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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608859/residua-of-thymus-in-the-mediastinum-clinical-aspects-cadaveric-study
#1
Ewa Mizia, Wiesława Klimek-Piotrowska, Jarosław Kużdżał, Tomasz Konopka, Monika Lis, Juliusz Pankowski, Artur Pasternak, Jarosław Zawiliński, Andrzej Wrona
The main goal of this study was to investigate possible residua of thymic tissue in 100 adult cadavers with no thoracic pathology known before, by dissection of standard locations of thymic tissue in perithyroid, periaortic, peritracheal and retrotracheal spaces, as well as areas located next to the course of phrenic, vagus and left recurrent laryngeal nerves. Thus obtained tissue samples were studied by two pathologists independently. The remnants of the thymic tissue were found in 61 out of 100 specimens studied...
2017: Folia Medica Cracoviensia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559356/thymic-epithelial-cells-require-p53-to-support-their-long-term-function-in-thymopoiesis-in-mice
#2
Pedro M Rodrigues, Ana R Ribeiro, Chiara Perrod, Jonathan J M Landry, Leonor Araújo, Isabel Pereira-Castro, Vladimir Benes, Alexandra Moreira, Helena Xavier-Ferreira, Catarina Meireles, Nuno L Alves
Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) provide crucial microenvironments for T-cell development and tolerance induction. As the regular function of the thymus declines with age, it is of fundamental and clinical relevance to decipher new determinants that control TEC homeostasis in vivo Beyond its recognized tumor suppressive function, p53 controls several immunoregulatory pathways. To study the cell-autonomous role of p53 in thymic epithelium functioning, we developed and analyzed mice with conditional inactivation of Trp53 in TECs (p53cKO)...
May 30, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552106/the-protection-of-thymus-vulgaris-leaves-alcoholic-extract-against-hepatotoxicity-of-alcohol-in-rats
#3
Samah A El-Newary, Nermeen M Shaffie, E A Omer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) leaves 70% alcoholic extract against alcohol-mediate hepatotoxicity rats. METHODS: The protective effect of T. vulgaris extract was investigated at dose of 500 mg/kg/day (as 0.1 of LD50) orally against alcohol-mediate hepatotoxicity using adult male Wister albino rats during 21 days. Protective effect of T. vulgaris extract was evaluated comparing with silymarin standard drug at recommended dose (25 mg/kg/day) orally for 21 days...
April 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551327/t-cell-transcription-factor-gata-3-is-an-immunophenotypic-marker-of-acute-leukemias-with-t-cell-differentiation
#4
David M Dorfman, Elizabeth A Morgan, Ashley Pelton, Christine Unitt
T cell transcription factor GATA-3, known to play a role in early T cell development and in the development of T cell neoplasms, is expressed at high levels in fetal and adult thymus, as well as in acute leukemias with T-cell differentiation, including T lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (22/22 cases), early T cell precursor (ETP) lymphoblastic leukemia (11/11 cases), and mixed phenotype acute leukemia, T/myeloid (4/5 cases), but only rarely in acute myeloid leukemia/myeloid sarcoma (1/36 cases), and not in B lymphoblastic leukemia (0/16 cases)...
May 24, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546728/spindle-epithelial-tumor-with-thymus-like-element-settle-a-case-report
#5
Cengiz Tavusbay, Demet Arikan Etit, Ercan Kadioglu, Mehmet Haciyanli
Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like element (SETTLE) is a very rare malignant neoplasm of the thyroid. It is generally encountered in children, adolescents, and young adults Objective: We aimed to present a patient with SETTLE and to review the clinical and pathologic features of this rare tumor. A 13-year-old male patient presented to our clinic with complaints of a rapidly growing lump on his neck. There was no evidence of distant metastases at time of presentation. A total thyroidectomy was performed...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539430/physiologic-thymic-involution-underlies-age-dependent-accumulation-of-senescence-associated-cd4-t-cells
#6
Kyosuke Sato, Aiko Kato, Miho Sekai, Yoko Hamazaki, Nagahiro Minato
Immune aging may underlie various aging-related disorders, including diminished resistance to infection, chronic inflammatory disorders, and autoimmunity. PD-1(+) and CD153(+) CD44(high) CD4(+) T cells with features of cellular senescence, termed senescence-associated T (SA-T) cells, increasingly accumulate with age and may play a role in the immune aging phenotype. In this article, we demonstrate that, compared with young mice, the aged mouse environment is highly permissive for spontaneous proliferation of transferred naive CD4(+) T cells, and it drives their transition to PD-1(+) and CD153(+) CD44(high) CD4(+) T cells after extensive cell divisions...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525342/effects-of-long-term-construction-noise-on-health-of-adult-female-wistar-rats
#7
J Zymantiene, R Zelvyte, I Pampariene, A Aniuliene, N Juodziukyniene, J Kantautaite, V Oberauskas
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of long-term building construction noise from refurbishment, which including vibration, on some physiological parameters and histopathological changes of organs of Wistar rats. Twenty 12 month old female rats were divided into two groups: rats group I (n = 10) were exposed to long-term construction noise and rats group II (n = 10) were kept under normal noise level. Study results revealed that long-term construction noise from building refurbishment has an influence on body weight, haematological and some serum biochemical parameters affects caecal microbiota, and causes histopathological changes in the organs of adult female Wistar rats...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460343/a-patient-with-autoimmune-limb-girdle-myasthenia-and-a-brief-review-of-this-treatable-condition
#8
REVIEW
Domizia Vecchio, Claudia Varrasi, Cristoforo Comi, Paolo Ripellino, Roberto Cantello
Limb-girdle myasthenia gravis (LGM) is an uncommon clinical picture related to an antibody-mediated blockage of the neuromuscular junction. We describe a 44-year old man who presented with a proximal limbs' weakness that resembled a myopathic disorder. The repetitive nerve stimulation at 3Hz showing a decremental response suggested myasthenia, that was confirmed by the presence of an increased titer of anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies (AChRAbs), and of hyperplastic foci at thymus histology. Symptomatic treatment with pyridostigmine was not effective, whereas the patient improved adding Azathioprine...
July 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441047/distribution-of-t-cell-markers-cd4-and-cd8%C3%AE-in-lymphoid-organs-of-healthy-newborn-juvenile-and-adult-highland-plateau-yaks
#9
Qian Zhang, Kun Yang, Yufeng Huang, Junfeng He, Sijiu Yu, Yan Cui
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of T-cell markers (CD4 and CD8α) in lymphoid organs of newborn, juvenile, and adult yaks. ANIMALS: 15 healthy male yaks of various ages from highland plateaus. PROCEDURES: Yaks were allocated to groups on the basis of age (newborn [1 to 7 days old; n = 5], juvenile [5 to 7 months old; 5], and adult [3 to 4 years old; 5]). The thymus, spleen, 5 mesenteric lymph nodes, and 5 hemal nodes were harvested from each yak within 10 minutes after euthanasia...
May 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397358/depletion-resistant-cd4-t-cells-enhance-thymopoiesis-during-lymphopenia
#10
Katayoun Ayasoufi, Ran Fan, Anna Valujskikh
Lymphoablation is routinely used in transplantation, and its success is defined by the balance of pathogenic versus protective T cells within reconstituted repertoire. While homeostatic proliferation and thymopoiesis may both cause T cell recovery during lymphopenia, the relative contributions of these mechanisms remain unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of the thymus during T cell reconstitution in adult allograft recipients subjected to lymphoablative induction therapy. Compared to euthymic mice, thymectomized heart allograft recipients demonstrated severely impaired CD4 and CD8 T cell recovery and prolonged heart allograft survival after lymphoablation with murine anti-thymocyte globulin (mATG)...
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381582/effect-of-temperature-and-food-restriction-on-immune-function-in-striped-hamsters-cricetulus-barabensis
#11
De-Li Xu, Xiao-Kai Hu, Yu-Fen Tian
Small mammals in temperate areas face seasonal fluctuations of temperature and food availability, both of which may influence their immune responses, which are critical to survival. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that low temperature and food restriction suppress immune function in striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis). Thirty-seven adult male hamsters were randomly assigned to warm (23±1°C) and cold (5±1°C) treatment groups, which were further divided into fed and food-restricted groups...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374149/multiple-origins-of-embryonic-and-tadpole-myeloid-cells-in-xenopus-laevis
#12
Yasutaka Imai, Keisuke Ishida, Maya Nemoto, Keisuke Nakata, Takashi Kato, Mitsugu Maéno
Rabbit anti-serum against a myeloid-cell-specific peroxidase (Mpo) of Xenopus laevis was generated to identify myeloid cells in adult and larval animals. Smears of blood samples from adult hematopoietic organs were co-stained with Mpo and with XL-2, a mouse monoclonal antibody against a leukocyte common antigen. Lymphocytes found in the thymus and spleen were XL-2(+)Mpo(-) and granulocytes found in peripheral blood cells and the spleen were XL-2(+)Mpo(+), indicating that double-staining with these two antibodies allowed classification of the leukocyte lineages...
April 3, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364296/juvenile-onset-myasthenia-gravis-autoantibody-status-clinical-characteristics-and-genetic-polymorphisms
#13
Yu Hong, Geir Olve Skeie, Paraskevi Zisimopoulou, Katerina Karagiorgou, Socrates J Tzartos, Xiang Gao, Yao-Xian Yue, Fredrik Romi, Xu Zhang, Hai-Feng Li, Nils Erik Gilhus
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder mediated by antibodies against proteins at the neuromuscular junction. Juvenile-onset MG (JMG) has been reported to have special characteristics. It is still unclear whether there are any pathogenic and genetic differences between juvenile and adult MG. In this study, we evaluated the clinical characteristics, autoantibody status (antibodies against AChR, MuSK, LRP4, titin and RyR) and genetic susceptibility (CHRNA1, CTLA4 and AIRE) in 114 Chinese JMG patients, and compared with 207 young adult MG patients (onset age 18-40 years)...
May 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347744/the-development-of-cellular-immune-defence-in-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma
#14
Frauke Seemann, Drew Ryan Peterson, Michael Wai Lun Chiang, Doris Wai Ting Au
Environmentally induced alterations of the immune system during sensitive developmental stages may manifest as abnormalities in immune organ configuration and/or immune cell differentiation. These not only render the early life stages more vulnerable to pathogens, but may also affect the adult immune competence. Knowledge of these sensitive periods in fish would provide an important prognostic/diagnostic tool for aquatic risk assessment of immunotoxicants. The marine medaka Oryzias melastigma is an emerging seawater fish model for immunotoxcology...
March 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336912/fgf21-regulates-t-cell-development-in-the-neonatal-and-juvenile-thymus
#15
Yoshiaki Nakayama, Yuki Masuda, Hiroya Ohta, Tomohiro Tanaka, Miwa Washida, Yo-Ichi Nabeshima, Ayumi Miyake, Nobuyuki Itoh, Morichika Konishi
We have previously shown that Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is expressed in the thymus as well as in the liver. In line with this expression profile, Fgf21 was recently reported to protect against ageing-related thymic senescence by improving the function of thymic epithelial cells (TECs). However, the function of Fgf21 in the juvenile thymus remained to be elucidated. We investigated the physiological roles of Fgf21 in the juvenile thymus and found that young Fgf21 knockout mice, but not β-Klotho knockout mice nor adult Fgf21 knockout mice, showed a significant reduction in the percentage of single-positive CD4(+) and CD8(+) thymocytes without obvious alteration in TECs...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321121/dnmt3a-regulates-t-cell-development-and-suppresses-t-all-transformation
#16
A C Kramer, A Kothari, W C Wilson, H Celik, J Nikitas, C Mallaney, E L Ostrander, E Eultgen, A Martens, M C Valentine, A L Young, T E Druley, M E Figueroa, B Zhang, G A Challen
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematopoietic neoplasm resulting from the malignant transformation of T-cell progenitors, and comprises ~15% and 25% of pediatric and adult ALL cases, respectively. It is well-established that activating NOTCH1 mutations are the major genetic lesions driving T-ALL in most patients, but efforts to develop targeted therapies against this pathway have produced limited success in decreasing leukemic burden and come with significant clinical side effects...
April 11, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318017/thymic-crosstalk-restrains-the-pool-of-cortical-thymic-epithelial-cells-with-progenitor-properties
#17
Catarina Meireles, Ana R Ribeiro, Rute D Pinto, Catarina Leitão, Pedro M Rodrigues, Nuno L Alves
Cortical (cTEC) and medullary (mTEC) thymic epithelial cells establish key microenvironments for T-cell differentiation and arise from thymic epithelial cell progenitors (TEP). However, the nature of TEPs and the mechanism controlling their stemness in the postnatal thymus remain poorly defined. Using TEC clonogenic assays as a surrogate to survey TEP activity, we found that a fraction of cTECs generates specialized clonal-derived colonies, which contain cells with sustained colony-forming capacity (ClonoTECs)...
March 20, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259864/-an-attempt-to-identify-22q11-2-microdeletions-in-samples-of-the-hungarian-schizophrenia-dna-bank-by-multiplex-ligation-based-probe-amplification-mlpa-literature-review-methodology-and-results
#18
Izabella Klein, Katalin Szocs, Katalin Vincze, Judit Benkovits, Szilvia Somogyi, Levente Herman, Janos M Rethelyi
Schizophrenia is a severe debilitating psychiatric disorder, with a typical onset in adolescence or early adulthood. This condition is characterized by heterogeneous symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, disorganized behaviour, affective flattening, and social isolation) and a life-time prevalence of 0.5-1.2%. In spite of the efforts to uncover the etiology of the disorder, its pathogenesis and neurobiological background are poorly understood. Given the high heritability in schizophrenia, genetic research remains an important area of focus...
December 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245449/inflammation-and-thymus-ageing
#19
A Lepletier, A Alsharif, Ann P Chidgey
The thymus is primarily responsible for T cell production. However, it begins to recede in size and function, from early in life. This decreased generation of naive T cells during normal thymus ageing, or linked with pathology (i.e. chronic inflammation), leads to reduced T cell specificities, peripheral T cell imbalances, and higher susceptibilities to infections. Various clinical strategies for thymus and T cell recovery have been investigated, although no effective clinical treatments for the reconstitution of peripheral T cell diversity in severe immune deficiencies are available...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196891/insights-into-immune-system-development-and-function-from-mouse-t-cell-repertoires
#20
Zachary Sethna, Yuval Elhanati, Chrissy S Dudgeon, Curtis G Callan, Arnold J Levine, Thierry Mora, Aleksandra M Walczak
The ability of the adaptive immune system to respond to arbitrary pathogens stems from the broad diversity of immune cell surface receptors. This diversity originates in a stochastic DNA editing process (VDJ recombination) that acts on the surface receptor gene each time a new immune cell is created from a stem cell. By analyzing T-cell receptor (TCR) sequence repertoires taken from the blood and thymus of mice of different ages, we quantify the changes in the VDJ recombination process that occur from embryo to young adult...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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