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Biological motion

Xinghao Hu, Sri Ramulu Torati, Jonghwan Yoon, Byeonghwa Lim, Kunwoo Kim, CheolGi Kim
We demonstrate an efficient approach for quantifying frictional forces (sub-pN) at nano-bio interfaces by controlled magnetic forces, which is based on simultaneous measurements of critical frequencies for streptavidin-coupled magnetic particles. The maximum phase angle, being corresponded with the critical frequency, is formulated in terms of magnetic, frictional and viscous forces of the particles on DNA and SiO2 functionalized micromagnet arrays. The streptavidin/DNA interface shows lower friction as an enhanced lubrication than the streptavidin/SiO2 interface, which is indicated by the lower transition field of quasi-static motion, the larger ratio of dynamic particles, and also the higher velocity of the particles...
April 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Bartłomiej W Papież, James M Franklin, Mattias P Heinrich, Fergus V Gleeson, Michael Brady, Julia A Schnabel
Deformable image registration, a key component of motion correction in medical imaging, needs to be efficient and provides plausible spatial transformations that reliably approximate biological aspects of complex human organ motion. Standard approaches, such as Demons registration, mostly use Gaussian regularization for organ motion, which, though computationally efficient, rule out their application to intrinsically more complex organ motions, such as sliding interfaces. We propose regularization of motion based on supervoxels, which provides an integrated discontinuity preserving prior for motions, such as sliding...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
H Li, S Guo
This study investigates the aerodynamic efficiency of a bioinspired flapping wing rotor kinematics which combines an active vertical flapping motion and a passive horizontal rotation induced by aerodynamic thrust. The aerodynamic efficiencies for producing both vertical lift and horizontal thrust of the wing are obtained using a quasi-steady aerodynamic model and two-dimensional (2D) CFD analysis at Reynolds number of 2500. The calculated efficiency data show that both efficiencies (propulsive efficiency- η p , and efficiency for producing lift- Pf ) of the wing are optimized at Strouhal number ( St ) between 0...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Paola Sgadò, Orsola Rosa-Salva, Elisabetta Versace, Giorgio Vallortigara
Biological predispositions to attend to visual cues, such as those associated with face-like stimuli or with biological motion, guide social behavior from the first moments of life and have been documented in human neonates, infant monkeys and domestic chicks. Impairments of social predispositions have been recently reported in neonates at high familial risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Using embryonic exposure to valproic acid (VPA), an anticonvulsant associated to increased risk of developing ASD, we modeled ASD behavioral deficits in domestic chicks...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mowei Shen, Chengfeng Zhu, Huayu Liao, Haihang Zhang, Jifan Zhou, Zaifeng Gao
As an important moral emotion, guilt plays a critical role in social interaction. It has been found that people tended to exhibit prosocial behavior under circumstances of guilt. However, all extant studies have predominantly focused on the influence of guilt on macro-level behavior. So far, no study has investigated whether guilt affects people's micro-level perception. The current study closes this gap by examining whether guilt affects one's inclination to perceive approaching motion. We achieved this aim by probing a facing-the-viewer bias (FTV bias)...
2018: PloS One
Xiaoshuai Huang, Junchao Fan, Liuju Li, Haosen Liu, Runlong Wu, Yi Wu, Lisi Wei, Heng Mao, Amit Lal, Peng Xi, Liqiang Tang, Yunfeng Zhang, Yanmei Liu, Shan Tan, Liangyi Chen
To increase the temporal resolution and maximal imaging time of super-resolution (SR) microscopy, we have developed a deconvolution algorithm for structured illumination microscopy based on Hessian matrixes (Hessian-SIM). It uses the continuity of biological structures in multiple dimensions as a priori knowledge to guide image reconstruction and attains artifact-minimized SR images with less than 10% of the photon dose used by conventional SIM while substantially outperforming current algorithms at low signal intensities...
April 11, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
Davis M Vigneault, Amir Pourmorteza, Marvin L Thomas, David A Bluemke, J Alison Noble
Recent improvements in cardiac computed tomography (CCT) allow for whole-heart functional studies to be acquired at low radiation dose (<2mSv) and high-temporal resolution (<100ms) in a single heart beat. Although the extraction of regional functional information from these images is of great clinical interest, there is a paucity of research into the quantification of regional function from CCT, contrasting with the large body of work in echocardiography and cardiac MR. Here we present the Simultaneous Subdivision Surface Registration (SiSSR) method: a fast, semi-automated image analysis pipeline for quantifying regional function from contrast-enhanced CCT...
March 29, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Claire F Jones, Elizabeth C Clarke
BACKGROUND: The mechanical interactions occurring between the spinal column and spinal cord during an injury event are complex and variable, and likely have implications for the clinical presentation and prognosis of the individual. METHODS: The engineering approaches that have been developed to better understand spinal column and cord interactions during an injury event are discussed. These include injury models utilising human and animal cadaveric specimens, in vivo anaesthetised animals, finite element models, inanimate physical systems and combinations thereof...
March 28, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Aleksandra Bala, Łukasz Okruszek, Aleksandra Piejka, Aldona Głębicka, Ewa Szewczyk, Katarzyna Bosak, Marta Szantroch, Sylwia Hyniewska, Andrzej Rysz, Andrzej Marchel
Dysfunction in the understanding of social signals has been reported in persons with epilepsy, which may partially explain lower levels of life satisfaction in this patient population. Extensive assessment is necessary, particularly when the mesial temporal lobe, responsible for emotion processing, is affected. The authors examined multiple levels of social perception in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), including judgments of point-light motion displays of human communicative interactions (Communicative Interactions Database-5 Alternative Forced Choice format) and theory-of-mind processes evaluated using geometric shapes (Frith-Happé animations [FHA])...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Alicia Alonso, Félix M Goñi
Ceramides are sphingolipids containing a sphingosine or a related base, to which a fatty acid is linked through an amide bond. When incorporated into a lipid bilayer, ceramides exhibit a number of properties not shared by almost any other membrane lipid: Ceramides (a) are extremely hydrophobic and thus cannot exist in suspension in aqueous media; (b) increase the molecular order (rigidity) of phospholipids in membranes; (c) give rise to lateral phase separation and domain formation in phospholipid bilayers; (d) possess a marked intrinsic negative curvature that facilitates formation of inverted hexagonal phases; (e) make bilayers and cell membranes permeable to small and large (i...
April 4, 2018: Annual Review of Biophysics
Karim Mekhail
Eukaryotic genomes are non-randomly arranged inside the nucleus. Despite this ordered spatial genome organization, damaged DNA exhibits increased random mobility within nuclear space. This increased random movement is thought to promote DNA repair by facilitating homology search, allowing targeting to repair-conducive nuclear domains, or releasing damage from repair-repressive locations. Recent studies focusing on the relationship between telomeres, DNA repair processes, and nuclear organization have revealed that the disruption of motor proteins or microtubules, which typically mediate the directed motion of cargo, disrupts the random mobility of damaged DNA...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Mohak Patel, Susan E Leggett, Alexander K Landauer, Ian Y Wong, Christian Franck
Spatiotemporal tracking of tracer particles or objects of interest can reveal localized behaviors in biological and physical systems. However, existing tracking algorithms are most effective for relatively low numbers of particles that undergo displacements smaller than their typical interparticle separation distance. Here, we demonstrate a single particle tracking algorithm to reconstruct large complex motion fields with large particle numbers, orders of magnitude larger than previously tractably resolvable, thus opening the door for attaining very high Nyquist spatial frequency motion recovery in the images...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ida Lindström, Jakob Dogan
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are abundant in the eukaryotic proteome. However, little is known about the role of sub-nanosecond dynamics and the conformational entropy that it represents in protein-protein interactions involving IDPs. Using NMR side chain and backbone relaxation, stopped-flow kinetics, ITC, and computational studies, we have here characterized the interaction between the globular TAZ1 domain of CREB binding protein, and the intrinsically disordered transactivation domain of STAT2 (TAD-STAT2)...
April 3, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Haley M Bednarz, Rajesh K Kana
Recent years have witnessed the proliferation of neuroimaging studies of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), particularly of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Tourette's syndrome (TS). Neuroimaging offers immense potential in understanding the biology of these disorders, and how it relates to clinical symptoms. Neuroimaging techniques, in the long run, may help identify neurobiological markers to assist clinical diagnosis and treatment. However, methodological challenges have affected the progress of clinical neuroimaging...
March 31, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Nupur Bansal, Zheng Zheng, Lin Frank Song, Jun Pei, Kenneth M Merz
Obtaining a detailed description of how active site flap motion affects substrate or ligand binding will advance structure-based drug design (SBDD) efforts on systems including the kinases, HSP90, HIV protease, ureases, etc. Through this understanding we will be able to design better inhibitors and better proteins that have desired functions. Herein we address this issue by generating the relevant configurational states of a protein flap on the molecular energy landscape using an approach we call MTFlex-b and then following this with a procedure to estimate the free energy associated with the motion of the flap region...
April 2, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Alexandra Jesse, Michael Bartoli
Seeing the motion of a talking face can be sufficient to recognize personally highly familiar speakers, suggesting that dynamic facial information is stored in long-term representations for familiar speakers. In the present study, we tested whether talking-related facial dynamic information can guide the learning of unfamiliar speakers. Participants were asked to identify speakers from configuration-normalized point-light displays showing only the biological motion that speakers produced while saying short sentences...
March 28, 2018: Cognition
Francesco Maffessanti, Frits W Prinzen, Giulio Conte, François Regoli, Maria Luce Caputo, Daniel Suerder, Tiziano Moccetti, Francesco Faletra, Rolf Krause, Angelo Auricchio
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to test the accuracy of strain measurements based on anatomo-electromechanical mapping (AEMM) measurements compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tagging, to evaluate the diagnostic value of AEMM-based strain measurements in the assessment of myocardial viability, and the additional value of AEMM over peak-to-peak local voltages. BACKGROUND: The in vivo identification of viable tissue, evaluation of mechanical contraction, and simultaneous left ventricular activation is currently achieved using multiple complementary techniques...
January 2018: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
Shaherin Basith, Yoonji Lee, Sun Choi
Unraveling the mystery of protein allostery has been one of the greatest challenges in both structural and computational biology. However, recent advances in computational methods, particularly molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, have led to its utility as a powerful and popular tool for the study of protein allostery. By capturing the motions of a protein's constituent atoms, simulations can enable the discovery of allosteric hot spots and the determination of the mechanistic basis for allostery. These structural and dynamic studies can provide a foundation for a wide range of applications, including rational drug design and protein engineering...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Thang Duc Vu, Duc-Viet Nguyen, Min Zin Oo, Mohamed Alaa, Ervin Marquez Ocampo, Suganya Cheyyatraivendran Arularasu, Phyo Wai Win, Nurdiyana Ja'afar, Goh Si-Guim, Patsy Ong, Lian Kah Ti, Arthur Mark Richards, Theo Kofidis
OBJECTIVES: Favourable outcomes with mitral annuloplasty have been achieved with transapical cardioscopic (TAC) surgery in a survival animal model. In addition, experimental TAC on a non-survival animal model also showed adequate access to remove the native mitral valve and implant a prosthetic valve, but the surgical procedure took a long time and lacked follow-up data. The goal of this study was to develop a clinically translatable TAC mitral valve replacement (MVR) procedure using technical and instrumental refinements to reduce the surgical time and to evaluate functional recovery and short-term durability using a survival porcine model...
March 26, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
David J T Sumpter, Alex Szorkovszky, Alexander Kotrschal, Niclas Kolm, James E Herbert-Read
A wide range of measurements can be made on the collective motion of groups, and the movement of individuals within them. These include, but are not limited to: group size, polarization, speed, turning speed, speed or directional correlations, and distances to near neighbours. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, we would like to know which of these measurements capture biologically meaningful aspects of an animal's behaviour and contribute to its survival chances. Previous simulation studies have emphasized two main factors shaping individuals' behaviour in groups; attraction and alignment...
May 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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