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Gonzalo Giribet
Ctenophores, one of the most basal branches in the tree of life, have been found to have a through-gut, complete with mouth and anus. Basal animals are surprisingly complex and simplification has been rampant in animal evolution.
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Ting-Ting Cao, Xiu-Li Sun, Shi-Yan Wang, Xin Yang, Jian-Liu Wang
BACKGROUND: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a major health concern that affects women. Surgeons have increasingly used prosthetic meshes to correct POP. However, the most common used is synthetic mesh, and absorbable mesh is less reported. This research aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS). METHODS: Consecutive forty POP patients who met the inclusion criteria underwent pelvic reconstruction surgery with SIS between March 2012 and December 2013...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Yong-Sik Bong, Shahin Assefnia, Therese Tuohy, Deborah W Neklason, Randall W Burt, Jaeil Ahn, Hao-Wen J Jiang, Stephen W Byers
Vitamin D is implicated in the etiology of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, usually characterized by alteration in the APC/β-catenin/TCF tumor suppressor pathway. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is also implicated in cardiovascular and skin diseases as well as in immunity. Activated VDR can indirectly alter β-catenin nuclear localization and directly suppress β-catenin/TCF mediated transcriptional activity. We treated VDR null mice with the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) and generated mice bearing a mutated APC (hypomorph) on a VDR null background (Apc1638N/+Vdr-/-)...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Ilhem Guesmi-Mzoughi, Antonio Archidona-Yuste, Carolina Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Hajer Regaieg, Najet Horrigue-Raouani, Juan E Palomares-Rius, Pablo Castillo
Spiral nematode species of the genus Rotylenchus have been reported on olive (Olea europaea L.) in several Mediterranean countries (Castillo et al., 2010; Ali et al., 2014). Nematological surveys for plant-parasitic nematodes on olive trees were carried out in Tunisia between 2013 and 2014, and two nematode species of Rotylenchus were collected from the rhizosphere of olive cv. Chemlali in several localities of Tunisia (Tables 1,2 [Table: see text] [Table: see text] ). Twenty-two soil samples of 3 to 4 kg were collected with a shovel from the upper 50 cm of soil from arbitrarily chosen olive trees...
September 2016: Journal of Nematology
Ana Gabriela Travassos, Eveline Xavier Pereira de Souza, Eduardo Netto, Eda Vinhaes Dantas, Maiara Timbó, Isabella Nóbrega, Tatiana Haguihara, Júlia Maria de Oliveira Neumeyer, Nathalia Araújo Lisboa, Maria Angela Soidan, Fábio Ferreira, Carlos Brites
BACKGROUND: Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections throughout the world. These sexually transmitted infections are a growing problem in people living with HIV/AIDS. However, the presence of these agents in extra genital sites, remains poorly studied in our country. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae anal and genital infection in people living with HIV/AIDS followed in a reference center in Salvador, Brazil...
October 17, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Akira Ikumi, Shigeki Kubota, Yukiyo Shimizu, Hideki Kadone, Aiki Marushima, Tomoyuki Ueno, Hiroaki Kawamoto, Yasushi Hada, Akira Matsumura, Yoshiyuki Sankai, Masashi Yamazaki
CONTEXT: Recently, locomotor training with robotic assistance has been found effective in treating spinal cord injury (SCI). Our case report examined locomotor training using the robotic suit hybrid assistive limb (HAL) in a patient with complete C4 quadriplegia due to chronic SCI. This is the first report examining HAL in complete C4 quadriplegia. FINDINGS: The patient was a 19-year-old man who dislocated C3/4 during judo 4 years previously. Following the injury, he underwent C3/4 posterior spinal fusion but remained paralyzed despite rehabilitation...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Michitaka Honda, Takashi Akiyoshi, Hisashi Noma, Atsushi Ogura, Toshiya Nagasaki, Tsuyoshi Konishi, Yoshiya Fujimoto, Satoshi Nagayama, Yosuke Fukunaga, Masashi Ueno
BACKGROUND: For patients with low-lying rectal cancer, the feasibility of anus-preserving surgery in combination with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) has been not well established from the perspective of patient-centered outcomes. METHODS: We investigated 278 patients with low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma from 2005 to 2012. We compared their symptoms and QOL scores of patients who underwent anus-preserving surgery with (n = 88) and without (n = 143) NACRT according to the Wexner scale, EORTC QLQ C-30, CR29, and the modified fecal incontinence quality life scale (mFIQL)...
October 2016: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Robson Azevedo Dutra, Adriana Cartafina Perez Boscollo
Background: The anorectal anomalies consist in a complex group of birth defects. Laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty improved visualization of the rectal fistula and the ability to place the pull-through segment within the elevator muscle complex with minimal dissection. There is no consensus on how the fistula should be managed. Aim: To evaluate the laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty and the treatment of the rectal urinary fistula by a bipolar sealing device...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Barrett Cromeens, Jennifer L McKinney, Jeffrey Leonard, Lance Governale, Judy Brown, Christina Henry, Marc Levitt, Richard Wood, Gail Besner, Monica P Islam
Conjoined twins occur in up to 1 in 50,000 live births with approximately 18% joined in a pygopagus configuration at the buttocks. Twins with this configuration display symptoms and carry surgical risks during separation related to the extent of their connection which can include anorectal, genitourinary, vertebral, and neural structures. Neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring (NIOM) for these cases has been discussed in the literature with variable utility. We present a case of pygopagus twins with fused spinal cords and imperforate anus where the use of NIOM significantly impacted surgical decision making in division of these critical structures...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Tina T Thomas, Daniel H Teitelbaum, Ethan A Smith, Jonathan R Dillman, Ranjith Vellody, Marcus D Jarboe
PURPOSE: Surgical procedures for high imperforate anus have ranged from the posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) to laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty (LAARP). PSARP bisects the sphincter muscle complex, introducing muscle injury and scarring. LAARP uses a straight trocar to traverse an often non-linear sphincter muscle complex. MRI-assisted LAARP (MRI-LAARP) guides the neorectum precisely through the middle of the entire sphincter complex along its trajectory. We present our experience utilizing MRI intraoperatively during LAARP...
October 8, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
P Midrio, S Battaglia, E Urso, M Castagnetti, P Gamba
AIM: Anorectal malformation (ARM) is a rare congenital disorder of the anus and rectum. In the last 30 years virtually all patients born with ARM have survived and surgeons from adult care may be called to deal with new and long-term sequelae, including tumors of the pulled-through anorectum. Two new cases of colorectal carcinoma in young adults born with ARM and a review of the literature is reported to emphasize the importance of a multidisciplinary follow-up. METHODS: A man and a woman, with previous history of ARM, presented at 34 years of age with symptoms of intestinal occlusion and a large pelvic mass...
2016: SpringerPlus
Sunki Rhee, Masahito Yamamoto, Kei Kitamura, Kasahara Masaaki, Yukio Katori, Gen Murakami, Shin-Ichi Abe
Macrophages play an important role in aging-related muscle atrophy (i.e., sarcopenia). We examined macrophage density in six striated muscles (cricopharyngeus muscle, posterior cricoarytenoideus muscle, genioglossus muscle, masseter muscle, infraspinatus muscle, and external anal sphincter). We examined 14 donated male cadavers and utilized CD68 immunohistochemistry to clarify macrophage density in muscles. The numbers of macrophages per striated muscle fiber in the larynx and pharynx (0.34 and 0.31) were 5-6 times greater than those in the tongue, shoulder, and anus (0...
September 2016: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Akira Tsunoda, Tomoko Takahashi, Kaori Arika, Sachiyo Kubo, Takeshi Tokita, Shogo Kameda
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a survey to investigate the use of bidet toilets among community dwelling Japanese people and explored the correlates for an itch on the anus. METHODS: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among a convenience sample of individuals, who were derived from outpatients and employees of Kameda Medical Center, and students and employees of two technical colleges. RESULTS: A total of 4,963 respondents were evaluated in this study, 55 % of whom used bidet toilets either before or after defecation, and at least 30 % of bidet users washed the anus before defecation, partly to aid defecation...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Evie H Carchman, Kristina A Matkowskyj, Louise Meske, Paul F Lambert
INTRODUCTION: Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process that removes and recycles unnecessary/dysfunctional cellular components, contributing to cellular health and survival. Autophagy is a highly regulated cellular process that responds to several intracellular signals, many of which are deregulated by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection through the expression of HPV-encoded oncoproteins. This adaptive inhibitory response helps prevent viral clearance. A strong correlation remains between HPV infection and the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anus, particularly in HIV positive and other immunosuppressed patients...
2016: PloS One
Fatema Zohura, Sazzadul Islam Bhuyian, Shirajum Monira, Farzana Begum, Shwapon K Biswas, Tahmina Parvin, David Sack, R Bradley Sack, Elli Leontsini, K M Saif-Ur-Rahman, Mahamud-Ur Rashid, Rumana Sharmin, Xiaotong Zhang, Munirul Alam, Christine Marie George
Household members of cholera patients are at a 100 times higher risk of cholera than the general population. Despite this risk, there are only a handful of studies that have looked at the handwashing practices among hospitalized diarrhea patients and their accompanying household members. To investigate handwashing practices in a hospital setting among this high-risk population, a 3-hour structured observation was conducted in a hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, among 148 cholera patients and their household members...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Takeshi Nishikawa, Soichiro Ishihara, Tetsuo Ushiku, Keisuke Hata, Kazuhito Sasaki, Koji Murono, Koji Yasuda, Kensuke Otani, Toshiaki Tanaka, Tomomichi Kiyomatsu, Kazushige Kawai, Hiroaki Nozawa, Toshiaki Watanabe
The metastasis of rectal cancer to the anus is rare. Here, we report a case of advanced rectal cancer, which had a diffuse venous invasion with anal metastasis and multiple lymph node and liver metastases. The patient was a 72-year-old woman who complained of perianal pain and fresh blood in the stools for 6 months. She had neither history of fistula-in-ano nor anal surgery. Digital examination revealed a 2-cm tumor at the 7 o'clock position, and the barium enema and colonoscopy confirmed advanced rectal cancer...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Shilpa Sharma, Devendra K Gupta
Congenital H-type fistula is a rare congenital rectourogenital connection with an external anal opening in a normal or ectopic position. A systematic review was done to study the anatomical types of congenital H-type fistula, embryology, clinical presentation, relative gender distribution, associated anomalies, investigative modalities, and recent advances in treatment of these lesions. A PubMed search included H-type anorectal malformation; H-type anorectal malformations; H-type anorectal; and H-type congenital anorectal that gave 9;43;76;26 abstracts, respectively...
October 1, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Angel M Mayor, Eduardo J Santiago-Rodriguez, Eddy Rios-Olivares, Guillermo Tortolero-Luna, Robert F Hunter-Mellado
BACKGROUND: The study describes the cancer trends in a Puerto Rican Hispanic HIV/AIDS cohort for three different time periods as defined by the availability of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the Island: pre (1992-1995), early (1996-2002, and recent (2003-2009). METHODS: AIDS and non-AIDS related malignancies risk, standardized incidence rate and one year mortality was evaluated in the cohort before and after cART. RESULTS: Of the 281 malignancies found in 265 persons; 72% were in men, 38% in injecting drug users and 42...
2016: International Journal of Cancer Research
Anaïs Castagnola, Geraldine Mulley, Nathaniel Davis, Nicholas Waterfield, S Patricia Stock
In this study, we assessed pirAB toxin transcription in Photorhabdus luminescens laumondii (strain TT01) (Enterobacteriaceae) by comparing mRNA abundance under in vivo and in vitro conditions. In vivo assays considered both natural and forced infections with two lepidopteran hosts: Galleria mellonella and Manduca sexta. Three portals of entry were utilized for the forced infection assays: (a) integument; (b) the digestive route (via mouth and anus); and (c) the tracheal route (via spiracles). We also assessed plu4093-2 transcription during the course of a natural infection; this is when the bacteria are delivered by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora nematodes...
2016: Toxins
Hiroaki Kaneko, Kingo Hirasawa, Ryonho Koh, Ryousuke Kobayashi, Atsushi Kokawa, Katsuaki Tanaka, Shin Maeda
AIM: In Japan, most of colorectal carcinoid tumors developed in rectum. The choice of treatment is important because surgical treatment may need to construct artificial anus. Although curative endoscopic resection (ER) is desirable from the point of quality of life, sufficient evidence of endoscopic treatment for rectal carcinoid tumors is not fully obtained. METHODS: Between April 2001 and August 2013, 46 rectal carcinoid tumors in 46 patients who underwent either with endoscopic mucosal resection with a ligation device (EMR-L) or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) were analyzed retrospectively...
December 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
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