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Lung surfactant

Crystal N Marconett, Beiyun Zhou, Mitsuhiro Sunohara, Tiffany M Pouldar, HongJun Wang, Yixin Liu, Megan E Rieger, Evelyn Tran, Per Flodby, Kimberly D Siegmund, Edward D Crandall, Ite A Laird-Offringa, Zea Borok
Diseases involving the distal lung alveolar epithelium include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and lung adenocarcinoma. Accurate labeling of specific cell types is critical for determining the contribution of each to pathogenesis of these diseases. The distal lung alveolar epithelium is comprised of two cell types, alveolar epithelial type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) cells. While cell type-specific markers, most prominently surfactant protein C (SFTPC), have allowed detailed lineage tracing studies of AT2 cell differentiation and their roles in disease, studies of AT1 cells have been hampered by lack of genes with expression unique to AT1 cells...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Tetsuro Sawata, Masashi Bando, Masayuki Nakayama, Naoko Mato, Hideaki Yamasawa, Yukihiko Sugiyama
Objective The influence of smoking on the pathogenesis and clinical course of interstitial pneumonia has recently attracted attention. To clarify the influence of smoking on the clinical patient characteristics and therapeutic effects in patients with interstitial pneumonia presenting with a non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) pattern, we compared the clinical patient characteristics and therapeutic effects in smokers and nonsmokers in this study. Methods We divided 31 NSIP (16 idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and 15 collagen vascular disease-associated nonspecific interstitial pneumonia) patients into smoker and non-smoker groups for each case...
2016: Internal Medicine
A Jézéquel, M Kerjouan, M Lederlin, C Lainé-Caroff, C Camus, P Delaval, S Jouneau
INTRODUCTION: Auto-immune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare disorder characterized by the accumulation of surfactant proteins in the alveoli. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 41-year-old smoker, presenting initially with acute respiratory failure. Whole lung lavages were effective initially but only for a few weeks. GM-CSF subcutaneous injections were not effective, and then plasmapheresis were tried. CONCLUSION: This is the fifth report of the use of this treatment in auto-immune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis...
October 13, 2016: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
F Cau, E Pisu, C Gerosa, G Senes, F Ronchi, C Botta, E Di Felice, F Uda, V Marinelli, G Faa, V Fanos, C Moretti, D Fanni
The surfactant complex, thanks to its multiple actions including decrease of surface- tension and antimicrobial activity, plays a fundamental role in newborn survival, lowering the risk of respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of this work was to determine if the synthesis of two surfactant proteins (SP), SPA and pro-SPB, shows some inter-individual variability during lung development in the intrauterine life. Immunoreactivity for SPA and pro-SPB was investigated in the lungs of  40 subjects, including 15 fetuses, ranging from 14 to 22 weeks of gestation, and 25 neonates, from 24 to 41 weeks...
September 26, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Aysel Kurt, Hasan Turut, Ahmet Acipayam, Aynur Kirbas, Suleyman Yuce, Medine Cumhur Cure, Erkan Cure
OBJECTIVE: Multiple rib fractures (RFs) and pulmonary contusions (PCs), with resulting systemic lung inflammation, are the most common injuries caused by blunt chest trauma (BCT) in motor vehicle accidents. This study examined levels of the inflammation marker interleukin (IL)-6 and those of the acute-phase reactant surfactant protein (SP)-D in patients with BCT. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. SETTING: Single-centre, tertiary care hospital in the Black Sea Region of Turkey...
October 12, 2016: BMJ Open
Anna Bratek-Skicki, Paulina Żeliszewska, Juan M Ruso
Fibrinogen has been known since the mid-nineteenth century. Although initially its interest had been within the field of physiology over time its study has spread to new disciplines such as biochemistry, colloids and interfaces or biotechnology. First, we will describe the bulk properties of the molecule as well as its supramolecular assembly with different ligands by using different techniques and theoretical models. In the next step we will analyze the interfacial properties, an important topic because fibrinogen is considered to be a major inhibitor of lung surfactants' function at the lining layer of alveoli...
October 10, 2016: Soft Matter
L Wei, Y An, J Wang
Nitric oxide mediates multiple physiological functions, including neurotransmission, immune regulation, angiogenesis, antiplatelet activity, and surfactant maturation or secretion. Mice deficient in the nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) gene displayed defective lung vascular development and fatal respiratory distress. Polymorphisms in NOS3 have been reported to be associated with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The role of NOS3 polymorphisms as a risk factor for pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS) was evaluated by analyzing the possible functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory and coding regions of NOS3...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Smeeta Sardesai, Manoj Biniwale, Fiona Wertheimer, Arlene Garingo, Rangasamy Ramanathan
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) due to surfactant deficiency is the most common cause of respiratory failure in preterm infants. Tremendous progress has been made since the original description that surfactant deficiency is the major cause of RDS. Surfactant therapy has been extensively studied in preterm infants and has been shown to significantly decrease air leaks and neonatal and infant mortality. Synthetic and animal-derived surfactants from bovine as well as porcine origin have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Research
Yange Tian, Jiansheng Li, Ya Li, Yuqiong Dong, Fengjia Yao, Jing Mao, Linlin Li, Lili Wang, Shan Luo, Minghang Wang
Our previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of Bufei Yishen granules combined with acupoint sticking therapy (the integrated therapy) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Dysfunction of pulmonary surfactant proteins (SPs, including SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D) may be included in pathophysiology of COPD. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of the integrated therapy on SPs. COPD rat models were established. The treatment groups received Bufei Yishen granules or acupoint sticking or their combination...
2016: BioMed Research International
Keishi Sugino, Yasuhiko Nakamura, Yoko Muramatsu, Yoshinobu Hata, Kazutoshi Shibuya, Sakae Homma
Acute exacerbation (AE) of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by severe worsening dyspnea and high mortality. It has been proven that the serum neutrophil elastase (NE) level, in addition to the serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) and surfactant protein-D (SP-D) levels, was elevated in patients with IPF-AE. Glutathione (GSH) is the major antioxidant involved in cell metabolism and survival. It is also known that IPF is characterized by reduced GSH levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood...
October 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Jiurong Liang, Yanli Zhang, Ting Xie, Ningshan Liu, Huaiyong Chen, Yan Geng, Adrianne Kurkciyan, Jessica Monterrosa Mena, Barry R Stripp, Dianhua Jiang, Paul W Noble
Successful recovery from lung injury requires the repair and regeneration of alveolar epithelial cells to restore the integrity of gas-exchanging regions within the lung and preserve organ function. Improper regeneration of the alveolar epithelium is often associated with severe pulmonary fibrosis, the latter of which involves the recruitment and activation of fibroblasts, as well as matrix accumulation. Type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2s) are stem cells in the adult lung that contribute to the lung repair process...
October 3, 2016: Nature Medicine
Wolfgang Bernhard
Lung surfactant is a complex with a unique phospholipid and protein composition. Its specific function is to reduce surface tension at the pulmonary air-liquid interface. The underlying Young-Laplace equation, applying to the surface of any geometrical structure, is the more important the smaller its radii are. It therefore applies to the alveoli and bronchioli of mature lungs, as well as to the tubules and saccules of immature lungs. Surfactant comprises 80% phosphatidylcholine (PC), of which dipalmitoyl-PC, palmitoyl-myristoyl-PC and palmitoyl-palmitoleoyl-PC together are 75%...
September 29, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Matthias Ochs, Lars Knudsen, Jan Hegermann, Christoph Wrede, Roman Grothausmann, Christian Mühlfeld
In the nineteenth century, there was a dispute about the existence of a lung alveolar epithelium which remained unsolved until the invention of electron microscopy (EM) and its application to the lung. From the early 1960s, Ewald Weibel became the master of lung EM. He showed that the alveolar epithelium is covered with a lining layer containing surfactant. Weibel also explained the phenomenon of "non-nucleated plates" observed already in 1881 by Albert Kölliker. Weibel's most significant contribution was to the development of stereological methods...
September 29, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Martin Russ, Sebastian Kronfeldt, Willehad Boemke, Thilo Busch, Roland C E Francis, Philipp A Pickerodt
Various animal models of lung injury exist to study the complex pathomechanisms of human acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and evaluate future therapies. Severe lung injury with a reproducible deterioration of pulmonary gas exchange and hemodynamics can be induced in anesthetized pigs using repeated lung lavages with warmed 0.9% saline (50 ml/kg body weight). Including standard respiratory and hemodynamic monitoring with clinically applied devices in this model allows the evaluation of novel therapeutic strategies (drugs, modern ventilators, extracorporeal membrane oxygenators, ECMO), and bridges the gap between bench and bedside...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Mohammad Hassan Khatami, Ivan Saika-Voivod, Valerie Booth
Lung surfactant protein B (SP-B), a 79 residue, hydrophobic protein from the saposin superfamily, plays an essential role in breathing. Because of the extreme hydrophobicity of SP-B, the experimental structure of this protein has not yet been determined. Here, we run all-atom molecular dynamics simulations using the OPLS-AA force field in GROMACS to study SP-B's structure and mechanisms for promoting lipid reorganization. Firstly, we find that the final structures indicate the need for some fine-tuning of the homology-based secondary structure predictions...
September 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Limei Geng, Zhiqiang Chen, Hong Ren, Xiaoyan Niu, Xiangyan Yu, Hongqian Yan
The study aimed to investigate the effect of an early intervention using human amniotic epithelial cell (hAEC) in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Twenty-four specific pathogen-free Wistar rats were randomized to the control, COPD, and COPD+hAEC groups. COPD was established by intratracheal LPS injection combined with smoke fumigation over 30days. On the first day of model establishment rats in the AEC group also received intratracheal instillation of 500,000 hAECs isolated from the placenta of healthy donors...
September 2, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
Agnieszka Olżyńska, Michal Zubek, Martina Roeselova, Jacek Korchowiec, Lukasz Cwiklik
To elucidate the consequences of the saturated-unsaturated nature of lipid surface films, monolayers formed by an equimolar mixture of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) lipids are investigated in a wide range of surface pressures. As such mixtures share some features with naturally-occurring surfactants, for example the lung surfactant, the systems are studied at the temperature relevant for human body. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations and Langmuir trough experiments are employed...
September 21, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Alan J Waring, Monik Gupta, Larry M Gordon, Gary Fujii, Frans J Walther
Surfactant protein B (SP-B; 79 residues) is a member of the saposin superfamily and plays a pivotal role in lung function. The N- and C-terminal regions of SP-B, cross-linked by two disulfides, were theoretically predicted to fold as charged amphipathic helices, suggesting participation in surfactant activities. Previous studies with oxidized Super Mini-B (SMB), a construct based on the N- and C-regions of SP-B (i.e., residues 1-25 and 63-78) joined with a designer turn (-PKGG-) and two disulfides, indicated that freshly prepared SMB in lipids folded as a surface active, α-helix-hairpin...
September 21, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Nan Liu, Ling Xue, Yi Guan, Qing Zhao Li, Fu Yuan Cao, Shu Lan Pang, Wei Jun Guan
Silicosis is one of the most serious occupational diseases in China and dates back to centuries ago. In this study, we successfully established a rat model of silicosis by intratracheal silica injection for 28 days and determined hydroxyproline levels to evaluate collagen metabolism in lung homogenates. Oxidative stress status was evaluated by detecting catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Expression levels of peroxiredoxins (Prx I and Prx VI) were detected by Western blotting. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) levels in rat serum and lung tissue were analyzed by ELISA, and SP-A and Prx expression levels in lung tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry...
August 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
Yusuke Takahashi, Noriyuki Matsutani, Shigeki Morita, Hitoshi Dejima, Takashi Nakayama, Hirofumi Uehara, Masafumi Kawamura
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Long-term pulmonary function which might include compensatory response (CR) significantly influences quality of life of long-term survivor after major lung resection. We investigated long-term pulmonary function after major lung resection. METHODS: A total of 137 patients who had undergone lobar resection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from May 2013 to June 2014 had spirometry at 10-14 months after surgery. Actual post-operative forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) (FEV1apo )/predicted post-operative FEV1 (FEV1ppo ), actual post-operative forced vital capacity (FVC) (FVCapo )/predicted post-operative FVC (FVCppo ), its relationship with clinicopathological factors and immunohistochemistry for pro-surfactant protein C (pro-SPC), thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) were investigated...
September 20, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
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