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Thymus adult

Manisha H Shah, Whitney S Goldner, Thorvardur R Halfdanarson, Emily Bergsland, Jordan D Berlin, Daniel Halperin, Jennifer Chan, Matthew H Kulke, Al B Benson, Lawrence S Blaszkowsky, Jennifer Eads, Paul F Engstrom, Paul Fanta, Thomas Giordano, Jin He, Martin J Heslin, Gregory P Kalemkerian, Fouad Kandeel, Sajid A Khan, Wajih Zaheer Kidwai, Pamela L Kunz, Boris W Kuvshinoff, Christopher Lieu, Venu G Pillarisetty, Leonard Saltz, Julie Ann Sosa, Jonathan R Strosberg, Craig A Sussman, Nikolaos A Trikalinos, Nataliya A Uboha, Jonathan Whisenant, Terence Wong, James C Yao, Jennifer L Burns, Ndiya Ogba, Griselda Zuccarino-Catania
The NCCN Guidelines for Neuroendocrine and Adrenal Tumors provide recommendations for the management of adult patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), adrenal gland tumors, pheochromocytomas, and paragangliomas. Management of NETs relies heavily on the site of the primary NET. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the management options and the 2018 updates to the guidelines for locoregional advanced disease, and/or distant metastasis originating from gastrointestinal tract, bronchopulmonary, and thymus primary NETs...
June 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
S Shibama, T Ugajin, T Yamaguchi, H Yokozeki
BACKGROUND: Bilirubin is an essential antioxidant. Its oxidative metabolites, biopyrrins, are sensitive urinary markers of oxidative stress. Multiple studies suggest that oxidative stress affects the pathogenesis of skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD). AIM: To examine oxidative stress-induced bilirubin oxidation and its association with AD pathogenesis in adults. METHODS: In total, 11 patients with AD and 7 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled...
June 4, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Sara Montero-Herradón, Javier García-Ceca, Agustín G Zapata
In the present study, the relevance of EphB2 and EphB3 tyrosine kinase receptors for the maturation of medullary thymic epithelial cells (TECs) is analyzed. The absence of both molecules, but particularly that of EphB2, courses with altered maturation of medullary Cld3,4hi SSEA1+ epithelial progenitor cells, mature medulla epithelial cells, defined by the expression of specific cell markers, including UEA1, MHCII, CD40, CD80, and AIRE, and reduced expansion of medullary islets. In vivo assays demonstrate that these changes are a consequence of the absence of EphBs in both TECs and thymocytes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mia Hamilton Jee, Jeanne Duus Johansen, Terkild Brink Buus, Trine Hilkjær Petersen, Anne-Sofie Østergaard Gadsbøll, Anders Woetmann, Niels Ødum, Jacob Pontoppidan Thyssen, Andrea Jane White, Graham Anderson, Carsten Geisler, Charlotte Menné Bonefeld
Mutations in the filaggrin gene ( Flg ) are associated with increased systemic levels of Th17 cells and increased IL-17A production following antigen exposure in both humans and mice. In addition to Th17 cells, γδ T cells can produce IL-17A. The differentiation of γδ T cells to either IFNγ or IL-17A-producing (γδT17) cells is mainly determined in the thymus. Interestingly, it has been reported that filaggrin is expressed in the Hassall bodies in the human thymic medulla. However, whether filaggrin affects γδ T cell development is not known...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Leah M Thornton, Elise M Path, Gunnar S Nystrom, Barney J Venables, Marlo K Sellin Jeffries
Exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been shown to alter immune function in adult organisms across a variety of taxa. However, few if any studies have investigated the long-term consequences of early life stage PBDE exposures on immune function in fish. This study sought to determine the effects of early life stage BDE-47 exposure on pathogen resistance in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) following an extended depuration period (≥180 d). Minnows were exposed to BDE-47 via a combination of maternal transfer and diet through 34 days post fertilization (dpf), raised to adulthood (>215 dpf) on a clean diet, then subjected to pathogen resistance trials...
May 30, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Rhys Jones, Emilie J Cosway, Claire Willis, Andrea J White, William E Jenkinson, Hans J Fehling, Graham Anderson, David R Withers
Members of the innate lymphoid cell (ILC) family have been implicated in the development of thymic microenvironments and the recovery of this architecture after damage. However, a detailed characterisation of this family in the thymus is lacking. To better understand the thymic ILC compartment, we have utilised multiple in vivo models including the fate mapping of Id2 expression and the use of Id2 reporter mice. Our data demonstrate that ILCs are more prominent immediately after birth, but were rapidly diluted as the T cell development programme increased...
May 31, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Nan Jiang, Yuding Fan, Yong Zhou, Wenzhi Liu, Jacques Robert, Lingbing Zeng
Rag1 and rag2 are two closely linked recombination activating genes required for V(D)J recombination of antigen receptors in immature lymphocytes, whose expression can serve as marker to identify the lymphopoietic tissues. To study the development of lymphopoietic tissues in Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus), the Chinese giant salamander rag1 and rag2 coding sequences were cloned and determined. High transcript levels of rag1 and rag2 were co-detected in the thymus before 14 months of age, whereas levels were lower in spleen, liver and kidney at all stage of development...
May 22, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Seerat Elahi, Shawn M Egan, G Aaron Holling, Rachel L Kandefer, Michael J Nemeth, Scott H Olejniczak
Recent biochemical characterization of Arsenic resistance protein 2 (Ars2) has established it as central to determining the fate of nascent RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcripts. Through interactions with the nuclear 5'-7-methylguanosine (7mG) cap binding complex (CBC), Ars2 promotes co-transcriptional processing coupled with nuclear export or degradation of several classes of RNAPII transcripts, allowing for gene expression programs that facilitate rapid and sustained proliferation of immortalized cells in culture...
May 15, 2018: Experimental Hematology
Stefan P Tarnawsky, Wen-Mei Yu, Cheng-Kui Qu, Rebecca J Chan, Mervin C Yoder
Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML) is a pediatric myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) that has a poor prognosis. Somatic mutations in Ptpn11 are the most frequent cause of JMML and they commonly occur in utero . Animal models of mutant Ptpn11 have probed the signaling pathways that contribute to JMML. However, existing models may inappropriately exacerbate MPN features by relying on non-hematopoietic-restricted Cre-loxP strains or transplantations into irradiated recipients. In this study we generate hematopoietic-restricted models of Ptpn11E76K-mediated disease using Csf1r-MCM and Flt3Cre...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
Romy E Hoeppli, Katherine N MacDonald, Pascal Leclair, Vivian C W Fung, Majid Mojibian, Jana Gillies, Seyed M R Rahavi, Andrew I M Campbell, Sanjiv K Gandhi, Anne M Pesenacker, Gregor Reid, Chinten J Lim, Megan K Levings
Cell-based therapy with CD4+ FOXP3+ Regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a promising strategy to limit organ rejection and graft-versus-host disease. Ongoing clinical applications have yet to consider how human Tregs could be modified to direct their migration to specific inflammation sites and/or tissues for more targeted immunosuppression. We show here that stable, homing-receptor-tailored human Tregs can be generated from thymic Tregs isolated from pediatric thymus or adult blood. To direct migration to Th1-inflammatory sites, addition of IFN-γ and IL-12 during Treg expansion produced suppressive, epigenetically-stable CXCR3+ TBET+ FOXP3+ Th1-Tregs...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Yao-Tseng Chen, Zhengming Chen, Yi-Chieh Nancy Du
Expression of Receptor for Hyaluronic Acid Mediated Motility (RHAMM) increases cellular motility and RHAMM overexpression promotes invasive phenotype and metastasis of cancer cells. RHAMM has been suggested as a biomarker for poor prognosis in several tumor types, including lung, breast, colorectal, gastric, pancreatic ductal, and ovarian cancers. RNA studies showed restricted RHAMM expression in normal tissues, but its protein expression data in tissues were limited. In light of its potential as a prognostic marker and a therapeutic target, we performed immunohistochemical analysis to systematically characterize RHAMM expression in normal and neoplastic human tissues...
April 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Kyung Mi Jo, Hyo Kyung Lim, Jae Woong Sull, Eugene Choi, Ji-Sook Lee, Mee Ae Cheong, Min Hwa Hong, Yoori Kim, In Sik Kim
Background: The pathogenesis of asthma, which is an allergic lung disease, is associated with a variety of allergens such as house dust mite, pollen, and mould, IgE containing serum IgE and allergen-specific-IgE, and inflammatory cytokines including thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)/CCL17. Because aging is an essential factor in the pathogenesis of asthma, we examined biomarkers related to asthmatic subjects depending on age. Results: Physiological indices such as FEV1(forced expiratory capacity in 1 s), FEV1 (% predicted), and FEV1/FVC(forced vital capacity) (%) in asthmatic subjects were lower than those in normal subjects...
2018: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
Işıl Aydemir, Şadiye Kum, Mehmet İbrahim Tuğlu
Bisphenol A is called as a endocrine-distrupting chemical because of the its steroid-like activity and it used in the construction of plastic containing materials. It is indicated that bisphenol A can pass the human serum, urine, follicular fluid, placenta and umblical cord as a result of the use of substances containing this agent. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of bisphenol A on the development of the thymus, a primary lymphoid organ which plays an important role in the specific immunity...
April 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Athanassios Giatropoulos, Athanasios Kimbaris, Αntonios Michaelakis, Dimitrios P Papachristos, Moschos G Polissiou, Nickolaos Emmanouel
In the current laboratory study, 14 essential oils (EOs) derived from 12 Lamiaceae plant species and their major components were screened for their larvicidal and repellent properties against Aedes albopictus, an invasive mosquito species of great medical importance. The results of toxicity bioassays revealed that the EOs from Thymus vulgaris, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum dictamnus, Origanum majorana, and Origanum vulgare, as well as their major components (terpenes), namely thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, and γ-terpinene exerted the highest larvicidal effect...
May 1, 2018: Parasitology Research
Teresita L Arenzana, Steve Lianoglou, Akiko Seki, Celine Eidenschenk, Tommy Cheung, Dhaya Seshasayee, Thijs Hagenbeek, Arivazhagan Sambandam, Rajkumar Noubade, Ivan Peng, Justin Lesch, Jason DeVoss, Xiumin Wu, Wyne P Lee, Patrick Caplazi, Joshua Webster, Jinfeng Liu, Victoria C Pham, David Arnott, Jennie R Lill, Zora Modrusan, Anwesha Dey, Sascha Rutz
Loss of function of the nuclear deubiquitinating enzyme BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) is associated with a wide spectrum of cancers. We report that tamoxifen-induced BAP1 deletion in adult mice resulted in severe thymic atrophy. BAP1 was critical for T cell development at several stages. In the thymus, BAP1 was required for progression through the pre-T cell receptor checkpoint. Peripheral T cells lacking BAP1 demonstrated a defect in homeostatic and antigen-driven expansion. Deletion of BAP1 resulted in suppression of E2F target genes and defects in cell cycle progression, which was dependent on the catalytic activity of BAP1, but did not require its interaction with host cell factor-1 (HCF-1)...
April 20, 2018: Science Immunology
Clara Batista Lorigados, Suely K Kubo Ariga, Thais Martins de Lima, Denise Frediane Barbeiro, Jose Eduardo Krieger, Francisco Garcia Soriano
Sepsis is a dynamic disease, displaying an inflammatory profile that varies over time and for each organ. Controlling the inflammatory response based in targeting a single molecule has been proved useless. We hypothesized that treatment with bone marrow derived mononuclear cells (BMDMC) may be more efficient to modulate the systemic inflammatory response to infection. Adult male Balb/c mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or endotoxemia model of experimental sepsis. BMDMC were separated under Ficoll gradient and injected intravenously 1 hour after the procedures...
April 4, 2018: Shock
Jun Young Lee, Juhee Kim, Jaeu Yi, Daeun Kim, Hee-Ok Kim, Daehee Han, Jonathan Sprent, You Jeong Lee, Charles D Surh, Jae-Ho Cho
A relatively high affinity/avidity of T cell receptor (TCR) recognition for self-peptide bound to major histocompatibility complex II (self-pMHC) ligands is a distinctive feature of CD4 T regulatory (Treg) cells, including their development in the thymus and maintenance of their suppressive functions in the periphery. Despite such high self-reactivity, however, all thymic-derived peripheral Treg populations are neither homogenous in their phenotype nor uniformly immune-suppressive in their function under steady state condition...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Kenneth W Fishbein, Sokratis K Makrogiannis, Vanessa A Lukas, Marilyn Okine, Ramona Ramachandran, Luigi Ferrucci, Josephine M Egan, Chee W Chia, Richard G Spencer
PURPOSE: To develop a protocol to non-invasively measure and map fat fraction, fat/(fat+water), as a function of age in the adult thymus for future studies monitoring the effects of interventions aimed at promoting thymic rejuvenation and preservation of immunity in older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo 3T MRI with 3-point Dixon fat-water separation was performed at full inspiration for thymus conspicuity in 36 volunteers 19 to 56 years old...
July 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Yasunori Ohga, Bolortuya Bayaraa, Shinichi Imafuku
BACKGROUND: Although there are several diseases that cause erythroderma, patients are often encountered with erythroderma of unknown cause which persists for a long time. The aim of this study was to characterize this chronic idiopathic erythroderma (CIE). METHODS: Adult patients with CIE, atopic dermatitis (AD), psoriatic erythroderma (PsE), or generalized drug eruption (DE), who visited Fukuoka University Hospital Dermatology Department from 2010 to 2015, were enrolled...
June 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Elfi Vergaelen, Carmen Schiweck, Kristof Van Steeland, Jacqueline Counotte, Wim Veling, Ann Swillen, Hemmo Drexhage, Stephan Claes
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence supports a role for immune alterations in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD). A high prevalence (25-40%) of SSD has been found in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), which is known for T-cell deficits due to thymus hypoplasia. This study is the first to explore the association between the T-cell subsets and psychotic symptoms in adults with 22q11.2DS. METHODS: 34 individuals (aged 19-38 yrs.) with 22q11...
May 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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