto Anzai, Kenji Tsushima, Yuji Tada, Koichiro Tatsumi, Tadaaiki Miyamoto, Hiroshi Tsuji, Takehiko Fujisawa, Tadashi Kamada
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is frequently complicated by interstitial lung disease (ILD). Treatment protocols for lung cancer patients with ILD have not been established; surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy can all cause acute exacerbation of ILD. This study evaluated the toxicity and efficacy of carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and ILD. METHODS: Between June 2004 and November 2014, 29 patients diagnosed with NSCLC and ILD were treated with CIRT...
September 2, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861115/a-pediatric-case-of-relapsed-pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis-despite-successful-whole-lung-lavage
#17
Seung Young Jin, Hye Ri Yun, Yun Jung Choi, Jun Dong Park, Jin Tae Kim, Chang Hyun Kang, Young Sik Park, Young Hun Choi, Woo Sun Kim, Dong In Suh
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease in children characterized by intra-alveolar accumulation of surfactant proteins, which severely reduces gaseous exchange. Whole lung lavage (WLL) is the preferred technique for the treatment of severe PAP. Herein, we present a pediatric case of PAP treated with WLL. An 11-year-old boy was admitted with the chief complaint of a dry cough lasting 6 months. He developed symptoms of dyspnea on exertion and had difficulty in climbing stairs. He was ultimately diagnosed with PAP through video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy...
July 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861003/nanobubbles-form-at-active-hydrophobic-spots-on-the-luminal-aspect-of-blood-vessels-consequences-for-decompression-illness-in-diving-and-possible-implications-for-autoimmune-disease-an-overview
#18
REVIEW
Ran Arieli
Decompression illness (DCI) occurs following a reduction in ambient pressure. Decompression bubbles can expand and develop only from pre-existing gas micronuclei. The different hypotheses hitherto proposed regarding the nucleation and stabilization of gas micronuclei have never been validated. It is known that nanobubbles form spontaneously when a smooth hydrophobic surface is submerged in water containing dissolved gas. These nanobubbles may be the long sought-after gas micronuclei underlying decompression bubbles and DCI...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860566/targeting-cholesterol-homeostasis-in-lung-diseases
#19
Anthony Sallese, Takuji Suzuki, Cormac McCarthy, James Bridges, Alyssa Filuta, Paritha Arumugam, Kenjiro Shima, Yan Ma, Matthew Wessendarp, Diane Black, Claudia Chalk, Brenna Carey, Bruce C Trapnell
Macrophages are critical to organ structure and function in health and disease. To determine mechanisms by which granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling normally maintains surfactant homeostasis and how its disruption causes pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), we evaluated lipid composition in alveolar macrophages and lung surfactant, macrophage-mediated surfactant clearance kinetics/dynamics, and cholesterol-targeted pharmacotherapy of PAP in vitro and in vivo. Without GM-CSF signaling, surfactant-exposed macrophages massively accumulated cholesterol ester-rich lipid-droplets and surfactant had an increased proportion of cholesterol...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860142/novel-therapeutic-roles-for-surfactant-inositols-and-phosphatidylglycerols-in-a-neonatal-piglet-ards-model-a-translational-study
#20
Dietmar Spengler, Supandi Winoto-Morbach, Sarah Kupsch, Christina Vock, Katharina Blöchle, Susanna Frank, Nele Rintz, Marie Diekötter, Harshavardhan Janga, Markus Weckmann, Sabine Fuchs, Andra B Schromm, Heinz Fehrenbach, Stefan Schütze, Martin F Krause
The biological and immune-protective properties of surfactant-derived phospholipids and phospholipid-subfractions in the context of neonatal inflammatory lung disease are widely unknown. Using a porcine neonatal triple-hit ARDS model (repeated airway lavage, overventilation, LPS instillation into airways), we assessed whether the supplementation of surfactant (poractant alfa, S) with inositol-derivatives (inositol-1,2,6-trisphosphate, IP3; phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate, PIP2) or phosphatidylglycerol-subfractions (16:0/18:1-POPG; 18:1/18:1-DOPG) would result in improved clinical parameters, and sought to characterize changes in key inflammatory pathways behind these improvements...
August 31, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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