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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904020/is-the-ultimobranchial-body-a-reality-or-myth-a-study-using-serial-sections-of-human-embryos
#1
Yohei Honkura, Masahito Yamamoto, Toshihito Yoshimoto, Jose Francisco Rodriguez-Vazquez, Gen Murakami, Yukio Katori, Shin-Ichi Abe
Reported morphologies of the ultimobranchial body had varied between researchers: a cluster of mitotic cells, a duct-like structure and a rosette-like cell mass. To clarify the true morphology, we studied tilted horizontal sections of 20 human embryos (crown-rump length 5-18 mm; 4-6 weeks). The sections displayed a ladder-like arrangement of the second to fourth endodermal pouches and, in 5 early embryos we found the fifth pouch attached to the fifth ectodermal groove near the fourth pharyngeal arch artery...
2016: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897453/clinical-usefulness-of-simultaneous-measurement-of-the-tear-levels-of-ccl17-ccl24-and-il-16-for-the-biomarkers-of-allergic-conjunctival-disorders
#2
Jun Shoji, Hiroshi Aso, Noriko Inada
PURPOSE: This study investigated the clinical usefulness of a multiple tear cytokine/chemokine test by simultaneously determining tear levels of CC chemokine ligand 17 (CCL17)/thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), CCL24/eotaxin-2, and interleukin-16 (IL-16) for assessing acute and chronic allergic inflammation in allergic conjunctival disorders (ACDs). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study included 37 patients with ACD and 11 healthy adults (controls). Patients with ACDs were divided into the following three groups; patients with allergic conjunctivitis (AC group, n = 17), patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC group, n = 6), and patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC group, n = 14)...
November 29, 2016: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884624/serum-il-21-levels-are-elevated-in-atopic-dermatitis-patients-with-acute-skin-lesions
#3
Hiromi Mizutani, Risa Tamagawa-Mineoka, Naomi Nakamura, Koji Masuda, Norito Katoh
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-21 is a member of the type I cytokine family and plays a role in the pathogenesis of T helper type 2 allergic diseases. It has been reported that IL-21 expression is upregulated in acute skin lesions in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients; however, little is known about the serum IL-21 levels of AD patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the serum IL-21 levels of AD patients and to evaluate the relationships between the serum IL-21 level and disease severity, laboratory markers, and eruption type in AD patients...
November 21, 2016: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866302/expression-analysis-of-dickkopf-related-protein-3-dkk3-suggests-its-pleiotropic-roles-for-a-secretory-glycoprotein-in-adult-mouse
#4
Junji Inoue, Hirofumi Fujita, Tetsuya Bando, Yoichi Kondo, Hiromi Kumon, Hideyo Ohuchi
Dickkopf-related protein 3 (Dkk3) is the third member of the Dkk gene family and identical to the gene, whose expression was reduced in immortalized cells. Therefore, its another name is reduced expression in immortalized cells. Since the intratumoral introduction of Dkk3 inhibits tumor growth in mouse models of cancers, Dkk3 is likely a tumor suppressor gene. However, the functions of Dkk3 in vivo remain unclear. As the first step to decipher the physiological roles of this gene, we examined the expression pattern of Dkk3 in various tissues from adult mice...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861793/a-novel-foxn1-egfp-mouse-model-identifies-bmp4-induced-maintenance-of-foxn1-expression-and-thymic-epithelial-progenitor-populations
#5
Marco Barsanti, Joanna M C Lim, Michael L Hun, Natalie Lister, Kahlia Wong, Maree V Hammett, Ailin Lepletier, Richard L Boyd, Antonietta Giudice, Ann P Chidgey
Although forkhead-box n1 (Foxn1) is a critical thymic epithelial cell regulator in thymus organogenesis, its association with epithelial differentiation and homeostasis in the postnatal and aged thymic microenvironment remains conflicting. Consequently, we have generated a Foxn1(eGFP/+) knock-in mouse model that allows for refined investigation of the aging thymic epithelium. This reporter line differs from those previously published in that concomitant expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein enables live cell sorting of Foxn1(+) cell populations...
November 10, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817026/the-inhibition-of-dopamine-synthesis-in-fetuses-changes-the-pattern-of-t-lymphocyte-maturation-in-the-thymus-of-adult-rats
#6
N V Lifantseva, Ts O Koneeva, S N Voronova, L A Zakharova, V I Melnikova
The mRNA for dopamine receptors of type D1, D3, D5, but not type D2, was detected in the thymus of rats starting from day 16 of embryonic development (E16). Dopamine at concentrations of 10(-8)-10(‒6) M inhibited fetus thymocyte response to mitogen, confirming the functionality of the receptors and the possibility of a direct effect of dopamine on the developing thymus. Pharmacological inhibition of catecholamine synthesis in the crucial period of thymus development leads to long-term changes in the T-system immunity due to increased production of natural regulatory T-lymphocytes...
September 2016: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809973/essential-oils-and-beauveria-bassiana-against-dermanyssus-gallinae-acari-dermanyssidae-towards-new-natural-acaricides
#7
Davide Immediato, Luciana Aguiar Figueredo, Roberta Iatta, Antonio Camarda, Rafaela Lira Nogueira de Luna, Annunziata Giangaspero, Sinval Pinto Brandão-Filho, Domenico Otranto, Claudia Cafarchia
Essential oils (EOs) and entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana (Bb) strains have the potential to be used as alternative insecticides and acaricides for controlling ectoparasites as Dermanyssus gallinae. These compounds have some limitations in their use: the acaricidal effect of EOs is rapid, but short-lived, whilst that of Bb is delayed, but long-lived. To evaluate the effect of both compounds combined against D. gallinae, the non-toxic dose of Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus citriodora, Thymus vulgaris and Eugenia caryophyllata essential oils were firstly calculated for "native" strains of Bb...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801552/th17-responses-to-col-v-k%C3%AE-1-tubulin-and-vimentin-are-present-early-in-human-development-and-persist-lifelong
#8
Jeremy A Sullivan, Ewa Jankowska-Gan, Subramanya Hegde, Matthew A Pestrak, Vrushali V Agashe, Arick C Park, Matthew E Brown, John F Kernien, David S Wilkes, Dixon B Kaufman, Daniel S Greenspan, William J Burlingham
Th17-dependent autoimmune responses can develop after heart or lung transplantation, and are associated with fibro-obliterative forms of chronic rejection. However, the specific self-antigens involved are typically different from those associated with autoimmune disease. To investigate the basis of these responses, we questioned whether removal of Tregs or blockade of function reveals a similar auto-antigen bias. We found that Th17 cells specific for collagen type V (Col V), kα-1-tubulin, and vimentin were present in healthy, adult PBMC, cord blood, and fetal thymus...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782845/chemical-composition-anthelmintic-antibacterial-and-antioxidant-effects-of-thymus-bovei-essential-oil
#9
Nidal Jaradat, Lina Adwan, Shadi K'aibni, Naser Shraim, Abdel Naser Zaid
BACKGROUND: It has been recently recognized that oxidative stress, helminth and microbial infections are the cause of much illness found in the underdeveloped, developing and developed countries. The present study was undertaken to identify the chemical composition, and to assess anthelmintic, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of Thymus bovei essential oil. METHODS: The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
October 26, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760021/feeding-pregnant-and-lactating-mice-rhodiola-kirilowii-extracts-helps-to-preserve-thymus-function-of-their-adult-progeny
#10
K Bień, S Lewicki, R Zdanowski, E Skopinska-Różewska, M Krzyżowska
Plants belonging to Rhodiola kirilowii species, members of Rhodiola genus and Crassulaceae family, grow wildly in Tibet, Mongolia and China mountains and are traditionally used as adaptogens, antidepressants and anti-inflammatory remedies. Nowadays, R. kirilowii is cultivated in some countries, also in Poland. In our previous papers we reported immuno- and angio-modulatory effects of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of radix and rhizome of this plant in non-pregnant and pregnant mice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of feeding pregnant and further lactating mice these extracts on selected thymus function parameters in adult progeny...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723771/effects-of-early-life-stress-on-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-developing-hippocampus-of-male-and-female-rats
#11
Nienke A V Derks, Harm J Krugers, Casper C Hoogenraad, Marian Joëls, R Angela Sarabdjitsingh
INTRODUCTION: Early life stress (ELS) increases the risk for developing psychopathology in adulthood. When these effects occur is largely unknown. We here studied at which time during development ELS affects hippocampal synaptic plasticity, from early life to adulthood, in a rodent ELS model. Moreover, we investigated whether the sensitivity of synaptic plasticity to the stress-hormone corticosterone is altered by exposure to ELS. MATERIALS & METHODS: Male and female Wistar rats were exposed to maternal deprivation (MD) for 24h on postnatal day (P)3 or left undisturbed with their mother (control)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705793/a-thymic-epithelial-stem-cell-pool-persists-throughout-ontogeny-and-is-modulated-by-tgf-%C3%AE
#12
Olga Ucar, Kaiyong Li, Dmytro Dvornikov, Clemens Kreutz, Jens Timmer, Sonja Matt, Lukas Brenner, Catherine Smedley, Mark A Travis, Thomas G Hofmann, Ursula Klingmüller, Bruno Kyewski
Adult tissue-specific stem cells (SCs) mediate tissue homeostasis and regeneration and can give rise to all lineages in the corresponding tissue, similar to the early progenitors that generate organs in the first place. However, the developmental origins of adult SCs are largely unknown. We recently identified thymosphere-forming stem cells (TSFCs) in the adult mouse thymus, which display genuine stemness features and can generate the two major thymic epithelial cell lineages. Here, we show that embryonic TSFCs possess stemness features but differ from adult TSFCs in surface marker profile...
October 4, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705080/generation-of-pax1-pax1-specific-monoclonal-antibodies
#13
Regina Feederle, Josef-Karl Gerber, Amy Middleton, Emily Northrup, Ralf Kist, Elisabeth Kremmer, Heiko Peters
Pax genes encode an evolutionary conserved group of transcription factors with multiple roles during embryonic development and for cell type specification in normal and malignant tissues of the adult organism. In mice, Pax1 is required for the formation of specific skeletal structures as well as for the development of a fully functional thymus. In humans, the PAX1 locus has been linked to otofaciocervical syndrome, idiopathic scoliosis, and to a higher susceptibility for androgenic alopecia. In addition, the methylation status of PAX1 has recently emerged as a sensitive marker for predictive screening of cervical cancer...
October 5, 2016: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692335/thymus-vulgaris-l-essential-oil-and-its-main-component-thymol-anthelmintic-effects-against-haemonchus-contortus-from-sheep
#14
Luis E Ferreira, Bruno I Benincasa, Ana L Fachin, Suzelei C França, Silvia S H T Contini, Ana C S Chagas, Rene O Beleboni
Haemonchus contortus is an important gastrointestinal parasite on sheep farms in tropical regions. The resistance of the parasite against most anthelmintic drugs represents a great economic problem to sheep farming and is a major challenge that needs to be overcome. The searches for new anthelmintic agents that act on different stages of the parasite's life cycle are necessary for the development of new therapeutic options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil against H...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685623/kinase-independent-function-of-rip1-critical-for-mature-t-cell-survival-and-proliferation
#15
John P Dowling, Yubo Cai, John Bertin, Peter J Gough, Jianke Zhang
The death receptor, Fas, triggers apoptotic death and is essential for maintaining homeostasis in the peripheral lymphoid organs. RIP1 was originally cloned when searching for Fas-binding proteins and was later shown to associate also with the signaling complex of TNFR1. Although Fas exclusively induces apoptosis, TNFR1 primarily activates the pro-survival/pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway. Mutations in Fas lead to lymphoproliferative (lpr) diseases, and deletion of TNFR1 results in defective innate immune responses...
September 29, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650194/abnormalities-in-chemokine-levels-in-schizophrenia-and-their-clinical-correlates
#16
Suzi Hong, Ellen E Lee, Averria Sirkin Martin, Benchawanna Soontornniyomkij, Virawudh Soontornniyomkij, Cristian L Achim, Chase Reuter, Michael R Irwin, Lisa T Eyler, Dilip V Jeste
Chemokines are promising biomarkers of immune activation and inflammation, but evidence for chemokine abnormalities in schizophrenia and their relationship to clinical factors remains inconclusive. We aimed to understand chemokine-related diagnostic differences and clinical correlates using a comprehensive panel and studying a large, well-characterized sample of adults with and without schizophrenia. We studied 134 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 112 healthy comparison (HC) individuals, 26 to 65years of age...
September 17, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633679/morphological-and-functional-development-of-the-interbranchial-lymphoid-tissue-ilt-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l
#17
Alf Seljenes Dalum, David James Griffiths, Elin Christine Valen, Karoline Skaar Amthor, Lars Austbø, Erling Olaf Koppang, Charles McLean Press, Agnar Kvellestad
The interbranchial lymphoid tissue (ILT) of Atlantic salmon originates from an embryological location that in higher vertebrates gives rise to both primary and secondary lymphoid tissues. Still much is unknown about the morphological and functional development of the ILT. In the present work a standardized method of organ volume determination was established to study its development in relation to its containing gill and the thymus. Based on morphological findings and gene transcription data, the ILT shows no signs of primary lymphoid function...
September 12, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621898/giant-thymoma-successfully-resected-via-hemiclamshell-thoracotomy-a-case-report
#18
Weigang Zhao, Wentao Fang
Thymoma is an epithelial neoplasm of the thymus. It commonly lies in the anterior mediastinum and represents 20-30% of mediastinal tumours in adults. In this report we present a case of giant thymoma locating in the anterior-inferior mediastinum. A 46-year-old male came to our institute with slight pectoralgia and dyspnea. Chest CT shows a giant tumor measuring 19 cm × 16 cm × 15 cm in the left thoracic cavity. After careful examination, we performed surgery. At surgery, we found the tumor was adherent to left upper lobe of the lung, mediastinal pleura, and parietal pleural...
August 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619517/an-intracellular-adrenomedullin-system-reduces-il-6-release-via-a-nf-kb-mediated-camp-independent-transcriptional-mechanism-in-rat-thymic-epithelial-cells
#19
Giulia Castellani, Giovanna Paliuri, Genny Orso, Nicola Paccagnella, Claudio D'Amore, Laura Facci, Francesca Cima, Federico Caicci, Pietro Palatini, Sergio Bova, Sara De Martin
Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) play a key role in the regulation of central immune tolerance by expressing autoantigens and eliminating self-reactive T cells. In a previous paper we reported that adrenomedullin (ADM) and its co-receptor protein RAMP2 are located intracellularly in newborn human thymic epithelial cells (TECs). This work has two main aims: (1) to examine the cellular localization of ADM and its receptor in TECs of adult Wistar rats to validate this animal model for the study of the ADM system and its function(s) in thymus; (2) to investigate the potential modulating effect of ADM on the NF-kB pathway, which is involved through the production of cytokines such as IL-6, in the maturation of T-lymphocytes and immunological tolerance...
December 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603335/occasional-detection-of-thymic-epithelial-tumor-4-years-after-diagnosis-of-adult-onset-still-disease-a-challenging-case-report-and-immuno-oncological-considerations-coming-from-pertinent-literature-review
#20
Filippo Lococo, Gianluigi Bajocchi, Andrea Caruso, Riccardo Valli, Tommaso Ricchetti, Giorgio Sgarbi, Carlo Salvarani
BACKGROUND: Thymoma is a T cell neoplasm arising from the thymic epithelium that due to its immunological role, frequently undercover derangements of immunity such a tumors and autoimmune diseases. METHODS: Herein, we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first description of an association between thymoma and adult onset Still disease (AOSD) in a 47-year-old man. The first one was occasionally detected 4 years later the diagnosis of AOSD, and surgically removed via right lateral thoracotomy...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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