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oral mucositis

Tonya L Ward, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Tim Heisel, Gabriel Al-Ghalith, Dan Knights, Cheryl A Gale
With the advent of next-generation sequencing and microbial community characterization, we are beginning to understand the key factors that shape early-life microbial colonization and associated health outcomes. Studies characterizing infant microbial colonization have focused mostly on bacteria in the microbiome and have largely neglected fungi (the mycobiome), despite their relevance to mucosal infections in healthy infants. In this pilot study, we characterized the skin, oral, and anal mycobiomes of infants over the first month of life ( n = 17) and the anal and vaginal mycobiomes of mothers ( n = 16) by internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) amplicon sequencing...
May 2018: MSystems
Aldo Berti, Michelle Granville, Robert E Jacobson
A case of an extremely healthy, active, 96-year-old patient, nonsmoker, is reviewed. He was initially treated for left V1, V2, and V3 trigeminal neuralgia in 2001, at age 80, with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with a dose of 80 Gy to the left retrogasserian trigeminal nerve. He remained asymptomatic for nine years until his trigeminal pain recurred in 2010. He was first treated medically but was intolerant to increasing doses of carbamazepine and gabapentin. He underwent a second SRS in 2012 with a dose of 65...
January 12, 2018: Curēus
V Jung-Schroers, M Adamek, S Harris, H Syakuri, A Jung, I Irnazarow, D Steinhagen
The effect of dietary β-glucan on the bacterial community in the gut of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was examined after oral application of Aeromonas hydrophila. Carp received either feed supplemented with 1% MacroGard® , a β-1,3/1,6-glucan, or a β-glucan-free diet. Fourteen days after feeding, half of the carp from each group were intubated with 109 colony-forming units (CFU) of a pathogenic strain of A. hydrophila. Gut samples were taken 12 hr to 7 days after application and analysed using microbiological and molecular biological techniques (NGS, RT-PCR-DGGE)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Ines Bojanic, Marinka Mravak Stipetic, Drazen Pulanic, Lana Desnica, Sanja Mazic, Branka Golubic Cepulic, Ranka Serventi Seiwerth, Radovan Vrhovac, Damir Nemet, Steven Z Pavletic
BACKGROUND: Oral chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) impairs oral function and patients' quality of life. Some lesions are refractory to local and systemic immunosuppressive therapy, and new therapeutic modalities are required. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of topical application of autologous platelet gel (PG) in patients with oral cGvHD. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: PG was prepared from autologous blood and applied on ulcerous lesions using an automated system...
March 14, 2018: Transfusion
Chih-Chien Wang, Chih-Hsin Wang, Hsiang-Cheng Chen, Juin-Hong Cherng, Shu-Jen Chang, Yi-Wen Wang, Adrienne Chang, Jue-Zong Yeh, Yi-Huei Huang, Cheng-Che Liu
Repair and regeneration of craniofacial tissues is particularly challenging because they comprise a complex structure of hard and soft tissues involved in intricate functions. This study combined collagen scaffolds and human adipose stem cells (hASCs) for oral mucosal and calvarial bone regeneration by using resveratrol (RSV), which affects the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. We have evaluated the effect of collagen scaffold-containing RSV (collagen/RSV) scaffolds both in vitro and in vivo for their wound healing and bone regeneration potential...
March 13, 2018: International Wound Journal
Sung-Ho Shin, Hyun Seok, Seong-Gon Kim, Seong-Doo Hong
Sinonasal mucosal melanoma (SNMM) in the maxillary sinus is a rare disease condition. Compared to oral mucosal melanoma, SNMM has a bulky, exophytic, and polypoid appearance, is weakly pigmented, and associated with unspecific symptoms. Due to these features, SNMM in the maxillary sinus has been misdiagnosed as nasal polyps and chronic sinusitis. In this case report, we described SNMM occurring in the right maxillary sinus simulated as a cystic or benign lesion. Cortical bone thinning and expansion were observed around the mass...
February 2018: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
Santosh K Ghosh, Zhimin Feng, Hisashi Fujioka, Renate Lux, Thomas S McCormick, Aaron Weinberg
Human beta defensins (hBDs) are small cationic peptides, expressed in mucosal epithelia and important agents of innate immunity, act as antimicrobial and chemotactic agents at mucosal barriers. In this perspective, we present evidence supporting a novel strategy by which the oral bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum induces hBDs and other antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in normal human oral epithelial cells (HOECs) and thereby protects them from other microbial pathogens. The findings stress (1) the physiological importance of hBDs, (2) that this strategy may be a mechanism that contributes to homeostasis and health in body sites constantly challenged with bacteria and (3) that novel properties identified in commensal bacteria could, one day, be harnessed as new probiotic strategies to combat colonization of opportunistic pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Renzo Guarnieri, Maurizio Grande, Francesco Zuffetti, Tiziano Testori
PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the incidence of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis around dental implants with the same body design and surface but different collar surface (laser-microgrooved vs not laser-microgrooved) after 5 years of loading in private practice patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out on patients at a private dental clinic enrolled in a periodontal maintenance program, who received at least one implant with a laser-microgrooved collar surface and one implant without a laser-microgrooved collar surface...
March 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Elerson Gaetti-Jardim, Ellen Cristina Gaetti Jardim, Christiane Marie Schweitzer, Júlio Cesar Leite da Silva, Murilo Moura Oliveira, Danilo Chizzolini Masocatto, Cauê Monteiro Dos Santos
OBJECTIVE: This case-control study aimed to evaluate the effects of conventional radiotherapy (RT) on the prevalence and populations of oral microorganisms in head and neck cancer patients who did not receive adequate preventive dental care. It was hypothesized that side effects of radiotherapy could be associated with radiation dose, microbiological aspects, and socioeconomic conditions of the patients. DESIGN: Twenty-eight dentate patients with head and neck cancer submitted to RT were included in the study...
January 8, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Ron Shaoul, Dalia Moati, Betty Schwartz, Yulia Pollak, Igor Sukhotnik
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Several studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial, antihelminthic, and antioxidant potential of the active ingredients of pomegranate (PMG) extracts, suggesting their preventive and curative role in several gastrointestinal disorders. In the present study, the authors evaluated the effects of oral PMG supplementation on intestinal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation, and apoptosis during methotrexate (MTX)-induced intestinal damage in a rat. METHODS: Male rats were divided into 4 experimental groups: control rats; CONTR-PMG rats were treated with oral PMG given by gavage once a day 72 hours before and 72 hours following vehicle injection; MTX rats were treated with single dose of methotrexate; and MTX-PMG rats were treated with oral PMG following injection of MTX...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Aroonsri Priprem, Teerasak Damrongrungruang, Sucharat Limsitthichaikoon, Bhattaranitch Khampaenjiraroch, Chatchanok Nukulkit, Suthasinee Thapphasaraphong, Wanwisa Limphirat
Anthocyanins from dietary sources showing potential benefits as anti-inflammatory in oral lesions were developed as an anthocyanin complex (AC), comprised of extracts of Zea mays (CC) and Clitoria ternatea (CT), and formulated into a niosome gel to prove its topical oral wound healing in vitro and in vivo investigations. The AC formed nano-sized clusters of crystalline-like aggregates, occurring through both intra- and inter-molecular interactions, resulting in delivery depots of anthocyanins, following encapsulation in niosomes and incorporation into a mucoadhesive gel...
March 12, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Misato Muro, Yoshihiko Soga, Tomoko Higuchi, Kota Kataoka, Daisuke Ekuni, Yoshinobu Maeda, Manabu Morita
Severe oral mucositis occurs frequently in patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Oral mucosal bacteria can be associated with progression of oral mucositis, and systemic infection may occur via ulcerative oral mucositis. However, little information is available regarding the oral microbiota after HCT. Here, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was performed to characterize the oral mucosal microbiota, which can be affected by antibiotics, before and after HCT. Sixty reduced-intensity HCT patients were enrolled...
March 12, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Nicole Jedrusik, Christoph Meyen, Günter Finkenzeller, G Björn Stark, Stephan Meskath, Simon Daniel Schulz, Thorsten Steinberg, Philipp Eberwein, Sandra Strassburg, Pascal Tomakidi
Regarding tissue regeneration, mechanics of biomaterials gains progressive importance. Therefore, this study reports on in situ crosslinked electrospun gelatin nonwoven mats (NWMs) whose distinct modulus of elasticity (ME) promotes epithelial tissue formation in a graded manner. NWMs, comprising fiber diameters in various distributions, yield an ME of about 2.1, 3.2, and 10.9 kPa. A two-step approach of preclinical in vitro validation identifies the elasticity of 3.2 kPa as superior to the other, regarding the histogenetic epithelial outcome...
March 12, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Katsumi Yamamoto, Hiroshi Noro, Yu Sato, Akira Kusakabe, Nobuyuki Tatsumi, Tomoki Michida, Toshifumi Ito
Background and study aims  A 70-year-old-man underwent an esophagectomy and posterior mediastinal reconstruction for esophageal cancer that was curatively resected. Although the patient was allowed to eat after surgery, he repeatedly vomited after drinking water or eating meals and required continuous hospitalization. An upper gastrointestinal series and endoscopic examination revealed an obstruction due to the flexure of the gastric conduit, which was repeatedly treated with endoscopic balloon dilation. Endoscopic balloon dilation was completely ineffective, however, because the obstruction was not due to a small lumen diameter, but rather to severe flexure...
March 2018: Endoscopy International Open
S N Ijioma, E N Nwaogazi, A A Nwankwo, H Oshilonya, C M Ekeleme, L U Oshilonya
The gastroprotective activity of Moringa oleifera leaf extract against aspirin-induced ulcers was investigated in rats. Thirty (30) rats under starvation but with access to drinking water for 48 h were divided into 6 groups of 5 animals each. Animals in groups 1 and 2 were pretreated with 0.2 ml normal saline via the oral route. Group 3 received 32 mg/kg cimetidine while those in groups 4, 5 and 6 received oral Moringa leaf extract treatments at doses 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight respectively. Thirty minutes after treatment, all animals in groups 2 to 6 were given 800 mg/kg Aspirin to induce ulcer...
2018: Comparative Clinical Pathology
Surabhi Sinha, Rashmi Sarkar, Vijay Kumar Garg
Introduction: Palmoplantar lesions of lichen planus (LP) are uncommon and may not always have classical clinical features of LP. A variety of morphological types has been described in literature. Aim and Objectives: The aim was to study and classify the clinical variants into distinct easily recognisable categories for quick recognition and early treatment initiation. Methods: All patients diagnosed with LP over a period of 5 years were evaluated for palmoplantar lesions in our hospital...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Dermatology
Carmina Pallarés, Ângela Carvalho-Gomes, Vanessa Hontangas, Isabel Conde, Tomasso Di Maira, Victoria Aguilera, Salvador Benlloch, Marina Berenguer, F Xavier López-Labrador
BACKGROUND: A reliable population screening strategy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may be based in easy-to-use point-of-care (POC) tests for HCV antibodies, but validation data is needed before their potential widespread use in primary care or outreach practice. Besides, the sensitivity of these POC tests in patients with spontaneous or treatment-induced viral clearance is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To test the performance of a non-invasive POC anti-HCV test (OraQuick HCV rapid test) in oral mucosal transudate (OMT) and fingerstick blood from patients with known anti-HCV serostatus and with or without active viremia (after treatment-induced clearance)...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Nélio Drumond, Sven Stegemann
Predicting the potential for unintended adhesion of solid oral dosage forms (SODF) to mucosal tissue is an important aspect that should be considered during drug product development. Previous investigations into low strength mucoadhesion based on particle interactions methods provided evidence that rheological measurements could be used to obtain valid predictions for the development of SODF coatings that can be safely swallowed. The aim of this second work was to estimate the low mucoadhesive strength properties of different polymers using in vitro methods based on mechanical forces and to identify which methods are more precise when measuring reduced mucoadhesion...
March 5, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Nancy N Shahin, Noha F Abdelkader, Marwa M Safar
The advent of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) as intriguing gastroprotective candidates and the superior pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics displayed by irbesartan compared to many other ARBs raised the interest to investigate its gastroprotective potential in a rat model of gastric injury. Irbesartan (50 mg/Kg) was orally administered to male Wistar rats once daily for 14 days; thereafter gastric injury was induced by indomethacin (60 mg/Kg, p.o). Irbesartan reduced gastric ulcer index, gastric acidity, and ameliorated indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal apoptotic and inflammatory aberrations, as demonstrated by hampering caspase-3, prostaglandin E2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels and cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rafa S Almeer, Sahar M Mahmoud, Hatem K Amin, Ahmed E Abdel Moneim
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and protective effects of Ziziphus spina-christi fruit extract (ZFE) against acetic acid (AcOH)-induced colitis in rats. Before a single AcOH instillation, ZFE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day) was administered for 5 days by oral gavage. Pretreatment with ZFE at different doses suppressed the spread of inflammation and inhibited mucosal damage; in addition, it reduced ulcer size and mitigated colitis markers. Administration of ZFE (400 mg/kg) resulted in a greater reduction of inflammatory colonic injury than that after reference drug, mesalazine (MLZ), administration...
March 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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