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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909900/obesity-and-colorectal-cancer
#1
Carmen Jochem, Michael Leitzmann
There is strong evidence that modifiable lifestyle factors such as obesity play a key role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic data have consistently reported a positive association between obesity and colorectal cancer. The relative risk associated with general obesity (as assessed by BMI) is higher in men than in women and for cancer of the colon than for cancer of the rectum. Abdominal obesity (as assessed by waist circumference (WC) or waist-to-hip ratio) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in both sexes, with stronger associations for cancer of the colon than for cancer of the rectum...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908924/excess-weight-as-a-risk-factor-common-to-many-cancer-sites-words-of-caution-when-interpreting-meta-analytic-evidence
#2
Melina Arnold, Andrew G Renehan, Graham A Colditz
For over a decade, excess body weight, commonly categorized as overweight (body mass index, BMI: 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI: ≥ 30 kg/m2) has been an established incidence risk factor for several adult cancers (1). For 2012, the burden of disease attributed to elevated BMI was estimated as nearly half-million new cancers worldwide, making this the third highest ranked cancer risk factor globally after smoking and infections (ranked second in most western populations) and an important public health problem (2, 3)...
December 1, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908678/avoidance-of-late-rectal-toxicity-after-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-boost-treatment-for-prostate-cancer
#3
Borut Kragelj, Jernej Zlatic, Lijana Zaletel-Kragelj
PURPOSE: To elucidate potential risk factors important for the appearance of late rectal toxicity (LRT) after high-dose-rate boost treatment (HDRBT) of prostate cancer and to validate the predictive value of the minimal dose to the most exposed 2 cc of rectum received with HDRBT (D2ccrect). METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study of LRT, defined as relative deterioration of defecation problems (RDDP) (stool frequency, pain, rectal bleeding, fecal urgency, and incontinence) during follow-up period, was carried out on 88 patients, consecutively treated from October 2006 through April 2011 with HDRBT of 3 × 6-7 Gy to 50-50...
November 28, 2016: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908182/prostate-deformation-from-inflatable-rectal-probe-cover-and-dosimetric-effects-in-prostate-seed-implant-brachytherapy
#4
Jun Lian, Yeqin Shao, Larry D Potter, Ronald C Chen, Jordan A Holmes, Eleanor A Pryser, Jie Shen, Dinggang Shen, Andrew Z Wang
PURPOSE: Prostate brachytherapy is an important treatment technique for patients with localized prostate cancer. An inflatable rectal ultrasound probe cover is frequently utilized during the procedure to adjust for unfavorable prostate position relative to the implant grid. However, the inflated cover causes prostate deformation, which is not accounted for during dosimetric planning. Most of the therapeutic dose is delivered after the procedure when the prostate and surrounding organs-at-risk are less deformed...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905658/-lymphocytic-colitis-in-a-patient-with-ulcerative-colitis-report-of-one-case
#5
Camila Estay, Daniela Simian, Lilian Flores, Antonio Piottante, Rodrigo Quera
The relationship between Microscopic Colitis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease is unclear. However, when both are diagnosed they seem to be part of a broader spectrum of the same disease, more than just a coincidence. We report a 55 years old woman with Ulcerative Colitis limited to the rectum with complete clinical and endoscopic response to standard treatment and adequate surveillance for 13 years, who abandoned treatment and control. After eight years, she consulted for mild-to-moderate non-bloody diarrhea lasting several months...
August 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903011/transition-risk-assessment-score-to-stratify-health-care-needs-and-interventions-in-adolescents-with-anorectal-malformations-a-pilot-study
#6
Martin J Connor, Laurie Rigueros Springford, Stefano Giuliani
Introduction Anorectal malformations (ARMs) are a complex collection of congenital disorders of the anus, rectum, and genitourinary system with possible active morbidities beyond adolescence. Aims To create the first evidence-based inclusive transition risk assessment score (TRAS) to stratify health care needs and interventions in teenagers with ARM transitioning to adult health care. Method MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched electronically for original articles containing published scoring systems evaluating children with ARM from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2013...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902460/neuroendocrine-tumors-of-colon-and-rectum-validation-of-clinical-and-prognostic-values-of-the-world-health-organization-2010-grading-classifications-and-european-neuroendocrine-tumor-society-staging-systems
#7
Chaoyong Shen, Yuan Yin, Huijiao Chen, Sumin Tang, Xiaonan Yin, Zongguang Zhou, Bo Zhang, Zhixin Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study evaluated and compared the clinical and prognostic values of the grading criteria used by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European Neuroendocrine Tumors Society (ENETS). Moreover, this work assessed the current best prognostic model for colorectal neuroendocrine tumors (CRNETs). RESULTS: The 2010 WHO classifications and the ENETS systems can both stratify the patients into prognostic groups, although the 2010 WHO criteria is more applicable to CRNET patients...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898453/resolution-of-rectal-prolapse-by-vaginal-reconstruction
#8
Hemikaa Devakumar, Neeraja Chandrasekaran, Alexandriah Alas, Laura Martin, G Willy Davila, Eric Hurtado
BACKGROUND: Rectal prolapse is a disorder of the pelvic floor in which the layers of the rectal mucosa protrude outward through the anus. Surgical repair is the mainstay of treatment. Options include intra-abdominal procedures such as rectopexy and perineal procedures such as the Delorme and Altemeier perineal rectosigmoidectomy. Rectal and vaginal prolapse can often coexist. However, to our knowledge, there are no reported cases of rectal prolapse resolved by the repair of a compressive enterocele abutting the anterior rectal wall through a vaginal approach alone...
November 28, 2016: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896624/autologous-bone-marrow-stem-cell-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-ulcerative-colitis-complicated-with-herpes-zoster-a-case-report
#9
Hang Xiang, Xiaomei Zhang, Chao Yang, Wenhuan Xu, Xin Ge, Rong Zhang, Ya Qiu, Wanjun Sun, Fan Li, Tianyuan Xiang, Haixu Chen, Zheng Wang, Qiang Zeng
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease with continuous or recurrent symptoms. A 42-year-old male patient with intermittent diarrhea accompanied by bloody mucopurulent stools was admitted to our hospital. The diagnosis of UC was confirmed by a combination of laboratory examination, colonoscopy, and histological assay. The patient developed herpes zoster in the hospital, which challenged traditional treatments. Therefore, we performed an autologous bone marrow cells to modulate the immune system with his permission...
November 28, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896373/assessing-colonic-anatomy-normal-values-based-on-air-contrast-enemas-in-children-younger-than-6%C3%A2-years
#10
Ilan J N Koppen, Desale Yacob, Carlo Di Lorenzo, Miguel Saps, Marc A Benninga, Jennifer N Cooper, Peter C Minneci, Katherine J Deans, D Gregory Bates, Benjamin P Thompson
BACKGROUND: Contrast enemas with barium or water-soluble contrast agents are sometimes performed in children with severe intractable constipation to identify anatomical abnormalities. However there are no clear definitions for normal colonic size or abnormalities such as colonic dilation or sigmoid redundancy in children. OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics of colonic anatomy on air contrast enemas in children without constipation to provide normal values for colonic size ratios in children...
November 29, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895814/robotic-rectal-surgery-state-of-the-art
#11
REVIEW
Fabio Staderini, Caterina Foppa, Alessio Minuzzo, Benedetta Badii, Etleva Qirici, Giacomo Trallori, Beatrice Mallardi, Gabriele Lami, Giuseppe Macrì, Andrea Bonanomi, Siro Bagnoli, Giuliano Perigli, Fabio Cianchi
Laparoscopic rectal surgery has demonstrated its superiority over the open approach, however it still has some technical limitations that lead to the development of robotic platforms. Nevertheless the literature on this topic is rapidly expanding there is still no consensus about benefits of robotic rectal cancer surgery over the laparoscopic one. For this reason a review of all the literature examining robotic surgery for rectal cancer was performed. Two reviewers independently conducted a search of electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE) using the key words "rectum", "rectal", "cancer", "laparoscopy", "robot"...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895683/salvage-interstitial-brachytherapy-based-on-computed-tomography-for-recurrent-cervical-cancer-after-radical-hysterectomy-and-adjuvant-radiation-therapy-case-presentations-and-introduction-of-the-technique
#12
Zhong-Shan Liu, Jie Guo, Yang-Zhi Zhao, Xia Lin, Bin Chen, Ming Zhang, Jiang-Ming Li, Xiao-Jun Ren, Bing-Ya Zhang, Tie-Jun Wang
PURPOSE: Locally recurring cervical cancer after surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy remains a major therapeutic challenge. This paper presents a new therapeutic technique for such patients: interstitial brachytherapy (BT) guided by real-time three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen patients with recurrent cervical cancer after radical surgery and adjuvant external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) were included in this study. These patients underwent high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial BT with free-hand placement of metal needles guided by real-time 3D-CT...
October 2016: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895682/development-and-clinical-implementation-of-a-new-template-for-mri-based-intracavitary-interstitial-gynecologic-brachytherapy-for-locally-advanced-cervical-cancer-from-ct-based-mupit-to-the-mri-compatible-template-benidorm-ten-years-of-experience
#13
Silvia Rodríguez Villalba, Jose Richart Sancho, Antonio Otal Palacín, Jose Perez-Calatayud, Manuel Santos Ortega
PURPOSE: To study outcome and toxicity in 59 patients with locally advanced cervix carcinoma treated with computed tomography (CT)-based Martinez universal perineal interstitial template (MUPIT) and the new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible template Benidorm (TB). MATERIAL AND METHODS: From December 2005 to October 2015, we retrospectively analyzed 34 patients treated with MUPIT and 25 treated with the TB. Six 4 Gy fractions were prescribed to the clinical target volume (CTV) combined with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT)...
October 2016: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895681/rectal-separation-using-hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose-in-intracavitary-brachytherapy-of-cervical-cancer-an-innovative-approach
#14
Swapnendu Basu, Kazi Sazzad Manir, Abhishek Basu, Koushik Ghosh
PURPOSE: This study was initiated to prove feasibility of hydrogel application in recto-vaginal space in intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) of cervical cancer in order to reduce rectal toxicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a case of stage IIB cervical cancer, after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), we planned ICBT 7 Gy × 3 fractions. In 1(st) fraction (Plan 1), due to narrow separation between rectum and cervix (0.18 cm), only 5 Gy was delivered at point A (with high-risk clinical target volume [HR-CTV] D90 5...
October 2016: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895427/irritable-bowel-syndrome-evaluation-using-computed-tomography-colonography
#15
Hideki Ohgo, Hiroyuki Imaeda, Minoru Yamaoka, Kazuaki Yoneno, Naoki Hosoe, Takeshi Mizukami, Hidetomo Nakamoto
AIM: To evaluate the morphology of the colon in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) by using computed tomography colonography (CTC). METHODS: Twelve patients with diarrhea type IBS (IBS-D), 13 patients with constipation type IBS (IBS-C), 12 patients with functional constipation (FC) and 14 control patients underwent colonoscopy following CTC. The lengths of the rectosigmoid colon, transverse colon and the total colon were measured. The diameters of the rectum, sigmoid colon, descending colon, transverse colon, and ascending colon were measured...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893659/serum-ca125-concentration-as-a-predictor-of-peritoneal-dissemination-of-colorectal-cancer-in-men-and-women
#16
Chi-Jung Huang, Jeng-Kai Jiang, Shih-Ching Chang, Jen-Kou Lin, Shung-Haur Yang
Peritoneal dissemination (PD) of cancer is difficult to diagnose. Previous reports have shown that carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) is a sensitive marker of PD of gastric cancer. However, CA125 has not been evaluated as a marker of colorectal cancer (CRC), and its accuracy in men is controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of CA125 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) to predict PD of CRC in men and women.Preoperative CA125 and CEA concentrations were measured in 853 people (510 men, 343 women) over 10 years...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890941/five-year-cancer-survival-rates-in-oklahoma-from-1997-to-2008
#17
Janis Campbell, Krupa Gandhi, Anne Pate, Amanda Janitz, Amber Anderson, Robin Kinnard, Kai Ding
INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the five-year observed survival rates of American Indians/Alaskan Native, African American, and white cancer patients among various demographic characteristics in Oklahoma focusing on lung and bronchus, colon and rectum, female breast, and prostate for the cancer patients diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. METHODS: The five-year observed survival rates were calculated for overall cancer and specific cancer sites, using Kaplan-Meier method with data from the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry...
July 2016: Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888222/asymptomatic-colitis-induced-by-low-dose-methotrexate
#18
Toshikazu Ozeki, Yoshiro Fujita
A woman aged 77 years with a history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) presented with inflammatory colitis confined to her rectum, which was incidentally found by a screening colonoscopy. Histopathological examination of colonic biopsies showed non-specific inflammatory infiltrates of lymphocytes, the cause of which was unknown. She had been diagnosed with RA 5 years before, and she was receiving methotrexate 6 mg weekly, to which tocilizumab had been added 4 years earlier, which achieved stable control of her disease...
November 25, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885894/mr-enterography-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-with-endoscopic-correlation
#19
Pankaj Kaushal, Alexander S Somwaru, Aline Charabaty, Angela D Levy
Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the two main forms of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CD is a transmural chronic inflammatory disorder that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract in a discontinuous distribution. UC is a mucosal and submucosal chronic inflammatory disease that typically originates in the rectum and may extend proximally in a continuous manner. In treating patients with CD and UC, clinicians rely heavily on accurate diagnoses and disease staging. Magnetic resonance (MR) enterography used in conjunction with endoscopy and histopathologic analysis can help accurately diagnose and manage disease in the majority of patients...
November 25, 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885759/transanal-minimally-invasive-rectal-resection-for-deep-endometriosis-a-promising-technique
#20
Stijn L Vlek, Marit C I Lier, Thomas W A Koedam, Ingeborg Melgers, Judith J M L Dekker, Jaap H Bonjer, Velja Mijatovic, Jurriaan B Tuynman
AIM: Surgical management of patients with deep endometriosis (DE) of the rectum is difficult. Inflammation and subsequent adhesions due to DE impede access to the lower pelvis and may lead to complications during laparoscopic low anterior resection (LAR). Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) is an alternative to an abdominal approach with potential advantages. The aim of this study was to provide a description of the TAMIS technique and to present the perioperative results of TAMIS and of conventional LAR in patients with DE...
November 25, 2016: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
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