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Biological motion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648917/neural-changes-related-to-motion-processing-in-healthy-aging
#1
Stefanie C Biehl, Melanie Andersen, Gordon D Waiter, Karin S Pilz
Behavioral studies have found a striking decline in the processing of low-level motion in healthy aging whereas the processing of more relevant and familiar biological motion is relatively preserved. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the neural correlates of low-level radial motion processing and biological motion processing in 19 healthy older adults (age range 62-78 years) and in 19 younger adults (age range 20-30 years). Brain regions related to both types of motion stimuli were evaluated and the magnitude and time courses of activation in those regions of interest were calculated...
June 1, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646146/optical-coherence-microscopy-as-a-novel-non-invasive-method-for-the-4d-live-imaging-of-early-mammalian-embryos
#2
Karol Karnowski, Anna Ajduk, Bartosz Wieloch, Szymon Tamborski, Krzysztof Krawiec, Maciej Wojtkowski, Maciej Szkulmowski
Imaging of living cells based on traditional fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy has delivered an enormous amount of information critical for understanding biological processes in single cells. However, the requirement for a high numerical aperture and fluorescent markers still limits researchers' ability to visualize the cellular architecture without causing short- and long-term photodamage. Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a promising alternative that circumvents the technical limitations of fluorescence imaging techniques and provides unique access to fundamental aspects of early embryonic development, without the requirement for sample pre-processing or labeling...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642502/quasi-stabilized-hydration-layers-on-muscovite-mica-under-a-thin-water-film-grown-from-humid-air
#3
Toyoko Arai, Kohei Sato, Asuka Iida, Masahiko Tomitori
The interfaces between solids and water films in air play fundamental roles in physicochemical phenomena, biological functions, and nano-fabrication. Though the properties of the interfaces have been considered to be irrelevant to the water film thickness, we found distinctive mechanical features of the interface between a cleaved muscovite mica surface and a thin water film grown in humid air, dissimilar to those in bulk water, using frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy. The thin water film grew with quasi-stabilized hydration networks of water molecules, tightly bound each other at the interface, to a thickness of ~2 nm at near-saturating humidity...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642285/state-dependent-tms-reveals-representation-of-affective-body-movements-in-the-anterior-intraparietal-cortex
#4
Noemi Mazzoni, Christianne Jacobs, Paola Venuti, Juha Silvanto, Luigi Cattaneo
In humans, recognition of others' actions involves a cortical network that comprises, among other cortical regions, the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), where biological motion is coded and the anterior intraparietal suclus (aIPS), where movement information is elaborated in terms of meaningful goal-directed actions. This action observation system (AOS) is thought to encode neutral voluntary actions, and possibly some aspects of affective motor repertoire, but the role of the AOS' areas in processing affective kinematic information has never been examined...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639562/magnetic-skyrmion-based-artificial-neuron-device
#5
Sai Li, Wang Kang, Yangqi Huang, Xichao Zhang, Yan Zhou, Weisheng Zhao
Neuromorphic computing, inspired by the biological nervous system, has attracted considerable attention. Intensive researches have been conducted in this field for developing artificial synapses and neurons, attempting to mimic the behaviors of biological synapses and neurons, which are two basic elements of a human brain. Recently, magnetic skyrmions have been investigated as promising candidates in neuromorphic computing design owing to their topologically protected particle-like behaviors, nanoscale size and low driving current density...
June 22, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636498/a-novel-clinical-simulated-suture-education-for-basic-surgical-skill-suture-on-the-biological-tissue-fixed-on-standardized-patient-evaluated-with-objective-structured-assessment-of-technical-skill-osats-tools
#6
Zhanlong Shen, Fan Yang, Pengji Gao, Li Zeng, Guanchao Jiang, Shan Wang, Yingjiang Ye, Fengxue Zhu
BACKGROUND: Clinical-simulated training has shown benefit in the education of medical students. However, the role of clinical simulation for surgical basic skill training such as suturing techniques remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two medical students were asked to perform specific suturing tasks at three stations with the different settings within four minutes (Station 1: Synthetic suture pad fixed on the bench, Station 2: Synthetic suture pad fixed on the standardized patient, Station 3: Pig skin fixed on the standardized patient); the OSATS (Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill) tool was used to evaluate the performance of students...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636349/water-dynamics-from-the-surface-to-the-interior-of-a-supramolecular-nanostructure
#7
Julia H Ortony, Baofu Qiao, Christina J Newcomb, Timothy J Keller, Liam C Palmer, Elad Deiss-Yehiely, Monica Olvera de la Cruz, Songi Han, Samuel I Stupp
Water within and surrounding the structure of a biological system adopts context-specific dynamics that mediate virtually all of the events involved in the inner workings of a cell. These events range from protein folding and molecular recognition to the formation of hierarchical structures. Water dynamics are mediated by the chemistry and geometry of interfaces where water and biomolecules meet. Here we investigate experimentally and computationally the translational dynamics of vicinal water molecules within the volume of a supramolecular peptide nanofiber measuring 6...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633066/an-emg-assisted-modeling-approach-to-assess-passive-lumbar-tissue-loading-in-vivo-during-trunk-bending
#8
Xiaopeng Ning
Lower back pain (LBP) is a condition with high prevalence and high cost both in the United States and around the world. The magnitude of mechanical loading on spine is strongly associated with the occurrence of LBP. Previously, to assess spinal loading, biologically assisted biomechanical models were developed to estimate trunk muscle contraction forces. Loadings on lumbar passive tissues are estimated using anatomical models. However, despite the substantial individual variability in lumbar ligament geometry and viscoelastic properties, the existing anatomical models do not account for these differences...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630162/real-time-dynamics-of-carbon-nanotube-porins-in-supported-lipid-membranes-visualized-by-high-speed-atomic-force-microscopy
#9
Yuliang Zhang, Ramya H Tunuguntla, Pyung-On Choi, Aleksandr Noy
In-plane mobility of proteins in lipid membranes is one of the fundamental mechanisms supporting biological functionality. Here we use high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) to show that a novel type of biomimetic channel-carbon nanotube porins (CNTPs)-is also laterally mobile in supported lipid membranes, mimicking biological protein behaviour. HS-AFM can capture real-time dynamics of CNTP motion in the supported lipid bilayer membrane, build long-term trajectories of the CNTP motion and determine the diffusion coefficients associated with this motion...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619652/frontal-temporal-and-parietal-systems-synchronize-within-and-across-brains-during-live-eye-to-eye-contact
#10
Joy Hirsch, Xian Zhang, J Adam Noah, Yumie Ono
Human eye-to-eye contact is a primary source of social cues and communication. In spite of the biological significance of this interpersonal interaction, the underlying neural processes are not well-understood. This knowledge gap, in part, reflects limitations of conventional neuroimaging methods, including solitary confinement in the bore of a scanner and minimal tolerance of head movement that constrain investigations of natural, two-person interactions. However, these limitations are substantially resolved by recent technical developments in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), a non-invasive spectral absorbance technique that detects changes in blood oxygen levels in the brain by using surface-mounted optical sensors...
June 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615492/macromolecular-crowding-directs-the-motion-of-small-molecules-inside-cells
#11
Stephen Smith, Claudia Cianci, Ramon Grima
It is now well established that cell interiors are significantly crowded by macromolecules, which impede diffusion and enhance binding rates. However, it is not fully appreciated that levels of crowding are heterogeneous, and can vary substantially between subcellular regions. In this article, starting from a microscopic model, we derive coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for the concentrations of two populations of large and small spherical particles with steric volume exclusion. By performing an expansion in the ratio of the particle sizes, we find that the diffusion of a small particle in the presence of large particles obeys an advection-diffusion equation, with a reduced diffusion coefficient and a velocity directed towards less crowded regions...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613900/solid-state-nmr-provides-evidence-for-small-amplitude-slow-domain-motions-in-a-multi-spanning-transmembrane-%C3%AE-helical-protein
#12
Daryl Good, Charlie Pham, Jacob Jagas, Józef R Lewandowski, Vladimir Ladizhansky
Proteins are dynamic entities and populate ensembles of conformations. Transitions between states within a conformational ensemble occur over a broad spectrum of amplitude and time scales, and are often related to biological function. Whereas solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy has recently been used to characterize conformational ensembles of proteins in the microcrystalline states, its applications to membrane proteins remain limited. Here we use SSNMR to study conformational dynamics of a seven-helical transmembrane (TM) protein, Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin (ASR) reconstituted in lipids...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606250/-three-dimensional-finite-element-model-of-a-modified-posterior-cervical-single-open-door-laminoplasty
#13
Q Wang, Y Yang, Q Fei, D Li, J J Li, H Meng, N Su, Z H Fan, B Q Wang
Objective: To build a three-dimensional finite element models of a modified posterior cervical single open-door laminoplasty with short-segmental lateral mass screws fusion. Methods: The C(2)-C(7) segmental data were obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans of a male patient with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and spinal stenosis.Three-dimensional finite element models of a modified cervical single open-door laminoplasty (before and after surgery) were constructed by the combination of software package MIMICS, Geomagic and ABAQUS...
June 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603970/microbots-decorated-with-silver-nanoparticles-kill-bacteria-in-aqueous-media
#14
Diana Vilela, Morgan M Stanton, Jemish Parmar, Samuel Sanchez
Water contamination is one of the most persistent problems in public health. The resistance of some pathogens to conventional disinfectants can require the combination of multiple disinfectants or increased disinfectant dosages which may produce harmful by-products. Here, we describe an efficient disinfection and removal method of Escherichia coli (E. coli) from contaminated water by using water self-propelled Janus microbots decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The spherical Janus microbot's structure consists of a magnesium (Mg) microparticle as a template that also functions as propulsion source by producing hydrogen bubbles while in contact with water, an inner iron (Fe) magnetic layer for their remote guidance and collection, and an outer AgNP coated gold (Au) layer for bacteria adhesion and bactericidal properties...
June 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600487/fluid-viscoelasticity-promotes-collective-swimming-of-sperm
#15
Chih-Kuan Tung, Chungwei Lin, Benedict Harvey, Alyssa G Fiore, Florencia Ardon, Mingming Wu, Susan S Suarez
From flocking birds to swarming insects, interactions of organisms large and small lead to the emergence of collective dynamics. Here, we report striking collective swimming of bovine sperm in dynamic clusters, enabled by the viscoelasticity of the fluid. Sperm oriented in the same direction within each cluster, and cluster size and cell-cell alignment strength increased with viscoelasticity of the fluid. In contrast, sperm swam randomly and individually in Newtonian (nonelastic) fluids of low and high viscosity...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597297/intrinsic-protein-disorder-in-oncogenic-kras-signaling
#16
REVIEW
Ruth Nussinov, Hyunbum Jang, Chung-Jung Tsai, Tsung-Jen Liao, Shuai Li, David Fushman, Jian Zhang
How Ras, and in particular its most abundant oncogenic isoform K-Ras4B, is activated and signals in proliferating cells, poses some of the most challenging questions in cancer cell biology. In this paper, we ask how intrinsically disordered regions in K-Ras4B and its effectors help promote proliferative signaling. Conformational disorder allows spanning long distances, supports hinge motions, promotes anchoring in membranes, permits segments to fulfil multiple roles, and broadly is crucial for activation mechanisms and intensified oncogenic signaling...
June 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593248/human-efficiency-in-detecting-and-discriminating-biological-motion
#17
Hongjing Lu, Bosco S Tjan, Zili Liu
Using an "information meter" provided by ideal observer analysis, we measured the efficiency with which human observers processed different walking stimuli against luminance noise and spatial uncertainty to either detect the presence of a walker or to discriminate the walking direction. Human efficiency was examined across four renderings of a human walker: contour, point lights, silhouette, and skeleton. We replicated the previous finding of low discrimination efficiency in biological motion (Gold, Tadin, Cook, & Blake, 2008) and also found low detection efficiency for biological motion...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592663/inspiration-for-wing-design-how-forelimb-specialization-enables-active-flight-in-modern-vertebrates
#18
REVIEW
Diana D Chin, Laura Y Matloff, Amanda Kay Stowers, Emily R Tucci, David Lentink
Harnessing flight strategies refined by millions of years of evolution can help expedite the design of more efficient, manoeuvrable and robust flying robots. This review synthesizes recent advances and highlights remaining gaps in our understanding of how bird and bat wing adaptations enable effective flight. Included in this discussion is an evaluation of how current robotic analogues measure up to their biological sources of inspiration. Studies of vertebrate wings have revealed skeletal systems well suited for enduring the loads required during flight, but the mechanisms that drive coordinated motions between bones and connected integuments remain ill-described...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592660/mechanical-interactions-in-bacterial-colonies-and-the-surfing-probability-of-beneficial-mutations
#19
Fred D Farrell, Matti Gralka, Oskar Hallatschek, Bartlomiej Waclaw
Bacterial conglomerates such as biofilms and microcolonies are ubiquitous in nature and play an important role in industry and medicine. In contrast to well-mixed cultures routinely used in microbial research, bacteria in a microcolony interact mechanically with one another and with the substrate to which they are attached. Here, we use a computer model of a microbial colony of rod-shaped cells to investigate how physical interactions between cells determine their motion in the colony and how this affects biological evolution...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591614/cell-division-induces-and-switches-coherent-angular-motion-within-bounded-cellular-collectives
#20
Michael J Siedlik, Sriram Manivannan, Ioannis G Kevrekidis, Celeste M Nelson
Collective cell migration underlies many biological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, and cancer progression. In the embryo, cells have been observed to move collectively in vortices using a mode of collective migration known as coherent angular motion (CAM). To determine how CAM arises within a population and changes over time, here, we study the motion of mammary epithelial cells within engineered monolayers, in which the cells move collectively about a central axis in the tissue...
June 6, 2017: Biophysical Journal
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