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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649332/behavioral-evidence-of-hunting-and-foraging-techniques-by-a-top-predator-suggests-the-importance-of-scavenging-for-preadults
#1
Antoni Margalida, MªÀngels Colomer, Roberto Sánchez, Francisco Javier Sánchez, Javier Oria, Luis Mariano González
Scavenging may be a regular feeding behavior for some facultative raptor species occupying low quality habitats and/or with little experience in hunting techniques. However, its importance has been largely underestimated due to methodological limitations in identifying the real proportion in the diet. Here, through direct observations, we assessed the hunting and foraging success of the threatened Spanish imperial eagle Aquila adalberti determining the influence of age, sex, breeding status, habitat quality, prey type, and landscape characteristics...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644743/sarcocystis-jamaicensis-n-sp-from-red-tailed-hawks-buteo-jamaicensis-definitive-host-and-ifn-%C3%AE-gene-knockout-mice-as-experimental-intermediate-host
#2
Shiv Verma, Alexa Rosypal Von Dohlen, J Mowery, D Scott, B Rosenthal, J P Dubey, David Lindsay
Here, we report a new species of Sarcocystis with red-tailed hawk (RTH) as the natural definitive host and IFN-γ gene knockout (KO) mice as an experimental intermediate host in which sarcocysts form in muscle. Two RTHs submitted to the Carolina Raptor Center, Huntersville, North Carolina, were euthanized because they could not be rehabilitated and released. Fully sporulated 12.5 x 9.9 m sized sporocysts were found in intestinal scrapings of both hawks. Sporocysts were orally fed to laboratory-reared outbred Swiss Webster mice (SW) (Mus musculus) and also to KO mice...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644085/pharmacokinetics-of-a-sustained-release-formulation-of-buprenorphine-after-intramuscular-and-subcutaneous-administration-to-american-kestrels-falco-sparverius
#3
David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Heather K Knych, Glenn H Olsen, Joanne R Paul-Murphy
Previous studies have validated the clinical use of opioids with μ-receptor affinities for pain management in raptors. Buprenorphine appears to have a longer duration of action and minimal adverse effects when compared to other opioids in American kestrels ( Falco sparverius ). To determine the pharmacokinetics of a sustained release formulation of buprenorphine in kestrels, we administered a commercially available product (Buprenorphine SR-LAB; Wildlife Pharmaceuticals, Windsor, CO, USA) intramuscularly and subcutaneously to adult kestrels in a partial-crossover experimental design study...
June 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632944/deconstructing-the-landscape-of-fear-in-stable-multi-species-societies
#4
A E Martínez, E Parra, L F Collado, V T Vredenburg
Animal distributions are influenced by variation in predation risk in space, which has been described as the "landscape of fear." Many studies suggest animals also reduce predation risk by eavesdropping on heterospecific alarm calls, allowing them to occupy otherwise risky habitats. One unexplored area of study is understanding how different species' alarms vary in quality, and how this variation is distributed in the landscape. We tested this phenomenon in a unique system of avian mixed species flocks in Amazonian rainforests: flock mates (eavesdropping species) strongly associate with alarm-calling antshrikes (genus Thamnomanes), which act as sentinel species...
June 20, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628821/pollutants-and-diet-influence-carotenoid-levels-and-integument-coloration-in-nestlings-of-an-endangered-raptor
#5
Marie-Sophie García-Heras, Beatriz Arroyo, Robert E Simmons, Pablo R Camarero, Rafael Mateo, Jesús T García, Francois Mougeot
Carotenoid-based traits or ornaments, such as yellow-red integuments (feathers, beaks, legs or eye-rings) displayed by birds, play key roles in social communication by reliably advertising an individual's quality or health. In some species, these traits are displayed not only by adults but also by nestlings, and function in parent-offspring communication or sibling competition by advertising an individual's physical or physiological condition. Pollutants such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) could have disruptive effects on the coloration of these traits, thereby interfering with communication processes...
June 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627635/concomitant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-promotes-lung-tumor-growth-through-enhancing-treg-development
#6
Yan Zhou, Zhangguo Hu, Shuhui Cao, Bo Yan, Jialin Qian, Hua Zhong
Lung cancer is the most common malignancy in humans. An increased population of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the tumor-associated microenvironment plays an important role in cancer immune evasion. The exact role and the involved mechanisms of concomitant H37Rv infection in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development are still not clear. Here, we showed that H37Rv infection promoted NSCLC cell growth with a higher percentage of Tregs found in draining lymph nodes. We also determined in vitro that H37Rv infection induced macrophage maturation and PD-L1 expression, which promoted Treg proportion, with enhanced proliferation suppression function...
June 19, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615350/a-circannual-perspective-on-daily-and-total-flight-distances-in-a-long-distance-migratory-raptor-the-montagu-s-harrier-circus-pygargus
#7
Almut E Schlaich, Willem Bouten, Vincent Bretagnolle, Henning Heldbjerg, Raymond H G Klaassen, Iben H Sørensen, Alexandre Villers, Christiaan Both
Long-distance migrants are particularly recognized for the distances covered on migration, yet little is known about the distances they cover during the rest of the year. GPS-tracks of 29 Montagu's harriers from breeding areas in France, The Netherlands and Denmark showed that harriers fly between 35 653 and 88 049 km yr(-1), of which on average only 28.5% is on migration. Mean daily distances during migration were 296 km d(-1) in autumn and 252 km d(-1) in spring. Surprisingly, males' daily distances during breeding (217 km d(-1)) were close to those during migration, whereas breeding females moved significantly less (101 km d(-1)) than males...
June 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601162/immature-and-mature-sperm-morphometry-in-fresh-and-frozen-thawed-falcon-ejaculates
#8
S Villaverde-Morcillo, A J Soler, M C Esteso, C Castaño, A Miñano-Berna, F Gonzalez, J Santiago-Moreno
Sperm morphometry is one characteristic which may be useful in prediction of fertility and sperm freezability in a species. Knowledge of the sperm characteristics of the ejaculate and the morphometric descriptors is necessary to effectively develop sperm cryopreservation. The aim of the current study was to provide a general description of the sperm from two falcon species (Peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus peregrinus/brookei and Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus) including immature sperm, sperm head morphometric descriptors, and the existence of mature sperm subpopulations...
August 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599287/gene-polymorphisms-in-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway-contribute-to-prostate-cancer-susceptibility-in-chinese-men
#9
Ting Liu, Abulajiang Gulinaer, Xiaoli Shi, Feng Wang, Hengqing An, Wenli Cui, Qiaoxin Li
In this hospital-based case-control study of 413 prostate cancer (PCa) cases and 807 cancer-free controls, we investigated the role of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of pivotal genes in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. We genotyped 17 SNPs in mTOR, Raptor, AKT1, AKT2, PTEN, and K-ras and found that 4 were associated with PCa susceptibility. Among the variants, the homozygote variant CC genotype of mTOR rs17036508 C>T were associated with higher PCa risk than the wild TT genotypes (adjusted OR = 3...
May 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599194/spatiotemporal-patterns-and-relationships-among-the-diet-biochemistry-and-exposure-to-flame-retardants-in-an-apex-avian-predator-the-peregrine-falcon
#10
Kim J Fernie, Dominique Chabot, Louise Champoux, Samantha Brimble, Mehran Alaee, Sarah Marteinson, Da Chen, Vince Palace, David M Bird, Robert J Letcher
Flame retardants (FR) are industrial chemicals and some are proven environmental contaminants that accumulate in predatory birds. Few studies have examined the influence of diet on FR profiles in nestling raptors and the possible physiological implications of such FR exposure. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine spatial patterns of ≤ 48 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and ≤ 26 non-PBDE FRs, including organophosphate esters (OPEs), in nestling peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) across the Canadian Great Lakes-St...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598424/raptor-regulates-functional-maturation-of-murine-beta-cells
#11
Qicheng Ni, Yanyun Gu, Yun Xie, Qinglei Yin, Hongli Zhang, Aifang Nie, Wenyi Li, Yanqiu Wang, Guang Ning, Weiqing Wang, Qidi Wang
Diabetes is associated with beta cell mass loss and islet dysfunctions. mTORC1 regulates beta cell survival, proliferation and function in physiological and pathological conditions, such as pregnancy and pancreatectomy. Here we show that deletion of Raptor, which is an essential component of mTORC1, in insulin-expressing cells promotes hypoinsulinemia and glucose intolerance. Raptor-deficient beta cells display reduced glucose responsiveness and exhibit a glucose metabolic profile resembling fetal beta cells...
June 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580286/role-of-nutrients-and-mtor-signaling-in-the-regulation-of-pancreatic-progenitors-development
#12
Lynda Elghazi, Manuel Blandino-Rosano, Emilyn Alejandro, Corentin Cras-Méneur, Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi
OBJECTIVE: Poor fetal nutrition increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in the offspring at least in part by reduced embryonic β-cell growth and impaired function. However, it is not entirely clear how fetal nutrients and growth factors impact β-cells during development to alter glucose homeostasis and metabolism later in life. The current experiments aimed to test the impact of fetal nutrients and growth factors on endocrine development and how these signals acting on mTOR signaling regulate β-cell mass and glucose homeostasis...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576773/distinct-roles-for-the-mtor-pathway-in-postnatal-morphogenesis-maturation-and-function-of-pancreatic-islets
#13
Katie L Sinagoga, William J Stone, Jacqueline V Schiesser, Jamie I Schweitzer, Leesa Sampson, Yi Zheng, James M Wells
While much is known about the molecular pathways that regulate embryonic development and adult homeostasis of the endocrine pancreas, little is known about what regulates early postnatal development and maturation of islets. Given that birth marks the first exposure to enteral nutrition, we investigated how nutrient-regulated signaling pathways influence postnatal islet development. To do this we performed loss-of-function studies of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), a highly conserved kinase within a nutrient-sensing pathway known to regulate cellular growth, morphogenesis and metabolism...
June 2, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573133/regulation-of-osteoclast-growth-and-fusion-by-mtor-raptor-and-mtor-rictor-akt
#14
Kerstin Tiedemann, Damien Le Nihouannen, Jenna E Fong, Osama Hussein, Jake E Barralet, Svetlana V Komarova
Osteoclasts are giant bone cells formed by fusion from monocytes and uniquely capable of a complete destruction of mineralized tissues. Previously, we have demonstrated that in energy-rich environment not only osteoclast fusion index (the number of nuclei each osteoclast contains), but also cytoplasm volume per single nucleus was increased. The goal of this study was to investigate the regulation of metabolic sensor mTOR during osteoclast differentiation in energy-rich environment simulated by addition of pyruvate...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572395/mtorc1-activity-repression-by-late-endosomal-phosphatidylinositol-3-4-bisphosphate
#15
Andrea L Marat, Alexander Wallroth, Wen-Ting Lo, Rainer Müller, Giuseppe Danilo Norata, Marco Falasca, Carsten Schultz, Volker Haucke
Nutrient sensing by mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) on lysosomes and late endosomes (LyLEs) regulates cell growth. Many factors stimulate mTORC1 activity, including the production of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] by class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) at the plasma membrane. We investigated mechanisms that repress mTORC1 under conditions of growth factor deprivation. We identified phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P2], synthesized by class II PI3K β (PI3KC2β) at LyLEs, as a negative regulator of mTORC1, whereas loss of PI3KC2β hyperactivated mTORC1...
June 2, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557002/mtorc1-signaling-is-essential-for-germinal-center-reaction
#16
Bingshou Li, Zhirong Li, Pengcheng Wang, Qizhao Huang, Lifan Xu, Ran He, Lilin Ye, Qiang Bai
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine-threonine kinase that has been shown to be essential for the differentiation and function of various immune cells. Earlier in vitro studies showed that mTOR signaling regulates B cell biology by supporting their activation and proliferation. However, how mTOR signaling temporally regulates in vivo germinal center B (GCB) cell development and differentiation into short-lived plasma cells, long-lived plasma cells and memory cells is still not well understood...
May 30, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553309/the-tor-pathway-is-involved-in-adventitious-root-formation-in-arabidopsis-and-potato
#17
Kexuan Deng, Pan Dong, Wanjing Wang, Li Feng, Fangjie Xiong, Kai Wang, Shumin Zhang, Shun Feng, Bangjun Wang, Jiankui Zhang, Maozhi Ren
In the agriculture industry, adventitious root formation is a core issue of plants asexual propagation. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of adventitious root formation is far beyond understanding. In present study we found that target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling plays a key role in adventitious root formation in potato and Arabidopsis. The core components of TOR complex including TOR, RAPTOR, and LST8 are highly conserved in potato, but the seedlings of potato are insensitive to rapamycin, implying FK506 Binding Protein 12 KD (FKBP12) lost the function to bridge the interaction of rapamycin and TOR in potato...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545112/home-range-size-of-tengmalm-s-owl-during-breeding-in-central-europe-is-determined-by-prey-abundance
#18
Marek Kouba, Luděk Bartoš, Václav Tomášek, Alena Popelková, Karel Šťastný, Markéta Zárybnická
Animal home ranges typically characterized by their size, shape and a given time interval can be affected by many different biotic and abiotic factors. However, despite the fact that many studies have addressed home ranges, our knowledge of the factors influencing the size of area occupied by different animals is, in many cases, still quite poor, especially among raptors. Using radio-telemetry (VHF; 2.1 g tail-mounted tags) we studied movements of 20 Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus) males during the breeding season in a mountain area of Central Europe (the Czech Republic, the Ore Mountains: 50° 40' N, 13° 35' E) between years 2006-2010, determined their average hunting home range size and explored what factors affected the size of home range utilised...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528556/proventriculitis-associated-with-cryptosporidium-baileyi-in-a-snowy-owl-bubo-scandiacus-and-its-epidemiological-investigation
#19
Shotaro Nakagun, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Miki Sugimoto, Sohei Tomikawa, Kenichi Watanabe, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi
We describe an unusual case of proventriculitis associated with Cryptosporidium baileyi in a 7-wk-old snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus) chick kept at a zoo. Necropsy of this animal revealed diffuse mucosal thickening of the proventriculus. Subsequent histopathological examinations of the proventriculus showed marked ductal epithelial hyperplasia with intestinal metaplasia and severe inflammatory cell infiltration in the lamina propria and submucosa. These lesions were associated with numerous periodic-acid-Schiff-positive cryptosporidia-like protozoan parasites...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523646/phylogenetics-and-ecomorphology-of-emarginate-primary-feathers
#20
Brett Klaassen van Oorschot, Ho Kwan Tang, Bret W Tobalske
Wing tip slots are a distinct morphological trait broadly expressed across the avian clade, but are generally perceived to be unique to soaring raptors. These slots are the result of emarginations on the distal leading and trailing edges of primary feathers, and allow the feathers to behave as individual airfoils. Research suggests these emarginate feathers are an adaptation to increase glide efficiency by mitigating induced drag in a manner similar to aircraft winglets. If so, we might expect birds known for gliding and soaring to exhibit emarginate feather morphology; however, that is not always the case...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Morphology
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