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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524701/helical-water-wires
#1
A R Liboff, C Poggi, P Pratesi
A helitetrahedral model has been proposed to help explain reports of low-frequency oscillations in pure water following electromagnetic excitation at the hydronium ion cyclotron resonance frequency. The Lorentz force and the intrinsic structure constrain the motion of the H3O(+) ion so that it enjoys a unique form of proton-hopping, one whose path is helical. This model may also explain the numerous previously observed cyclotron resonance (ICR) biological couplings for cations other than hydronium by merely substituting hydrogen-bonded versions of these for hydronium in the tetrahedral structure...
May 19, 2017: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521803/physical-interface-dynamics-alter-how-robotic-exosuits-augment-human-movement-implications-for-optimizing-wearable-assistive-devices
#2
Matthew B Yandell, Brendan T Quinlivan, Dmitry Popov, Conor Walsh, Karl E Zelik
BACKGROUND: Wearable assistive devices have demonstrated the potential to improve mobility outcomes for individuals with disabilities, and to augment healthy human performance; however, these benefits depend on how effectively power is transmitted from the device to the human user. Quantifying and understanding this power transmission is challenging due to complex human-device interface dynamics that occur as biological tissues and physical interface materials deform and displace under load, absorbing and returning power...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520430/fluorescence-dynamics-of-a-fret-probe-designed-for-crowding-studies
#3
Megan Currie, Hannah Leopold, Jacob Schwarz, Arnold J Boersma, Erin D Sheets, Ahmed A Heikal
Living cells are crowded with macromolecules and organelles. As a result, there is an urgent need for molecular sensors for quantitative, site-specific assessment of the macromolecular crowding effects on a myriad of biochemical processes towards quantitative cell biology and biophysics. Here we investigate the excited-state dynamics and translational diffusion of a novel FRET sensor (mCerulean-linker-mCitrine) in a buffer (PBS, pH 7.4) at room temperature. Complementary experiments were carried out on free CFP, YFP, and the cleaved FRET probe as controls...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518129/cardiac-muscle-cell-based-actuator-and-self-stabilizing-biorobot-part-2
#4
Neerajha Nagarajan, Merrel T Holley, Christian Danielson, Kidong Park, Pinar Zorlutuna
In recent years, hybrid devices that consist of a living cell or tissue component integrated with a synthetic mechanical backbone have been developed. These devices, called biorobots, are powered solely by the force generated from the contractile activity of the living component and, due to their many inherent advantages, could be an alternative to conventional fully artificial robots. Here, we describe the methods to seed and characterize a biological actuator and a biorobot that was designed, fabricated, and functionalized in the first part of this two-part article...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513721/programmable-micrometer-sized-motor-array-based-on-live-cells
#5
Shuangxi Xie, Xiaodong Wang, Niandong Jiao, Steve Tung, Lianqing Liu
Trapping and transporting microorganisms with intrinsic motility are important tasks for biological, physical, and biomedical applications. However, fast swimming speed makes the manipulation of these organisms an inherently challenging task. In this study, we demonstrated that an optoelectrical technique, namely, optically induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP), could effectively trap and manipulate Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii) cells swimming at velocities faster than 100 μm s(-1). Furthermore, live C...
May 17, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511856/measurement-of-15-n-longitudinal-relaxation-rates-in-15-nh4-spin-systems-to-characterise-rotational-correlation-times-and-chemical-exchange
#6
D Flemming Hansen
Many chemical and biological processes rely on the movement of monovalent cations and an understanding of such processes can therefore only be achieved by characterising the dynamics of the involved ions. It has recently been shown that (15)N-ammonium can be used as a proxy for potassium to probe potassium binding in bio-molecules such as DNA quadruplexes and enzymes. Moreover, equations have been derived to describe the time-evolution of (15)N-based spin density operator elements of (15)NH4(+) spin systems...
June 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508858/onset-of-meso-scale-turbulence-in-active-nematics
#7
Amin Doostmohammadi, Tyler N Shendruk, Kristian Thijssen, Julia M Yeomans
Meso-scale turbulence is an innate phenomenon, distinct from inertial turbulence, that spontaneously occurs at low Reynolds number in fluidized biological systems. This spatiotemporal disordered flow radically changes nutrient and molecular transport in living fluids and can strongly affect the collective behaviour in prominent biological processes, including biofilm formation, morphogenesis and cancer invasion. Despite its crucial role in such physiological processes, understanding meso-scale turbulence and any relation to classical inertial turbulence remains obscure...
May 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505598/interlocked-dna-topologies-for-nanotechnology
#8
REVIEW
Julián Valero, Finn Lohmann, Michael Famulok
Interlocked molecular architectures are well known in supramolecular chemistry and are widely used for various applications like sensors, molecular machines and logic gates. The use of DNA for constructing these interlocked structures has increased significantly within the current decade. Because of Watson-Crick base pairing rules, DNA is an excellent material for the self-assembly of well-defined interlocked nanoarchitectures. These DNA nanostructures exhibit sufficient stability, good solubility in aqueous media, biocompatibility, and can be easily combined with other biomolecules in bio-hybrid nano-assemblies...
May 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496042/high-sensitivity-of-testicular-function-to-titanium-nanoparticles
#9
Nobuhiko Miura, Katsumi Ohtani, Tatsuya Hasegawa, Hiroki Yoshioka, Gi-Wook Hwang
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiNPs) present toxicity in organs such as the liver, lung, and intestine. The testis has also been reported as a target organ of TiNPs. We recently reported that TiNPs had no genotoxic effect in the liver and bone marrow, while showing clear testicular dysfunction. In this paper, therefore, we systematically compared the sensitivity of hepatic function using biochemical markers and testicular function against TiNPs. Male C57BL/6J mice were injected intravenously with TiNPs (Aeroxide-P25, at doses of 0...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490603/inferring-single-cell-behaviour-from-large-scale-epithelial-sheet-migration-patterns
#10
Rachel M Lee, Haicen Yue, Wouter-Jan Rappel, Wolfgang Losert
Cell migration plays an important role in a wide variety of biological processes and can incorporate both individual cell motion and collective behaviour. The emergent properties of collective migration are receiving increasing attention as collective motion's role in diseases such as metastatic cancer becomes clear. Yet, how individual cell behaviour influences large-scale, multi-cell collective motion remains unclear. In this study, we provide insight into the mechanisms behind collective migration by studying cell migration in a spreading monolayer of epithelial MCF10A cells...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489266/self-destroyed-redox-sensitive-stomatocyte-nanomotor
#11
Yingfeng Tu, Fei Peng, Paul B White, Daniela Apreutesei Wilson
The development of artificial nanomotor systems capable of stimuli responsiveness is still posing many challenges. Here we demonstrate the self-assembly of a redox-responsive stomatocyte nanomotor system, which can be used for triggered drug release under biological reducing conditions. The redox sensitivity was introduced via the disulfide bridge between hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) block and hydrophobic polystyrene block. When incubating with endogenous reducing agent glutathione at a concentration comparable to the one within cells, the external PEG shells of these stimuli-responsive nanomotors were cleaved...
May 10, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488590/synaptic-transistor-with-a-reversible-and-analog-conductance-modulation-using-a-pt-hfox-n-igzo-memcapacitor
#12
Paul Yang, Hyung Jun Kim, Hong Zheng, Geon Won Beom, Jong-Sung Park, Chi Jung Kang, Tae-Sik Yoon
A synaptic transistor emulating the biological synaptic motion is demonstrated using the memcapacitance characteristics in a Pt/HfOx/n-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) memcapacitor. First, the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor with Pt/HfOx/n-IGZO structure exhibits analog, polarity-dependent, and reversible memcapacitance in capacitance-voltage (C-V), capacitance-time (C-t), and voltage-pulse measurements. When a positive voltage is applied repeatedly to the Pt electrode, the accumulation capacitance increases gradually and sequentially...
May 10, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488433/attosecond-electron-dynamics-in-molecules
#13
Mauro Nisoli, Piero Decleva, Francesca Calegari, Alicia Palacios, Fernando Martín
Advances in attosecond science have led to a wealth of important discoveries in atomic, molecular, and solid-state physics and are progressively directing their footsteps toward problems of chemical interest. Relevant technical achievements in the generation and application of extreme-ultraviolet subfemtosecond pulses, the introduction of experimental techniques able to follow in time the electron dynamics in quantum systems, and the development of sophisticated theoretical methods for the interpretation of the outcomes of such experiments have raised a continuous growing interest in attosecond phenomena, as demonstrated by the vast literature on the subject...
May 10, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484319/geometric-decompositions-of-collective-motion
#14
Matteo Mischiati, P S Krishnaprasad
Collective motion in nature is a captivating phenomenon. Revealing the underlying mechanisms, which are of biological and theoretical interest, will require empirical data, modelling and analysis techniques. Here, we contribute a geometric viewpoint, yielding a novel method of analysing movement. Snapshots of collective motion are portrayed as tangent vectors on configuration space, with length determined by the total kinetic energy. Using the geometry of fibre bundles and connections, this portrait is split into orthogonal components each tangential to a lower dimensional manifold derived from configuration space...
April 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483383/applications-of-nmr-and-computational-methodologies-to-study-protein-dynamics
#15
REVIEW
Chitra Narayanan, Khushboo Bafna, Louise D Roux, Pratul K Agarwal, Nicolas Doucet
Overwhelming evidence now illustrates the defining role of atomic-scale protein flexibility in biological events such as allostery, cell signaling, and enzyme catalysis. Over the years, spin relaxation nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has provided significant insights on the structural motions occurring on multiple time frames over the course of a protein life span. The present review article aims to illustrate to the broader community how this technique continues to shape many areas of protein science and engineering, in addition to being an indispensable tool for studying atomic-scale motions and functional characterization...
May 5, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482493/advances-in-ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene-hydroxyapatite-composites-for-biomedical-applications-a-brief-review
#16
REVIEW
Domingos Lusitâneo Pier Macuvele, Janaína Nones, Jonas V Matsinhe, Marla M Lima, Cíntia Soares, Márcio A Fiori, Humberto G Riella
Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a semicrystalline polymer that has been applied, as a bearing surface in total human joint replacements and artificial bones. UHMWPE has a superior wear resistance, low-friction surface, biological inertness, high levels of strength, creep resistance and low friction coefficient. However, the wear debris generated during the joint motions could cause problem in human implant, such as osteolysis and loosening. For this, several attempts was been made to improve UHMWPE properties and increases safety and biocompatibility in human implants...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480992/inferring-pathobiology-from-structural-mri-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-modeling-head-motion-and-neuroanatomical-specificity
#17
Nailin Yao, Anderson M Winkler, Jennifer Barrett, Gregory A Book, Tamara Beetham, Rachel Horseman, Olivia Leach, Karen Hodgson, Emma E Knowles, Samuel Mathias, Michael C Stevens, Michal Assaf, Theo G M van Erp, Godfrey D Pearlson, David C Glahn
Despite over 400 peer-reviewed structural MRI publications documenting neuroanatomic abnormalities in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, the confounding effects of head motion and the regional specificity of these defects are unclear. Using a large cohort of individuals scanned on the same research dedicated MRI with broadly similar protocols, we observe reduced cortical thickness indices in both illnesses, though less pronounced in bipolar disorder. While schizophrenia (n = 226) was associated with wide-spread surface area reductions, bipolar disorder (n = 227) and healthy comparison subjects (n = 370) did not differ...
May 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474607/a-biologically-inspired-controller-to-solve-the-coverage-problem-in-robotics
#18
Inaki Rano, Jose Santos
The coverage problem consists on computing a path or trajectory for a robot to pass over all the points in some free area and has applications ranging from floor cleaning to demining. Coverage is solved as a planning problem -- providing theoretical validation of the solution -- or through heuristic techniques which rely on experimental validation. Through a combination of theoretical results and simulations, this paper presents a novel solution to the coverage problem that exploits the chaotic behaviour of a simple biologically inspired motion controller, the Braitenberg vehicle 2b...
May 5, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473012/circuits-regulating-pleasure-and-happiness-evolution-and-role-in-mental-disorders
#19
Anton J M Loonen, Svetlana A Ivanova
Taking the evolutionary development of the forebrain as a starting point, the authors developed a biological framework for the subcortical regulation of human emotional behaviour which may offer an explanation for the pathogenesis of the principle symptoms of mental disorders. Appetitive-searching (reward-seeking) and distress-avoiding (misery-fleeing) behaviour are essential for all free-moving animals to stay alive and to have offspring. Even the oldest ocean-dwelling animal creatures, living about 560 million years ago and human ancestors, must therefore have been capable of generating these behaviours...
May 5, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471293/in-vitro-experimental-model-for-the-long-term-analysis-of-cellular-dynamics-during-bronchial-tree-development-from-lung-epithelial-cells
#20
Masaya Hagiwara, Naomichi Maruta, Moegi Marumoto
Lung branching morphogenesis has been studied for decades, but the underlying developmental mechanisms are still not fully understood. Cellular movements dynamically change during the branching process, but it is difficult to observe long-term cellular dynamics by in vivo or tissue culture experiments. Therefore, developing an in vitro experimental model of bronchial tree would provide an essential tool for developmental biology, pathology, and systems biology. Here, we succeeded in reconstructing a bronchial tree in vitro by using primary human bronchial epithelial cells...
May 4, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
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