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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901863/pharmacology-of-antiretrovirals-in-the-female-genital-track-for-hiv-prevention
#1
REVIEW
Melanie R Nicol, Joseph A Corbino, Mackenzie L Cottrell
Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a powerful tool that, as part of a comprehensive prevention package, has potential to significantly impact the HIV epidemic. PrEP effectiveness is believed to be dependent on the exposure and efficacy of antiretrovirals at the site of HIV transmission. Clinical trial results as well as modeling and simulation indicate the threshold of adherence required for PrEP efficacy of emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate may differ between sites of HIV transmission with less forgiveness for missed doses in women exposed through genital tissue compared to people exposed through colorectal tissue...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889161/preparing-providers-the-next-challenge-in-implementing-human-immunodeficiency-virus-preexposure-prophylaxis
#2
Christopher B Hurt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795080/hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-in-the-u-s-military-services-2014-2016
#3
Jason M Blaylock, Shilpa Hakre, Jason F Okulicz, Eric Garges, Kerry Wilson, Jenny Lay, Ellen A Roska, Nelson L Michael, Charmagne G Beckett, Steven B Cersovsky, Sheila A Peel, Paul T Scott
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a substantial health concern for the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and for service members stationed throughout the world. Each year, approximately 350 new HIV infections are diagnosed in members of the U.S. military services, with most infections acquired within the United States (1). The DoD populations most affected by HIV mirror those in the U.S. civilian population; the highest rates of new military diagnoses are in men and blacks or African Americans (blacks) (1)...
May 25, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794605/prep-adopted-by-the-brazilian-national-health-system-what-is-the-size-of-the-demand
#4
Paula M Luz, Adele Benzaken, Tatianna M de Alencar, Cristina Pimenta, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn
BACKGROUND: Brazil's response to the HIV epidemic now includes free access to preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to populations at substantial risk for HIV infection including men who have sex with men (MSM). We used nationally representative demographic, epidemiologic, and surveillance data to offer estimates for the number of MSM at substantial risk for HIV infection who might be eligible and willing to use PrEP in Brazil. METHODS: Starting from the age/sex-stratified population, we calculated the number of men aged 15 to 64 years, in 5-year age groups, and the proportion of those who report sex with other men during their lifetime...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790923/missed-opportunities-to-prescribe-preexposure-prophylaxis-in-south-carolina-2013-2016
#5
Dawn K Smith, Man-Huei Chang, Wayne A Duffus, Stella Okoye, Sharon Weissman
Introduction: Expanding use of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in ways that address current racial/ethnic disparities is an important HIV prevention goal. We investigated missed opportunities to provide PrEP during healthcare visits occurring prior to HIV infection. Methods: This retrospective cohort study linked South Carolina HIV case surveillance data to 3 statewide healthcare databases. Characteristics of patients, health care visits and providers, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), and other diagnoses, were assessed for medical encounters occurring before an initial HIV diagnosis...
May 22, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750776/us-guidelines-that-empower-women-to-prevent-hiv-with-preexposure-prophylaxis
#6
Julia Raifman, Susan G Sherman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746267/cabotegravir-its-potential-for-antiretroviral-therapy-and-preexposure-prophylaxis
#7
Hans-Jürgen Stellbrink, Christian Hoffmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Analyzing the evidence for the strand transfer integrase inhibitor cabotegravir (CAB; GSK744, GSK1265744), its properties and differences from other compounds in the class, as well as reviewing the preclinical and clinical evidence for its potential in antretroviral therapy and medical HIV prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: CAB has been investigated both as an oral and an injectable compound. Recent results show that it has promising properties with regards to its potential for parenteral maintenance therapy in combination with other compounds in HIV-infected patients currently suppressed on oral agents, as well as in preexposure prophylaxis...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741594/early-adopters-of-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-in-a-population-based-combination-prevention-study-in-rural-kenya-and-uganda
#8
Catherine A Koss, James Ayieko, Florence Mwangwa, Asiphas Owaraganise, Dalsone Kwarisiima, Laura B Balzer, Albert Plenty, Norton Sang, Jane Kabami, Theodore D Ruel, Douglas Black, Carol S Camlin, Craig R Cohen, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Tamara D Clark, Edwin D Charlebois, Maya L Petersen, Moses R Kamya, Diane V Havlir
Background: Global guidelines recommend preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for individuals with substantial HIV risk. Data on PrEP uptake in sub-Saharan Africa outside of clinical trials are limited. We report on "early adopters" of PrEP in SEARCH, an ongoing population-based study in rural Uganda and Kenya. Methods: Following community mobilization and education on PrEP, population-based HIV testing was conducted. HIV-uninfected adults were offered PrEP based on an empirically-derived HIV risk score or an individual's self-identified HIV risk (if not identified by score)...
May 5, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727292/croi-2018-epidemic-trends-and-advances-in-hiv-prevention
#9
Susan P Buchbinder, Albert Y Liu
At the 2018 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, trends in and risk factors for in HIV infection were highlighted. In the United States, new HIV diagnoses are highest in the South and among African Americans and are increasing in rural areas. Youth remain highly vulnerable to HIV infection globally. The epidemiology of HIV infections among people who inject drugs is changing, with overdose deaths, a major public health concern. Phylogenetics are being used to identify HIV transmission clusters and hotspots, which can inform prevention efforts...
May 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697468/4-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2-deoxyadenosine-mk-8591-a-novel-hiv-1-reverse-transcriptase-translocation-inhibitor
#10
Martin Markowitz, Stefan G Sarafianos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: 4'-Ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) with a novel mechanism of action, unique structure, and amongst NRTIs, unparalleled anti-HIV-1 activity. We will summarize its structure and function, antiviral activity, resistance profile, and potential as an antiretroviral for use in the treatment and preexposure prophylaxis of HIV-1 infection. RECENT FINDINGS: EFdA is active against wild-type (EC50 as low as 50 pmol/l) and most highly NRTI-resistant viruses...
July 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689540/investigational-antiretroviral-drugs-what-is-coming-down-the-pipeline
#11
Roy M Gulick
Over the past 30 years, antiretroviral drug regimens for treating HIV infection have become more effective, safer, and more convenient. Despite 31 currently approved drugs, the pipeline of investigational HIV drugs remains full. Investigational antiretroviral drugs include the nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase translocation inhibitor (NRTTI) MK-8591, a long-acting compound that could be dosed once weekly. Investigational nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) include doravirine, which is active in vitro against NNRTI-resistant HIV and was potent and well-tolerated when used in combination with a dual-nucleoside analogue RTI (nRTI) backbone in treatment-naive individuals...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689539/maximizing-the-benefits-of-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis
#12
Susan P Buchbinder
Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir/emtricitabine (slash indicates coformulation) is highly effective in preventing new HIV infections. PrEP efficacy is strongly associated with adherence. In clinical trials, PrEP has been more effective in men who have sex with men and HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples than in women, likely reflecting pharmacokinetic differences between levels of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in vaginal and rectal tissues, and poorer adherence in studies in women. Current guidelines recommend daily PrEP for men and women; however, PrEP taken at least 4 days per week for men may be as effective as daily PrEP, and women must take PrEP 6 to 7 days per week to maximize efficacy...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685648/preparing-women-to-prevent-hiv-an-integrated-theoretical-framework-to-prep-black-women-in-the-united-states
#13
Crystal Chapman Lambert, Jeanne Marrazzo, K Rivet Amico, Michael J Mugavero, Latesha Elopre
Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with optimal adherence has demonstrated efficacy in reducing HIV incidence in women. Black women are disproportionately burdened by the HIV epidemic, accounting for more than half of all new HIV cases in women, thereby making PrEP an ideal prevention strategy for this group. However, to date, PrEP uptake by women in the United States has been slow. Further domestic research is needed to understand the multilevel factors related to PrEP awareness, uptake, and implementation in Black women...
April 5, 2018: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672136/which-patients-in-the-emergency-department-should-receive-preexposure-prophylaxis-implementation-of-a-predictive-analytics-approach
#14
Jessica P Ridgway, Ellen A Almirol, Alvie Bender, Andrew Richardson, Jessica Schmitt, Eleanor Friedman, Nicola Lancki, Ivan Leroux, Nina Pieroni, Jessica Dehlin, John A Schneider
Emergency Departments (EDs) have the potential to play a crucial role in HIV prevention by identifying and linking high-risk HIV-negative clients to preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) care, but it is difficult to perform HIV risk assessment for all ED patients. We aimed to develop and implement an electronic risk score to identify ED patients who are potential candidates for PrEP. Using electronic medical record (EMR) data, we used logistic regression to model the outcome of PrEP eligibility. We converted the model into an electronic risk score and incorporated it into the EMR...
May 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615383/hiv-clustering-in-mississippi-spatial-epidemiological-study-to-inform-implementation-science-in-the-deep-south
#15
Thomas J Stopka, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Kendra Johnson, Philip A Chan, Marga Hutcheson, Richard Crosby, Deirdre Burke, Leandro Mena, Amy Nunn
BACKGROUND: In recent years, more than half of new HIV infections in the United States occur among African Americans in the Southeastern United States. Spatial epidemiological analyses can inform public health responses in the Deep South by identifying HIV hotspots and community-level factors associated with clustering. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to identify and characterize HIV clusters in Mississippi through analysis of state-level HIV surveillance data...
April 3, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584848/hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-a-review
#16
REVIEW
James Riddell, K Rivet Amico, Kenneth H Mayer
Importance: About 40 000 Americans and 2 million people worldwide are newly infected with HIV each year. The combination antiretroviral regimen, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine, taken as a single pill once daily, has been shown to prevent HIV transmission but is used by fewer than 20% of people who could benefit in the United States. Observations: PubMed was searched on February 15, 2018, using the search terms pre-exposure, prophylaxis, HIV, and PrEP to identify English-language articles published between 2010 and 2018...
March 27, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578895/concerns-about-a-study-on-sexually-transmitted-infections-after-initiation-of-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis
#17
Julia L Marcus, Jonathan E Volk, Jonathan M Snowden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565183/a-mobile-health-strategy-to-support-adherence-to-antiretroviral-preexposure-prophylaxis
#18
Jonathan D Fuchs, Kristefer Stojanovski, Eric Vittinghoff, Vanessa M McMahan, Sybill G Hosek, K Rivet Amico, Aminta Kouyate, Hailey J Gilmore, Susan P Buchbinder, Richard T Lester, Robert M Grant, Albert Y Liu
Preexposure prophylaxis is a highly protective HIV prevention strategy, yet nonadherence can significantly reduce its effectiveness. We conducted a mixed methods evaluation of a mobile health intervention (iText) that utilized weekly bidirectional text or e-mail support messages to encourage preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence among participants in the multi-site iPrEx open-label extension study. A convenience sample of PrEP users from the San Francisco and Chicago sites participated in a 12-week pilot study...
March 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554663/hiv-incidence-prevalence-and-undiagnosed-infections-in-u-s-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#19
Sonia Singh, Ruiguang Song, Anna Satcher Johnson, Eugene McCray, H Irene Hall
Background: HIV infection is a persistent health concern in the United States, and men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be the most affected population. Objective: To estimate HIV incidence and prevalence and the percentage of undiagnosed HIV infections overall and among MSM. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting: National HIV Surveillance System. Participants: Persons aged 13 years or older with diagnosed HIV infection...
May 15, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474256/correlates-of-linkage-to-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-among-hiv-testing-clients
#20
Charlene A Flash, Oluwatobi O Adegboyega, Xiaoying Yu, Carmen Avalos, Syundai Johnson, Kenneth H Mayer, Thomas P Giordano
BACKGROUND: Publicly funded HIV-testing sites can identify HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) candidates and provide PrEP linkage. SETTING: Harris Health System's HIV clinic, HIV-testing program, and HIV-prevention program (HPP) in Houston, TX, a high HIV-incidence city. METHODS: A prospective assessment of individuals aged 18 years and older recruited from walk-in HIV testing from December 2013 to April 2015 included risk assessment, HIV testing, and self-administered survey, with follow-up surveys at 6 and 12 months and medical record review...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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