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Biological motion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905589/hydrogen-bond-dynamics-at-the-bio-water-interface-in-hydrated-proteins-a-molecular-dynamics-study
#1
Prithwish K Nandi, Niall J English, Zdenek Futera, Antonio Benedetto
Water is fundamental to the biochemistry of enzymes. It is well known that without a minimum amount of water, enzymes are not biologically active. Bare minimal solvation for biological function corresponds to about a single layer of water covering enzymes' surfaces. Many contradictory studies on protein-hydration-water-coupled dynamics have been published in recent decades. Following prevailing wisdom, a dynamical crossover in hydration water (at around 220 K for hydrated lysozymes) can trigger larger-amplitude motions of the protein, activating, in turn, biological functions...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904716/is-anterior-bridge-plating-for-mid-shaft-humeral-fractures-a-suitable-option-for-patients-predominantly-involved-in-overhead-activities-a-functional-outcome-study-in-athletes-and-manual-laborers
#2
Abhishek S Mahajan, Young Gun Kim, Jae Hwa Kim, Prashanth D'sa, Azhar Lakhani, Hyun Soo Ok
BACKGROUND: To assess the functional and radiological outcomes of minimally invasive anterior bridge plating (ABP) for mid-shaft humerus fractures in patients predominantly involved in overhead activities (athletes and manual laborers). METHODS: Forty-eight patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were treated with ABP at a level-I trauma center using a 4.5-mm dynamic/locking compression plate and followed for a period of 1 year. Functional outcome was assessed using the Constant, Mayo elbow, and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores...
December 2016: Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903922/facilitating-effects-of-emotion-on-the-perception-of-biological-motion-evidence-for-a-happiness-superiority-effect
#3
Hannah Lee, Jejoong Kim
It has been reported that visual perception can be influenced not only by the physical features of a stimulus but also by the emotional valence of the stimulus, even without explicit emotion recognition. Some previous studies reported an anger superiority effect while others found a happiness superiority effect during visual perception. It thus remains unclear as to which emotion is more influential. In the present study, we conducted two experiments using biological motion (BM) stimuli to examine whether emotional valence of the stimuli would affect BM perception; and if so, whether a specific type of emotion is associated with a superiority effect...
November 29, 2016: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902829/perceptual-interaction-of-local-motion-signals
#4
Eyal I Nitzany, Maren E Loe, Stephanie E Palmer, Jonathan D Victor
Motion signals are a rich source of information used in many everyday tasks, such as segregation of objects from background and navigation. Motion analysis by biological systems is generally considered to consist of two stages: extraction of local motion signals followed by spatial integration. Studies using synthetic stimuli show that there are many kinds and subtypes of local motion signals. When presented in isolation, these stimuli elicit behavioral and neurophysiological responses in a wide range of species, from insects to mammals...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898509/acute-achilles-tendon-ruptures-an-update-on-treatment
#5
Anish R Kadakia, Robert G Dekker, Bryant S Ho
Acute rupture of the Achilles tendon is common and seen most frequently in people who participate in recreational athletics into their thirties and forties. Although goals of treatment have not changed in the past 15 years, recent studies of nonsurgical management, specifically functional bracing with early range of motion, demonstrate rerupture rates similar to those of tendon repair and result in fewer wound and soft-tissue complications. Satisfactory outcomes may be obtained with nonsurgical or surgical treatment...
November 24, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896006/ultrahigh-speed-phase-sensitive-full-field-interferometric-confocal-microscopy-for-quantitative-microscale-physiology
#6
Ikbal Sencan, Brendan K Huang, Yong Bian, Emily Mis, Mustafa K Khokha, Hui Cao, Michael Choma
We developed ultra-high-speed, phase-sensitive, full-field reflection interferometric confocal microscopy (FFICM) for the quantitative characterization of in vivo microscale biological motions and flows. We demonstrated 2D frame rates in excess of 1 kHz and pixel throughput rates up to 125 MHz. These fast FFICM frame rates were enabled by the use of a low spatial coherence, high-power laser source. Specifically, we used a dense vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) array that synthesized low spatial coherence light through a large number of narrowband, mutually-incoherent emitters...
November 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890805/predicting-brain-age-from-multimodal-imaging-data-captures-cognitive-impairment
#7
Franziskus Liem, Gaël Varoquaux, Jana Kynast, Frauke Beyer, Shahrzad Kharabian Masouleh, Julia M Huntenburg, Leonie Lampe, Mehdi Rahim, Alexandre Abraham, R Cameron Craddock, Steffi Riedel-Heller, Tobias Luck, Markus Loeffler, Matthias L Schroeter, Anja Veronica Witte, Daniel S Margulies
The disparity between the chronological age of an individual and their brain-age measured based on biological information has the potential to offer clinically-relevant biomarkers of neurological syndromes that emerge late in the lifespan. While prior brain-age prediction studies have relied exclusively on either structural or functional brain data, here we investigate how multimodal brain-imaging data improves age prediction. Using cortical anatomy and whole-brain functional connectivity on a large adult lifespan sample (N=2354, age 19-82), we found that multimodal data improves brain-based age prediction, resulting in a mean absolute prediction error of 4...
November 23, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884463/gated-carbon-ion-scanning-treatment-for-pancreatic-tumour-with-field-specific-target-volume-and-organs-at-risk
#8
Kentaro Miki, Shinichiro Mori, Miho Shiomi, Shigeru Yamada
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of treatment planning for pancreatic tumours subject to respiratory motion using field-specific target volumes (FTV) and field-specific organs at risk (FOAR) using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). METHODS: Fourteen pancreatic cancer patients underwent 4DCT. Radiation oncologists contoured the gross tumour volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV), spinal cord, duodenum, kidneys, and stomach. The gating duty cycle was set to 30 % around exhalation...
November 21, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879133/a-criterion-of-collective-behavior-of-bacteria
#9
Roman Czapla, Vladimir V Mityushev
It was established in the previous works that hydrodynamic interactions between the swimmers can lead to collective motion. Its implicit evidences were confirmed by reduction in the effective viscosity. We propose a new quantitative criterion to detect such a collective behavior. Our criterion is based on a new computationally effective RVE (representative volume element) theory based on the basic statistic moments (e-sums or generalized Eisenstein-Rayleigh sums). The criterion can be applied to various two-phase dispersed media (biological systems, composites etc)...
February 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879115/preface
#10
Avner Friedman, Mirosław Lachowicz, Urszula Ledzewicz, Monika Joanna Piotrowska, Zuzanna Szymanska
This volume was inspired by the topics presented at the international conference "Micro and Macro Systems in Life Sciences" which was held on Jun 8-12, 2015 in Będlewo, Poland. System biology is an approach which tries to understand how micro systems, at the molecular and cellular levels, affect macro systems such as organs, tissue and populations. Thus it is not surprising that a major theme of this volume evolves around cancer and its treatment. Articles on this topic include models for tumor induced angiogenesis, without and with delays, metastatic niche of the bone marrow, drug resistance and metronomic chemotherapy, and virotherapy of glioma...
February 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878196/self-propelled-round-trip-motion-of-janus-particles-in-static-line-optical-tweezers
#11
Jing Liu, Hong-Lian Guo, Zhi-Yuan Li
Controlled propulsion of microparticles and micromachines in fluids could revolutionize many aspects of technology, such as biomedicine, microfluidics, micro-mechanics, optomechanics, and cell biology. We report the self-propelled cyclic round-trip motion of metallo-dielectric Janus particles in static line optical tweezers (LOT). The Janus particle is a 5 μm-diameter polystyrene sphere half-coated with 3 nanometer thick gold film. Both experiment and theory show that this cyclic translational and rotational motion is a consequence of the collective and fine action of the gold-face orientation dependent propulsion optical force, the gradient optical force, and the spontaneous symmetry breaking induced optical torque in different regions of the LOT...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873445/the-motion-of-a-living-conspecific-activates-septal-and-preoptic-areas-in-naive-domestic-chicks-gallus-gallus
#12
Uwe Mayer, Orsola Rosa-Salva, Francesca Morbioli, Giorgio Vallortigara
Predispositions to attend to animate objects are ubiquitous in newborn vertebrates but little is known about their neural bases. In the present study we wanted to know if exposure to the motion of an alive, behaving conspecific will selectively activate septal, preoptic and amygdaloid areas in visually naive domestic chicks. For this purpose, newly hatched chicks were exposed to an alive conspecific, whose natural motion presents of course several features typical of animate motion to which chicks are known to be sensitive...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872846/effect-of-static-load-on-the-nucleus-pulposus-of-rabbit-intervertebral-disc-motion-segment-in-an-organ-culture
#13
Jia-Wen Zhan, Min-Shan Feng, Li-Guo Zhu, Ping Zhang, Jie Yu
The development of mechanically active culture systems helps in understanding of the role of mechanical stress in intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Motion segment cultures facilitate the application and control of mechanical loads. The purpose of this study was to establish a culturing method for rabbit IVD motion segments to observe the effect of static load on the whole disc organ. Segments were cultured in custom-made apparatuses under a constant, compressive load (3 kg) for 2 weeks. Tissue integrity, matrix synthesis, and matrix gene expression profile were assessed and compared with fresh one...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871421/mesenchymal-stem-cell-bearing-sutures-for-tendon-repair-and-healing-in-the-foot-and-ankle
#14
REVIEW
Eric W Tan, Lew C Schon
Improving the quality and strength of soft tissue repairs remains an important area of orthopedic research and innovation. The need for immobilization and early motion is an important balance essential for the successful treatment of tendon repair and reconstruction. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-bearing sutures represent an emerging biological augmentation to traditional suture repair. Two previous large studies using stem cell sutures in rat Achilles tendon models have demonstrated early increased biomechanical strength and significantly increased ultimate failure strength...
December 2016: Foot and Ankle Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870403/sex-differences-in-social-cognition-the-case-of-face-processing
#15
Alice Mado Proverbio
Several studies have demonstrated that women show a greater interest for social information and empathic attitude than men. This article reviews studies on sex differences in the brain, with particular reference to how males and females process faces and facial expressions, social interactions, pain of others, infant faces, faces in things (pareidolia phenomenon), opposite-sex faces, humans vs. landscapes, incongruent behavior, motor actions, biological motion, erotic pictures, and emotional information. Sex differences in oxytocin-based attachment response and emotional memory are also mentioned...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869148/motor-noise-is-rich-signal-in-autism-research-and-pharmacological-treatments
#16
E B Torres, K Denisova
The human body is in constant motion, from every breath that we take, to every visibly purposeful action that we perform. Remaining completely still on command is a major achievement as involuntary fluctuations in our motions are difficult to keep under control. Here we examine the noise-to-signal ratio of micro-movements present in time-series of head motions extracted from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans in 1048 participants. These included individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and healthy-controls in shared data from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) and the Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-200) databases...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867296/micropositioning-and-control-of-an-underactuated-platform-for-microscopic-applications
#17
Kihan Park, Jaydev P Desai
For automation of biological experiments at the micro-scale, highly precise manipulator equipped with a microscope is required. However, current micropositioning stages have several limitations, such as: 1) manual operation, 2) lack of rotational capability, 3) incompatibility with a microscope, and 4) small range of motion (RoM). This research aims to develop a microscope compatible XYθ micropositioning stage with large RoM for phenotyping multiple biological samples rapidly for various microscopic applications...
December 2016: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859403/a-physical-mechanism-of-magnetoreception-extension-and-analysis
#18
Vladimir N Binhi, Frank S Prato
Proposed is a general physical mechanism of magnetoreception of weak magnetic fields (MFs). The mechanism is based on classical precessional dynamics of a magnetic moment in a thermally disturbed environment and includes a minimum of necessary parameters-the gyromagnetic ratio, thermal relaxation time, and rate of downstream events generated by changes in the state of the magnetic moment. The mechanism imposes general restrictions on the probability of initial biophysical magnetic transduction event before the involvement of specific biophysical and biochemical mechanisms-i...
November 8, 2016: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853566/zebrafish-response-to-a-robotic-replica-in-three-dimensions
#19
Tommaso Ruberto, Violet Mwaffo, Sukhgewanpreet Singh, Daniele Neri, Maurizio Porfiri
As zebrafish emerge as a species of choice for the investigation of biological processes, a number of experimental protocols are being developed to study their social behaviour. While live stimuli may elicit varying response in focal subjects owing to idiosyncrasies, tiredness and circadian rhythms, video stimuli suffer from the absence of physical input and rely only on two-dimensional projections. Robotics has been recently proposed as an alternative approach to generate physical, customizable, effective and consistent stimuli for behavioural phenotyping...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853494/preoperative-grading-of-astrocytic-supratentorial-brain-tumors-with-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-apparent-diffusion-coefficient
#20
Mahsa Raisi-Nafchi, Fariborz Faeghi, Alireza Zali, Hamidreza Haghighatkhah, Jalal Jalal-Shokouhi
BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based on measuring the random Brownian motion of water molecules within the biological tissues and is particularly useful in tumor characterization. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of DW MRI and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for preoperative grading of astrocytic supratentorial brain tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-three patients (14 females, 9 males, mean age 43 years) with astrocytic supratentorial brain tumors underwent preoperative conventional MR imaging and DW MRI...
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Radiology: a Quarterly Journal Published By the Iranian Radiological Society
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