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Mast cell asthma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102118/myeloid-cells-in-asthma
#1
Bart N Lambrecht, Emma K Persson, Hamida Hammad
Asthma is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, and not surprisingly, many myeloid cells play a crucial role in pathogenesis. Antigen-presenting dendritic cells are the first to recognize the allergens, pollutants, and viruses that are implicated in asthma pathogenesis, and subsequently initiate the adaptive immune response by migrating to lymph nodes. Eosinophils are the hallmark of type 2 inflammation, releasing toxic compounds in the airways and contributing to airway remodeling. Mast cells and basophils control both the early- and late-phase allergic response and contribute to alterations in smooth muscle reactivity...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101683/allergy-histamine-and-antihistamines
#2
Martin K Church
This chapter concentrates on the role in allergic disease of histamine acting on H1-receptors. It is clear that allergy has its roots in the primary parasite rejection response in which mast cell-derived histamine creates an immediate hostile environment and eosinophils are recruited for killing. This pattern is seen in allergic rhinitis where the early events of mucus production and nasal itching are primarily histamine mediated whereas nasal blockage is secondary to eosinophil infiltration and activation...
January 19, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097237/oxidized-camkii-promotes-asthma-through-the-activation-of-mast-cells
#3
Jingjing Qu, Danh C Do, Yufeng Zhou, Elizabeth Luczak, Wayne Mitzner, Mark E Anderson, Peisong Gao
Oxidation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (ox-CaMKII) by ROS has been associated with asthma. However, the contribution of ox-CaMKII to the development of asthma remains to be fully characterized. Here, we tested the effect of ox-CaMKII on IgE-mediated mast cell activation in an allergen-induced mouse model of asthma using oxidant-resistant CaMKII MMVVδ knockin (MMVVδ) mice. Compared with WT mice, the allergen-challenged MMVVδ mice displayed less airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation...
January 12, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064485/astragalin-inhibits-allergic-inflammation-and-airway-thickening-in-ovalbumin-challenged-mice
#4
Yun-Ho Kim, Yean-Jung Choi, Min-Kyung Kang, Sin-Hye Park, Lucia Dwi Antika, Eun-Jung Lee, Dong Yeon Kim, Young-Hee Kang
Lung inflammation and oxidative stress are the major contributors to the development of obstructive pulmonary diseases. Macrophages are involved in pulmonary inflammation and alveolar damage in emphysema. Astragalin is an anti-inflammatory flavonoid present in persimmon leaves and green tea seeds. This study elucidated that astragalin inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration induced by 20 μM H2O2 and blocked airway thickening and alveolar emphysema induced by 20 μg of ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. OVA induced mouse pulmonary MCP-1, and H2O2 enhanced the expression of MCP-1/ICAM-1/αv integrin in bronchial airway epithelial BEAS-2B cells...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049206/novel-mechanisms-underlying-the-therapeutic-effect-of-glycomacropeptide-on-allergy-change-in-gut-microbiota-upregulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-and-inhibition-of-mast-cells
#5
Mariela Jiménez, Daniel Cervantes-García, Yualli Haydee Muñoz, Alejandra García, Luis Miguel Haro, Eva Salinas
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of allergic diseases is globally increasing. We have previously described that glycomacropeptide (GMP), a bioactive milk peptide, has therapeutic value in experimental models of skin hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis, and asthma, as it prevents an excessive T helper type 2 cell immune response. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of GMP on key elements directly involved in the development or control of allergy, in order to improve the precise knowledge about its mechanism of action...
2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045928/altered-epithelial-gene-expression-in-peripheral-airways-of-severe-asthma
#6
Akul Singhania, Hitasha Rupani, Nivenka Jayasekera, Simon Lumb, Paul Hales, Neil Gozzard, Donna E Davies, Christopher H Woelk, Peter H Howarth
Management of severe asthma remains a challenge despite treatment with glucocorticosteroid therapy. The majority of studies investigating disease mechanisms in treatment-resistant severe asthma have previously focused on the large central airways, with very few utilizing transcriptomic approaches. The small peripheral airways, which comprise the majority of the airway surface area, remain an unexplored area in severe asthma and were targeted for global epithelial gene expression profiling in this study. Differences between central and peripheral airways were evaluated using transcriptomic analysis (Affymetrix HG U133 plus 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008678/mast-cells-are-permissive-for-rhinovirus-replication-potential-implications-for-asthma-exacerbations
#7
Charlene Akoto, Donna E Davies, Emily J Swindle
BACKGROUND: Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are a major trigger of asthma exacerbations, with the bronchial epithelium being the major site of HRV infection and replication. Mast cells (MCs) play a key role in asthma where their numbers are increased in the bronchial epithelium with increasing disease severity. OBJECTIVE: In view of the emerging role of MCs in innate immunity and increased localisation to the asthmatic bronchial epithelium, we investigated whether HRV infection of MCs generated innate immune responses which were protective against infection...
December 23, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982737/il-37-a-new-il-1-family-member-emerges-as-a-key-suppressor-of-asthma-mediated-by-mast-cells
#8
P Conti, G Ronconi, A Caraffa, G Lessiani, Kempuraj Duraisamy
: In 1986, we reported a multiple biological effect of IL-1 including immunological, inflammatory, and tumor killing activity. Since then other IL-1 family cytokines have been discovered, some with inflammatory and other with anti-inflammatory activity. In this review article, we speculate on the possible inhibitory effect of IL-37 in the light of new findings. IL-37, formerly termed IL-1 family member 7 (IL-1F7), binding IL-18 receptor α chain, acts as a cytokine with intracellular as well as extracellular functionality and as a natural inhibitor of immune responses and inflammation...
December 16, 2016: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982078/a-tnfrsf14-fc%C3%A9-ri-mast-cell-pathway-contributes-to-development-of-multiple-features-of-asthma-pathology-in-mice
#9
Riccardo Sibilano, Nicolas Gaudenzio, Marianne K DeGorter, Laurent L Reber, Joseph D Hernandez, Philipp M Starkl, Oliwia W Zurek, Mindy Tsai, Sonja Zahner, Stephen B Montgomery, Axel Roers, Mitchell Kronenberg, Mang Yu, Stephen J Galli
Asthma has multiple features, including airway hyperreactivity, inflammation and remodelling. The TNF superfamily member TNFSF14 (LIGHT), via interactions with the receptor TNFRSF14 (HVEM), can support TH2 cell generation and longevity and promote airway remodelling in mouse models of asthma, but the mechanisms by which TNFSF14 functions in this setting are incompletely understood. Here we find that mouse and human mast cells (MCs) express TNFRSF14 and that TNFSF14:TNFRSF14 interactions can enhance IgE-mediated MC signalling and mediator production...
December 16, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967204/mmp-1-activation-contributes-to-airway-smooth-muscle-growth-and-asthma-severity
#10
Shams-Un-Nisa Naveed, Debbie Clements, David J Jackson, Christopher Philp, Charlotte K Billington, Irshad Soomro, Catherine Reynolds, Timothy W Harrison, Sebastian L Johnston, Dominick E Shaw, Simon R Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Matrix metalloproteinase-1 and mast cells are present in the airways of people with asthma. We hypothesised that matrix metalloproteinase-1 could be activated by mast cells and increase asthma severity. METHODS: Patients with stable asthma and healthy controls underwent spirometry, methacholine challenge, bronchoscopy and their airway smooth muscle cells were grown in culture. A second asthma group and controls had symptom scores, spirometry and bronchoalveolar lavage before and after rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942351/therapeutic-interventions-in-severe-asthma
#11
REVIEW
Giorgio Walter Canonica, Gianenrico Senna, Patrick D Mitchell, Paul M O'Byrne, Giovanni Passalacqua, Gilda Varricchi
The present paper addresses severe asthma which is limited to 5-10% of the overall population of asthmatics. However, it accounts for 50% or more of socials costs of the disease, as it is responsible for hospitalizations and Emergency Department accesses as well as expensive treatments. The recent identification of different endotypes of asthma, based on the inflammatory pattern, has led to the development of tailored treatments that target different inflammatory mediators. These are major achievements in the perspective of Precision Medicine: a leading approach to the modern treatment strategy...
2016: World Allergy Organization Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939673/perinatal-activation-of-the-interleukin-33-pathway-promotes-type-2-immunity-in-the-developing-lung
#12
Ismé M de Kleer, Mirjam Kool, Marjolein J W de Bruijn, Monique Willart, Justine van Moorleghem, Martijn J Schuijs, Maud Plantinga, Rudi Beyaert, Emily Hams, Padraic G Fallon, Hamida Hammad, Rudi W Hendriks, Bart N Lambrecht
Allergic disease originates in early life and polymorphisms in interleukin-33 gene (IL33) and IL1RL1, coding for IL-33R and decoy receptor sST2, confer allergy risk. Early life T helper 2 (Th2) cell skewing and allergy susceptibility are often seen as remnants of feto-maternal symbiosis. Here we report that shortly after birth, innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2s), eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells spontaneously accumulated in developing lungs in an IL-33-dependent manner. During the phase of postnatal lung alveolarization, house dust mite exposure further increased IL-33, which boosted cytokine production in ILC2s and activated CD11b(+) dendritic cells (DCs)...
December 20, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906453/spleen-tyrosine-kinase-inhibition-blocks-airway-constriction-and-protects-from-th2-induced-airway-inflammation-and-remodeling
#13
C Tabeling, J Herbert, A C Hocke, D J Lamb, S L Wollin, K J Erb, E Boiarina, H Movassagh, J Scheffel, J M Doehn, S Hippenstiel, M Maurer, A S Gounni, W M Kuebler, N Suttorp, M Witzenrath
BACKGROUND: Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is an intracellular nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, which has been implicated as central immune modulator promoting allergic airway inflammation. Syk inhibition has been proposed as a new therapeutic approach in asthma. However, the direct effects of Syk inhibition on airway constriction independent of allergen sensitization remain elusive. METHODS: Spectral confocal microscopy of human and murine lung tissue was performed to localize Syk expression...
December 1, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890918/2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic-acid-attenuates-mast-cell-mediated-allergic-reaction-in-mice-via-modulation-of-the-fc%C3%AE%C2%B5ri-signaling-pathway
#14
Yeon-Yong Kim, In-Gyu Je, Min Jong Kim, Byeong-Cheol Kang, Young-Ae Choi, Moon-Chang Baek, Byungheon Lee, Jin Kyeong Choi, Hae Ran Park, Tae-Yong Shin, Soyoung Lee, Seung-Bin Yoon, Sang-Rae Lee, Dongwoo Khang, Sang-Hyun Kim
Mast cells are important effector cells in immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated allergic reactions such as asthma, atopic dermatitis and rhinitis. Vanillic acid, a natural product, has shown anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we investigated the anti-allergic inflammatory effects of ortho-vanillic acid (2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid, o-VA) that was a derivative of vanillic acid isolated from Amomum xanthioides. In mouse anaphylaxis models, oral administration of o-VA (2, 10, 50 mg/kg) dose-dependently attenuated ovalbumin-induced active systemic anaphylaxis and IgE-mediated cutaneous allergic reactions such as hypothermia, histamine release, IgE production and vasodilation; administration of o-VA also suppressed the mast cell degranulator compound 48/80-induced anaphylaxis...
January 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888720/postmortem-serum-levels-of-ige-and-mast-cell-tryptase-in-fatal-asthma
#15
Maria Pia Scarpelli, Sanjiv Keller, Lara Tran, Cristian Palmiere
The aim of this study was to characterize the concentrations of total and specific IgE as well as mast cell-derived tryptase in postmortem serum from femoral blood and evaluate the usefulness of their determination for diagnostic purposes in cases of fatal asthma attacks. 36 autopsy cases were retrospectively selected including cases of witnessed death in asthmatic subjects, deaths in asthmatics and atopic subjects with causes of death unrelated to asthma or allergic anaphylaxis as well as deaths in non-atopic, non-allergic individuals with causes of death unrelated to asthma or allergic anaphylaxis...
December 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859399/cd48-on-blood-leukocytes-and-in-serum-of-asthma-patients-varies-with-severity
#16
R S Gangwar, Y Minai-Fleminger, M Seaf, A Gutgold, A Shikotra, C Barber, A Chauhan, S Holgate, P Bradding, P Howarth, R Eliashar, N Berkman, F Levi-Schaffer
BACKGROUND: CD48 is a membrane receptor (mCD48) on eosinophils and mast cells and exists in a soluble form (sCD48). CD48 has a pivotal role in murine asthma and in the proinflammatory interactions of mast cells with eosinophils via its ligand CD244. Thus, CD48 might be important in human asthma. METHODS: Therefore, two separate cohorts (IL and UK) comprising mild, moderate, and severe asthma and healthy volunteers were evaluated for blood leukocyte mCD48 expression and sCD48 in serum...
November 10, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858144/th9-and-other-il-9-producing-cells-in-allergic-asthma
#17
REVIEW
Sonja Koch, Nina Sopel, Susetta Finotto
Allergic asthma is a worldwide increasing chronic disease of the airways which affects more than 300 million people. It is associated with increased IgE, mast cell activation, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), mucus overproduction and remodeling of the airways. Previously, this pathological trait has been associated with T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. Recently, different CD4(+) T cell subsets (Th17, Th9) as well as cells of innate immunity, like mast cells and innate lymphoid cells type 2 (ILC2s), which are all capable of producing the rediscovered cytokine IL-9, are known to contribute to this disease...
November 17, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856823/mepolizumab-in-the-management-of-severe-eosinophilic-asthma-in-adults-current-evidence-and-practical-experience
#18
Gilda Varricchi, Diego Bagnasco, Matteo Ferrando, Francesca Puggioni, Giovanni Passalacqua, Giorgio W Canonica
Eosinophils represent approximately 1% of peripheral blood leukocytes in normal donors and their maturation and differentiation in the bone marrow are mainly regulated by interleukin (IL)-5 [Broughton et al. 2015]. IL-5, a cytokine that belongs to the β common-chain family, together with IL-3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), stimulates also the activation and survival of eosinophils and, to some extent, of basophils. IL-5 binds to a heterodimer receptor composed of the specific subunit IL-5Rα and a common subunit βc shared with IL-3 and GM-CSF...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824606/omalizumab-reduces-bronchial-mucosal-ige-and-improves-lung-function-in-non-atopic-asthma
#19
Prathap Pillai, Yih-Chih Chan, Shih-Ying Wu, Line Ohm-Laursen, Clare Thomas, Stephen R Durham, Andrew Menzies-Gow, Raj K Rajakulasingam, Sun Ying, Hannah J Gould, Chris J Corrigan
Omalizumab therapy of non-atopic asthmatics reduces bronchial mucosal IgE and inflammation and preserves/improves lung function when disease is destabilised by staged withdrawal of therapy.18 symptomatic, non-atopic asthmatics were randomised (1:1) to receive omalizumab or identical placebo treatment in addition to existing therapy for 20 weeks. Bronchial biopsies were collected before and after 12-14 weeks of treatment, then the patients destabilised by substantial, supervised reduction of their regular therapy...
December 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820745/role-of-sputum-biomarkers-in-the-management-of-asthma
#20
Sven F Seys
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Airway inflammation is considered to be a cardinal feature of asthma. However, the type of airway inflammation is heterogeneous and airway inflammation may even be absent. Biomarkers may help to identify the inflammatory phenotype or endotype, especially now the time has come that targeted therapies enter daily practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Sputum biomarkers have increased our insights into the different inflammatory asthma phenotypes, their response to treatment and their association with progression of disease...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
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