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Rongfeng Hu, Sen Jin, Xiaobin He, Fuqiang Xu, Ji Hu
The basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS) robustly modulates many important behaviors, such as arousal, attention, learning and memory, through heavy projections to cortex and hippocampus. However, the presynaptic partners governing BFCS activity still remain poorly understood. Here, we utilized a recently developed rabies virus-based cell-type-specific retrograde tracing system to map the whole-brain afferent inputs of the BFCS. We found that the BFCS receives inputs from multiple cortical areas, such as orbital frontal cortex, motor cortex, and insular cortex, and that the BFCS also receives dense inputs from several subcortical nuclei related to motivation and stress, including lateral septum, central amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus, dorsal raphe, and parabrachial nucleus...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Aviad Hai, Lili X Cai, Taekwan Lee, Victor S Lelyveld, Alan Jasanoff
Reuptake of neurotransmitters from the brain interstitium shapes chemical signaling processes and is disrupted in several pathologies. Serotonin reuptake in particular is important for mood regulation and is inhibited by first-line drugs for treatment of depression. Here we introduce a molecular-level fMRI technique for micron-scale mapping of serotonin transport in live animals. Intracranial injection of an MRI-detectable serotonin sensor complexed with serotonin, together with serial imaging and compartmental analysis, permits neurotransmitter transport to be quantified as serotonin dissociates from the probe...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Asit Das, Suvro Banerjee, S C Mandal
BACKGROUND: Pacing in the Bachmann's bundle (BB) area (upper atrial septum) appears superior to right atrial appendage or free wall stimulation for the prevention of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients with atrial conduction delay. However, insertion of active fixation lead in the upper atrial septal position is difficult and time consuming with conventional stylet, inhibiting application of this pacing method in routine practice. METHODS: The technique of positioning the atrial lead in BB with hand-made stylet is presented with emphasis on electrocardiographic P-wave pattern and fluoroscopic landmarks...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Abhijeet B Shelke, Rajeev Menon, Anuj Kapadiya, Sachin Yalagudri, Daljeet Saggu, Sandeep Nair, C Narasimhan
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol septal ablation (ASA) is a therapeutic alternative to surgical myectomy in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). However, the anatomical variability of the septal branch, risk of complete heart block, and late onset ventricular arrhythmias are limitations to its therapeutic usage. There is recent interest in the use of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) as a therapeutic option in HOCM. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of RFCA in the treatment of symptomatic HOCM...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Beata Hermanowicz-Sobieraj, Anna Robak
The study describes the immunoreactivity of calbindin (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV), their distribution pattern and the co-distribution of CB and CR as well as CB and PV in the septum of the guinea pig during development. Immunohistochemistry was conducted on embryonic (E40, E50, E60), newborn (P0) and postnatal (P5, P10, P20, P40, P100) guinea pig brains. The presence of both CB and CR was detected at E40, while PV began to be observed at E60. Immunoreactivity for CB was constant throughout ontogeny...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Katie Bardsley, Agnieska Kwarciak, Christine Freeman, Ian Brook, Paul Hatton, Aileen Crawford
The regeneration of large bone defects remains clinically challenging. The aim of our study was to use a rat model to use nasal chondrocytes to engineer a hypertrophic cartilage tissue which could be remodelled into bone in vivo by endochondral ossification. Primary adult rat nasal chondrocytes were isolated from the nasal septum, the cell numbers expanded in monolayer culture and the cells cultured in vitro on polyglycolic acid scaffolds in chondrogenic medium for culture periods of 5-10 weeks. Hypertrophic differentiation was assessed by determining the temporal expression of key marker genes and proteins involved in hypertrophic cartilage formation...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Dong Liu, Jie-Lu Zhou, Fashui Hong, Yu-Qing Zhang
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are used in many fields, such as paints, medicine additives, food additives, sunscreens and agriculture. The aim of this study was to investgate the mechanism behind the formation of inflammation induced by TiO2 NPs. ICR mice were exposed to TiO2 NPs through intragastric administration at 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight every day for 90 consecutive days. The experiment suggested that long-term exposure to TiO2 NPs resulted in an obvious inflammatory response in mice lung tissues, which led to a thickened alveoli septum, lung hyperaemia, and titanium accumulation...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Amee M Bigelow, Brandon S Arnold, Gregory C Padrutt, John M Clark
In current practice, children with anatomically normal hearts routinely undergo fluoroscopy-free ablations. Infants and children with congenital heart disease (CHD) represent the most difficult population to perform catheter ablation without fluoroscopy. We report two neonatal patients with CHD in whom cardiac ablations were performed without fluoroscopy. The first infant had pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum with refractory supraventricular tachycardia, and the second infant presented with Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve along with persistent supraventricular tachycardia...
October 21, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
Xianxiu Wan, Jian-Jun Wen, Sue-Jie Koo, Lisa Yi Liang, Nisha Jain Garg
Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCM) is presented by increased oxidative/inflammatory stress and decreased mitochondrial bioenergetics. SIRT1 senses the redox changes and integrates mitochondrial metabolism and inflammation; and SIRT1 deficiency may be a major determinant in CCM. To test this, C57BL/6 mice were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc), treated with SIRT1 agonists (resveratrol or SRT1720), and monitored during chronic phase (~150 days post-infection). Resveratrol treatment was partially beneficial in controlling the pathologic processes in Chagas disease...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Hasmet Yazici, Sedat Doğan, Mehmet Akif Sönmez, Olcay Eser
INTRODUCTION: Pituitary surgery involving different techniques is often applied to the excision of benign adenomas. Operative interventions involved various approaches and techniques. Endoscopic transsphenoidal approach is the less traumatic route to the sella turcica, avoiding brain retraction, and also permitting good visualization, with lower rates of morbidity and mortality. Although mortality of pituitary surgery decreased by advances in surgical techniques morbidities such as synechiae formation, anosmia, bleeding, nasal septal perforations, drying, and incrustation due to traumatization of the nasal structures such as septum, nasal mucosa, and middle concha are the current problems in pituitary surgery...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Paulo Esteves Pinto Faria, Abrahão Cavalcante Gomes de Souza Carvalho, Bárbara Masalskas, Letícia Chihara, Eduardo Sant'Ana, Osvaldo Magro Filho
One of the most impressive soft tissue injuries is the facial degloving, normally associated with industrial machines and traffic accidents. This injury is characterized by the separation of the skin and cartilage from the bones, compromising the soft tissues correlated in the trauma area, nerves, and blood vessels. A 28-year-old patient, male, was referred to Araçatuba's Santa Casa Hospital, after a motorcycle accident, hitting his face on the sidewalk. The patient was conscious, oriented, denying fainting and unconsciousness during the accident, and complaining of pain in the nasal region of the face...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Charanjit Kaur, Eng-Ang Ling
Transitory cavities associated with the ventricular system represent probably one of the most unique features in the developing mammalian brain. In rodents, the cavities exist transiently in the developing brain and do not appear to be associated with any pathological events. Among the various cavities, the pyramidal-shaped cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) located beneath the corpus callosum and between the lateral ventricles is most well defined. In addition to the CSP are the bilateral subependymal cysts that are consistently associated with the third and fourth ventricles as well as the aqueduct...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Artur Baszko, Wojciech Telec, Piotr Kałmucki, Piotr Iwachów, Karol Kochman, Radosław Szymański, Jan Kłopocki, Stefan Ożegowski, Andrzej Szyszka, Tomasz Siminiak
Bipolar radiofrequency (RF) ablation is effective in treatment of ventricular tachycardia originating from thick interventricular septum. The RF generator and CARTO system can be used to precisely and safely perform ablation. Standard ablation catheter can be used with indifferent ablation electrode connected to the electrode receptacle in RF generator with custom-made cable.
October 2016: Clinical Case Reports
Caroline M Hostetler, Katherine Hinde, Nicole Maninger, Sally P Mendoza, William A Mason, Douglas J Rowland, Guobao B Wang, David Kukis, Simon R Cherry, Karen L Bales
Pair bonding leads to increases in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) binding in the nucleus accumbens of monogamous prairie voles. In the current study, we hypothesized that there is similar up-regulation of D1R in a monogamous primate, the titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus). Receptor binding of the D1R antagonist [(11) C]-SCH23390 was measured in male titi monkeys using PET scans before and after pairing with a female. We found that within-subject analyses of pairing show significant increases in D1R binding in the lateral septum, but not the nucleus accumbens, caudate, putamen, or ventral pallidum...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Andrew Chang, Seckin O Ulualp, Korgun Koral, Maria Veling
OBJECTIVES: The accessory middle turbinate, a rare anatomical variation of the nasal cavity, have been systematically studied in adults. Presence of accessory middle turbinate and its clinical significance in a child has not been reported. We describe clinical appearance and radiologic features of accessory middle turbinate in a child. METHODS: Retrospective chart review. RESULTS: A 3-year-old boy presented to the otolaryngology clinic for evaluation of recurrent epistaxis...
2016: SAGE Open Med Case Rep
Jop P Verweij, Gert J M Hassing, Marta Fiocco, Pascal N W J Houppermans, J P Richard van Merkesteyn
The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence of removal of MESH plates because of symptoms after Le Fort I osteotomy (LF1). The medical files of patients treated with LF1 were retrospectively reviewed. The occurrence of MESH plate removal, indication for removal and time between insertion and removal were noted. The medical literature was reviewed to quantify the reported incidences of removal of titanium osteosynthesis material after LF1. A total of 158 patients were included in this study. LF1 was performed and fixed with MESH plates in 150 patients...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Kristin McLeod, Samuel Wall, Ida Skrinde Leren, Jørg Saberniak, Kristina Hermann Haugaa
BACKGROUND: Altered right ventricular structure is an important feature of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (ARVC), but is challenging to quantify objectively. The aim of this study was to go beyond ventricular volumes and diameters and to explore if the shape of the right and left ventricles could be assessed and related to clinical measures. We used quantifiable computational methods to automatically identify and analyse malformations in ARVC patients from Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) images...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Robert R Edelman, Marcos Botelho, Amit Pursnani, Shivraman Giri, Ioannis Koktzoglou
BACKGROUND: Dark blood imaging of the heart is conventionally performed using a breath-hold, dual-inversion Cartesian fast spin-echo pulse sequence. Our aim was to develop a faster, more flexible approach that would be less motion-sensitive and provide better image quality. For this purpose, we implemented a prototype radial balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) pulse sequence. METHODS: The study was approved by the institutional review board. Six healthy volunteers and 27 subjects undergoing clinically-indicated cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) were imaged using dark blood Cartesian fast spin-echo and radial bSSFP...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Demosthenes G Katritsis, Joseph E Marine, Fernando M Contreras, Akira Fujii, Rakesh Latchamsetty, Konstantinos C Siontis, George D Katritsis, Theodoros A Zografos, Roy M John, Laurence M Epstein, Gregory F Michaud, Elad Anter, Ali Sepahpour, Edward Rowland, Alfred E Buxton, Hugh Calkins, Fred Morady, William G Stevenson, Mark E Josephson
BACKGROUND: -Due to its low prevalence, data on atypical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) are scarce, and the optimal ablation method is not established. Our study aimed at assessing the efficacy and safety of conventional slow pathway ablation, as applied for typical cases, in atypical AVNRT. METHODS: -We studied 2079 patients with AVNRT subjected to slow pathway ablation. In 113 patients, mean age 48.5±18.1 years, 68 female, atypical AVNRT or co-existent atypical and typical AVNRT without other concomitant arrhythmia was diagnosed...
October 17, 2016: Circulation
Leonardo Sechi, GianLuca Colussi, Marileda Novello, Francesca Pezzutto, Cristiana Catena
OBJECTIVE: Studies on heavy alcoholic drinkers have reported an association between alcohol intake and left ventricular (LV) function. The effect of moderate alcohol intake on LV function in hypertensive patients, however, is unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and LV function in hypertension. DESIGN AND METHOD: In 335 non-alcoholic hypertensive patients (age 52 ± 14) we measured plasma glucose, lipids, and liver tests, and 24-h creatinine clearance (CrCl)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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