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Sarena Che Omar, Michael A Bentley, Giulia Morieri, Gail M Preston, Sarah J Gurr
The rice blast fungus causes significant annual harvest losses. It also serves as a genetically-tractable model to study fungal ingress. Whilst pathogenicity determinants have been unmasked and changes in global gene expression described, we know little about Magnaporthe oryzae cell wall remodelling. Our interests, in wall remodelling genes expressed during infection, vegetative growth and under exogenous wall stress, demand robust choice of reference genes for quantitative Real Time-PCR (qRT-PCR) data normalisation...
2016: PloS One
João C R Cardoso, Christina A Bergqvist, Rute C Félix, Dan Larhammar
The evolution of the peptide family consisting of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and the three urocortins (UCN1-3) has been puzzling due to uneven evolutionary rates. Distinct gene duplication scenarios have been proposed in relation to the two basal rounds of vertebrate genome doubling (2R) and the teleost fish-specific genome doubling (3R). By analyses of sequences and chromosomal regions, including many neighboring gene families, we show here that the vertebrate progenitor had two peptide genes that served as the founders of separate subfamilies...
July 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Shuyin Yu, Xiaojing Jia, Gilles Frapper, Duan Li, Artem R Oganov, Qingfeng Zeng, Litong Zhang
Chromium hydride is a prototype stoichiometric transition metal hydride. The phase diagram of Cr-H system at high pressures remains largely unexplored due to the challenges in dealing with the high activation barriers and complications in handing hydrogen under pressure. We have performed an extensive structural study on Cr-H system at pressure range 0 ∼ 300 GPa using an unbiased structure prediction method based on evolutionary algorithm. Upon compression, a number of hydrides are predicted to become stable in the excess hydrogen environment and these have compositions of Cr2Hn (n = 2-4, 6, 8, 16)...
2015: Scientific Reports
E Eraslan, İ Akyazi, E Ergül-Ekiz, E Matur
Noise is a widespread stress resource that may lead to detrimental effects on the health. However, the molecular basis of the stress response caused by noise remains elusive. We have studied the effects of acute and chronic noise stress on stress-related molecules in the hypothalamus and hippocampus and also corticosterone responses. Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into control, acute and chronic noise stress groups. While the chronic noise stress group animals were exposed to 100 dB white noise for 4 h/a day during 30 days, the acute noise stress group of animals was exposed to the same level of stress once for 4 h...
2015: Folia Biologica (Praha)
Brian P Grone, Karen P Maruska
To investigate the origins of the vertebrate stress-response system, we searched sequenced vertebrate genomes for genes resembling corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). We found that vertebrate genomes possess, in addition to CRH, another gene that resembles CRH in sequence and syntenic environment. This paralogous gene was previously identified only in the elephant shark (a holocephalan), but we find it also in marsupials, monotremes, lizards, turtles, birds, and fishes. We examined the relationship of this second vertebrate CRH gene, which we name CRH2, to CRH1 (previously known as CRH) and urocortin1/urotensin1 (UCN1/UTS1) in primitive fishes, teleosts, and tetrapods...
May 1, 2015: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Noelia Blanco, Ana B Sanz, Jose M Rodríguez-Peña, César Nombela, Vladimír Farkaš, Ramón Hurtado-Guerrero, Javier Arroyo
Covalent cross-links between chitin and glucan at the yeast cell wall are created by the transglycosylase activity of redundant proteins Crh1 and Crh2, with cleavage of β-1,4 linkages of the chitin backbone and transfer of the generated molecule containing newly created reducing end onto the glucan acceptor. A three-dimensional structure of Crh1 was generated by homology modeling based on the crystal structure of bacterial 1,3-1,4-β-d-glucanase, followed by site-directed mutagenesis to obtain molecular insights into how these enzymes achieve catalysis...
February 2015: FEBS Journal
G Telegdy, A Adamik
Neuromedin U (NmU), first was isolated from the porcine spinal cord, has subsequently been demonstrated in a number of species, in which it is present in the periphery and also the brain. Two receptors have been identified: NmU1R is mainly present in peripheral tissues, and Nmu2R in the central nervous system. NmU, a potent endogenous anorectic, serves as a catabolic signaling molecule in the brain; it inhibits food uptake, increases locomotion, activates stress mechanism, having cardiovasscular effects and, causes hyperthermia...
June 2014: Regulatory Peptides
David A Lovejoy, Belinda S W Chang, Nathan R Lovejoy, Jon del Castillo
Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is the pivotal neuroendocrine peptide hormone associated with the regulation of the stress response in vertebrates. However, CRH-like peptides are also found in a number of invertebrate species. The origin of this peptide can be traced to a common ancestor of lineages leading to chordates and to arthropods, postulated to occur some 500 million years ago. Evidence indicates the presence of a single CRH-like receptor and a soluble binding protein system that acted to transduce and regulate the actions of the early CRH peptide...
June 2014: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Marian Mazáň, Noelia Blanco, Kristína Kováčová, Zuzana Firáková, Pavel Rehulka, Vladimír Farkaš, Javier Arroyo
The mechanical properties of fungal cell walls are largely determined by composition and mutual cross-linking of their macromolecular components. Previous work showed that the Crh proteins are required for the formation of cross-links between chitin and glucan at the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall. In the present study, the proteins encoded by CRH1 and CRH2 were heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris and a sensitive fluorescence in vitro soluble assay was devised for determination of their transglycosylating activities...
November 1, 2013: Biochemical Journal
Noelia Blanco, Michael Reidy, Javier Arroyo, Enrico Cabib
Previous work has shown that, in cla4Δ cells of budding yeast, where septin ring organization is compromised, the chitin ring at the mother-daughter neck becomes essential for prevention of neck widening and for cytokinesis. Here, we show that it is not the chitin ring per se, but its linkage to β(1-3)glucan that is required for control of neck growth. When in a cla4Δ background, crh1Δ crh2Δ mutants, in which the chitin ring is not connected to β(1-3)glucan, grew very slowly and showed wide and growing necks, elongated buds and swollen cells with large vacuoles...
December 1, 2012: Journal of Cell Science
Lennart Zabeau, Annick Verhee, Dominiek Catteeuw, Liesbeth Faes, Sylvie Seeuws, Tine Decruy, Dirk Elewaut, Frank Peelman, Jan Tavernier
The adipocyte-derived cytokine leptin acts as a metabolic switch, connecting the body's metabolism to high-energy consuming processes such as reproduction and immune responses. Accumulating evidence suggests that leptin plays a role in human pathologies, such as autoimmune diseases and cancer, thus providing a rationale for the development of leptin antagonists. In the present study, we generated and evaluated a panel of neutralizing nanobodies targeting the LR (leptin receptor). A nanobody comprises the variable domain of the naturally occurring single-chain antibodies found in members of the Camelidae family...
January 1, 2012: Biochemical Journal
Kelly A Miller, Louis DiDone, Damian J Krysan
Eukaryotic cells employ a variety of mechanisms to maintain protein quality control and homeostasis. Here we provide evidence that one such mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves the regulated release of excess or misfolded proteins to the extracellular space. The overexpression of an epitope-tagged allele of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked cell wall protein Utr2/Crh2p (Utr2/Crh2-green fluorescent protein [GFP] or -hemagglutinin [HA]) causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the secretion of Crh2-GFP/HA into the extracellular space...
November 2010: Eukaryotic Cell
Yuichi Kamikubo, Claudia Dellas, David J Loskutoff, James P Quigley, Zaverio M Ruggeri
The extracellular domain of the human leptin receptor (Ob-R) contains 20 potential N-glycosylation sites whose role in leptin binding remains to be elucidated. We found that a mammalian cell-expressed sOb-R (soluble Ob-R) fragment (residues 22-839 of the extracellular domain) bound leptin with a dissociation constant of 1.8 nM. This binding was inhibited by Con A (concanavalin A) or wheatgerm agglutinin. Treatment of sOb-R with peptide N-glycosidase F reduced leptin binding by approximately 80% concurrently with N-linked glycan removal...
March 15, 2008: Biochemical Journal
Enrico Cabib, Noelia Blanco, Cecilia Grau, José Manuel Rodríguez-Peña, Javier Arroyo
In budding yeast, chitin is found in three locations: at the primary septum, largely in free form, at the mother-bud neck, partially linked to beta(1-3)glucan, and in the lateral wall, attached in part to beta(1-6)glucan. By using a recently developed strategy for the study of cell wall cross-links, we have found that chitin linked to beta(1-6)glucan is diminished in mutants of the CRH1 or the CRH2/UTR2 gene and completely absent in a double mutant. This indicates that Crh1p and Crh2p, homologues of glycosyltransferases, ferry chitin chains from chitin synthase III to beta(1-6)glucan...
February 2007: Molecular Microbiology
Frank Peelman, Hannes Iserentant, Anne-Sophie De Smet, Joël Vandekerckhove, Lennart Zabeau, Jan Tavernier
The leptin.leptin receptor (LR) system shows strong similarities to the long chain cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) cytokine.cytokine receptor systems. The IL-6 family cytokines interact with their receptors through three different binding sites (I-III). We demonstrated previously that leptin has similar binding sites I-III and mapped the interactions between binding site II and cytokine receptor homology domain II (CRH2) (Peelman, F., Van Beneden, K., Zabeau, L...
June 2, 2006: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hannes Iserentant, Frank Peelman, Delphine Defeau, Joël Vandekerckhove, Lennart Zabeau, Jan Tavernier
Despite the impact of the leptin system on body weight and other physiologic processes, little is known about the binding of leptin to its receptor. The extracellular domain of the leptin receptor consists of two cytokine receptor homology (CRH) domains separated by an immunoglobulin-like domain, and followed by two juxtamembrane fibronectin type III modules. The CRH2 domain functions as a high-affinity binding site for leptin, and we previously demonstrated interaction with helices A and C of leptin. In this work, we constructed a homology model for the leptin/CRH2 complex and performed a detailed mutation analysis of the CRH2/leptin interface...
June 1, 2005: Journal of Cell Science
Lennart Zabeau, Delphine Defeau, Hannes Iserentant, Joël Vandekerckhove, Frank Peelman, Jan Tavernier
The leptin receptor (LR) complex is composed of a single subunit belonging to the class I cytokine receptor family and exists as a preformed complex. The extracellular portion contains two cytokine receptor homology (CRH) domains, separated by an Ig-like domain and followed by two membrane-proximal fibronectin type III (FNIII) domains. The mechanisms underlying ligand-induced receptor activation are still poorly understood. LRs can exist as disulfide-linked dimers at the cell surface, even in the absence of leptin...
June 17, 2005: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Frank Peelman, Katrien Van Beneden, Lennart Zabeau, Hannes Iserentant, Peter Ulrichts, Delphine Defeau, Annick Verhee, Dominiek Catteeuw, Dirk Elewaut, Jan Tavernier
The leptin/leptin receptor system shows strong similarities to the long-chain cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor cytokine/receptor systems. The IL-6 family cytokines interact with their receptors through three different binding sites I-III. The leptin structure was superposed on the crystal structures of several long-chain cytokines, and a series of leptin mutants was generated focusing on binding sites I-III. The effect of the mutations on leptin receptor (LR) signaling and on binding to the membrane proximal cytokine receptor homology domain (CRH2) of the LR was determined...
September 24, 2004: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Zul Merali, Lisheng Du, Pavel Hrdina, Miklos Palkovits, Gabor Faludi, Michael O Poulter, Hymie Anisman
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and GABA have been implicated in depression, and there is reason to believe that GABA may influence CRH functioning. The levels of CRH, and mRNA for CRH-binding protein, CRH1, and CRH2 receptors, as well as various GABA(A) receptor subunits (alpha1, alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5, delta, and gamma2), were determined in several frontal cortical brain regions of depressed suicide victims and nondepressed individuals who had not died by suicide. Relative to the comparison group, CRH levels were elevated in frontopolar and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, but not in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex of suicide victims...
February 11, 2004: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Adam McCluskey, Paul A Keller, Jody Morgan, James Garner
Four small, targeted libraries of differentially substituted amino pyrimidines were synthesized in moderate to good yields. Excellent regiochemistry was observed for substitution at C2/C4 with selectivity > 50:1 noted. All analogues were screened for their ability to interact with CRH1 and CRH2 receptors. In all instances only poor agonistic and/or antagonistic behaviour was noted at CRH2. However, several compounds were potent and selective CRH1 antagonists, most notably 13a Ki = 39 nM. Additionally we have utilized these data and that recently reported by others to refine our original CRH1 pharmacophore (J Med...
October 7, 2003: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
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