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Lateral septum

Charanjit Kaur, Eng-Ang Ling
Transitory cavities associated with the ventricular system represent probably one of the most unique features in the developing mammalian brain. In rodents, the cavities exist transiently in the developing brain and do not appear to be associated with any pathological events. Among the various cavities, the pyramidal-shaped cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) located beneath the corpus callosum and between the lateral ventricles is most well defined. In addition to the CSP are the bilateral subependymal cysts that are consistently associated with the third and fourth ventricles as well as the aqueduct...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Caroline M Hostetler, Katherine Hinde, Nicole Maninger, Sally P Mendoza, William A Mason, Douglas J Rowland, Guobao B Wang, David Kukis, Simon R Cherry, Karen L Bales
Pair bonding leads to increases in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) binding in the nucleus accumbens of monogamous prairie voles. In the current study, we hypothesized that there is similar up-regulation of D1R in a monogamous primate, the titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus). Receptor binding of the D1R antagonist [(11) C]-SCH23390 was measured in male titi monkeys using PET scans before and after pairing with a female. We found that within-subject analyses of pairing show significant increases in D1R binding in the lateral septum, but not the nucleus accumbens, caudate, putamen, or ventral pallidum...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Patricia Reant, Alexandre Metras, Dominique Detaille, Annabel Reynaud, Philippe Diolez, Beatrice Jaspard-Vinassa, Raymond Roudaut, Alexandre Ouattara, Laurent Barandon, Pierre Dos Santos, Stephane Lafitte
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) afterload could be associated with reduced myocardial contractility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative impact of increased afterload on LV myocardial deformation indices in chronic aortic constriction, with regard to hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, and mitochondrial function, and to differentiate acute versus chronic afterload effect. METHODS: Young pigs underwent aortic banding (n = 11) or sham (n = 7) operations...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Bingbo Hou, Lihui Zheng, Guodong Niu, Lingmin Wu, Yu Qiao, Wei Sun, Ligang Ding, Gang Chen, Shu Zhang, Reginald Liew, Yan Yao
AIMS: This study was aimed to report the characteristics and treatment of ventricular tachycardia (VT) following surgical treatment of pulmonary stenosis with intact ventricular septum. METHODS AND RESULTS: Five patients underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation for sustained monomorphic left bundle branch block (LBBB) type VT who previously underwent surgical treatment of pulmonary stenosis. Except stimulation, voltage and activation mapping was performed using three-dimensional (3D) electro-anatomic mapping and ablation was applied accordingly...
October 12, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Chen Liu, Xiao-Min Jiang, Juan Zhang, Bing Li, Jing Li, Du-Jiang Xie, Zuo-Ying Hu
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is commonly accompanied with the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) reduces PAH partly through the inhibition of RAAS. Analogically, we hypothesized that pulmonary artery denervation (PADN) could reverse PAH and PAH-induced right ventricular (RV) dysfunction by downregulating the local RAAS activity. METHODS: Twenty-five beagle dogs were randomized into two groups: control group (intra-atrial injection of N-dimethylacetamide, 3 mg/kg, n = 6) and test group (intra-atrial injection of dehydrogenized-monocrotaline, 3 mg/kg, n = 19)...
October 10, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Edith V Sullivan, Barton Lane, Dongjin Kwon, M J Meloy, Susan F Tapert, Sandra A Brown, Ian M Colrain, Fiona C Baker, Michael D De Bellis, Duncan B Clark, Bonnie J Nagel, Kilian M Pohl, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Structural MRI of volunteers deemed "normal" following clinical interview provides a window into normal brain developmental morphology but also reveals unexpected dysmorphology, commonly known as "incidental findings." Although unanticipated, these anatomical findings raise questions regarding possible treatment that could even ultimately require neurosurgical intervention, which itself carries significant risk but may not be indicated if the anomaly is nonprogressive or of no functional consequence. Neuroradiological readings of 833 structural MRI from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) cohort found an 11...
October 8, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Noriko Horii-Hayashi, Takayo Sasagawa, Mayumi Nishi
The hypothalamus controls metabolism, stress responses, and instinctive behaviors for individual survival and species preservation. Recent studies suggest that hypothalamic neurons retain plasticity throughout adulthood, which enables these neurons to respond to various kinds of changes in environment, nutrients, and fluctuating hormones. One of the mechanisms underlying the regulation of neural plasticity is the formation of a stable extracellular matrix (ECM) structure called perineuronal nets (PNNs). PNNs are large aggregates of heterogeneous ECM molecules such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), hyaluronan, their link proteins, and tenascin-R...
October 6, 2016: Anatomical Science International
J Alex Strahan, William H Walker, Taylor R Montgomery, Nancy G Forger
Minocycline, an antibiotic of the tetracycline family, inhibits microglia in many paradigms and is among the most commonly used tools for examining the role of microglia in physiological processes. Microglia may play an active role in triggering developmental neuronal cell death, although findings have been contradictory. To determine whether microglia influence developmental cell death, we treated perinatal mice with minocycline (45 mg/kg) and quantified effects on dying cells and microglial labeling using immunohistochemistry for activated caspase-3 (AC3) and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), respectively...
October 5, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Rhett A Reichard, Suriya Subramanian, Mikiyas T Desta, Tej Sura, Mary L Becker, Comeron W Ghobadi, Kenneth P Parsley, Daniel S Zahm
Behavioral flexibility is subserved in part by outputs from the cerebral cortex to telencephalic subcortical structures. In our earlier evaluation of the organization of the cortical-subcortical output system (Reynolds and Zahm, J Neurosci 25:11757-11767, 2005), retrograde double-labeling was evaluated in the prefrontal cortex following tracer injections into pairs of the following subcortical telencephalic structures: caudate-putamen, core and shell of the accumbens (Acb), bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST) and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA)...
October 4, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Rafael Carlo Francisco, Ricardo Ott, Renato Augusto Teixeira
Apollophanes has a wide distribution, with some species in Asia and most of the species recorded from North and Central America (World Spider Catalog 2016). New species described from the Galapagos Islands by Baert (2013) have extended the genus range to South America. According to Dondale and Redner (1975) and Dondale and Redner (1978), the species of Apollophanes have a moderately low prosoma, usually of yellow to orange-brown color and with black or brown spots on the lateral margins. The posterior eyes distances are equally spaced and the legs are long, slender and speckled with dark spots, with leg I usually being longer than IV (characteristic observed only in the male exemplar of the new species)...
September 26, 2016: Zootaxa
Yoshihiro Takasugi, Koichi Futagawa, Tatsuo Konishi, Daisuke Morimoto, Takahiko Okuda
PURPOSE: Most reported cases of nasopharyngeal laceration following impingement during nasotracheal intubation involved tube insertion via the right nostril. We postulated that recesses on the posterior wall of the nasopharynx might be associated with tube impingement. Using multiplanar imaging and clinical statistics, we evaluated whether anatomical variations in the recesses are related to successful intubation via the right nostril. METHODS: Using multiplanar computed tomography (CT) images of 97 patients, we investigated the locations of recesses relative to the mid-sagittal plane, nasal floor plane and posterior end of the nasal septum, and their shapes...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
Ishfaq Ali, Shobha Bhargava
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has emerged as a novel peptide to antagonize various physiological consequences of stress within a mammalian brain. Hypoxia induced neuropeptide Y release in mammalian systems is well established. However, the possible role of NPY in regulating the effects of oxygen variation in lower vertebrates has not been investigated. We have studied the distribution and neuro-anatomical expression of NPY in the brain of Euphlyctus cyanophlyctus tadpoles, exposed to normal and reduced oxygen levels using immunohistochemistry...
September 20, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Shel Hwa Yeo, Victoria Kyle, Paul G Morris, Sophie Jackman, Lydia Sinnett-Smith, Maria Schacker, Chen Chen, William H Colledge
Kisspeptin neuropeptides are encoded by the Kiss1 gene and play a critical role in the regulation of the mammalian reproductive axis. Kiss1 neurons are found in two locations in the rodent hypothalamus; one in the arcuate (ARC) and another in the RP3V region which includes the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus. Detailed mapping of the fibre distribution of Kiss1 neurons will help in understanding the action of these neurons in other regions of the brain. We have generated a transgenic mouse in which the Kiss1 coding region has been disrupted by a CRE-GFP transgene so that expression of the CRE recombinase protein is driven from the Kiss1 promoter...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Hiroto Ichishima
A cribriform plate, a perpendicular plate, and two lateral masses are major components of the ethmoid bone of mammals. Notwithstanding the noticeable bone, virtually sitting in the center of the skull, extensive modifications of the skull of modern cetaceans, especially odontocetes (toothed whales), and the lack of clarity as to what characteristics delimit each element of the ethmoid has made the problem of the nature of the cetacean ethmoid more complicated and elusive than in other, less modified mammals...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Morphology
Rita Carmona, Ana Cañete, Elena Cano, Laura Ariza, Anabel Rojas, Ramon Muñoz-Chápuli
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a severe birth defect. Wt1-null mouse embryos develop CDH but the mechanisms regulated by WT1 are unknown. We have generated a murine model with conditional deletion of WT1 in the lateral plate mesoderm, using the G2 enhancer of the Gata4 gene as a driver. 80% of G2-Gata4(Cre);Wt1(fl/fl) embryos developed typical Bochdalek-type CDH. We show that the posthepatic mesenchymal plate coelomic epithelium gives rise to a mesenchyme that populates the pleuroperitoneal folds isolating the pleural cavities before the migration of the somitic myoblasts...
2016: ELife
Uwe Mayer, Orsola Rosa-Salva, Giorgio Vallortigara
The septal nuclei are an evolutionarily well-conserved part of the limbic system, present in all vertebrate groups. Functionally, septal nuclei are involved in many important aspects of social behavior and lateral septum is considered a node of the social decision making network, together with amygdaloid nuclei. Given the importance of septal nuclei for social behaviors, it is somewhat surprising that it has never been investigated whether they are involved in early social responses of naïve animals. In the present study we wanted to know if simple exposure of visually naïve newly hatched chicks to a visual object (an alive, behaving conspecific), that also contains all features to which chicks are known to express early social predispositions, will selectively activate septal areas...
September 12, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Markus Stenner, Mario Koopmann, Claudia Rudack
Although septorhinoplasty is the most commonly performed operation in plastic surgery, and the surgical plan as well as its outcome is directly related to the configuration of the anatomical structures in the nose, these are not routinely assessed preoperatively. The aim of our study was to evaluate the nasal soft tissue and cartilaginous structures by means of high-resolution ultrasonography to set up clinical correlations and standard values. We examined 44 patients before septorhinoplasty by high-resolution ultrasonography in noncontact mode...
September 15, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Catherine T Clinard, Abigail K Barnes, Samuel G Adler, Matthew A Cooper
Winning aggressive disputes is one of several experiences that can alter responses to future stressful events. We have previously tested dominant and subordinate male Syrian hamsters in a conditioned defeat model and found that dominant individuals show less change in behavior following social defeat stress compared to subordinates and controls, indicating a reduced conditioned defeat response. Resistance to the effects of social defeat in dominants is experience-dependent and requires the maintenance of dominance relationships for 14days...
September 9, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Diana Olivo, Mario Caba, Francisco Gonzalez-Lima, Juan F Rodríguez-Landa, Aleph A Corona-Morales
When food is restricted to a brief fixed period every day, animals show an increase in temperature, corticosterone concentration and locomotor activity for 2-3h before feeding time, termed food anticipatory activity. Mechanisms and neuroanatomical circuits responsible for food anticipatory activity remain unclear, and may involve both oscillators and networks related to temporal conditioning. Rabbit pups are nursed once-a-day so they represent a natural model of circadian food anticipatory activity. Food anticipatory behavior in pups may be associated with neural circuits that temporally anticipate feeding, while the nursing event may produce consummatory effects...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Shenyue Qin, Mayur Madhavan, Ronald R Waclaw, Masato Nakafuku, Kenneth Campbell
In this study, we generated a transgenic mouse line driving Cre and EGFP expression with two putative cis-regulatory elements (CRMs) (i.e. hs687 and hs678) upstream of the homeobox gene Gsx2 (formerly Gsh2), a critical gene for establishing lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) identity. The combination of these two CRMs drives transgene expression within the endogenous Gsx2 expression domains along the anterior-posterior neuraxis. By crossing this transgenic line with the Rosa(tdTomato) (Ai14) reporter mouse line, we observed a unique recombination pattern in the lateral ventral telencephalon, namely the LGE and the dorsal half of the medial GE (MGE), but not in the septum...
September 12, 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
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