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Biological motion

Dale W Litzenberg, Daniel G Muenz, Paul G Archer, William C Jackson, Daniel A Hamstra, Jason W Hearn, Matthew J Schipper, Daniel E Spratt
PURPOSE: Investigate the impact on prostate orientation caused by use and removal of a Foley catheter, and the dosimetric impact on men prospectively treated with prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). METHODS: Twenty-two men underwent a CT simulation with a Foley in place (FCT), followed immediately by a second treatment planning simulation without the Foley (TPCT). The change in prostate orientation was determined by rigid registration of three implanted transponders between FCT and TPCT and compared to measured orientation changes during treatment...
February 23, 2018: Medical Physics
Rimona S Weil, Dietrich S Schwarzkopf, Bahador Bahrami, Stephen M Fleming, Ben M Jackson, Tristam J C Goch, Ayse P Saygin, Luke E Miller, Katerina Pappa, Ivanna Pavisic, Rachel N Schade, Alastair J Noyce, Sebastian J Crutch, Aidan G O'Keeffe, Anette E Schrag, Huw R Morris
BACKGROUND: People with Parkinson's disease (PD) who develop visuo-perceptual deficits are at higher risk of dementia, but we lack tests that detect subtle visuo-perceptual deficits and can be performed by untrained personnel. Hallucinations are associated with cognitive impairment and typically involve perception of complex objects. Changes in object perception may therefore be a sensitive marker of visuo-perceptual deficits in PD. OBJECTIVE: We developed an online platform to test visuo-perceptual function...
February 23, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Łukasz Okruszek
Social neuroscience offers a wide range of techniques that may be applied to study the social cognitive deficits that may underlie reduced social functioning-a common feature across many psychiatric disorders. At the same time, a significant proportion of research in this area has been conducted using paradigms that utilize static displays of faces or eyes. The use of point-light displays (PLDs) offers a viable alternative for studying recognition of emotion or intention inference while minimizing the amount of information presented to participants...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Alicia M Boymelgreen, Tov Balli, Touvia Miloh, Gilad Yossifon
Utilization of active colloids to transport both biological and inorganic cargo has been widely examined in the context of applications ranging from targeted drug delivery to sample analysis. In general, carriers are customized to load one specific target via a mechanism distinct from that driving the transport. Here we unify these tasks and extend loading capabilities to include on-demand selection of multiple nano/micro-sized targets without the need for pre-labelling or surface functionalization. An externally applied electric field is singularly used to drive the active cargo carrier and transform it into a mobile floating electrode that can attract (trap) or repel specific targets from its surface by dielectrophoresis, enabling dynamic control of target selection, loading and rate of transport via the electric field parameters...
February 22, 2018: Nature Communications
Julia Miller, Tobias F Dreyer, Anne Sophie Bächer, Eva-Kathrin Sinner, Christine Heinrich, Anke Benge, Eva Gross, Sarah Preis, Jan Rother, Anthony Roberts, Gabriele Nelles, Tzenka Miteva, Ute Reuning
The tetraspanin and tumor suppressor KAI1 is downregulated or lost in many cancers which correlates with poor prognosis. KAI1 acts via physical/functional crosstalk with other membrane receptors. Also, a splice variant of KAI1 (KAI1-SP) has been identified indicative of poor prognosis. We here characterized differential effects of the two KAI1 variants on tumor biological events involving integrin (αvß3) and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R). In MDA-MB-231 and -435 breast cancer cells, differential effects were documented on the expression levels of the tumor biologically relevant integrin αvß3 which colocalized with KAI1-WT but not with KAI1-SP...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
David M Burmeister, Randolph Stone, Nicole Wrice, Alfred Laborde, Sandra C Becerra, Shanmugasundaram Natesan, Robert J Christy
Harvesting of autografts results in donor site morbidities and is limited in scenarios such as large total body surface area burns. In these instances, coverage is increased by meshing grafts at the expense of delayed biologic closure. Moreover, graft meshing increases the likelihood of contraction and hypertrophic scarring, limits range of motion, and worsens cosmesis. Many tissue engineering technologies have touted the promise of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) for burn wounds. The primary objective of the current study was to determine feasibility and efficacy of in situ ASC delivery via PEGylated fibrin (FPEG) hydrogels as adjuncts to meshed split thickness skin grafts in a porcine model...
February 18, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Eric H Ledet, Glenn P Sanders, Darryl J DiRisio, Joseph C Glennon
BACKGROUND: Context: Achieving a successful spinal fusion requires the proper biologic and biomechanical environment. Optimizing load-sharing in the interbody space can enhance bone formation. For anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), loading and motion are largely dictated by the stiffness of the plate which can facilitate a balance between stability and load-sharing. The advantages of load-sharing may be substantial for patients with comorbidities and in multi-level procedures where pseudarthrosis rates are significant...
February 13, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Caley M Orr
In most primates, the os centrale is interposed between the scaphoid, trapezoid, trapezium, and head of the capitate, thus constituting a component of the wrist's midcarpal complex. Scaphoid-centrale fusion is among the clearest morphological synapomorphies of African apes and hominins. Although it might facilitate knuckle-walking by increasing the rigidity and stability of the radial side of the wrist, the exact functional significance of scaphoid-centrale fusion is unclear. If fusion acts to produce a more rigid radial wrist that stabilizes the hand and limits shearing stresses, then in taxa with a free centrale, it should anchor ligaments that check extension and radial deviation, but exhibit motion independent of the scaphoid...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Ian M Thornton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marina A Kasimova, Aysenur Yazici, Yevgen Yudin, Daniele Granata, Michael L Klein, Tibor Rohacs, Vincenzo Carnevale
The non-selective cation channel TRPV1 is responsible for transducing noxious stimuli into action potentials propagating through peripheral nerves. It is activated by temperatures greater than 43 °C, while remaining completely non-conductive at temperatures lower than this threshold. The origin of this sharp response, which makes TRPV1 a biological temperature sensor, is not understood. Here we used molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations to characterize the molecular determinants of the transition between non-conductive and conductive states...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Andrew C Doxey, Michael J Mansfield, Cesare Montecucco
Hundreds and hundreds of bacterial protein toxins are presently known. Traditionally, toxin identification begins with pathological studies of bacterial infectious disease. Following identification and cultivation of a bacterial pathogen, the protein toxin is purified from the culture medium and its pathogenic activity is studied using the methods of biochemistry and structural biology, cell biology, tissue and organ biology, and appropriate animal models, supplemented by bioimaging techniques. The ongoing and explosive development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatic approaches have set in motion a revolution in many fields of biology, including microbiology...
February 10, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Ruo-Can Qian, Yi-Tao Long
In recent years, there has been growing demand for wearable chemosensors for their important potential applications in mobile and electronic healthcare, patient self-assessment, human motion monitoring, and so on. Innovations in wearable chemosensors are revolutionizing the modern lifestyle, especially the involvement of both doctors and patients in the modern healthcare system. The facile interaction of wearable chemosensors with the human body makes them favorable and convenient tools for the detection and long-term monitoring of the chemical, biological, and physical status of the human body at a low cost with high performance...
February 2018: ChemistryOpen
Yuqin Wang, Shuanghong Yan, Pan-Ke Zhang, Zidao Zeng, Di Zhao, Jiaxin Wang, Hong-Yuan Chen, Shuo Huang
Recent developments in nanopore sequencing have inspired new concepts in precision medicine but limited in throughput. By optically encoding calcium flux from an array of nanopores, parallel measurements from hundreds of nanopores were reported while lateral drifts of biological nanopores set obstacles for signal processing. In this paper, optical single channel recording (oSCR) serves to track nanopores with high precision and a general principle of nanopore motion kinetics is quantitatively investigated. By finely adjusting the osmosis oriented interactions between the lipid/substrate interfaces,motions of nanopores could be controllably restricted...
February 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Semih E Bezci, Ananth Eleswarapu, Eric O Klineberg, Grace D O'Connell
Stresses applied to the spinal column are distributed between the intervertebral disc and facet joints. Structural and compositional changes alter stress distributions within the disc and between the disc and facet joints. These changes influence the mechanical properties of the disc joint, including its stiffness, range of motion, and energy absorption under quasi-static and dynamic loads. There have been few studies evaluating the role of facet joints in torsion. Furthermore, the relationship between biochemical composition and torsion mechanics is not well understood...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
P Popov, S Grudinin
Conformational ensembles comprise one of the fundamental concepts in statistical bioinformatics and appear in a variety of applications, e.g. molecular docking, virtual screening, searching for pharmacophores, etc. High-throughput applications require billions of conformations to be considered, thus, one often uses the rigid-body representation of molecules or its fragments to cope with the computational cost. Of particular interest is generation of the near-native conformational ensembles, which consist of conformations structurally close to the biologically relevant ones...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Desirée Magalhães Dos Santos, Camila Valesca Jardim Rocha, Elita Ferreira da Silveira, Marcelo Augusto Germani Marinho, Marisa Raquel Rodrigues, Nichole Osti Silva, Ailton da Silva Ferreira, Neusa Fernandes de Moura, Gabriel Jorge Sagrera Darelli, Elizandra Braganhol, Ana Paula Horn, Vânia Rodrigues de Lima
Rapanea ferruginea antioxidant and antitumoral properties were not explored before in literature. This study aimed to investigate these biological activities for the R. ferruginea leaf extract and correlate them with its phenolic content and influence in biological membrane dynamics. Thus, in this study, anti/pro-oxidative properties of R. ferruginea leaf extract by in vitro DPPH and TBARS assays, with respect to the free radical reducing potential and to its activity regarding membrane free radical-induced peroxidation, respectively...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Membrane Biology
Byung Ho Lee, Soojin Jo, Moon-Ki Choi, Min Hyeok Kim, Jae Boong Choi, Moon Ki Kim
In recent years, Zika virus (ZIKV) caused a new pandemic due to its rapid spread and close relationship with microcephaly. As a result, ZIKV has become an obvious global health concern. Information about the fundamental viral features or the biological process of infection remains limited, despite considerable efforts. Meanwhile, the icosahedral shell structure of the mature ZIKV was recently revealed by cryo-electron microscopy. This structural information enabled us to simulate ZIKV. In this study, we analyzed the dynamic properties of ZIKV through simulation from the mechanical viewpoint...
January 12, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Bin Chen, Andrew P Longhini, Felix Nußbaumer, Christoph Kreutz, Jonathan Dinman, T Kwaku Dayie
Conformational dynamics of RNA molecules play a critical role in governing their biological functions. Measurements of RNAs' dynamic behaviour shed important light on sites that interact with their binding partners or cellular stimulators. However, such measurements using solution NMR are difficult for large RNAs (>70 nt) due to severe spectral overlap, homonuclear 13C scalar couplings, and line-broadening. In this work, a strategic combination of solid-phase synthesis, site-specific isotopic labeled phosphoramidites and enzymatic ligation is introduced...
February 7, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Bilge Baytekin, S Doruk Cezan, H Tarık Baytekin, Bartosz A Grzybowski
Although plants are typically not considered an inspiration for designing motile robots, they do perform a variety of intricate motion patterns, including diurnal cycles of sun tracking (heliotropism) and leaf opening (nyctinasty). In real plants, these motions are controlled by complex, feedback-based biological mechanisms that, to date, have been mimicked only in computer-controlled artificial systems. This work demonstrates both heliotropism and nyctinasty in a system in which few simple, but strategically positioned thermo-responsive springs and lenses form a feedback loop controlling these motions and substantiating a behavioral analogy to "plants...
February 2018: Soft Robotics
Yu Miyawaki, Taisei Yamamoto
[Purpose] Sensorimotor experience modulates motor resonance, such as motor interference, which occurs when observing others' movements; however, it is unclear how motor resonance is modulated by intentionally imitating others' movements. This study examined the effects of imitation experience on subsequent motor resonance. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven healthy participants performed horizontal arm movements while observing non-biological, incongruent (vertical) movements of a visual stimulus (triangle object) in pre- and post-test procedures...
January 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
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