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Thymus adult

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678836/tumor-suppressor-bap1-is-essential-for-thymic-development-and-proliferative-responses-of-t-lymphocytes
#1
Teresita L Arenzana, Steve Lianoglou, Akiko Seki, Celine Eidenschenk, Tommy Cheung, Dhaya Seshasayee, Thijs Hagenbeek, Arivazhagan Sambandam, Rajkumar Noubade, Ivan Peng, Justin Lesch, Jason DeVoss, Xiumin Wu, Wyne P Lee, Patrick Caplazi, Joshua Webster, Jinfeng Liu, Victoria C Pham, David Arnott, Jennie R Lill, Zora Modrusan, Anwesha Dey, Sascha Rutz
Loss of function of the nuclear deubiquitinating enzyme BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) is associated with a wide spectrum of cancers. We report that tamoxifen-induced BAP1 deletion in adult mice resulted in severe thymic atrophy. BAP1 was critical for T cell development at several stages. In the thymus, BAP1 was required for progression through the pre-T cell receptor checkpoint. Peripheral T cells lacking BAP1 demonstrated a defect in homeostatic and antigen-driven expansion. Deletion of BAP1 resulted in suppression of E2F target genes and defects in cell cycle progression, which was dependent on the catalytic activity of BAP1, but did not require its interaction with host cell factor-1 (HCF-1)...
April 20, 2018: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621118/bone-marrow-cells-transplant-in-septic-mice-modulates-systemic-inflammatory-response-via-cell-cell-contact
#2
Clara Batista Lorigados, Suely K Kubo Ariga, Thais Martins de Lima, Denise Frediane Barbeiro, Jose Eduardo Krieger, Francisco Garcia Soriano
Sepsis is a dynamic disease, displaying an inflammatory profile that varies over time and for each organ. Controlling the inflammatory response based in targeting a single molecule has been proved useless. We hypothesized that treatment with bone marrow derived mononuclear cells (BMDMC) may be more efficient to modulate the systemic inflammatory response to infection. Adult male Balb/c mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or endotoxemia model of experimental sepsis. BMDMC were separated under Ficoll gradient and injected intravenously 1 hour after the procedures...
April 4, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616017/phenotypic-and-functional-changes-of-peripheral-ly6c-t-regulatory-cells-driven-by-conventional-effector-t-cells
#3
Jun Young Lee, Juhee Kim, Jaeu Yi, Daeun Kim, Hee-Ok Kim, Daehee Han, Jonathan Sprent, You Jeong Lee, Charles D Surh, Jae-Ho Cho
A relatively high affinity/avidity of T cell receptor (TCR) recognition for self-peptide bound to major histocompatibility complex II (self-pMHC) ligands is a distinctive feature of CD4 T regulatory (Treg) cells, including their development in the thymus and maintenance of their suppressive functions in the periphery. Despite such high self-reactivity, however, all thymic-derived peripheral Treg populations are neither homogenous in their phenotype nor uniformly immune-suppressive in their function under steady state condition...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605590/measurement-of-fat-fraction-in-the-human-thymus-by-localized-nmr-and-three-point-dixon-mri-techniques
#4
Kenneth W Fishbein, Sokratis K Makrogiannis, Vanessa A Lukas, Marilyn Okine, Ramona Ramachandran, Luigi Ferrucci, Josephine M Egan, Chee W Chia, Richard G Spencer
PURPOSE: To develop a protocol to non-invasively measure and map fat fraction, fat/(fat+water), as a function of age in the adult thymus for future studies monitoring the effects of interventions aimed at promoting thymic rejuvenation and preservation of immunity in older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo 3T MRI with 3-point Dixon fat-water separation was performed at full inspiration for thymus conspicuity in 36 volunteers 19 to 56 years old...
March 29, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590497/chronic-idiopathic-erythroderma-of-elderly-men-is-an-independent-entity-that-has-a-distinct-tarc-ige-profile-from-adult-atopic-dermatitis
#5
Yasunori Ohga, Bolortuya Bayaraa, Shinichi Imafuku
BACKGROUND: Although there are several diseases that cause erythroderma, patients are often encountered with erythroderma of unknown cause which persists for a long time. The aim of this study was to characterize this chronic idiopathic erythroderma (CIE). METHODS: Adult patients with CIE, atopic dermatitis (AD), psoriatic erythroderma (PsE), or generalized drug eruption (DE), who visited Fukuoka University Hospital Dermatology Department from 2010 to 2015, were enrolled...
March 28, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567371/a-pilot-study-on-immuno-psychiatry-in-the-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-a-role-for-th17-cells-in-psychosis
#6
Elfi Vergaelen, Carmen Schiweck, Kristof Van Steeland, Jacqueline Counotte, Wim Veling, Ann Swillen, Hemmo Drexhage, Stephan Claes
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence supports a role for immune alterations in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD). A high prevalence (25% - 40%) of SSD has been found in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), which is known for T-cell deficits due to thymus hypoplasia. This study is the first to explore the association between the T-cell subsets and psychotic symptoms in adults with 22q11.2DS. METHODS: 34 individuals (aged 19-38 yrs.) with 22q11...
March 19, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559980/next-generation-sequencing-analysis-of-the-human-tcr%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-repertoire-reveals-shifts-in-v%C3%AE-and-v%C3%AE-usage-in-memory-populations-upon-aging
#7
Martine J Kallemeijn, François G Kavelaars, Michèle Y van der Klift, Ingrid L M Wolvers-Tettero, Peter J M Valk, Jacques J M van Dongen, Anton W Langerak
Immunological aging remodels the immune system at several levels. This has been documented in particular for the T-cell receptor (TCR)αβ+ T-cell compartment, showing reduced naive T-cell outputs and an accumulation of terminally differentiated clonally expanding effector T-cells, leading to increased proneness to autoimmunity and cancer development at older age. Even though TCRαβ+ and TCRγδ+ T-cells follow similar paths of development involving V(D)J-recombination of TCR genes in the thymus, TCRγδ+ T-cells tend to be more subjected to peripheral rather than central selection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556698/-specific-characteristics-of-chest-x%C3%A2-ray-in-childhood-basics-for-radiologists
#8
K Schneider
The radiographic technique of pediatric chest X‑rays is substantially different from that in adults. In nearly all cases ap/pa X‑rays are sufficient and lateral radiographs are rarely needed. In the first years of life the thymus may overshadow the heart, the great vessels and the lung hila. The most important anatomical structures essential for diagnosing pathological findings of the lungs and mediastinum are the trachea with the bifurcation and the main bronchi with the adjacent great vessels. For the assessment of distended lungs and intrathoracic consolidations, fundamental knowledge of the anatomy in childhood and malformations which can involve the airways, the lungs, the heart, as well as systemic and pulmonary vessels are indispensable...
March 19, 2018: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547411/novel-therapies-hopes-for-hiv-cure-in-perinatally-acquired-hiv-positive-adolescents
#9
Thomas Joshua Pasvol, Caroline Foster, Sarah Fidler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Successful roll-out of paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a significant increase in survival of adolescents and young people growing up with HIV. Those on suppressive ART since childhood represent a unique group particularly well positioned to interrupt ART and achieve post-treatment control (PTC), or HIV remission. This maybe a consequence of early and sustained treatment since infancy, the small size of the HIV reservoir, the presence of a functioning thymus and a more 'flexible' immune system better able to respond to novel immune therapeutic interventions when compared with adults who acquired HIV at a time of immunological maturity and thymic involution...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535429/samd9-and-samd9l-in-inherited-predisposition-to-ataxia-pancytopenia-and-myeloid-malignancies
#10
REVIEW
Josef Davidsson, Andreas Puschmann, Ulf Tedgård, David Bryder, Lars Nilsson, Jörg Cammenga
Germline mutations in the SAMD9 and SAMD9L genes, located in tandem on chromosome 7, are associated with a clinical spectrum of disorders including the MIRAGE syndrome, ataxia-pancytopenia syndrome and myelodysplasia and leukemia syndrome with monosomy 7 syndrome. Germline gain-of-function mutations increase SAMD9 or SAMD9L's normal antiproliferative effect. This causes pancytopenia and generally restricted growth and/or specific organ hypoplasia in non-hematopoietic tissues. In blood cells, additional somatic aberrations that reverse the germline mutation's effect, and give rise to the clonal expansion of cells with reduced or no antiproliferative effect of SAMD9 or SAMD9L include complete or partial chromosome 7 loss or loss-of-function mutations in SAMD9 or SAMD9L...
February 25, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490231/in-situ-evidence-of-cellular-senescence-in-thymic-epithelial-cells-tecs-during-human-thymic-involution
#11
Alexandra Barbouti, Konstantinos Evangelou, Ioannis S Pateras, Alexandra Papoudou-Bai, Amalia Patereli, Kalliopi Stefanaki, Dimitra Rontogianni, Daniel Muñoz-Espín, Panagiotis Kanavaros, Vassilis G Gorgoulis
Cellular senescence, an age-related process in response to damage and stress, also occurs during normal development and adult life. The thymus is a central lymphoepithelial organ of the immune system that exhibits age-related changes termed thymic involution. Since the mechanisms regulating thymic involution are still not well elucidated, we questioned whether cellular senescence is implicated in this process. We demonstrate, for the first time in situ, that cellular senescence occurs during human thymic involution using SenTraGor™, a novel chemical compound that is applicable in archival tissue material, providing thus further insights in thymus histophysiology...
February 25, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462202/thymic-b-cell-development-is-controlled-by-the-b-potential-of-progenitors-via-both-hematopoietic-intrinsic-and-thymic-microenvironment-intrinsic-regulatory-mechanisms
#12
Shiyun Xiao, Wen Zhang, Nancy R Manley
BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) derived from birth through adult possess differing differentiation potential for T or B cell fate in the thymus; neonatal bone marrow (BM) cells also have a higher potential for B cell production in BM compared to adult HSCs. We hypothesized that this hematopoietic-intrinsic B potential might also regulate B cell development in the thymus during ontogeny. METHODS: Foxn1lacZ mutant mice are a model in which down regulation of a thymic epithelial cell (TEC) specific transcription factor beginning one week postnatal causes a dramatic reduction of thymocytes production...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462197/thymic-epithelial-cell-derived-signals-control-b-progenitor-formation-and-proliferation-in-the-thymus-by-regulating-let-7-and-arid3a
#13
Shiyun Xiao, Wen Zhang, Nancy R Manley
The postnatal thymus is an efficient microenvironment for T cell specification and differentiation. B cells are also present in the thymus and have been recently shown to impact T cell selection, however, the mechanisms controlling B cell development in the thymus are largely unknown. In Foxn1lacZ mutant mice, down-regulation of Foxn1 expression in thymic epithelial cells beginning 1 week after birth caused a dramatic reduction of T progenitors and an increase of B cell progenitors. This time point is coincident with the switch from fetal to adult-type hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which is regulated by the Lin28-Let7 system...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436479/the-ontogeny-of-a-neutrophil-mechanisms-of-granulopoiesis-and-homeostasis
#14
REVIEW
Shelley M Lawrence, Ross Corriden, Victor Nizet
Comprising the majority of leukocytes in humans, neutrophils are the first immune cells to respond to inflammatory or infectious etiologies and are crucial participants in the proper functioning of both innate and adaptive immune responses. From their initial appearance in the liver, thymus, and spleen at around the eighth week of human gestation to their generation in large numbers in the bone marrow at the end of term gestation, the differentiation of the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell into a mature, segmented neutrophil is a highly controlled process where the transcriptional regulators C/EBP-α and C/EBP-ε play a vital role...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429513/protective-roles-of-rutin-against-restraint-stress-on-spermatogenesis-in-testes-of-adult-mice
#15
Asif Mehfooz, Quanwei Wei, Kaizhi Zheng, Mohamed Babo Fadlalla, Gracijela Maltasic, Fangxiong Shi
In order to investigate the effects of Rutin against restraint stress, 50 adult male mice were divided into five groups: control, restraint stress (RS), and RS with 2 doses of Rutin treatments. Mice were restrained in a conical tube for 4 h daily and Rutin was injected intraperitoneally for 15 consecutive days. Restraint stress significantly decreases body weights, testis and epididymis weights, thymus weights, visceral fats, serum concentrations of testosterone, sperm counts, sperm motility and sperm viability, while it increases serum epinephrine levels, adrenal gland weights and abnormal sperms...
February 2018: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421977/chronic-alterations-in-systemic-immune-function-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Rodney Ritzel, Sarah Doran, James Barrett, Rebecca Henry, Elise Ma, Alan Faden, David J Loane
There is a compelling link between severe brain trauma and immunosuppression in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. Although acute changes in the systemic immune compartment have been linked to outcome severity, the long-term consequences of TBI on systemic immune function is unknown. Here, adult male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI) or sham surgery and systemic immune function was evaluated at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 60 days post-injury. Bone marrow, blood, thymus, and spleen were examined by flow cytometry to assess changes in immune composition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, phagocytic activity, and cytokine production...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416196/gender-related-histological-changes-in-the-thymus-gland-after-pinealectomy-and-short-term-melatonin-treatment-in-rats
#17
Irfan Susko, Selma Alicelebic, Esad Cosovic, Maida Sahinovic, Dina Kapic, Samra Custovic, Visnja Muzika
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pinealectomy and melatonin treatment on the rat thymus gland characteristics, taking into consideration possible gender differences. Materials and methods: Thirty adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into three groups. Group C and group PX served as control groups and included sham-pinealectomized and pinealectomized animals that were treated with 10% ethanol solution (0,1ml/daily, subcutaneous)...
December 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384556/spatiotemporal-expression-of-myd88-gene-in-pigs-from-birth-to-adulthood
#18
LiNa Gan, WeiYun Qin, Sen Wu, ShengLong Wu, WenBin Bao
MYD88 plays an important role in the immune response against infections. To analyze MYD88 gene expression during different stages of pig development, we used real-time PCR. MYD88 was seen expressed in all tissues examined. MYD88 expression in spleen, lungs, and thymus reached its highest value from 7 to 14 days of age and decreased thereafter. Expression in lymph nodes was high until 28 days of age and then it declined after weaning, with stable low levels in adult pigs. MYD88 expression was high before 35 days of age in the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), where it reached its highest value from 7 to 14 days of age...
January 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377166/challenging-the-current-model-of-early-onset-myasthenia-gravis-pathogenesis-in-the-light-of-the-mgtx-trial-and-histological-heterogeneity-of-thymectomy-specimens
#19
REVIEW
Cleo-Aron Weis, Berthold Schalke, Philipp Ströbel, Alexander Marx
The MGTX trial provided evidence that, in general, thymectomy is beneficial in adult patients up to 60 years of age with anti-acetylcholine receptor-positive, nonthymomatous myasthenia gravis (MG). This finding supports the long-held view that the pathogenesis of this type of MG (early-onset MG (EOMG)) starts inside the thymus, results in the long-term intrathymic recruitment of autoantibody-producing B cells and plasma cells, and eventually spreads to the peripheral immune system. However, observed clinical responses to treatment in the MGTX trial were diverse...
February 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356558/computed-tomographic-evaluation-of-the-thymus-does-obesity-affect-thymic-fatty-involution-in-a-healthy-young-adult-population
#20
Kate A Harrington, David S Kennedy, Bobby Tang, Conor Hickie, Emma Phelan, William Torreggiani, Darragh Halpenny
OBJECTIVE: To determine a relationship between increased body mass index (BMI) and fatty involution of the thymus in subjects aged between 20 and 30 years. METHODS: CT images of 94 patients aged between 20 and 30 years were reviewed. Quantitative thymic mean attenuation was recorded and qualitative thymic attenuation was assigned to 1 of 4 possible grades. BMI and subcutaneous fat thickness were documented. Correlations between thymic attenuation, and BMI and subcutaneous fat thickness were assessed using linear regression models...
March 7, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
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