keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Chemogenetics

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821663/agrp-neurons-can-increase-food-intake-during-conditions-of-appetite-suppression-and-inhibit-anorexigenic-parabrachial-neurons
#1
Rachel A Essner, Alison G Smith, Adam A Jamnik, Anna R Ryba, Zoe D Trutner, Matthew E Carter
To maintain energy homeostasis, orexigenic (appetite-inducing) and anorexigenic (appetite suppressing) brain systems functionally interact to regulate food intake. Within the hypothalamus, neurons that express agouti-related protein (AgRP) sense orexigenic factors and orchestrate an increase in food-seeking behavior. In contrast, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) suppress feeding. PBN CGRP neurons become active in response to anorexigenic hormones released following a meal, including amylin, secreted by the pancreas, and cholecystokinin (CCK), secreted by the small intestine...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821651/role-of-somatostatin-positive-cortical-interneurons-in-the-generation-of-sleep-slow-waves
#2
Chadd M Funk, Kayla Peelman, Michele Bellesi, William Marshall, Chiara Cirelli, Giulio Tononi
During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep cortical and thalamic neurons oscillate every second or so between ON periods characterized by membrane depolarization and wake-like tonic firing, and OFF periods characterized by membrane hyperpolarization and neuronal silence. Cortical slow waves - the hallmark of NREM sleep - reflect near-synchronous OFF periods in cortical neurons. However, the mechanisms triggering such OFF periods are unclear, as there is little evidence for somatic inhibition. We studied cortical inhibitory interneurons that express somatostatin (SOM), because ∼70% of them are Martinotti cells that target diffusely layer I and can block excitatory transmission presynaptically, at glutamatergic terminals, and postsynaptically, at apical dendrites, without inhibiting the soma...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794102/optogenetics-and-pharmacogenetics-principles-and-applications
#3
Jingwei Jiang, Huxing Cui, Kamal Rahmouni
Remote and selective spatiotemporal control of the activity of neurons to regulate behavior and physiological functions has been a long-sought goal in system neuroscience. Identification and subsequent bioengineering of light-sensitive ion channels (e.g., channelrhodopsins, halorhodopsin and archaerhodopsins) from the bacteria has made it possible to utilize light to artificially modulate neuronal activity, namely optogenetics. Recent advance in genetics has also allowed development of novel pharmacological tools to selectively and remotely control neuronal activity using engineered G-protein coupled receptors which can be activated by otherwise inert drug-like small molecules such as the Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drug (DREADD) - a form of chemogenetics...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791729/applications-of-optogenetic-and-chemogenetic-methods-to-seizure-circuits-where-to-go-next
#4
REVIEW
Patrick A Forcelli
Epilepsy is the quintessential circuit disorder, with seizure activity propagating through anatomically constrained pathways. These pathways, necessary for normal sensory, motor, and cognitive function, are hijacked during seizures. Understanding the network architecture at the level of both local microcircuits and distributed macrocircuits may provide new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of epilepsy. Over the past decade, optogenetic and chemogenetic tools have enabled previously impossible levels of functional circuit mapping in neuroscience...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774929/chemogenetics-revealed-dreadd-occupancy-and-activation-via-converted-clozapine
#5
Juan L Gomez, Jordi Bonaventura, Wojciech Lesniak, William B Mathews, Polina Sysa-Shah, Lionel A Rodriguez, Randall J Ellis, Christopher T Richie, Brandon K Harvey, Robert F Dannals, Martin G Pomper, Antonello Bonci, Michael Michaelides
The chemogenetic technology DREADD (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) is widely used for remote manipulation of neuronal activity in freely moving animals. DREADD technology posits the use of "designer receptors," which are exclusively activated by the "designer drug" clozapine N-oxide (CNO). Nevertheless, the in vivo mechanism of action of CNO at DREADDs has never been confirmed. CNO does not enter the brain after systemic drug injections and shows low affinity for DREADDs. Clozapine, to which CNO rapidly converts in vivo, shows high DREADD affinity and potency...
August 4, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772120/silencing-neurons-tools-applications-and-experimental-constraints
#6
REVIEW
J Simon Wiegert, Mathias Mahn, Matthias Prigge, Yoav Printz, Ofer Yizhar
Reversible silencing of neuronal activity is a powerful approach for isolating the roles of specific neuronal populations in circuit dynamics and behavior. In contrast with neuronal excitation, for which the majority of studies have used a limited number of optogenetic and chemogenetic tools, the number of genetically encoded tools used for inhibition of neuronal activity has vastly expanded. Silencing strategies vary widely in their mechanism of action and in their spatial and temporal scales. Although such manipulations are commonly applied, the design and interpretation of neuronal silencing experiments present unique challenges, both technically and conceptually...
August 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756273/back-to-the-future-circuit-testing-ts-ocd
#7
Frank H Burton
A decade before the rise of optogenetics, the first behavioral "circuit-test" - transgenically modulating the output of a genetically-specified brain circuit element to examine its effect on behavior - was performed. The behaviors emulated in those mice were comorbid tics and compulsions, elicited by a gene borrowed from cholera bacteria and tailored to intracellularly neuropotentiate glutamatergic somatosensory cortical and limbic output neurons of cortico/amygdalo-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) loop circuits...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726801/accumbens-mechanisms-for-cued-sucrose-seeking
#8
Ana-Clara Bobadilla, Constanza Garcia-Keller, Jasper A Heinsbroek, Michael D Scofield, Victoria Chareunsouk, Cara Monforton, Peter W Kalivas
Many studies support a perspective that addictive drugs usurp brain circuits used by natural rewards, especially for the dopamine-dependent reinforcing qualities of both drugs and natural rewards. Reinstated drug seeking in animal models of relapse relies on glutamate spillover from cortical terminals synapsing in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) to stimulate metabotropic glutamate receptor5 (mGluR5) on neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) interneurons. Contrasting the release of dopamine that is shared by sucrose and drugs of abuse, reinstated sucrose seeking does not induce glutamate spillover...
July 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720520/neural-systems-mediating-the-inhibition-of-cocaine-seeking-behaviors
#9
REVIEW
Victória A Ewald, Ryan T LaLumiere
Over the past decades, research has targeted the neurobiology regulating cocaine-seeking behaviors, largely in the hopes of identifying potential targets for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Although much of this work has focused on those systems driving cocaine seeking, recently, studies examining the inhibition of cocaine-related behaviors have made significant progress in uncovering the neural systems that attenuate cocaine seeking. Such systems include the infralimbic cortex, nucleus accumbens shell, and hypothalamus...
July 15, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716712/effects-of-chemogenetic-excitation-or-inhibition-of-the-ventrolateral-periaqueductal-gray-on-the-acquisition-and-extinction-of-pavlovian-fear-conditioning
#10
Carolyn Arico, Elena E Bagley, Pascal Carrive, Neda Assareh, Gavan P McNally
The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been implicated in the generation and transmission of a prediction error signal that instructs amygdala-based fear and extinction learning. However, the PAG also plays a key role in the expression of conditioned fear responses. The evidence for a role of the PAG in fear learning and extinction learning has been obtained almost exclusively using PAG-dependent fear responses. It is less clear whether the PAG regulates fear learning when other measures of learned fear are used...
July 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695893/dorsal-hippocampus-drives-context-induced-cocaine-seeking-via-inputs-to-lateral-septum
#11
Ellen M McGlinchey, Gary Aston-Jones
Lateral septum (LS) has re-emerged as an important structure in reward and addiction, but LS afferents that drive addiction behaviors are unknown. Here, we used a modified self-administration/reinstatement procedure combined with anatomical, pharmacological, and chemogenetic techniques to characterize LS, and hippocampal inputs to LS, in two established triggers of drug relapse-context- and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking. We found that inactivation of LS neurons attenuated both context- and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking...
July 11, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684275/a-tale-of-two-circuits-cck-nts-neuron-stimulation-controls-appetite-and-induces-opposing-motivational-states-by-projections-to-distinct-brain-regions
#12
Carolyn W Roman, Stephanie R Sloat, Richard D Palmiter
Cholecystokinin (CCK)-expressing neurons within the nucleus of the solitary tract (CCK(NTS)) of the mouse are responsive to satiety signals and their chemogenetic activation suppresses appetite. Optogenetic activation of CCK(NTS) axon terminals within either the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) or the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) is sufficient to suppress feeding. An interesting dichotomy has been revealed when assessing the motivational valence of these two circuits. Activating CCK(NTS) cell bodies is aversive as demonstrated by conditioned taste aversion and place-preference assays...
July 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681378/update-on-the-mechanisms-and-roles-of-high-frequency-oscillations-in-seizures-and-epileptic-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Premysl Jiruska, Catalina Alvarado-Rojas, Catherine A Schevon, Richard Staba, William Stacey, Fabrice Wendling, Massimo Avoli
High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are a type of brain activity that is recorded from brain regions capable of generating seizures. Because of the close association of HFOs with epileptogenic tissue and ictogenesis, understanding their cellular and network mechanisms could provide valuable information about the organization of epileptogenic networks and how seizures emerge from the abnormal activity of these networks. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances in the field of HFOs and provide a critical evaluation of new observations within the context of already established knowledge...
August 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680103/chemogenetic-silencing-of-gabaergic-dorsal-horn-interneurons-induces-morphine-resistant-spontaneous-nocifensive-behaviours
#14
Keisuke Koga, Kensho Kanehisa, Yuta Kohro, Miho Shiratori-Hayashi, Hidetoshi Tozaki-Saitoh, Kazuhide Inoue, Hidemasa Furue, Makoto Tsuda
Inhibitory interneurons in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) are crucial for processing somatosensory information originating in the periphery. However, the effects of the acute and selective inactivation of GABAergic SDH interneurons on pain processing are not fully understood. In this study, we used designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) technology and vesicular GABA transporter-Cre (Vgat-Cre) mice to selectively express a modified human muscarinic Gi protein-coupled receptor (hM4Di) in Vgat-Cre (+) GABAergic SDH interneurons in the fourth lumbar segment...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677202/dreadd-induced-silencing-of-the-medial-amygdala-reduces-the-preference-for-male-pheromones-and-the-expression-of-lordosis-in-estrous-female-mice
#15
Elizabeth A McCarthy, Arman Maqsudlu, Matthew Bass, Sofia Georghiou, James A Cherry, Michael J Baum
Sexually naïve estrous female mice seek out male urinary pheromones; however, they initially display little receptive (lordosis) behavior in response to male mounts. Vomeronasal-accessory olfactory bulb inputs to the medial amygdala (Me) regulate courtship in female rodents. We used a reversible inhibitory chemogenetic technique (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs; DREADDs) to assess the contribution of Me signaling to females' preference for male pheromones and improvement in receptivity normally seen with repeated testing...
July 5, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669862/spontaneous-and-bite-evoked-muscle-pain-are-mediated-by-a-common-nociceptive-pathway-with-differential-contribution-by-trpv1
#16
Sheng Wang, Jongseuk Lim, John Joseph, Sen Wang, Feng Wei, Jin Y Ro, Man-Kyo Chung
Spontaneous pain and function-associated pain are prevalent symptoms of multiple acute and chronic muscle pathologies. We established mouse models for evaluating spontaneous pain and bite-evoked pain from masseter muscle, and determined the roles of TRPV1 and the contribution of TRPV1- or NK1-dependent nociceptive pathways. Masseter muscle inflammation increased mouse grimace scale (MGS) scores and face wiping behavior which were attenuated by pharmacological or genetic inhibition of TRPV1. Masseter inflammation led to a significant reduction in bite force...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664636/chemogenetic-inhibition-reveals-midline-thalamic-nuclei-and-thalamo-accumbens-projections-mediate-cocaine-seeking-in-rats
#17
Amanda M Wunsch, Lindsay M Yager, Elizabeth A Donckels, Calvin T Le, John F Neumaier, Susan M Ferguson
Drug addiction is a chronic disease that is shaped by alterations in neuronal function within the cortical-basal ganglia-thalamic circuit. However, our understanding of how this circuit regulates drug-seeking remains incomplete, and relapse rates remain high. The midline thalamic nuclei are an integral component of the cortical-basal ganglia-thalamic circuit and are poised to mediate addiction behaviors, including relapse. It is surprising that little research has examined the contribution of midline thalamic nuclei and their efferent projections in relapse...
August 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658323/using-c-kit-to-genetically-target-cerebellar-molecular-layer-interneurons-in-adult-mice
#18
Samantha B Amat, Matthew J M Rowan, Michael A Gaffield, Audrey Bonnan, Chikako Kikuchi, Hiroki Taniguchi, Jason M Christie
The cerebellar system helps modulate and fine-tune motor action. Purkinje cells (PCs) provide the sole output of the cerebellar cortex, therefore, any cerebellar involvement in motor activity must be driven by changes in PC firing rates. Several different cell types influence PC activity including excitatory input from parallel fibers and inhibition from molecular layer interneurons (MLIs). Similar to PCs, MLI activity is driven by parallel fibers, therefore, MLIs provide feed-forward inhibition onto PCs. To aid in the experimental assessment of how molecular layer inhibition contributes to cerebellar function and motor behavior, we characterized a new knock-in mouse line with Cre recombinase expression under control of endogenous c-kit transcriptional machinery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648649/selective-inhibition-of-amygdala-neuronal-ensembles-encoding-nicotine-associated-memories-inhibits-nicotine-preference-and-relapse
#19
Yan-Xue Xue, Ya-Yun Chen, Li-Bo Zhang, Li-Qun Zhang, Geng-Di Huang, Shi-Chao Sun, Jia-Hui Deng, Yi-Xiao Luo, Yan-Ping Bao, Ping Wu, Ying Han, Bruce T Hope, Yavin Shaham, Jie Shi, Lin Lu
BACKGROUND: Nicotine craving and relapse often occurs after reactivation of nicotine reward memories. We recently developed a memory retrieval-reconsolidation interference procedure in which reactivating nicotine reward memories by acute exposure to nicotine (the unconditioned stimulus [UCS]) and then pharmacologically interfering with memory reconsolidation decreased relapse to nicotine seeking in rats and nicotine craving in smokers. Here, we investigated underlying mechanisms. METHODS: In the first series of experiments, we trained rats for nicotine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) or nicotine self-administration and ventricularly microinjected them with the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin immediately after UCS-induced memory retrieval...
May 11, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642284/excitation-of-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-triggers-immediate-transition-from-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-to-wakefulness-in-mice
#20
Shota Kodani, Shingo Soya, Takeshi Sakurai
Emotionally salient situations usually trigger arousal along with autonomic and neuroendocrine reactions. To determine whether the extended amygdala plays a role in sleep-wakefulness regulation, we examined the effects of optogenetic and pharmacogenetic excitation of GABAergic neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (GABA(BNST) neurons). Acute optogenetic excitation of these cells during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep resulted in an immediate state transition to wakefulness, whereas stimulation during REM sleep showed no effect on sleep-wakefulness states in male mice...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
keyword
keyword
49247
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"