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hiv prophylaxis preexposure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100808/correction-for-lund-et-al-hiv-1-neutralizing-iga-detected-in-genital-secretions-of-highly-hiv-1-exposed-seronegative-women-on-oral-preexposure-prophylaxis
#1
Jennifer M Lund, Kristina Broliden, Maria N Pyra, Katherine K Thomas, Deborah Donnell, Elizabeth Irungu, Timothy R Muwonge, Nelly Mugo, Madhuri Manohar, Marianne Jansson, Romel Mackelprang, Mark A Marzinke, Jared M Baeten, Jairam R Lingappa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060881/individual-hiv-risk-versus-population-impact-of-risk-compensation-after-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-initiation-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#2
Samuel M Jenness, Akshay Sharma, Steven M Goodreau, Eli S Rosenberg, Kevin M Weiss, Karen W Hoover, Dawn K Smith, Patrick Sullivan
OBJECTIVES: Risk compensation (RC) could reduce or offset the biological prevention benefits of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among those at substantial risk of infection, including men who have sex with men (MSM). We investigated the potential extent and causal mechanisms through which RC could impact HIV transmission at the population and individual levels. METHODS: Using a stochastic network-based mathematical model of HIV transmission dynamics among MSM in the United States, we simulated RC as a reduction in the probability of condom use after initiating PrEP, with heterogeneity by PrEP adherence profiles and partnership type in which RC occurred...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059958/future-technologies-for-monitoring-hiv-drug-resistance-and-cure
#3
Urvi M Parikh, Kevin McCormick, Gert van Zyl, John W Mellors
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sensitive, scalable and affordable assays are critically needed for monitoring the success of interventions for preventing, treating and attempting to cure HIV infection. This review evaluates current and emerging technologies that are applicable for both surveillance of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) and characterization of HIV reservoirs that persist despite antiretroviral therapy and are obstacles to curing HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the potential to be adapted into high-throughput, cost-efficient approaches for HIVDR surveillance and monitoring during continued scale-up of antiretroviral therapy and rollout of preexposure prophylaxis...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013265/decline-in-bone-mass-with-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-is-associated-with-hormonal-changes-in-the-absence-of-renal-impairment-when-used-by-hiv-uninfected-adolescent-boys-and-young-men-for-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis
#4
Peter L Havens, Charles B Stephensen, Marta D Van Loan, Gertrud U Schuster, Leslie R Woodhouse, Patricia M Flynn, Catherine M Gordon, Cynthia G Pan, Brandy Rutledge, Nancy Liu, Craig M Wilson, Rohan Hazra, Sybil G Hosek, Peter L Anderson, Sharon M Seifert, Bill G Kapogiannis, Kathleen Mulligan
BACKGROUND: We aimed to define the relative importance of renal and endocrine changes in tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-related bone toxicity. METHODS: In a study of daily TDF/emtricitabine (FTC) preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected young men who have sex with men, we measured changes from baseline in blood and urine markers of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-vitamin D-fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) axis, creatinine, and renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TRP)...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003117/facebook-network-structure-and-awareness-of-preexposure-prophylaxis-among-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#5
Aditya S Khanna, Phil Schumm, John A Schneider
BACKGROUND: Young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are the only population in the United States who have experienced rising human immunodeficiency virus incidence over the past decade. Consistent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use can substantially reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus acquisition. What differentiates those who become aware of PrEP, and those who do not, remains largely unknown. METHODS: The social networks of YBMSM can impact their awareness of PrEP; to examine this impact, we used two waves of Facebook data from "uConnect"-a longitudinal cohort study of YBMSM in Chicago (n = 266)...
November 29, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986691/uptake-of-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis-among-commercially-insured-persons-united-states-2010-2014
#6
Hsiu Wu, Maria C B Mendoza, Ya-Lin A Huang, Tameka Hayes, Dawn K Smith, Karen W Hoover
BACKGROUND: Daily, oral use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective strategy to prevent acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is important to monitor PrEP uptake at the national level to increase our understanding of trends in its utilization, but national HIV surveillance data do not include PrEP uptake. Our objective was to develop feasible methods to estimate PrEP uptake and to estimate uptake each year among commercially insured persons during 2010-2014...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986676/preexposure-prophylaxis-in-the-united-states-an-evolving-hiv-prevention-opportunity
#7
EDITORIAL
Ronald H Goldschmidt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922719/markov-mixed-effects-modeling-using-electronic-adherence-monitoring-records-identifies-influential-covariates-to-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis
#8
Kumpal Madrasi, Ayyappa Chaturvedula, Jessica E Haberer, Mark Sale, Michael J Fossler, David Bangsberg, Jared M Baeten, Connie Celum, Craig W Hendrix
Adherence is a major factor in the effectiveness of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. Modeling patterns of adherence helps to identify influential covariates of different types of adherence as well as to enable clinical trial simulation so that appropriate interventions can be developed. We developed a Markov mixed-effects model to understand the covariates influencing adherence patterns to daily oral PrEP. Electronic adherence records (date and time of medication bottle cap opening) from the Partners PrEP ancillary adherence study with a total of 1147 subjects were used...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898570/are-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-guidelines-for-preexposure-prophylaxis-specific-enough-formulation-of-a-personalized-hiv-risk-score-for-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-initiation
#9
Matthew R Beymer, Robert E Weiss, Catherine A Sugar, Linda B Bourque, Gilbert C Gee, Donald E Morisky, Suzanne B Shu, Marjan Javanbakht, Robert K Bolan
BACKGROUND: Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has emerged as a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention tool for populations at highest risk for HIV infection. Current US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for identifying PrEP candidates may not be specific enough to identify gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) at the highest risk for HIV infection. We created an HIV risk score for HIV-negative MSM based on Syndemics Theory to develop a more targeted criterion for assessing PrEP candidacy...
January 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893604/implementation-of-preexposure-prophylaxis-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-prevention-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-at-a-new-england-sexually-transmitted-diseases-clinic
#10
Philip A Chan, Tiffany R Glynn, Catherine E Oldenburg, Madeline C Montgomery, Ashley E Robinette, Alexi Almonte, Julia Raifman, Leandro Mena, Rupa Patel, Kenneth H Mayer, Laura S Beauchamps, Amy S Nunn
BACKGROUND: Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is efficacious in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among men who have sex with men (MSM). We assessed PrEP uptake among MSM presenting for services at a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic. METHODS: Men who have sex with men presenting to the Rhode Island STD Clinic between October 2013 and November 2014 were educated about, and offered, PrEP. We categorized PrEP engagement using an implementation cascade to describe gaps in uptake which described MSM who: (1) were educated about PrEP, (2) indicated interest, (3) successfully received follow-up contact, (4) scheduled an appointment, (5) attended an appointment, and (6) initiated PrEP (ie, received a prescription)...
November 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879478/occurrence-of-hiv-eradication-for-preexposure-prophylaxis-treatment-with-a-deterministic-hiv-model
#11
Hyeygjeon Chang, Claude Moog, Alessandro Astolfi
The authors examine the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) eradication in this study using a mathematical model and analyse the occurrence of virus eradication during the early stage of infection. To this end they use a deterministic HIV-infection model, modify it to describe the pharmacological dynamics of antiretroviral HIV drugs, and consider the clinical experimental results of preexposure prophylaxis HIV treatment. They also use numerical simulation to model the experimental scenario, thereby supporting the clinical results with a model-based explanation...
December 2016: IET Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870645/where-next-with-preexposure-prophylaxis
#12
Diarmuid Nugent, Richard Gilson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Controlling the HIV epidemic remains a major public health challenge, and there is an urgent need for novel prevention strategies. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) refers to the use of antiretrovirals in HIV-negative people at high risk to prevent infection and has the potential to be an important component in the global effort to end the HIV epidemic by 2030. We review the current evidence for the safety and efficacy of PrEP in its different forms and address emergent issues and concerns regarding its implementation...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851714/preexposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-in-a-large-integrated-health-care-system-adherence-renal-safety-and-discontinuation
#13
Julia L Marcus, Leo B Hurley, Charles Bradley Hare, Dong Phuong Nguyen, Tony Phengrasamy, Michael J Silverberg, Juliet E Stoltey, Jonathan E Volk
BACKGROUND: Placebo-controlled and open-label studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of daily oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing HIV infection, but data are limited on real-world PrEP use. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study from July 2012 through June 2015 of Kaiser Permanente Northern California members initiating PrEP. We assessed pharmacy refill adherence and discontinuation, decreases in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV incidence...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846073/brief-report-preventing-hiv-1-infection-in-women-using-oral-preexposure-prophylaxis-a-meta-analysis-of-current-evidence
#14
Brett Hanscom, Holly E Janes, Peter D Guarino, Ying Huang, Elizabeth R Brown, Ying Qing Chen, Scott M Hammer, Peter B Gilbert, Deborah J Donnell
The World Health Organization has issued an early release revision to its antiretroviral guidelines in which PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis in the form of daily oral, fixed dose combination tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine) is recommended as a prevention option to all people at substantial risk of acquiring HIV. However, lack of effectiveness in 2 major women-only PrEP trials, VOICE and FEM-PrEP, continues to be a cause for concern about achieving effectiveness for women in Southern Africa. We conducted a series of meta-analyses of oral effectiveness of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine in women including all 5 randomized placebo-controlled trials that included women...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832147/model-linking-plasma-and-intracellular-tenofovir-emtricitabine-with-deoxynucleoside-triphosphates
#15
Xinhui Chen, Sharon M Seifert, Jose R Castillo-Mancilla, Lane R Bushman, Jia-Hua Zheng, Jennifer J Kiser, Samantha MaWhinney, Peter L Anderson
The coformulation of the nucleos(t)ide analogs (NA) tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) is approved for HIV-infection treatment and prevention. Plasma TFV and FTC undergo complicated hybrid processes to form, accumulate, and retain as their active intracellular anabolites: TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) and FTC-triphosphate (FTC-TP). Such complexities manifest in nonlinear intracellular pharmacokinetics (PK). In target cells, TFV-DP/FTC-TP compete with endogenous deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTP) at the active site of HIV reverse transcriptase, underscoring the importance of analog:dNTP ratios for antiviral efficacy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799824/profile-of-cabotegravir-and-its-potential-in-the-treatment-and-prevention-of-hiv-1-infection-evidence-to-date
#16
REVIEW
Thomas Whitfield, Adele Torkington, Clare van Halsema
Modern antiretroviral therapy has demonstrated effectiveness in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment of HIV infection. There is a demand for prevention and treatment regimens that could overcome challenges of improving adherence, toxicity, and dosing convenience. Cabotegravir is an integrase strand transfer inhibitor and an analog of dolutegravir. Unlike dolutegravir, cabotegravir has a long half-life and can be formulated into a long-acting nanosuspension for parenteral administration. Initial pharmokinetic studies in humans have demonstrated adequate drug levels with intramuscular (IM) administration at 4 weekly and 8 weekly intervals, with few interactions with commonly used concomitant medications...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792681/distinct-hiv-1-neutralization-potency-profiles-of-ibalizumab-based-bispecific-antibodies
#17
Ruijiang Song, Craig Pace, Michael S Seaman, Qing Fang, Ming Sun, Chasity D Andrews, Amos Wu, Neal N Padte, David D Ho
BACKGROUND: Preexposure prophylaxis using antiretroviral agents has been shown to effectively prevent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition in high-risk populations. However, the efficacy of these regimens is highly variable, which is thought to be largely due to the varying degrees of adherence to a daily intervention in the populations. Passive immunization using broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1, with their relatively long half-life and favorable safety profile, could provide an alternative to daily preexposure prophylaxis...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734641/preexposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-an-emerging-preventive-strategy-to-end-ongoing-pandemic
#18
T K Kamble, Pradyumna M Gadewar, Subodh Kansal
HIV/AIDS continues to have an extraordinary public health impact. Although the HIV/AIDS epidemic on the whole is plateauing, it is spreading rapidly among certain populations. We enumerate here some HIV preventive modalities that have been demonstrated to be effective in various target populations if properly implemented and adhered to. Some other new strategies are also showing promise in clinical trials.
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731970/gender-and-sexual-health-same-sex-relationships
#19
James Conniff
A transformation in legal and cultural attitudes toward same-sex relationships is under way nationwide. As same-sex marriage has become legal, the unique social and medicolegal issues faced by individuals in same-sex relationships are evolving rapidly. National organizations have published recommendations for making clinical environments more inclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) individuals and their families. Medical issues for patients in same-sex relationships include a higher risk of HIV infection for men who have sex with men (a majority of new cases of HIV infection occur within relationships), higher rates of obesity among women who have sex with women, and disproportionately high rates of mental health issues and alcohol and drug use...
October 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720357/a-medical-care-missed-opportunity-preexposure-prophylaxis-and-young-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#20
Renata Arrington-Sanders, Anthony Morgan, Jessica Oidtman, Ian Qian, David Celentano, Chris Beyrer
PURPOSE: HIV disproportionately impacts young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM). Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective strategy that can avert new HIV infections in YBMSM. Barriers exist for YBMSM to access PrEP. METHODS: We sought to determine factors associated with awareness of and willingness to take PrEP in a sample of YBMSM. RESULTS: Only 8% were currently on PrEP despite many (66%) reporting condomless anal sex, a recent provider visit (54%), disclosing their sexual orientation to their regular medical provider (62%), or a willingness to take PrEP (62%)...
December 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
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