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Thymus adult

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462202/thymic-b-cell-development-is-controlled-by-the-b-potential-of-progenitors-via-both-hematopoietic-intrinsic-and-thymic-microenvironment-intrinsic-regulatory-mechanisms
#1
Shiyun Xiao, Wen Zhang, Nancy R Manley
BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) derived from birth through adult possess differing differentiation potential for T or B cell fate in the thymus; neonatal bone marrow (BM) cells also have a higher potential for B cell production in BM compared to adult HSCs. We hypothesized that this hematopoietic-intrinsic B potential might also regulate B cell development in the thymus during ontogeny. METHODS: Foxn1lacZ mutant mice are a model in which down regulation of a thymic epithelial cell (TEC) specific transcription factor beginning one week postnatal causes a dramatic reduction of thymocytes production...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462197/thymic-epithelial-cell-derived-signals-control-b-progenitor-formation-and-proliferation-in-the-thymus-by-regulating-let-7-and-arid3a
#2
Shiyun Xiao, Wen Zhang, Nancy R Manley
The postnatal thymus is an efficient microenvironment for T cell specification and differentiation. B cells are also present in the thymus and have been recently shown to impact T cell selection, however, the mechanisms controlling B cell development in the thymus are largely unknown. In Foxn1lacZ mutant mice, down-regulation of Foxn1 expression in thymic epithelial cells beginning 1 week after birth caused a dramatic reduction of T progenitors and an increase of B cell progenitors. This time point is coincident with the switch from fetal to adult-type hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which is regulated by the Lin28-Let7 system...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436479/the-ontogeny-of-a-neutrophil-mechanisms-of-granulopoiesis-and-homeostasis
#3
REVIEW
Shelley M Lawrence, Ross Corriden, Victor Nizet
Comprising the majority of leukocytes in humans, neutrophils are the first immune cells to respond to inflammatory or infectious etiologies and are crucial participants in the proper functioning of both innate and adaptive immune responses. From their initial appearance in the liver, thymus, and spleen at around the eighth week of human gestation to their generation in large numbers in the bone marrow at the end of term gestation, the differentiation of the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell into a mature, segmented neutrophil is a highly controlled process where the transcriptional regulators C/EBP-α and C/EBP-ε play a vital role...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429513/protective-roles-of-rutin-against-restraint-stress-on-spermatogenesis-in-testes-of-adult-mice
#4
Asif Mehfooz, Quanwei Wei, Kaizhi Zheng, Mohamed Babo Fadlalla, Gracijela Maltasic, Fangxiong Shi
In order to investigate the effects of Rutin against restraint stress, 50 adult male mice were divided into five groups: control, restraint stress (RS), and RS with 2 doses of Rutin treatments. Mice were restrained in a conical tube for 4 h daily and Rutin was injected intraperitoneally for 15 consecutive days. Restraint stress significantly decreases body weights, testis and epididymis weights, thymus weights, visceral fats, serum concentrations of testosterone, sperm counts, sperm motility and sperm viability, while it increases serum epinephrine levels, adrenal gland weights and abnormal sperms...
February 2018: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421977/chronic-alterations-in-systemic-immune-function-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Rodney Ritzel, Sarah Doran, James Barrett, Rebecca Henry, Elise Ma, Alan Faden, David J Loane
There is a compelling link between severe brain trauma and immunosuppression in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. Although acute changes in the systemic immune compartment have been linked to outcome severity, the long-term consequences of TBI on systemic immune function is unknown. Here, adult male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI) or sham surgery and systemic immune function was evaluated at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 60 days post-injury. Bone marrow, blood, thymus, and spleen were examined by flow cytometry to assess changes in immune composition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, phagocytic activity, and cytokine production...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416196/gender-related-histological-changes-in-the-thymus-gland-after-pinealectomy-and-short-term-melatonin-treatment-in-rats
#6
Irfan Susko, Selma Alicelebic, Esad Cosovic, Maida Sahinovic, Dina Kapic, Samra Custovic, Visnja Muzika
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pinealectomy and melatonin treatment on the rat thymus gland characteristics, taking into consideration possible gender differences. Materials and methods: Thirty adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into three groups. Group C and group PX served as control groups and included sham-pinealectomized and pinealectomized animals that were treated with 10% ethanol solution (0,1ml/daily, subcutaneous)...
December 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384556/spatiotemporal-expression-of-myd88-gene-in-pigs-from-birth-to-adulthood
#7
LiNa Gan, WeiYun Qin, Sen Wu, ShengLong Wu, WenBin Bao
MYD88 plays an important role in the immune response against infections. To analyze MYD88 gene expression during different stages of pig development, we used real-time PCR. MYD88 was seen expressed in all tissues examined. MYD88 expression in spleen, lungs, and thymus reached its highest value from 7 to 14 days of age and decreased thereafter. Expression in lymph nodes was high until 28 days of age and then it declined after weaning, with stable low levels in adult pigs. MYD88 expression was high before 35 days of age in the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), where it reached its highest value from 7 to 14 days of age...
January 22, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377166/challenging-the-current-model-of-early-onset-myasthenia-gravis-pathogenesis-in-the-light-of-the-mgtx-trial-and-histological-heterogeneity-of-thymectomy-specimens
#8
REVIEW
Cleo-Aron Weis, Berthold Schalke, Philipp Ströbel, Alexander Marx
The MGTX trial provided evidence that, in general, thymectomy is beneficial in adult patients up to 60 years of age with anti-acetylcholine receptor-positive, nonthymomatous myasthenia gravis (MG). This finding supports the long-held view that the pathogenesis of this type of MG (early-onset MG (EOMG)) starts inside the thymus, results in the long-term intrathymic recruitment of autoantibody-producing B cells and plasma cells, and eventually spreads to the peripheral immune system. However, observed clinical responses to treatment in the MGTX trial were diverse...
January 28, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356558/computed-tomographic-evaluation-of-the-thymus-does-obesity-affect-thymic-fatty-involution-in-a-healthy-young-adult-population
#9
Kate A Harrington, David S Kennedy, Bobby Tang, Conor Hickie, Phelan Emma, William Torreggiani, Darragh Halpenny
OBJECTIVE: To determine a relationship between increased body mass index (BMI) and fatty involution of the thymus in subjects aged between 20-30 years. METHODS: CT images of 94 patients aged between 20-30 years were reviewed. Quantitative thymic mean attenuation was recorded and qualitative thymic attenuation was assigned to 1 of 4 possible grades. BMI and subcutaneous fat thickness were documented. Correlations between thymic attenuation, and BMI and subcutaneous fat thickness were assessed using linear regression models...
January 22, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355930/igg-from-atopic-dermatitis-patients-induces-il-17-and-il-10-production-in-infant-intrathymic-tcd4-and-tcd8-cells
#10
Fábio D R Sgnotto, Marilia G de Oliveira, Aline A L Lira, Amanda H S Inoue, Tiago O Titz, Raquel L Orfali, Luciana Bento-de-Souza, Maria N Sato, Valeria Aoki, Alberto J S Duarte, Jefferson R Victor
INTRODUCTION: Our group recently demonstrated that IgG modulates αβT cell cytokine production during the maturation process in the human thymus. The effects of this modulation are IgG repertoire dependent and can exert a systemic and long-term impact. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether IgG from atopic dermatitis (AD) patients can modulate cytokine production of infant intrathymic TCD4 and TCD8 cells in vitro. METHODS: Thymic tissues were obtained from newborn children from nonatopic mothers, and thymocytes were cultured for 6 days with purified IgG from AD patients or with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or mock conditions as controls...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351828/activity-during-sleep-measured-by-a-sheet-shaped-body-vibrometer-and-the-severity-of-atopic-dermatitis-in-adults-a-comparison-with-wrist-actigraphy
#11
Takamasa Kogure, Toshiya Ebata
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To use a sheet-shaped body vibrometer (SBV) for measuring sleep in adult patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) of various severities and to compare the results with those measured by wrist actigraphy (WA). METHODS: Simultaneous measurements of activity during sleep by WA and the SBV were performed in 20 outpatients with AD for 5 to 10 days. The mean activity count per minute (ACT) and sleep efficiency (SE) were obtained using each device. The severity of AD was evaluated by the severity scoring of AD (SCORAD), serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) level, serum total immunoglobulin E level, and peripheral eosinophil count...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331830/fetal-development-of-the-poeppig-s-woolly-monkey-lagothrix-poeppigii
#12
Rafael Dos Santos de Andrade, Frederico Ozanan Barros Monteiro, Hani Rocha El Bizri, Wilter Ricardo Russiano Vicente, Diva Anelie de Araujo Guimarães, Pedro Mayor
The intrauterine development is an evolutionary strategy that prepares the neonate for extra-uterine life, thus providing important information on the life history of species. In this study, we described the external and internal morphology of 25 fetuses of Poeppig's woolly monkeys (Lagothrix poeppigii) by taking advantage of a 10-year participatory collection of biological samples originated from animals hunted for subsistence purposes in the Peruvian Amazon. Logistic regressions estimated the probability of occurrence of each external morphological characteristic in relation to the crown-rump length (CRL)...
December 8, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321994/the-effect-of-ethanolic-extract-of-thymus-kotschyanus-on-cancer-cell-growth-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-depression-like-behavior-in-the-mouse
#13
Mohammad-Hossein Doosti, Kazem Ahmadi, Mahdi Fasihi-Ramandi
Cancer and depression are known as two of the most debilitating disease and disorder increasing evidence suggest an urgent need for new therapeutic agents with lower toxicity and high efficacy. Some Thyme species extracts have remarkably been shown to positively affect depression and cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Thymus kotschyanus on depression and cancer cells. To this end, in experiment 1, NMRI mice were treated orally with the ethanolic extract of T. kotschyanus (50, 150 and 250 mg/ml) for seven days and then depression-like behavior was measured by Forced Swim Test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST)...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298829/cellularity-of-thymic-epithelial-cells-in-the-postnatal-mouse
#14
Mie Sakata, Izumi Ohigashi, Yousuke Takahama
The molecular and cellular biology of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) often relies on the analysis of TECs isolated in enzymatically digested single-cell suspensions derived from mouse thymus. Many independent studies have reported that the estimated cellularity of total TECs isolated from one adult mouse is on the order of up to 105 However, these numbers appear extremely small given that the cellularity of total thymocytes exceeds 108 and that TECs play multiple roles in thymocyte development and repertoire formation...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288431/thymus-colonization-who-how-how-many
#15
REVIEW
Andreas Krueger
De novo generation of T cells depends on continual colonization of the thymus by bone marrow-derived progenitors. Thymus seeding progenitors (TSPs) constitute a heterogeneous population comprising multipotent and lineage-restricted cell types. Entry into the thymic microenvironment is tightly controlled and recent quantitative studies have revealed that the adult murine thymus only contains approximately 160 niches to accommodate TSPs. Of these niches only about 6% are open for seeding on average at steady-state...
December 29, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259606/detection-of-quiescent-radioresistant-epithelial-progenitors-in-the-adult-thymus
#16
Maude Dumont-Lagacé, Hervé Gerbe, Tariq Daouda, Jean-Philippe Laverdure, Sylvie Brochu, Sébastien Lemieux, Étienne Gagnon, Claude Perreault
Thymic aging precedes that of other organs and is initiated by the gradual loss of thymic epithelial cells (TECs). Based on in vitro culture and transplantation assays, recent studies have reported on the presence of thymic epithelial progenitor cells (TEPCs) in young adult mice. However, the physiological role and properties of TEPC populations reported to date remain unclear. Using an in vivo label-retention assay, we previously identified a population of quiescent but non-senescent TECs. The goals of this study were therefore (i) to evaluate the contribution of these quiescent TECs to thymic regeneration following irradiation-induced acute thymic injury and (ii) to characterize their phenotypic and molecular profiles using flow cytometry, immunohistology, and transcriptome sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204053/induction-of-precocious-intestinal-maturation-in-t-cell-deficient-athymic-neonatal-rats
#17
Ester Arévalo Sureda, Catherine Gidlund, Björn Weström, Olena Prykhodko
AIM: To investigate whether gut maturation could be induced precociously in an athymic T-cell deficient neonatal rat model. METHODS: Fourteen day-old athymic (nude) rats (NIH-Foxn1rnu) were gavaged with either phytohaemagglutinin - a lectin from red kidney beans (PHA); trypsin - a protease (Prot); or water - vehicle (control) as a single dose on one day or once a day for 3-day. The nude rats were either nurtured by their mothers or cross-fostered by conventional foster dams of the Sprague-Dawley strain from days 3-5 after birth...
November 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203769/three-distinct-developmental-pathways-for-adaptive-and-two-ifn-%C3%AE-producing-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-subsets-in-adult-thymus
#18
Terkild Brink Buus, Niels Ødum, Carsten Geisler, Jens Peter Holst Lauritsen
Murine γδ T cells include subsets that are programmed for distinct effector functions during their development in the thymus. Under pathological conditions, different γδ T cell subsets can be protective or can exacerbate a disease. Here we show that CD117, CD200 and CD371, together with other markers, identify seven developmental stages of γδ T cells. These seven stages can be divided into three distinct developmental pathways that are enriched for different TCRδ repertoires and exhibit characteristic expression patterns associated with adaptive (γδTn), IFN-γ-producing (γδT1) and IFN-γ/IL-4-co-producing γδ T cells (γδNKT)...
December 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197979/genetic-differences-in-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-and-cyp1a2-affect-sensitivity-to-developmental-polychlorinated-biphenyl-exposure-in-mice-relevance-to-studies-of-human-neurological-disorders
#19
Kelsey Klinefelter, Molly Kromme Hooven, Chloe Bates, Breann T Colter, Alexandra Dailey, Smitha Krishnan Infante, Izabela Kania-Korwel, Hans-Joachim Lehmler, Alejandro López-Juárez, Clare Pickering Ludwig, Christine Perdan Curran
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that remain a human health concern with newly discovered sources of contamination and ongoing bioaccumulation and biomagnification. Children exposed during early brain development are at highest risk of neurological deficits, but highly exposed adults reportedly have an increased risk of Parkinson's disease. Our previous studies found allelic differences in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) affect sensitivity to developmental PCB exposure, resulting in cognitive deficits and motor dysfunction...
December 2, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195019/is-immunosuppression-induced-by-neonatal-thymectomy-compatible-with-poor-reproductive-performance-in-adult-male-rats
#20
M M Ommati, N Tanideh, B Rezakhaniha, J Wang, S Sabouri, M Vahedi, B Dormanesh, O Koohi Hosseinabadi, F Rahmanifar, S Moosapour, A Akhlaghi, R Heidari, M J Zamiri
With increasing knowledge that the immune system has a major impact on reproductive ‎health, the potential for cells arising in organs such as the thymus to alleviate oxidative stress ‎has been revealed. This study addresses the impact of neonatal thymectomy on male ‎reproductive function in pubertal and adult animals. Neonatal Sprague Dawley rats were allotted to four treatments consisting of fully thymectomized, partially thymectomized, intact, and sham-operated rats. Half of the rats in each treatment were sacrificed at 40 and the other half at 80 days of age...
January 2018: Andrology
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