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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154686/a-retrospective-summary-of-raptor-mortality-in-ontario-canada-1991-2014-including-the-effects-of-west-nile-virus
#1
Kathryn A Smith, G Douglas Campbell, David L Pearl, Claire M Jardine, Fernando Salgado-Bierman, Nicole M Nemeth
The causes of mortality of free-ranging raptors range from anthropogenic (e.g., trauma) to dynamic environmental conditions that may affect habitat suitability and prey availability. The province of Ontario, Canada, is vulnerable to anthropogenic and environmental changes because of its northern latitudes and expanding human populations, both of which may impact wildlife. We retrospectively evaluated diagnostic data from raptors submitted to the Ontario-Nunavut node of the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative (CWHC) from 1991 to 2014 (n=1,448)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152203/pyric-carnivory-raptor-use-of-prescribed-fires
#2
Torre J Hovick, Devan A McGranahan, R Dwayne Elmore, John R Weir, Samuel D Fuhlendorf
Fire is a process that shaped and maintained most terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Changes in land use and patterns of human settlement have altered fire regimes and led to fire suppression resulting in numerous undesirable consequences spanning individual species and entire ecosystems. Many obvious and direct consequences of fire suppression have been well studied, but several, albeit less obvious, costs of alteration to fire regimes on wildlife are unknown. One such phenomenon is the response of carnivores to fire events-something we refer to as pyric-carnivory...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150487/dynamin-inhibitors-block-mtorc1-activation-by-amino-acids-independently-of-dynamin
#3
Persaud Avinash, Cormerais Yann, Pouyssegur Jacques, Rotin Daniela
mTORC1 plays a critical role in protein synthesis and cell proliferation and growth. It is activated by growth factors and amino acids, including essential amino acid (EAA), such as Leu; Leu enters cells via the Leu transporter LAT1-4F2hc and potentially via endocytosis. Here we investigated the contribution of the different routes of Leu entry into cells to mTORC1 activation using pharmacological inhibitors and cells that lack LAT1 or dynamin1/2/3. Our results show that LAT1 is the major route of Leu entry into cells and mTORC1 activation (∼70%), while dynamin-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis contribute minimally to both (5-15%)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144820/pheochromocytoma-a-genetic-and-diagnostic-update
#4
Leilani B Mercado-Asis, Katherine I Wolf, Ivana Jochmanova, David Taïeb
OBJECTIVE: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are neuroendocrine tumors derived from adrenal or extra-adrenal locations, respectively. Upon suspicion of PPGL, specific metabolomic, molecular, biochemical, imaging, and histopathological studies are performed to prove, localize, treat, and monitor disease progression. Recently, improved diagnostic tools allow physicians to accurately diagnose PPGL, even in patients presenting with small (less than 1 cm) or biochemically silent tumors, which previously delayed proper detection and treatment...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130969/mechanistic-links-underlying-the-impact-of-c-reactive-protein-on-muscle-mass-in-elderly
#5
Britta Wåhlin-Larsson, Daniel J Wilkinson, Emelie Strandberg, Adrian Hosford-Donovan, Philip J Atherton, Fawzi Kadi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mechanisms underlying the relationship between systemic inflammation and age-related decline in muscle mass are poorly defined. The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between the systemic inflammatory marker CRP and muscle mass in elderly and to identify mechanisms by which CRP mediates its effects on skeletal muscle, in-vitro. METHODS: Muscle mass and serum CRP level were determined in a cohort of 118 older women (67±1.7 years)...
November 9, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128895/raptor-localization-predicts-prognosis-and-tamoxifen-response-in-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer
#6
Josefine Bostner, Anya Alayev, Adi Y Berman, Tommy Fornander, Bo Nordenskjöld, Marina K Holz, Olle Stål
PURPOSE: Deregulated PI3K/mTOR signals can promote the growth of breast cancer and contribute to endocrine treatment resistance. This report aims to investigate raptor and its intracellular localization to further understand its role in ER-positive breast cancer. METHODS: Raptor protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 756 primary breast tumors from postmenopausal patients randomized to tamoxifen or no tamoxifen. In vitro, the MCF7 breast cancer cell line and tamoxifen-resistant MCF7 cells were studied to track the raptor signaling changes upon resistance, and raptor localization in ERα-positive cell lines was compared with that in ERα-negative cell lines...
November 11, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106387/loss-of-mtorc1-signaling-alters-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-mass-and-impairs-glucagon-secretion
#7
Nadejda Bozadjieva, Manuel Blandino-Rosano, Jennifer Chase, Xiao-Qing Dai, Kelsey Cummings, Jennifer Gimeno, Danielle Dean, Alvin C Powers, George K Gittes, Markus A Rüegg, Michael N Hall, Patrick E MacDonald, Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi
Glucagon plays a major role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis during fed and fasting states. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of pancreatic α cell mass and function are not completely understood. In the current study, we identified mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) as a major regulator of α cell mass and glucagon secretion. Using mice with tissue-specific deletion of the mTORC1 regulator Raptor in α cells (αRaptorKO), we showed that mTORC1 signaling is dispensable for α cell development, but essential for α cell maturation during the transition from a milk-based diet to a chow-based diet after weaning...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104218/evolutionary-conservation-of-the-components-in-the-tor-signaling-pathways
#8
REVIEW
Hisashi Tatebe, Kazuhiro Shiozaki
Target of rapamycin (TOR) is an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase that controls multiple cellular processes upon various intracellular and extracellular stimuli. Since its first discovery, extensive studies have been conducted both in yeast and animal species including humans. Those studies have revealed that TOR forms two structurally and physiologically distinct protein complexes; TOR complex 1 (TORC1) is ubiquitous among eukaryotes including animals, yeast, protozoa, and plants, while TOR complex 2 (TORC2) is conserved in diverse eukaryotic species other than plants...
November 1, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097561/raptor-persecution-figures-may-be-tip-of-the-iceberg
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091348/validation-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-for-fast-and-portable-sex-determination-across-the-phylogeny-of-birds
#10
A Centeno-Cuadros, J L Tella, M Delibes, P Edelaar, M Carrete
PCR is a universal tool for the multiplication of specific DNA sequences. For example, PCR-based sex determination is widely used, and a diversity of primer sets is available. However, this protocol requires thermal cycling and electrophoresis so results are typically obtained in laboratories and several days after sampling. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an alternative to PCR that can take molecular ecology outside the laboratory. Although its application has been successfully probed for sex determination in three species of a single avian Family (Raptors, Accipitridae), its generality remains untested and suitable primers across taxa are lacking...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077002/the-role-of-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-mtor-in-insulin-signaling
#11
REVIEW
Mee-Sup Yoon
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that controls a wide spectrum of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. mTOR forms two distinct multiprotein complexes known as mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), which are characterized by the presence of raptor and rictor, respectively. mTOR controls insulin signaling by regulating several downstream components such as growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (Grb10), insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1), F-box/WD repeat-containing protein 8 (Fbw8), and insulin like growth factor 1 receptor/insulin receptor (IGF-IR/IR)...
October 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072256/rapamycin-inhibits-ox-ldl-induced-inflammation-in-human-endothelial-cells-in-vitro-by-inhibiting-the-mtorc2-pkc-c-fos-pathway
#12
Juan-Juan Sun, Xiao-Wei Yin, Hui-Hui Liu, Wen-Xiu Du, Lu-Yao Shi, Ya-Bo Huang, Fen Wang, Chun-Feng Liu, Yong-Jun Cao, Yan-Lin Zhang
Rapamycin and its derivative possess anti-atherosclerosis activity, but its effects on adhesion molecule expression and macrophage adhesion to endothelial cells during atherosclerosis remain unclear. In this study we explored the effects of rapamycin on ox-LDL-induced adhesion molecule expression and macrophage adhesion to endothelial cells in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. Ox-LDL (6-48 μg/mL) dose-dependently increased the protein levels of two adhesion molecules, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), whereas pretreatment with rapamycin (1-10 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited ox-LDL-induced increase in the adhesion molecule expression and macrophage adhesion to endothelial cells...
October 26, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067199/antibiotic-resistance-in-conjunctival-and-enteric-bacterial-flora-in-raptors-housed-in-a-zoological-garden
#13
Andrea Sala, Simone Taddei, Davide Santospirito, Camillo Sandri, William Magnone, Clotilde S Cabassi
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in a wide range of infectious agents is a growing public health threat. Birds of prey are considered indicators of the presence of AMR bacteria in their ecosystem because of their predatory behaviour. Only few data are reported in the literature on AMR strains isolated from animals housed in zoos and none about AMR in raptors housed in zoological gardens. This study investigated the antibiotic sensitivity profile of the isolates obtained from the conjunctival and cloacal bacterial flora of 14 healthy birds of prey, 6 Accipitriformes, 3 Falconiformes and 5 Strigiformes, housed in an Italian zoological garden...
November 2016: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045445/occupancy-modeling-reveals-territory-level-effects-of-nest-boxes-on-the-presence-colonization-and-persistence-of-a-declining-raptor-in-a-fruit-growing-region
#14
Megan E Shave, Catherine A Lindell
Nest boxes for predators in agricultural regions are an easily implemented tool to improve local habitat quality with potential benefits for both conservation and agriculture. The potential for nest boxes to increase raptor populations in agricultural regions is of particular interest given their positions as top predators. This study examined the effects of cherry orchard nest boxes on the local breeding population of a declining species, the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), in a fruit-growing region of Michigan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040000/methionine-induces-lat1-expression-in-dairy-cow-mammary-gland-by-activating-the-mtorc1-signaling-pathway
#15
Xiaoyu Duan, Ye Lin, He Lv, Yang Yang, Hongtao Jiao, Xiaoming Hou
Methionine is the limiting amino acid for milk protein synthesis in dairy cows. The effect of methionine availability on milk protein synthesis is dependent on its active transport into cells through amino acid transporters. L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), which induces the transport of neutral amino acids, is highly expressed in lactating mammary gland. However, the effect of methionine on LAT1 expression and the mechanism governing this process in dairy cow mammary gland are poorly understood. In this study, we show that treatment of dairy cow mammary epithelial cells with increasing concentrations of methionine for 24 h resulted in increased expression of LAT1 and its associated protein 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc)...
October 17, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032656/haemoproteus-in-barn-owls-and-collared-scops-owls-from-thailand
#16
Chaleow Salakij, Pornchai Pornpanom, Preeda Lertwatcharasarakul, Chaiyan Kasorndorkbua, Jarernsak Salakij
The barn owl (BO) and collared scops owl (CSO) are nocturnal raptors commonly found throughout Thailand. Little is known about the hemoparasites found in these 2 species of owls in Thailand. Blood samples from 23 adult BOs and 14 CSOs were collected and processed for complete blood cell counts and parasite morphological examinations. Two Haemoproteus-positive samples were processed for ultrastructural observations. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for a partial cytochrome b gene (cytb) from Haemoproteus was performed in all samples...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020667/eye-size-fovea-and-foraging-ecology-in-accipitriform-raptors
#17
Simon Potier, Mindaugas Mitkus, Francesco Bonadonna, Olivier Duriez, Pierre-François Isard, Thomas Dulaurent, Marielle Mentek, Almut Kelber
Birds with larger eyes are predicted to have higher spatial resolution because of their larger retinal image. Raptors are well known for their acute vision, mediated by their deep central fovea. Because foraging strategies may demand specific visual adaptations, eye size and fovea may differ between species with different foraging ecology. We tested whether predators (actively hunting mobile prey) and carrion eaters (eating dead prey) from the order Accipitriformes differ in eye size, foveal depth, and retinal thickness using spectral domain optical coherence tomography and comparative phylogenetic methods...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986081/blood-concentrations-of-pcbs-and-ddts-in-an-avian-predator-endemic-to-southern-africa-associations-with-habitat-electrical-transformers-and-diet
#18
Marie-Sophie Garcia-Heras, Beatriz Arroyo, Robert E Simmons, Pablo R Camarero, Rafael Mateo, Francois Mougeot
Persistent pollutants such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) have been highlighted as a cause of population decline in avian predators. Understanding patterns of OCs contamination can be crucial for the conservation of affected species, yet little is known on these threats to African raptors. Here we report on OC concentrations in an endangered predator endemic to southern Africa, the Black Harrier Circus maurus. Blood samples were collected in 2012-2014 from wild nestlings (n = 90) and adults (n = 23) in south-western South Africa, where agriculture and urbanization have developed rapidly since the 1950s...
October 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977864/gene-polymorphisms-in-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway-contribute-to-prostate-cancer-susceptibility-in-chinese-men
#19
Ting Liu, Abulajiang Gulinaer, Xiaoli Shi, Feng Wang, Hengqing An, Wenli Cui, Qiaoxin Li
In this hospital-based case-control study of 413 prostate cancer (PCa) cases and 807 cancer-free controls, we investigated the role of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of pivotal genes in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. We genotyped 17 SNPs in mTOR, Raptor, AKT1, AKT2, PTEN, and K-ras and found that 4 were associated with PCa susceptibility. Among the variants, the homozygote variant CC genotype of mTOR rs17036508 C>T were associated with higher PCa risk than the wild TT genotypes (adjusted OR = 3...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977249/avispora-mochogalegoi-n-sp-apicomplexa-sarcocystidae-in-the-little-owl-athene-noctua-strigiformes-strigidae-in-mainland-portugal
#20
Sergian Vianna Cardozo, Bruno Pereira Berto, Inês Caetano, Viviane Camara Maniero, Marcos Santos, Isabel Pereira da Fonseca, Carlos Wilson Gomes Lopes
The little owl Athene noctua (Scopoli, 1769) is a small raptor that is widely distributed from northern to southern Portugal and several other countries in Europe, Asia and North Africa, and which has been introduced into New Zealand. In the current study, 18 fecal samples were collected from little owls kept at the Lisbon Center for Wild Animal Recovery, which is located in Monsanto Forest Park, Lisbon, Portugal. Twelve (67%) of them were found to be passing an undescribed species of Avispora in their feces...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
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