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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336912/fgf21-regulates-t-cell-development-in-the-neonatal-and-juvenile-thymus
#1
Yoshiaki Nakayama, Yuki Masuda, Hiroya Ohta, Tomohiro Tanaka, Miwa Washida, Yo-Ichi Nabeshima, Ayumi Miyake, Nobuyuki Itoh, Morichika Konishi
We have previously shown that Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is expressed in the thymus as well as in the liver. In line with this expression profile, Fgf21 was recently reported to protect against ageing-related thymic senescence by improving the function of thymic epithelial cells (TECs). However, the function of Fgf21 in the juvenile thymus remained to be elucidated. We investigated the physiological roles of Fgf21 in the juvenile thymus and found that young Fgf21 knockout mice, but not β-Klotho knockout mice nor adult Fgf21 knockout mice, showed a significant reduction in the percentage of single-positive CD4(+) and CD8(+) thymocytes without obvious alteration in TECs...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321121/dnmt3a-regulates-t-cell-development-and-suppresses-t-all-transformation
#2
A C Kramer, A Kothari, W C Wilson, H Celik, J Nikitas, C Mallaney, E L Ostrander, E Eultgen, A Martens, M C Valentine, A L Young, T E Druley, M E Figueroa, B Zhang, G A Challen
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematopoietic neoplasm resulting from the malignant transformation of T-cell progenitors, and comprises approximately 15 and 25% of pediatric and adult ALL cases respectively. It is well-established that activating NOTCH1 mutations are the major genetic lesions driving T-ALL in most patients, but efforts to develop targeted therapies against this pathway have produced limited success in decreasing leukemic burden and come with significant clinical side effects...
March 21, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318017/thymic-crosstalk-restrains-the-pool-of-cortical-thymic-epithelial-cells-with-progenitor-properties
#3
Catarina Meireles, Ana R Ribeiro, Rute D Pinto, Catarina Leitão, Pedro M Rodrigues, Nuno L Alves
Cortical (cTEC) and medullary (mTEC) thymic epithelial cells establish key microenvironments for T-cell differentiation and arise from thymic epithelial cell progenitors (TEP). However, the nature of TEPs and the mechanism controlling their stemness in the postnatal thymus remain poorly defined. Using TEC clonogenic assays as a surrogate to survey TEP activity, we found that a fraction of cTECs generates specialized clonal-derived colonies, which contain cells with sustained colony-forming capacity (ClonoTECs)...
March 20, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259864/-an-attempt-to-identify-22q11-2-microdeletions-in-samples-of-the-hungarian-schizophrenia-dna-bank-by-multiplex-ligation-based-probe-amplification-mlpa-literature-review-methodology-and-results
#4
Izabella Klein, Katalin Szocs, Katalin Vincze, Judit Benkovits, Szilvia Somogyi, Levente Herman, Janos M Rethelyi
Schizophrenia is a severe debilitating psychiatric disorder, with a typical onset in adolescence or early adulthood. This condition is characterized by heterogeneous symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, disorganized behaviour, affective flattening, and social isolation) and a life-time prevalence of 0.5-1.2%. In spite of the efforts to uncover the etiology of the disorder, its pathogenesis and neurobiological background are poorly understood. Given the high heritability in schizophrenia, genetic research remains an important area of focus...
December 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245449/inflammation-and-thymus-ageing
#5
A Lepletier, A Alsharif, Ann P Chidgey
The thymus is primarily responsible for T cell production. However, it begins to recede in size and function, from early in life. This decreased generation of naive T cells during normal thymus ageing, or linked with pathology (i.e. chronic inflammation), leads to reduced T cell specificities, peripheral T cell imbalances, and higher susceptibilities to infections. Various clinical strategies for thymus and T cell recovery have been investigated, although no effective clinical treatments for the reconstitution of peripheral T cell diversity in severe immune deficiencies are available...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196891/insights-into-immune-system-development-and-function-from-mouse-t-cell-repertoires
#6
Zachary Sethna, Yuval Elhanati, Chrissy S Dudgeon, Curtis G Callan, Arnold J Levine, Thierry Mora, Aleksandra M Walczak
The ability of the adaptive immune system to respond to arbitrary pathogens stems from the broad diversity of immune cell surface receptors. This diversity originates in a stochastic DNA editing process (VDJ recombination) that acts on the surface receptor gene each time a new immune cell is created from a stem cell. By analyzing T-cell receptor (TCR) sequence repertoires taken from the blood and thymus of mice of different ages, we quantify the changes in the VDJ recombination process that occur from embryo to young adult...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167605/thymus-derived-treg-cell-development-is-regulated-by-c-type-lectin-mediated-bic-mirna155-expression
#7
Raquel Sánchez-Díaz, Rafael Blanco-Dominguez, Sandra Lasarte, Katerina Tsilingiri, Enrique Martín-Gayo, Beatriz Linillos-Pradillo, Hortensia de la Fuente, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid, Rinako Nakagawa, María L Toribio, Pilar Martín
Thymus-derived regulatory T cells (tTregs) are key to prevent autoimmune diseases but the mechanisms involved in their development remain unsolved. Here, we show that the C-type lectin receptor CD69 controls tTreg cell development and peripheral Treg homeostasis through the regulation of BIC/miR-155 and its target, the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1). Using Foxp3-mRFP/cd69(+/-) or/cd69(-/-) reporter mice, shRNA-mediated silencing and miR-155 transfection approaches, we found that CD69 deficiency impaired the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) pathway in Foxp3(+) cells...
February 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158249/rb-inactivation-in-keratin-18-positive-thymic-epithelial-cells-promotes-non-cell-autonomous-t-cell-hyperproliferation-in-genetically-engineered-mice
#8
Yurong Song, Teresa Sullivan, Kimberly Klarmann, Debra Gilbert, T Norene O'Sullivan, Lucy Lu, Sophie Wang, Diana C Haines, Terry Van Dyke, Jonathan R Keller
Thymic epithelial cells (TEC), as part of thymic stroma, provide essential growth factors/cytokines and self-antigens to support T cell development and selection. Deletion of Rb family proteins in adult thymic stroma leads to T cell hyperplasia in vivo. To determine whether deletion of Rb specifically in keratin (K) 18 positive TEC was sufficient for thymocyte hyperplasia, we conditionally inactivated Rb and its family members p107 and p130 in K18+ TEC in genetically engineered mice (TgK18GT121; K18 mice). We found that thymocyte hyperproliferation was induced in mice with Rb inactivation in K18+ TEC, while normal T cell development was maintained; suggesting that inactivation of Rb specifically in K18+ TEC was sufficient and responsible for the phenotype...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154568/il-7-induced-proliferation-of-human-naive-cd4-t-cells-relies-on-continued-thymic-activity
#9
Susana L Silva, Adriana S Albuquerque, Paula Matoso, Bénédicte Charmeteau-de-Muylder, Rémi Cheynier, Dário Ligeiro, Miguel Abecasis, Rui Anjos, João T Barata, Rui M M Victorino, Ana E Sousa
Naive CD4 T-cell maintenance is critical for immune competence. We investigated here the fine-tuning of homeostatic mechanisms of the naive compartment to counteract the loss of de novo CD4 T-cell generation. Adults thymectomized in early childhood during corrective cardiac surgery were grouped based on presence or absence of thymopoiesis and compared with age-matched controls. We found that the preservation of the CD31(-) subset was independent of the thymus and that its size is tightly controlled by peripheral mechanisms, including prolonged cell survival as attested by Bcl-2 levels...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147469/thymoma-and-synchronous-primary-mediastinal-seminomas-with-florid-follicular-lymphoid-hyperplasia-in-the-anterior-mediastinum-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Hyang-Im Lee, In-Seok Jang, Kyung Nyeo Jeon, Gyung Hyuck Ko, Jong Sil Lee, Dong Chul Kim, Dae Hyun Song, Jeong-Hee Lee
Thymoma is the most common neoplasm of the anterior mediastinum and has malignant potential. Germ cell tumors (GCTs) found in the anterior mediastinum are usually benign, and malignant GCTs, such as seminomas, are rare. Histologically, mediastinal seminoma is indistinguishable from testicular seminoma except for site-associated morphological features such as lymphoid follicular hyperplasia. Therefore, excluding metastasis is very important. Recently, we treated a young adult patient with multiple thymic masses that occurred simultaneously...
March 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106093/insecticidal-toxicities-of-carvacrol-and-thymol-derived-from-thymus-vulgaris-lin-against-pochazia-shantungensis-chou-lu-newly-recorded-pest
#11
Jun-Hwan Park, Ye-Jin Jeon, Chi-Hoon Lee, Namhyun Chung, Hoi-Seon Lee
The insecticidal toxicities of five essential oils against Pochazia shantungensis adults and nymphs, newly recorded pests, were evaluated. The LC50 values of Thymus vulgaris, Ruta graveolens, Citrus aurantium, Leptospermum petersonii and Achillea millefolium oils were recorded as 57.48, 84.44, 92.58, 113.26 and 125.78 mg/L, respectively, against P. shantungensis nymphs using the leaf dipping bioassay, and 75.80, 109.86, 113.26, 145.06 and 153.74 mg/L, respectively, against P. shantungensis adults using the spray bioassay method...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104124/enhancing-survival-of-human-hepatocytes-by-neonatal-thymectomy-and-partial-hepatectomy-in-micro-miniature-pigs
#12
H C Hsu, S Enosawa, T Yamazaki, S Tohyama, J Fujita, K Fukuda, E Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: With the goal of in vivo cultivation of human hepatocytes that have not been sufficient in full differentiation in vitro, the advantage of neonatal thymectomy was verified on expansion of xenogeneic human hepatocyte in the micro-miniature pig (MMP). METHODS: The thymus was excised immediately after the birth of the MMPs via cesarean section. Newborns were fed by artificial feeding under specific pathogen-free conditions. The thymectomized and nonthymectomized littermates were transplanted with human hepatocytes via a portal vein with or without partial hepatectomy at the MMP adult stage...
January 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049431/staphylococcal-enterotoxin-b-administration-in-pregnant-rats-alters-the-splenic-lymphocyte-response-in-adult-offspring-rats
#13
Ping Zhou, Xin-Sheng Zhang, Zhi-Ben Xu, Shu-Xian Gao, Qing-Wei Zheng, Ming-Zhu Xu, Lin Shen, Feng Yu, Jun-Chang Guan
BACKGROUND: Our previous study suggested that SEB exposure in pregnant rats could lead to the change of T cells subpopulation in both peripheral blood and thymus of the offspring rats. However, rarely is known about the influence of SEB exposure in pregnant rats on T cell subpopulation in the spleens of offspring rats. RESULTS: SEB was intravenously administered to the pregnant rats at gestational day 16 in this study. The percentages, in vivo and in vitro responses of CD4 and CD8 T cells were investigated with flow cytometry...
January 3, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026004/ethanol-enhances-thymocyte-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-macrophages-of-rat-thymi
#14
Tsubasa Betsuyaku, Nabil Eid, Yuko Ito, Yoshihisa Tanaka, Yoshinori Otsuki, Yoichi Kondo
Tingible body macrophages (TBMs) play essential roles in the phagocytosis of apoptotic lymphocytes, specifically under exposure to various stressors. Although excessive ethanol consumption may enhance thymocyte apoptosis, reports investigating the autophagic response of the thymus to ethanol toxicity are still lacking. We investigated apoptosis and autophagy in thymi of an animal model of binge ethanol exposure. Adult male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally either with 5 g/kg ethanol or phosphate buffer saline (for the control group) and sacrificed 0, 3, 6 and 24 hours after injection...
December 27, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008926/long-term-propagation-of-tree-shrew-spermatogonial-stem-cells-in-culture-and-successful-generation-of-transgenic-offspring
#15
Chao-Hui Li, Lan-Zhen Yan, Wen-Zan Ban, Qiu Tu, Yong Wu, Lin Wang, Rui Bi, Shuang Ji, Yu-Hua Ma, Wen-Hui Nie, Long-Bao Lv, Yong-Gang Yao, Xu-Dong Zhao, Ping Zheng
Tree shrews have a close relationship to primates and have many advantages over rodents in biomedical research. However, the lack of gene manipulation methods has hindered the wider use of this animal. Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have been successfully expanded in culture to permit sophisticated gene editing in the mouse and rat. Here, we describe a culture system for the long-term expansion of tree shrew SSCs without the loss of stem cell properties. In our study, thymus cell antigen 1 was used to enrich tree shrew SSCs...
February 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987403/the-effect-of-ethephon-on-immune-system-in-male-offspring-of-mice
#16
Siqi Wang, Haifeng Jin, Qiuqiong Tang, Jun Fu, Zeming Ren, Cike Peng, Lanqin Shang, Weidong Hao, Xuetao Wei
Ethephon can liberate ethylene which could interfere the plant growth process. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ethephon on developing immune system of male offspring. Ethephon could enhance NK cell activity in male mice. For 4-week-old male mice, lymphocytes of peripheral blood increased while the hemolytic plaque number decreased. Delayed type hypersensitivity(DTH) was inhibited in all groups. The expression of protein Bcl11b and p-p38 in thymus of treatment groups were lower than control group...
January 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980781/critical-influence-of-the-thymus-on-peripheral-t-cell-homeostasis
#17
Pedro Henrique Oliveira Vianna, Fábio B Canto, Jeane S Nogueira, Caroline Fraga Cabral Gomes Nunes, Adriana César Bonomo, Rita Fucs
INTRODUCTION: A tight balance between regulatory CD4(+)Foxp3(+) (Treg) and conventional CD4(+)Foxp3(-) (Tconv) T cell subsets in the peripheral compartment, maintained stable throughout most of lifetime, is essential for preserving self-tolerance along with efficient immune responses. An excess of Treg cells, described for aged individuals, may critically contribute to their reported immunodeficiency. In this work, we investigated if quantitative changes in thymus emigration may alter the Treg/Tconv homeostasis regardless of the aging status of the peripheral compartment...
December 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973427/expression-of-3-mercaptopyruvate-sulfurtransferase-in-the-mouse
#18
Masahiro Tomita, Noriyuki Nagahara, Takaaki Ito
3-Mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST) is one of the principal enzymes for the production of hydrogen sulfide and polysulfides in mammalians, and emerging evidence supports the physiological significance of MST. As a fundamental study of the physiology and pathobiology of MST, it is necessary to establish the tissue distribution of MST in mice. In the present study, the expression of MST in various organs of adult and fetal mice was analyzed by Western blotting and enzyme-immunohistochemistry. Moreover, the histology of MST gene-deficient mice was examined...
December 11, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956167/photoperiod-and-temperature-differently-affect-immune-function-in-striped-hamsters-cricetulus-barabensis
#19
De-Li Xu, Xiao-Kai Hu
Small mammals generally use short day length to elevate immune function to counteract the immunosuppressive effect of low temperature in winter in light of the winter immunoenhancement hypothesis. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis in striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis). We expected that immune responses would be increased by short photoperiod but suppressed by low temperature. Thirty-four adult female hamsters were randomly divided into the long day (16L:8D) and short day (8L:16D) groups, which were further assigned into the warm (23±1°C) and the cold (5±1°C) groups, respectively...
February 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942480/diagnostic-imaging-of-benign-and-malignant-neck-masses-in-children-a-pictorial-review
#20
REVIEW
Ruth Elizabeth Brown, Srikrishna Harave
Neck masses are frequently encountered in pediatric medicine, and can present a diagnostic dilemma for the clinicians involved. There are several means by which neck masses in children can be subdivided, for example by age at presentation, anatomical location including compartments and fascia of the neck, their classical appearance when imaged, or by etiology. When imaging children the clinicians must be mindful of radiation exposure and as such ultrasound (US) is often attempted first. Cross sectional imaging can be helpful for problem solving with CT being particularly useful for assessing the patient in more acute scenarios, for example when there is airway compromise...
October 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
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