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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441047/distribution-of-t-cell-markers-cd4-and-cd8%C3%AE-in-lymphoid-organs-of-healthy-newborn-juvenile-and-adult-highland-plateau-yaks
#1
Qian Zhang, Kun Yang, Yufeng Huang, Junfeng He, Sijiu Yu, Yan Cui
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of T-cell markers (CD4 and CD8α) in lymphoid organs of newborn, juvenile, and adult yaks. ANIMALS: 15 healthy male yaks of various ages from highland plateaus. PROCEDURES: Yaks were allocated to groups on the basis of age (newborn [1 to 7 days old; n = 5], juvenile [5 to 7 months old; 5], and adult [3 to 4 years old; 5]). The thymus, spleen, 5 mesenteric lymph nodes, and 5 hemal nodes were harvested from each yak within 10 minutes after euthanasia...
May 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397358/depletion-resistant-cd4-t-cells-enhance-thymopoiesis-during-lymphopenia
#2
Katayoun Ayasoufi, Ran Fan, Anna Valujskikh
Lymphoablation is routinely used in transplantation, and its success is defined by the balance of pathogenic versus protective T cells within reconstituted repertoire. While homeostatic proliferation and thymopoiesis may both cause T cell recovery during lymphopenia, the relative contributions of these mechanisms remain unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of the thymus during T cell reconstitution in adult allograft recipients subjected to lymphoablative induction therapy. Compared to euthymic mice, thymectomized heart allograft recipients demonstrated severely impaired CD4 and CD8 T cell recovery and prolonged heart allograft survival after lymphoablation with murine anti-thymocyte globulin (mATG)...
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381582/effect-of-temperature-and-food-restriction-on-immune-function-in-striped-hamsters-cricetulus-barabensis
#3
De-Li Xu, Xiao-Kai Hu, Yu-Fen Tian
Small mammals in the temperate area face seasonal fluctuations of temperature and food availability, both of which may influence their immune responses being critical to the survival. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that low temperature and food restriction would suppress immune function in striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis). Thirty-seven adult male hamsters were randomly assigned into the warm (23±1°C) and the cold (5±1°C) groups, which were further divided into the fed and the food restricted groups, respectively...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374149/multiple-origins-of-embryonic-and-tadpole-myeloid-cells-in-xenopus-laevis
#4
Yasutaka Imai, Keisuke Ishida, Maya Nemoto, Keisuke Nakata, Takashi Kato, Mitsugu Maéno
Rabbit anti-serum against a myeloid-cell-specific peroxidase (Mpo) of Xenopus laevis was generated to identify myeloid cells in adult and larval animals. Smears of blood samples from adult hematopoietic organs were co-stained with Mpo and with XL-2, a mouse monoclonal antibody against a leukocyte common antigen. Lymphocytes found in the thymus and spleen were XL-2(+)Mpo(-) and granulocytes found in peripheral blood cells and the spleen were XL-2(+)Mpo(+), indicating that double-staining with these two antibodies allowed classification of the leukocyte lineages...
April 3, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364296/juvenile-onset-myasthenia-gravis-autoantibody-status-clinical-characteristics-and-genetic-polymorphisms
#5
Yu Hong, Geir Olve Skeie, Paraskevi Zisimopoulou, Katerina Karagiorgou, Socrates J Tzartos, Xiang Gao, Yao-Xian Yue, Fredrik Romi, Xu Zhang, Hai-Feng Li, Nils Erik Gilhus
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder mediated by antibodies against proteins at the neuromuscular junction. Juvenile-onset MG (JMG) has been reported to have special characteristics. It is still unclear whether there are any pathogenic and genetic differences between juvenile and adult MG. In this study, we evaluated the clinical characteristics, autoantibody status (antibodies against AChR, MuSK, LRP4, titin and RyR) and genetic susceptibility (CHRNA1, CTLA4 and AIRE) in 114 Chinese JMG patients, and compared with 207 young adult MG patients (onset age 18-40 years)...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347744/the-development-of-cellular-immune-defence-in-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma
#6
Frauke Seemann, Drew Ryan Peterson, Michael Wai Lun Chiang, Doris Wai Ting Au
Environmentally induced alterations of the immune system during sensitive developmental stages may manifest as abnormalities in immune organ configuration and/or immune cell differentiation. These not only render the early life stages more vulnerable to pathogens, but may also affect the adult immune competence. Knowledge of these sensitive periods in fish would provide an important prognostic/diagnostic tool for aquatic risk assessment of immunotoxicants. The marine medaka Oryzias melastigma is an emerging seawater fish model for immunotoxcology...
March 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336912/fgf21-regulates-t-cell-development-in-the-neonatal-and-juvenile-thymus
#7
Yoshiaki Nakayama, Yuki Masuda, Hiroya Ohta, Tomohiro Tanaka, Miwa Washida, Yo-Ichi Nabeshima, Ayumi Miyake, Nobuyuki Itoh, Morichika Konishi
We have previously shown that Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is expressed in the thymus as well as in the liver. In line with this expression profile, Fgf21 was recently reported to protect against ageing-related thymic senescence by improving the function of thymic epithelial cells (TECs). However, the function of Fgf21 in the juvenile thymus remained to be elucidated. We investigated the physiological roles of Fgf21 in the juvenile thymus and found that young Fgf21 knockout mice, but not β-Klotho knockout mice nor adult Fgf21 knockout mice, showed a significant reduction in the percentage of single-positive CD4(+) and CD8(+) thymocytes without obvious alteration in TECs...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321121/dnmt3a-regulates-t-cell-development-and-suppresses-t-all-transformation
#8
A C Kramer, A Kothari, W C Wilson, H Celik, J Nikitas, C Mallaney, E L Ostrander, E Eultgen, A Martens, M C Valentine, A L Young, T E Druley, M E Figueroa, B Zhang, G A Challen
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematopoietic neoplasm resulting from the malignant transformation of T-cell progenitors, and comprises ~15% and 25% of pediatric and adult ALL cases, respectively. It is well-established that activating NOTCH1 mutations are the major genetic lesions driving T-ALL in most patients, but efforts to develop targeted therapies against this pathway have produced limited success in decreasing leukemic burden and come with significant clinical side effects...
April 11, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318017/thymic-crosstalk-restrains-the-pool-of-cortical-thymic-epithelial-cells-with-progenitor-properties
#9
Catarina Meireles, Ana R Ribeiro, Rute D Pinto, Catarina Leitão, Pedro M Rodrigues, Nuno L Alves
Cortical (cTEC) and medullary (mTEC) thymic epithelial cells establish key microenvironments for T-cell differentiation and arise from thymic epithelial cell progenitors (TEP). However, the nature of TEPs and the mechanism controlling their stemness in the postnatal thymus remain poorly defined. Using TEC clonogenic assays as a surrogate to survey TEP activity, we found that a fraction of cTECs generates specialized clonal-derived colonies, which contain cells with sustained colony-forming capacity (ClonoTECs)...
March 20, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259864/-an-attempt-to-identify-22q11-2-microdeletions-in-samples-of-the-hungarian-schizophrenia-dna-bank-by-multiplex-ligation-based-probe-amplification-mlpa-literature-review-methodology-and-results
#10
Izabella Klein, Katalin Szocs, Katalin Vincze, Judit Benkovits, Szilvia Somogyi, Levente Herman, Janos M Rethelyi
Schizophrenia is a severe debilitating psychiatric disorder, with a typical onset in adolescence or early adulthood. This condition is characterized by heterogeneous symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, disorganized behaviour, affective flattening, and social isolation) and a life-time prevalence of 0.5-1.2%. In spite of the efforts to uncover the etiology of the disorder, its pathogenesis and neurobiological background are poorly understood. Given the high heritability in schizophrenia, genetic research remains an important area of focus...
December 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245449/inflammation-and-thymus-ageing
#11
A Lepletier, A Alsharif, Ann P Chidgey
The thymus is primarily responsible for T cell production. However, it begins to recede in size and function, from early in life. This decreased generation of naive T cells during normal thymus ageing, or linked with pathology (i.e. chronic inflammation), leads to reduced T cell specificities, peripheral T cell imbalances, and higher susceptibilities to infections. Various clinical strategies for thymus and T cell recovery have been investigated, although no effective clinical treatments for the reconstitution of peripheral T cell diversity in severe immune deficiencies are available...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196891/insights-into-immune-system-development-and-function-from-mouse-t-cell-repertoires
#12
Zachary Sethna, Yuval Elhanati, Chrissy S Dudgeon, Curtis G Callan, Arnold J Levine, Thierry Mora, Aleksandra M Walczak
The ability of the adaptive immune system to respond to arbitrary pathogens stems from the broad diversity of immune cell surface receptors. This diversity originates in a stochastic DNA editing process (VDJ recombination) that acts on the surface receptor gene each time a new immune cell is created from a stem cell. By analyzing T-cell receptor (TCR) sequence repertoires taken from the blood and thymus of mice of different ages, we quantify the changes in the VDJ recombination process that occur from embryo to young adult...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167605/thymus-derived-treg-cell-development-is-regulated-by-c-type-lectin-mediated-bic-mirna155-expression
#13
Raquel Sánchez-Díaz, Rafael Blanco-Dominguez, Sandra Lasarte, Katerina Tsilingiri, Enrique Martín-Gayo, Beatriz Linillos-Pradillo, Hortensia de la Fuente, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid, Rinako Nakagawa, María L Toribio, Pilar Martín
Thymus-derived regulatory T cells (tTregs) are key to prevent autoimmune diseases but the mechanisms involved in their development remain unsolved. Here, we show that the C-type lectin receptor CD69 controls tTreg cell development and peripheral Treg homeostasis through the regulation of BIC/miR-155 and its target, the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1). Using Foxp3-mRFP/cd69(+/-) or/cd69(-/-) reporter mice, shRNA-mediated silencing and miR-155 transfection approaches, we found that CD69 deficiency impaired the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) pathway in Foxp3(+) cells...
February 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158249/rb-inactivation-in-keratin-18-positive-thymic-epithelial-cells-promotes-non-cell-autonomous-t-cell-hyperproliferation-in-genetically-engineered-mice
#14
Yurong Song, Teresa Sullivan, Kimberly Klarmann, Debra Gilbert, T Norene O'Sullivan, Lucy Lu, Sophie Wang, Diana C Haines, Terry Van Dyke, Jonathan R Keller
Thymic epithelial cells (TEC), as part of thymic stroma, provide essential growth factors/cytokines and self-antigens to support T cell development and selection. Deletion of Rb family proteins in adult thymic stroma leads to T cell hyperplasia in vivo. To determine whether deletion of Rb specifically in keratin (K) 18 positive TEC was sufficient for thymocyte hyperplasia, we conditionally inactivated Rb and its family members p107 and p130 in K18+ TEC in genetically engineered mice (TgK18GT121; K18 mice). We found that thymocyte hyperproliferation was induced in mice with Rb inactivation in K18+ TEC, while normal T cell development was maintained; suggesting that inactivation of Rb specifically in K18+ TEC was sufficient and responsible for the phenotype...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154568/il-7-induced-proliferation-of-human-naive-cd4-t-cells-relies-on-continued-thymic-activity
#15
Susana L Silva, Adriana S Albuquerque, Paula Matoso, Bénédicte Charmeteau-de-Muylder, Rémi Cheynier, Dário Ligeiro, Miguel Abecasis, Rui Anjos, João T Barata, Rui M M Victorino, Ana E Sousa
Naive CD4 T-cell maintenance is critical for immune competence. We investigated here the fine-tuning of homeostatic mechanisms of the naive compartment to counteract the loss of de novo CD4 T-cell generation. Adults thymectomized in early childhood during corrective cardiac surgery were grouped based on presence or absence of thymopoiesis and compared with age-matched controls. We found that the preservation of the CD31(-) subset was independent of the thymus and that its size is tightly controlled by peripheral mechanisms, including prolonged cell survival as attested by Bcl-2 levels...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147469/thymoma-and-synchronous-primary-mediastinal-seminomas-with-florid-follicular-lymphoid-hyperplasia-in-the-anterior-mediastinum-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Hyang-Im Lee, In-Seok Jang, Kyung Nyeo Jeon, Gyung Hyuck Ko, Jong Sil Lee, Dong Chul Kim, Dae Hyun Song, Jeong-Hee Lee
Thymoma is the most common neoplasm of the anterior mediastinum and has malignant potential. Germ cell tumors (GCTs) found in the anterior mediastinum are usually benign, and malignant GCTs, such as seminomas, are rare. Histologically, mediastinal seminoma is indistinguishable from testicular seminoma except for site-associated morphological features such as lymphoid follicular hyperplasia. Therefore, excluding metastasis is very important. Recently, we treated a young adult patient with multiple thymic masses that occurred simultaneously...
March 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106093/insecticidal-toxicities-of-carvacrol-and-thymol-derived-from-thymus-vulgaris-lin-against-pochazia-shantungensis-chou-lu-newly-recorded-pest
#17
Jun-Hwan Park, Ye-Jin Jeon, Chi-Hoon Lee, Namhyun Chung, Hoi-Seon Lee
The insecticidal toxicities of five essential oils against Pochazia shantungensis adults and nymphs, newly recorded pests, were evaluated. The LC50 values of Thymus vulgaris, Ruta graveolens, Citrus aurantium, Leptospermum petersonii and Achillea millefolium oils were recorded as 57.48, 84.44, 92.58, 113.26 and 125.78 mg/L, respectively, against P. shantungensis nymphs using the leaf dipping bioassay, and 75.80, 109.86, 113.26, 145.06 and 153.74 mg/L, respectively, against P. shantungensis adults using the spray bioassay method...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104124/enhancing-survival-of-human-hepatocytes-by-neonatal-thymectomy-and-partial-hepatectomy-in-micro-miniature-pigs
#18
H C Hsu, S Enosawa, T Yamazaki, S Tohyama, J Fujita, K Fukuda, E Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: With the goal of in vivo cultivation of human hepatocytes that have not been sufficient in full differentiation in vitro, the advantage of neonatal thymectomy was verified on expansion of xenogeneic human hepatocyte in the micro-miniature pig (MMP). METHODS: The thymus was excised immediately after the birth of the MMPs via cesarean section. Newborns were fed by artificial feeding under specific pathogen-free conditions. The thymectomized and nonthymectomized littermates were transplanted with human hepatocytes via a portal vein with or without partial hepatectomy at the MMP adult stage...
January 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049431/staphylococcal-enterotoxin-b-administration-in-pregnant-rats-alters-the-splenic-lymphocyte-response-in-adult-offspring-rats
#19
Ping Zhou, Xin-Sheng Zhang, Zhi-Ben Xu, Shu-Xian Gao, Qing-Wei Zheng, Ming-Zhu Xu, Lin Shen, Feng Yu, Jun-Chang Guan
BACKGROUND: Our previous study suggested that SEB exposure in pregnant rats could lead to the change of T cells subpopulation in both peripheral blood and thymus of the offspring rats. However, rarely is known about the influence of SEB exposure in pregnant rats on T cell subpopulation in the spleens of offspring rats. RESULTS: SEB was intravenously administered to the pregnant rats at gestational day 16 in this study. The percentages, in vivo and in vitro responses of CD4 and CD8 T cells were investigated with flow cytometry...
January 3, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026004/ethanol-enhances-thymocyte-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-macrophages-of-rat-thymi
#20
Tsubasa Betsuyaku, Nabil Eid, Yuko Ito, Yoshihisa Tanaka, Yoshinori Otsuki, Yoichi Kondo
Tingible body macrophages (TBMs) play essential roles in the phagocytosis of apoptotic lymphocytes, specifically under exposure to various stressors. Although excessive ethanol consumption may enhance thymocyte apoptosis, reports investigating the autophagic response of the thymus to ethanol toxicity are still lacking. We investigated apoptosis and autophagy in thymi of an animal model of binge ethanol exposure. Adult male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally either with 5 g/kg ethanol or phosphate buffer saline (for the control group) and sacrificed 0, 3, 6 and 24 hours after injection...
December 27, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
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