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Mineral nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646239/intake-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-contributes-to-bone-mineral-density-at-the-hip-in-a-younger-japanese-female-population
#1
T Kuroda, H Ohta, Y Onoe, N Tsugawa, M Shiraki
This study investigated the relationships between intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and omega-6 fatty acids and bone mineral density in Japanese women aged 19 to 25 years. Intakes of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) were positively associated with peak bone mass at the hip. INTRODUCTION: Lifestyle factors such as physical activity and nutrition intake are known to optimize the peak bone mass (PBM). Recently, intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been reported to contribute to bone metabolism...
June 23, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643882/the-history-and-current-status-of-glyphosate
#2
Stephen O Duke
Glyphosate is the only herbicide to target the enzyme 5-enolpyruvyl-3-shikimate phosphate synthase (EPSPS). It is a high use rate, non-selective herbicide that translocates primarily to metabolic sinks, killing meristematic tissues away from the application site. Its phloem-mobile properties and slow action in killing weeds allows the herbicide to move throughout the plant to kill all meristems, making it effective for perennial weed control. Since commercialization in 1974, its use has grown to dominate the herbicide market...
June 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643620/adult-dogs-are-capable-of-regulating-calcium-balance-with-no-adverse-effects-on-health-when-fed-a-high-calcium-diet
#3
Jonathan Stockman, Phillip Watson, Matthew Gilham, David Allaway, Jujhar Atwal, Richard Haydock, Alison Colyer, Helen Renfrew, Penelope J Morris
Although the implications of long-term high Ca intakes have been well documented in growing dogs, the health consequences of Ca excess in adult dogs remain to be established. To evaluate the impact of feeding a diet containing 7·1 g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) Ca for 40 weeks on Ca balance and health parameters in adult dogs, eighteen neutered adult Labrador Retrievers, (nine males and nine females) aged 2·5-7·4 years were randomised to one of two customised diets for 40 weeks. The diets were manufactured according to similar nutritional specifications, with the exception of Ca and P levels...
May 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643552/drug-induced-physeal-abnormalities-in-preclinical-toxicity-studies
#4
Kendall S Frazier
Most toxic physeal changes are characterized microscopically by altered chondrocyte development, proliferation, or maturation in the growth plate and eventually result in disordered appositional bone growth. Many therapeutic drugs directly or indirectly target proteins involved in chondrocytic differentiation and maturation pathways, so toxic physeal injury has become increasingly common in preclinical toxicologic pathology. While physeal dysplasia has been associated with several different drug classes including bisphosphonates, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitors, fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors, transforming growth factor beta receptor inhibitors, and vascular targeting agents, physeal changes often share similar morphologic features including thickening and disorganization of the hypertrophic layer, increased numbers of hypertrophic chondrocytes, altered mineralization of endochondral ossification, and/or increased thickness of subphyseal bone...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638373/interactions-between-food-additive-silica-nanoparticles-and-food-matrices
#5
Mi-Ran Go, Song-Hwa Bae, Hyeon-Jin Kim, Jin Yu, Soo-Jin Choi
Nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely utilized in the food industry as additives with their beneficial characteristics, such as improving sensory property and processing suitability, enhancing functional and nutritional values, and extending shelf-life of foods. Silica is used as an anti-caking agent to improve flow property of powered ingredients and as a carrier for flavors or active compounds in food. Along with the rapid development of nanotechnology, the sizes of silica fall into nanoscale, thereby raising concerns about the potential toxicity of nano-sized silica materials...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637773/follow-up-of-a-randomized-trial-on-postdischarge-nutrition-in-preterm-born-children-at-age-8-y
#6
Charlotte A Ruys, Monique van de Lagemaat, Martijn Jj Finken, Harrie N Lafeber
Background: Early nutritional interventions may modulate health risks in preterm-born infants. Previously, we showed that preterm-born infants fed an isocaloric protein- and mineral-enriched postdischarge formula (PDF) from term age to 6-mo corrected age (CA) gained more lean mass than did those fed term formula (TF). Long-term follow-up of randomized nutritional trials is important to test the hypothesis that short-term positive effects on health are sustainable.Objective: The aim of this follow-up study was to compare body size, body composition, and metabolic health at age 8 y in preterm-born children who were randomly assigned to receive either PDF or TF from term age until 6-mo CA...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633872/frozen-yogurt-and-ice-cream-were-less-healthy-than-yogurt-and-adding-toppings-reduced-their-nutrition-value-evidence-from-1999-2014-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#7
Ruopeng An, Ning Jiang
It was hypothesized that frozen yogurt and ice cream would be less healthy than yogurt. We examined daily energy and nutrient intake from yogurt, frozen yogurt, and ice cream among US adults. In-person 24-hour dietary recall data (n=6453) came from the 1999-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Regression analyses were performed to examine the differences in energy/nutrient intake from frozen yogurt and ice cream (with/without toppings) in comparison to yogurt. Approximately 5.3%, 0.9%, and 14...
June 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630699/nutritional-correlates-of-monetary-diet-cost-in-young-middle-aged-and-older-japanese-women
#8
Keiko Shiraki, Kentaro Murakami, Hitomi Okubo, M Barbara E Livingstone, Satomi Kobayashi, Hitomi Suga, Satoshi Sasaki
Studies in many Western countries have consistently shown that monetary diet cost is positively associated with diet quality, but this may not necessarily be the case in Japan. This cross-sectional study examined the nutritional correlates of monetary diet cost among 3963 young (all 18 years old), 3800 middle-aged (mean age 48 years) and 2211 older (mean age 74 years) Japanese women. Dietary intakes were assessed using a comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire for young and middle-aged women and a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire for older women...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629485/characterisation-of-vitamin-and-mineral-supplement-users-differentiated-according-to-their-motives-for-using-supplements-results-of-the-german-national-nutrition-monitoring-nemonit
#9
Anne Frey, Ingrid Hoffmann, Thorsten Heuer
OBJECTIVE: To characterise German vitamin and mineral supplement users differentiated by their motives for supplement use. DESIGN: Data were obtained from the German National Nutrition Monitoring (2010/11) via two 24 h dietary recalls and a telephone interview. Motive-based subgroups of supplement users were identified by factor and cluster analysis. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, health and dietary characteristics and supplement use were examined. Differences were analysed using χ 2 tests, logistic and linear regression models...
June 20, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628402/calcium-bioavailability-from-mineral-waters-with-different-mineralization-in-comparison-to-milk-and-a-supplement
#10
Theresa Greupner, Inga Schneider, Andreas Hahn
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of calcium from 3 mineral waters with different concentrations of minerals with that of milk and a calcium supplement. METHODS: A single-center, randomized controlled trial with a crossover design with 21 healthy men and women was conducted at the Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz University Hannover. The participants consumed the 5 test products providing 300 mg of calcium each on 5 examination days with 1-week wash-out phases in between...
June 19, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627187/-is-plasma-selenium-correlated-to-transthyretin-levels-in-critically-ill-patients
#11
Renata G B O N Freitas, Roberto Jose Negrão Nogueira, Silvia Maria Franciscato Cozzolino, Ana Carolina Junqueira Vasques, Matthew Thomas Ferreira, Gabriel Hessel
BACKGROUND: Selenium is an essential trace element, but critically ill patients using total parenteral nutrition (PN) do not receive selenium because this mineral is not commonly offered. Threfore, the eval uation of plasma selenium levels is very important for treating or preventing this deficiency. Recent studies have shown that transthyretin may reflect the selenium intake and could be considered a biomarker. However, this issue is still little explored in the literature. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the correlation of transthyretin with the plasma selenium of critically ill patients receiving PN...
June 5, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627026/two-nhx-type-transporters-from-helianthus-tuberosus-improve-the-tolerance-of-rice-to-salinity-and-nutrient-deficiency-stress
#12
Yang Zeng, Qing Li, Haiya Wang, Jianliang Zhang, Jia Du, Huimin Feng, Eduardo Blumwald, Ling Yu, Guohua Xu
The NHX-type cation/H(+) transporters in plants have been shown to mediate Na(+) (K(+) )/H(+) exchange for salinity tolerance and K(+) homeostasis. In this study, we identified and characterized two NHX homologues, HtNHX1 and HtNHX2 from an infertile and salinity tolerant species Helianthus tuberosus (cv. Nanyu No.1). HtNHX1 and HtNHX2 share identical 5'- and 3'-UTR and coding regions, except for a 342 bp segment encoding 114 amino acids (L272 to Q385 ) which is absent in HtNHX2. Both hydroponics and soil culture experiments showed that the expression of HtNHX1 or HtNHX2 improved the rice tolerance to salinity...
June 19, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622919/diet-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-bread-and-butter
#13
REVIEW
Mélanie K Rich, Eva Nouri, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty, Didier Reinhardt
Most plants entertain mutualistic interactions known as arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) with soil fungi (Glomeromycota) which provide them with mineral nutrients in exchange for reduced carbon from the plant. Mycorrhizal roots represent strong carbon sinks in which hexoses are transferred from the plant host to the fungus. However, most of the carbon in AM fungi is stored in the form of lipids. The absence of the type I fatty acid synthase (FAS-I) complex from the AM fungal model species Rhizophagus irregularis suggests that lipids may also have a role in nutrition of the fungal partner...
June 13, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620477/micronutrient-deficiencies-in-the-elderly-could-ready-meals-be-part-of-the-solution
#14
Richard Hoffman
Micronutrient deficiencies contribute to many age-related disorders. One group at particular risk of micronutrient deficiencies is the elderly. Many elderly, such as the frail and those living in institutions, rely on ready meals of variable, often poor, nutritional quality for a significant part of their daily nutritional needs. New policies are needed to ensure that micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) and phytochemicals of known nutritional value are retained during the manufacture of ready meals. This together with increased awareness of the importance of micronutrients for health, and simple, clear labelling of the micronutrient content of ready meals would help in the choice of healthier products...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609132/antioxidant-and-anticancer-properties-of-berries
#15
Bincy Baby, Priya Antony, Ranjit Vijayan
The enduring relationship between dietary patterns and human health has led us to investigate the bioactive components present in fruits and vegetables for a very long time. Berries, notably the popular ones such as strawberry, raspberry, blueberry, blackberry and the Indian gooseberry, are among the best known dietary sources due to the presence of a wide range of bioactive nutritive components. Bioactive components in berries include phenolic compounds, flavonoids and tannins apart from vitamins, minerals, sugars and fibers...
June 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606218/dietary-supplement-use-in-the-older-population-of-iceland-and-association-with-mortality
#16
Birta Ólafsdóttir, Ingibjörg Gunnarsdóttir, Hjálmfríður Nikulásdóttir, Guðný Eiríksdóttir, Tamara B Harris, Lenore J Launer, Vilmundur Guðnason, Thórhallur I Halldórsson, Kristjana Einarsdóttir
Dietary supplements are often used by the elderly to improve their nutritional status. However, intake above the recommended dietary levels may be detrimental, and uncertainty exists on the potential health benefits of supplementation in this population. The aim of this study was to describe supplement use among Icelandic older adults and to assess its association with total mortality and CVD-related mortality. This study used data from the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik study, which recruited 5764 participants aged 66-98 years in 2002-2006...
June 13, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606217/nutritional-support-for-low-birth-weight-infants-insights-from-animal-studies
#17
Na Li, Wei Wang, Guoyao Wu, Junjun Wang
Infants born with low birth weights (<2500 g, LBW), accounting for about 15 % of newborns, have a high risk for postnatal growth failure and developing the metabolic syndromes such as type 2 diabetes, CVD and obesity later in life. Improper nutrition provision during critical stages, such as undernutrition during the fetal period or overnutrition during the neonatal period, has been an important mediator of these metabolic diseases. Considering the specific physiological status of LBW infants, nutritional intervention and optimisation during early life merit further attention...
June 13, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606051/comparison-of-bone-mineral-density-in-common-variable-immunodeficiency-and-x-linked-agammaglobulinaemia-patients
#18
Ali Mohebbi, Gholamreza Azizi, Naeimeh Tavakolinia, Mehdi Karimipour, Fatemeh Kiaee, Reza Yazdani, Sareh Sadat Ebrahimi, Hosein Rafiemanesh, Vahid Ziaee, Hassan Abolhassani, Asghar Aghamohammadi, Farzaneh Abbasi, Fatemeh Sayarifard, Mehran Ebrahimi, Javad Tafaroji
BACKGROUND: Primary antibody deficiency (PAD) is the most common group of primary immunodeficiency disorders, resulting from different defects in development and function of B cell lineage. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) are two of the major types of PADs. Optimal growth and subsequently bone health could potentially compromise due to the interference of several factors in PAD with childhood onset. In the present study, our aim was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) of patients with CVID and XLA...
June 11, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592096/-survey-on-dietary-nutrients-intake-of-chinese-residents-between-2010-and-2012
#19
Q Y Guo, L Y Zhao, Y N He, Y H Fang, H Y Fang, X L Xu, F M Jia, D M Yu
Objective: To investigate the average dietary nutrients intake status among Chinese residents between 2010-2012, and to compare the difference between rural and urban areas. Methods: Data were collected from Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance between 2010-2012. Based on regional features and economic development levels, China's county-level divisions were classified into four types: big city, medium and small city, ordinary rural area and poor rural area. A total of 62 857 valid subjects, including 14 017, 16 539, 19 910 and 12 391 respondents in each group separately, were enrolled by Multi-stage stratified proportion to the population cluster random sampling method...
June 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587523/defatted-wheat-germ-application-influence-on-cookies-properties-with-regard-to-its-particle-size-and-dough-moisture-content
#20
Jovana Petrović, Dušan Rakić, Aleksandar Fišteš, Biljana Pajin, Ivana Lončarević, Vladimir Tomović, Danica Zarić
The introduction of agro-food industry by-products rich in bioactive compounds represents major challenge in food industry sector. The influence of wheat germ particle size (<150 µm, 150-1000 µm, and 800-2000 µm), wheat germ content (5, 10, and 15%), and dough moisture content (20, 22, and 24%) on chemical, textural, and sensory characteristics of cookies was investigated using the Box-Behnken experimental design. The substitution of wheat flour with wheat germ increased the protein, fat, mineral, and fiber content of the cookies...
January 1, 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
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