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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918602/population-pharmacokinetics-and-optimal-sampling-strategy-for-model-based-precision-dosing-of-melphalan-in-patients-undergoing-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#1
Kana Mizuno, Min Dong, Tsuyoshi Fukuda, Sharat Chandra, Parinda A Mehta, Scott McConnell, Elias J Anaissie, Alexander A Vinks
BACKGROUND: High-dose melphalan is an important component of conditioning regimens for patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The current dosing strategy based on body surface area results in a high incidence of oral mucositis and gastrointestinal and liver toxicity. Pharmacokinetically guided dosing will individualize exposure and help minimize overexposure-related toxicity. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model and optimal sampling strategy...
September 16, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917966/shrinkage-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-an-analysis-of-tumor-and-margin-measurements-in-vivo-post-resection-and-post-formalin-fixation
#2
Lauren A Umstattd, Jonathan C Mills, William A Critchlow, Gregory J Renner, Robert P Zitsch
PURPOSE: To quantify changes in tumor size and tumor-free margins following surgical resection and formalin fixation of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen patients were studied via cohort design. Between May and December 2011, measurements of tumor size and tumor-free margin were made in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Mucosal reference points were marked with sutures, representing tumor diameter and two separate resection margins...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916678/gucy2c-signaling-opposes-the-acute-radiation-induced-gi-syndrome
#3
Peng Li, Evan Wuthrick, Jeff A Rappaport, Crystal Kraft, Jieru E Lin, Glen Marszalowicz, Adam E Snook, Tingting Zhan, Terry M Hyslop, Scott A Waldman
High doses of ionizing radiation induce acute damage to epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, mediating toxicities restricting the therapeutic efficacy of radiation in cancer and morbidity and mortality in nuclear disasters. No approved prophylaxis or therapy exists for these toxicities, in part reflecting an incomplete understanding of mechanisms contributing to the acute radiation-induced GI syndrome (RIGS). Guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) and its hormones guanylin and uroguanylin have recently emerged as one paracrine axis defending intestinal mucosal integrity against mutational, chemical, and inflammatory injury...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916029/oral-mucosa-biology-and-salivary-biomarkers
#4
Rosie Qin, Andrea Steel, Nasim Fazel
Although the surfaces of both the skin and oral mucosa are protected by squamous epithelial cells and fall within the scope of dermatologic practice, the oral cavity contains highly specialized structures and functions distinct from other skin biology and pathologic conditions and are also the purview of clinicians who care for patients with skin and mucosal diseases. We describe the distinct features of the tongue, mucosa, and salivary glands. In particular, we examine the composition and function of the saliva, with special focus on salivary biomarkers...
September 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916026/a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-approach-to-primary-burning-mouth-syndrome
#5
Siamak Moghadam-Kia, Nasim Fazel
Primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an oral mucosal disorder that is characterized by a chronic and often debilitating intraoral burning sensation for which no localized or systemic cause can be found. BMS most commonly affects postmenopausal women. The pathophysiology of primary BMS is not well understood. Diagnosing BMS can prove to be challenging. BMS patients can also pose a therapeutic challenge to clinicians who are consulted to evaluate these patients. Most commonly used therapies include tricyclic antidepressants, α-lipoic acid, clonazepam, and cognitive-behavioral therapy...
September 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912872/preclinical-trial-of-the-multi-targeted-lenvatinib-in-combination-with-cellular-immunotherapy-for-treatment-of-renal-cell-carcinoma
#6
Chengkuan Cai, Jingyuan Tang, Baixin Shen, Liucheng Ding, Yunpeng Shao, Zhengsen Chen, Yinchao Ma, Haoliang Xue, Zhongqing Wei
Lenvatinib is an oral, multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1-3, fibroblast growth factor receptors 1-4, platelet-derived growth factor receptor β, RET and KIT. Cellular immunotherapy has the potential to be a highly targeted treatment, with low toxicity to normal tissues and a high capacity to eradicate tumor tissue. The present study assessed the safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and preliminary antitumor activity of lenvatinib and cellular immunotherapy in a murine model of renal cell carcinoma (RCC)...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911663/recent-advances-in-oral-delivery-of-drugs-and-bioactive-natural-products-using-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-as-the-carriers
#7
REVIEW
Chih-Hung Lin, Chun-Han Chen, Zih-Chan Lin, Jia-You Fang
Chemical and enzymatic barriers in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract hamper the oral delivery of many labile drugs. The GI epithelium also contributes to poor permeability for numerous drugs. Drugs with poor aqueous solubility have difficulty dissolving in the GI tract, resulting in low bioavailability. Nanomedicine provides an opportunity to improve the delivery efficiency of orally administered drugs. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are categorized as a new generation of lipid nanoparticles consisting of a complete solid lipid matrix...
April 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900429/plasma-derived-polyreactive-secretory-like-iga-and-igm-opsonizing-salmonella-enterica-typhimurium-reduces-invasion-and-gut-tissue-inflammation-through-agglutination
#8
Gilles Bioley, Justine Monnerat, Marius Lötscher, Cédric Vonarburg, Adrian Zuercher, Blaise Corthésy
Due to the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of enteropathogenic bacteria, development of alternative treatments to fight against gut infections is a major health issue. While vaccination requires that a proper combination of antigen, adjuvant, and delivery route is defined to elicit protective immunity at mucosae, oral delivery of directly active antibody preparations, referred to as passive immunization, sounds like a valuable alternative. Along the gut, the strategy suffers, however, from the difficulty to obtain sufficient amounts of antibodies with the appropriate specificity and molecular structure for mucosal delivery...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898420/characterization-of-hyperbranched-core-multishell-nanocarriers-as-an-innovative-drug-delivery-system-for-the-application-at-the-oral-mucosa
#9
J Jager, K Obst, S B Lohan, J Viktorov, S Staufenbiel, H Renz, M Unbehauen, R Haag, S Hedtrich, C Teutloff, M C Meinke, K Danker, H Dommisch
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In the oral cavity, the mucosal tissues may develop a number of different pathological conditions, such as inflammatory diseases (gingivitis, periodontitis) and autoimmune disorders (eg, oral lichen planus) that require therapy. The application of topical drugs is one common therapeutic approach. However, their efficacy is limited. Dilution effects due to saliva hinder the adherence and the penetration of drug formulations. Therefore, the bioavailability of oral topical drugs is insufficient, and patients may suffer from disease over years, if not life-long...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895246/influence-of-indigenous-microbiota-on-experimental-toxoplasmosis-in-conventional-and-germ-free-mice
#10
Bruna B Nascimento, Christiane T Cartelle, Maria de L Noviello, Breno V Pinheiro, Ricardo W de Almeida Vitor, Danielle da G Souza, Simone de Vasconcelos Generoso, Valbert N Cardoso, Flaviano Dos S Martins, Jacques R Nicoli, Rosa M E Arantes
Toxoplasmosis represents one of the most common zoonosis worldwide. Its agent, Toxoplasma gondii, causes a severe innate pro-inflammatory response. The indigenous intestinal microbiota promotes host animal homoeostasis and may protect the host against pathogens. Germ-free (GF) animals provide an important tool for the study of interactions between host and microbiota. In this study, we assessed the role of indigenous microorganisms in disease development utilizing a murine toxoplasmosis model, which includes conventional (CV) and GF NIH Swiss mice...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895047/biochemical-hematological-and-pathological-related-healing-effects-of-elaeagnus-angustifolia-hydroalcoholic-extract-in-5-fluorouracil-induced-oral-mucositis-in-male-golden-hamster
#11
Omid Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Zahra Ranjbar, Masood Sepehrimanesh, Azadeh AndisheTadbir, Seyedeh Leila Poorbaghi, Hajar Bahranifard, Nader Tanideh, Maryam Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Aida Iraji
Oral mucositis (OM) is one of the cancer chemotherapy-related side effects which can affect the quality of life of affected patients. This study was designed to investigate the healing effect of Elaeagnus angustifolia in 5-flurouracil (5-FU)-induced OM in golden hamster. Fifty-six adult male golden hamsters received three intraperitoneal injections of 5-FU at a dose of 60 mg/kg on days 0, 5, and 10. The cheek pouch mucosa was scratched superficially under local anesthesia. Then, two horizontal scratches were made across the everted cheek pouch on days 3 and 4...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894668/mucosal-perfusion-preservation-by-a-novel-shapeable-tissue-expander-for-oral-reconstruction
#12
Daria Barwinska, John Garner, Darrell D Davidson, Todd G Cook, George J Eckert, Sunil S Tholpady, Keith L March, Kinam Park, Clark T Barco
BACKGROUND: There are few methods for expanding oral mucosa, and these often cause complications such as tissue necrosis and expander eruption. This study examines mucosal blood perfusion following insertion of a novel shapeable hydrogel tissue expander (HTE). The canine model used subgingival insertion of HTE following tooth extraction and alveolar bone reduction. The primary goal of this study was to gain understanding of epithelial perfusion and reparative responses of gingival mucosa during HTE expansion...
August 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894616/esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-presenting-with-streptococcus-intermedius-cerebral-abscess
#13
Rabih Nayfe, Mustafa S Ascha, Esther H Rehmus
BACKGROUND: Cerebral abscess is caused by inoculation of an organism into the brain parenchyma from a site distant from the central nervous system. Streptococcus intermedius (S. intermedius) is a commensal organism that is normally present in the aerodigestive tract and was reported to be the cause of brain abscesses after esophageal dilatation or upper endoscopy. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 53-year-old female who presented with hematemesis and melena followed by left-sided weakness...
2017: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893256/prime-boost-vaccination-with-attenuated-salmonella-typhimurium-%C3%AE-znuabc-and-inactivated-salmonella-choleraesuis-is-protective-against-salmonella-choleraesuis-challenge-infection-in-piglets
#14
Giovanni Loris Alborali, Jessica Ruggeri, Michele Pesciaroli, Nicola Martinelli, Barbara Chirullo, Serena Ammendola, Andrea Battistoni, Maria Cristina Ossiprandi, Attilio Corradi, Paolo Pasquali
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) infection causes a systemic disease in pigs. Vaccination could represent a solution to reduce prevalence in farms. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy of an attenuated strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium ΔznuABC) against S. Choleraesuis infection. The vaccination protocol combined priming with attenuated S. Typhimurium ΔznuABC vaccine and boost with an inactivated S. Choleraesuis vaccine and we compared the protection conferred to that induced by an inactivated S...
September 11, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892827/role-of-microbiota-in-strengthening-ocular-mucosal-barrier-function-through-secretory-iga
#15
Abirami Kugadas, Quentin Wright, Jennifer Geddes-McAlister, Mihaela Gadjeva
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate mechanisms controlling secretory IgA (SIgA) production, thereby ensuring maintenance of ocular surface health. Methods: To determine whether the presence of specific gut commensal species regulates SIgA levels and IgA transcripts in the eye-associated lymphoid tissues (EALT), specific-pathogen-free (SPF) Swiss Webster (SW) mice were treated with antibiotic cocktails, germ-free (GF) SW mice were reconstituted with diverse commensal gut microbiota, or monocolonized with gut-specific commensals...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892665/difference-in-glycogen-metabolism-glycogen-synthesis-and-glycolysis-between-normal-and-dysplastic-malignant-oral-epithelium
#16
Hitoshi Aizawa, Shin-Ichi Yamada, Tiepeng Xiao, Tetsu Shimane, Kiyonori Hayashi, Fangfang Qi, Hirokazu Tanaka, Hiroshi Kurita
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate a difference in glycogen metabolism (glycogen synthesis and glycolysis) between the iodine stained (normal non-keartinized) and the unstained (dysplasctic/malignant) oral epithelium. METHODS: Twenty-one frozen tissue samples of iodine-stained and unstained mucosal tissue were obtained from 21 OSCC patients. Serial frozen sections were cut and examined with the hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff methods and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for Ki67, P53, molecules associated with glycogenesis (i...
September 2, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891222/global-population-pharmacokinetics-of-the-investigational-aurora-a-kinase-inhibitor-alisertib-in-cancer-patients-rationale-for-lower-dosage-in-asia
#17
X Zhou, D R Mould, T Takubo, E Sheldon-Waniga, D Huebner, A Milton, K Venkatakrishnan
AIMS: This population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted to quantitatively describe the regional differences and sources of inter-patient variability on the apparent oral clearance of alisertib. METHODS: A population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on data from 671 cancer patients in Western countries and in Japan/ East Asia administered alisertib 5-150 mg once or twice daily in multiple dosing schedules. The final model was used to simulate alisertib pharmacokinetics in patients in the West and East Asian regions in the single agent schedule of 7 days of dosing in a 21 day cycle...
September 11, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890617/prevalence-of-oral-complications-occurring-in-a-population-of-pediatric-cancer-patients-receiving-chemotherapy
#18
Kapil Gandhi, Geetika Datta, Shilpa Ahuja, Tanvi Saxena, Ankush G Datta
Multiagent chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or a combination of both are the contemporary methods of cancer treatment. With medical advancements, though cure rates have increased considerably, focus is now shifted to the potential early and late complications of the same. The aim of this study was to assess the early oral complications in pediatric patients receiving chemotherapy. Sixty-two children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy with the mean age of 7.42 ± 3.6 years were included in the study. The various types of malignancies and oral problems during chemotherapy were recorded in the subjects...
April 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890256/tuneable-denture-adhesives-using-biomimetic-principles-for-enhanced-tissue-adhesion-in-moist-environments
#19
Simrone K Gill, Nima Roohpour, Paul D Topham, Brian J Tighe
Nature provides many interesting examples of adhesive strategies. Of particular note, the protein glue secreted by marine mussels delivers high adhesion in wet and dynamic environments owing to existence of catechol moieties. As such, this study focuses on denture fixatives, where a non-zinc-containing commercial-based formulation has been judiciously modified by a biomimetic catechol-inspired polymer, poly(3,4-dihydroxystyrene/styrene-alt-maleic acid) in a quest to modulate adhesive performance. In vitro studies, in a lap-shear configuration, revealed that the catechol-modified components were able to enhance adhesion to both the denture base and hydrated, functional oral tissue mimic, with the resulting mode of failure prominently being adhesive rather than cohesive...
September 7, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888518/the-effect-of-oral-care-using-an-oral-health-care-guide-on-preventing-mucositis-in-pediatric-intensive-care
#20
Duygu Sönmez Düzkaya, Gülzade Uysal, Gülçin Bozkurt, Tülay Yakut
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of standard-of-care oral care guides developed specifically for children in intensive care to prevent mucositis. DESIGN AND METHODS: This prospective, interventional and single-group study design was performed in the pediatric intensive care unit of a university hospital in Istanbul between January and December 2014. Daily oral care was implemented to pediatric patients in the study group in line with an oral care guide developed by the researchers...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
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