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Lung surfactant

Jeness Campodonico, Massimo Mapelli, Emanuele Spadafora, Stefania Ghilardi, Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Cristina Banfi, Susanna Sciomer
Alveolar-capillary membrane evaluated by carbon monoxide diffusion (DLCO) plays an important role in heart failure (HF). Surfactant Proteins (SPs) have also been suggested as a worthwhile marker. In HF, Levosimendan improves pulmonary hemodynamics and reduces lung fluids but associated SPs and DLCO changes are unknown. Sixty-five advanced HF patients underwent spirometry, cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) and SPs determination before and after Levosimendan. Levosimendan caused natriuretic peptide-B (BNP) reduction, peakVO2 increase and VE/VCO2 slope reduction...
March 13, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Marta Martínez-Calle, Bárbara Olmeda, Paul Dietl, Manfred Frick, Jesús Pérez-Gil
The release of pulmonary surfactant by alveolar type II (ATII) cells is essential for lowering surface tension at the respiratory air-liquid interface, stabilizing the lungs against physical forces tending to alveolar collapse. Hydrophobic surfactant protein (SP)-B ensures the proper packing of newly synthesized surfactant particles, promotes the formation of the surface active film at the alveolar air-liquid interface and maintains its proper structure along the respiratory dynamics. We report that membrane-associated SP-B efficiently induces secretion of pulmonary surfactant by ATII cells, at the same level as potent secretagogues such as ATP...
March 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Jeffrey Earl Gotts, Lauren F Chun, Jason Abbott, Xiaohui Fang, Naoki Takasaki, Stephen L Nishimura, Matthew L Springer, Suzaynn F Schick, Carolyn S Calfee, Michael A Matthay
Evidence is accumulating that exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) increases the risk of developing Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). S. pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia, which in turn is the leading cause of ARDS. Chronic smokers have increased rates of pneumococcal colonization and develop more severe pneumococcal pneumonia than nonsmokers, yet mechanistic connections between CS exposure, bacterial pneumonia, and ARDS pathogenesis remain relatively unexplored. We exposed mice to 3 weeks of moderate whole-body CS or air, followed by intranasal inoculation with an invasive serotype of S...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Alireza Sadeghnia, Behzad Koorang Beheshti, Majid Mohammadizadeh
Background: Considering all the latest achievements in neonatal respiratory care, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is still among the most prevalent morbidity causes in premature infants. Involvement in this process results in longer period of hospitalization for the newborn and in the long run makes the living conditions more difficult. Taking the multifactorial pathogenesis into account, approaches to tackle chronic lung disease (CLD) are mainly focused on interventions and prevention procedures...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Stephanie J Attarian, Sandra L Leibel, Ping Yang, Danielle N Alfano, Brian P Hackett, F Sessions Cole, Aaron Hamvas
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the NKX2-1 gene are associated with lung disease in infants and children. We hypothesize that disruption of normal surfactant gene expression with these mutations contributes to the respiratory phenotypes observed. METHODS: To assess transactivational activity, co-transfection of luciferase reporter vectors containing surfactant protein B or C (SFTPB or SFTPC) promoters with NKX2-1 plasmids was performed and luciferase activity measured...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Eisa Tahmasbpour, Mostafa Ghanei, Abolfazl Khor, Yunes Panahi
CONTEXT: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a strong alkylating toxicant that targets different organs, particularly human lung tissue. Change in genes expression is one of the molecular mechanisms of SM toxicity in damaged tissue. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation is to characterize the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO), inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (iNOS2), and surfactant protein D (SFTPD) in lungs of patients who exposed to SM...
March 14, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Noriho Sakamoto, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Tomoyuki Kakugawa, Minoru Satoh, Tomoko Hasegawa, Shin Tanaka, Atsuko Hara, Shota Nakashima, Hirokazu Yura, Takuto Miyamura, Hanako Koyama, Towako Morita, Seiko Nakamichi, Yasushi Obase, Yuji Ishimatsu, Hiroshi Mukae
BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a prognostic indicator of poor outcome in myositis. Although the pathogenesis of myositis-associated ILD is not well understood, neutrophils are thought to play a pivotal role. Neutrophils store azurophil granules that contain defensins, which are antimicrobial peptides that regulate the inflammatory response. Here, we evaluated levels of the human neutrophil peptides (HNPs) α-defensin 1 through 3 in patients with myositis-associated ILD to determine whether HNPs represent disease markers and play a role in the pathogenesis of myositis-associated ILD...
March 12, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Aernoud A van Batenburg, Karin M Kazemier, Ton Peeters, Matthijs F M van Oosterhout, Joanne J van der Vis, Jan C Grutters, Roel Goldschmeding, Coline H M van Moorsel
Telomeres are small repetitive DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes which act as a buffer in age-dependent DNA shortening. Insufficient telomere repeats will be recognized as double-strand breaks. Presently, it is becoming more evident that telomere attrition, whether or not caused by mutations in telomere maintenance genes, plays an important role in many inflammatory and age-associated diseases. In this report, a method to (semi)quantitatively assess telomere length and DNA double-strand breaks in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is described...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
Maryam Kashanian, Nooshin Eshraghi, Narges Sheikhansari, Arash Bordbar, Elahehsadat Khatami
The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of a two-dose administration of betamethasone with 12 hours interval vs. 24 hours interval on neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The study was performed as a randomised clinical trial on 201 pregnant women with a gestational age of 26-34 weeks. In one group 12 mg of betamethasone every 12 hours for two doses and in the other group 12 mg of betamethasone every 24 hours for two doses were prescribed intramuscularly. There were no significant differences between the two groups according to maternal age, parity, gravidity, BMI, neonatal sex, need to surfactant, NICU admission, NICU stay, neonatal death, neonatal sepsis and Apgar score at minutes 1 and 5, but the gestational age at the beginning of the study and delivery receiving complete course of betamethasone and neonatal weight were lower in 24 hours group...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Peter D Sottile, David Albers, Marc M Moss
BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular blockade (NMB) is a therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the mechanism by which NMB may improve outcome for ARDS patients remains unclear. We sought to determine whether NMB attenuates biomarkers of epithelial and endothelial lung injury and systemic inflammation in ARDS patients, and whether the association is dependent on tidal volume size and the initial degree of hypoxemia. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of patients enrolled in the ARDS network low tidal volume ventilation (ARMA) study...
March 10, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Nadia Nathan, Keren Borensztajn, Annick Clement
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in children (chILD) is an umbrella term for a heterogeneous group of rare respiratory disorders that are mostly chronic and associated with high morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of the various chILD is complex and implicates genetic contributors. The purpose of this review is to provide updated information on the molecular defects associated with the development of chILD. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, the main mutations are identified in the surfactant genes SFTPA1, SFTPA2, SFTPB, SFTPC, ABCA3, and NKX2-1...
March 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Nahideh Gharehaghaji, Habib Alah Dadgar
Purpose: The main purpose of this study was evaluate a polymer-gel-dosimeter (PGD) for three-dimensional verification of dose distributions in the lung that is called lung-equivalent gel (LEG) and then to compare its result with Monte Carlo (MC) method. Materials and Methods: In the present study, to achieve a lung density for PGD, gel is beaten until foam is obtained, and then sodium dodecyl sulfate is added as a surfactant to increase the surface tension of the gel...
January 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Ahmed Moghieb, Geremy Clair, Hugh Mitchell, Joseph A Kitzmiller, Erika M Zink, Young-Mo Kim, Vladislav Petyuk, Anil K Shukla, Ronald J Moore, Thomas O Metz, James P Carson, Jason E McDermott, Richard A Corley, Jeffrey A Whitsett, Charles Ansong
Biochemical networks mediating normal lung morphogenesis and function have important implications for ameliorating morbidity and mortality in premature infants. While several transcript-level studies have examined normal lung development, corresponding protein-level analyses are lacking. Here we performed proteomics analysis of murine lungs from embryonic to early adult ages to identify the molecular networks mediating normal lung development. We identified 8,932 proteins providing a deep and comprehensive view of the lung proteome...
March 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Ritu Mishra, Houda Benlhabib, Wei Guo, Connie B Lerma Cervantes, Carole R Mendelson
The major surfactant protein, SP-A (product of SFTPA gene), serves as a marker of type II pneumocyte differentiation and surfactant synthesis. SFTPA expression in cultured human fetal lung (HFL) epithelial cells is upregulated by hormones that increase cAMP and activate TTF-1/NKX2.1 and NF-κB. To further define mechanisms for type II cell differentiation and induction of SP-A, we investigated roles of miRNAs. Using microarray to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in HFL epithelial cells during type II cell differentiation in culture, we observed that members of the miR-199a/-214 cluster were significantly downregulated during differentiation...
March 5, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Ulrike Schindlbeck, Thomas Wittmann, Stefanie Höppner, Susanna Kinting, Gerhard Liebisch, Jan Hegermann, Matthias Griese
Mutations in the ATP-binding cassette subfamily A member 3 (ABCA3) gene are the most common monogenetic cause of surfactant dysfunction disorders in newborns and interstitial lung diseases in children and young adults. Whereas the effect of mutations resulting in truncated or incomplete proteins can be predicted, the consequences of missense variants cannot be as easily. Our aim was to investigate the intracellular handling and disturbance of the cellular surfactant system in a stable cell model with several different clinically relevant ABCA3 missense mutations...
March 5, 2018: Human Mutation
Ruijin Wang, Yi Guo, Hengjiang Liu, Yuning Chen, Yazhuo Shang, Honglai Liu
The effect of chitin nanoparticles on surface behavior of lipid systems containing dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) is studied by surface pressure (π)-area (A) isotherms, polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS), Brewster angle microscopy (BAM). The variation of surface behavior of DPPC/DPPG monolayers is induced mainly by electrostatic interactions between nanoparticles and head groups of phospholipids. At lower surface pressure, nanoparticles can penetrate into the monolayers and the positive charges carried by nanoparticles benefits the enrichment of phospholipid molecules at surface, which not only increases the mean molecular area but also hinders the formation of phospholipid liquid-condensed (LC) phase...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Iñigo Aramendia, Unai Fernandez-Gamiz, Alberto Lopez-Arraiza, Carmen Rey-Santano, Victoria Mielgo, Francisco Jose Basterretxea, Javier Sancho, Miguel Angel Gomez-Solaetxe
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) represents one of the major causes of mortality among preterm infants, and the best approach to treat it is an open research issue. The use of perfluorocarbons (PFC) along with non-invasive respiratory support techniques has proven the usefulness of PFC as a complementary substance to achieve a more homogeneous surfactant distribution. The aim of this work was to study the inhaled particles generated by means of an intracorporeal inhalation catheter, evaluating the size and mass distribution of different PFC aerosols...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Youhei Takahashi, Atsushi Saito, Hirofumi Chiba, Koji Kuronuma, Kimiyuki Ikeda, Tomofumi Kobayashi, Shigeru Ariki, Motoko Takahashi, Yasushi Sasaki, Hiroki Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most frequent and severe form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Although IPF has not been thought to be associated with bacterial communities, recent papers reported the possible role of microbiome composition in IPF. The roles of microbiomes in respiratory functions and as clinical biomarkers for IPF remain unknown. In this study, we aim to identify the relationship between the microbial environment in the lung and clinical findings...
February 27, 2018: Respiratory Research
Georgios K Eleftheriadis, Melpomeni Akrivou, Nikolaos Bouropoulos, John Tsibouklis, Ioannis S Vizirianakis, Dimitrios G Fatouros
Towards engineering approaches that are designed to optimize the particle size, morphology and mucoadhesion behavior of the particulate component of inhaler formulations, this paper presents the preparation, physicochemical characterization and preliminary in vitro evaluation of multicomponent polymer-lipid systems that are based on "spray-drying engineered" α-lactose monohydrate microparticles. The formulations combine an active (budesonide) with a lung surfactant (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine) and with materials that are known for their desirable effects on morphology (polyvinyl-alcohol), aerosolization (L-leucine) and mucoadhesion (chitosan)...
February 27, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Michael F Nyp, Sherry M Mabry, Angels Navarro, Heather Menden, Ricardo E Perez, Venkatesh Sampath, Ikechukwu I Ekekezie
The onset and degree of injury occurring in animals that develop hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI) is dependent on age at exposure, suggesting that developmentally regulated pathways/factors must underlie initiation of the epithelial injury and subsequent repair. Type II TGFβ receptor interacting protein-1 (TRIP-1) is a negative regulator of TGFβ signaling, which we have previously shown is a developmentally regulated protein with modulatory effects on epithelial-fibroblastic signaling. The aim of this study was to assess if type II alveolar epithelial cells overexpressing TRIP-1 are protected against hyperoxia-induced epithelial injury, and in turn HALI...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
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