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Ying Mu, Dongmei Zheng, Cong Wang, Wei Yu, Xiaonan Zhang
This research paper addresses the hypothesis that RagD is a key signalling factor that regulates amino acid (AA) mediated-casein synthesis and cell proliferation in cow mammary epithelial cells (CMECs). The expression of RagD was analysed at different times during pregnancy and lactation in bovine mammary tissue from dairy cows. We showed that expression of RagD at lactation period was higher (P < 0·05) than that at pregnancy period. When CMECs were treated with methionine (Met) or lysine (Lys), expression of RagD, β-casein (CSN2), mTOR and p-mTOR, and cell proliferation were increased...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Research
Oded Volovelsky, Thi Nguyen, Alison E Jarmas, Alexander N Combes, Sean B Wilson, Melissa H Little, David P Witte, Eric W Brunskill, Raphael Kopan
Nephrogenesis concludes by the 36th week of gestation in humans and by the third day of postnatal life in mice. Extending the nephrogenic period may reduce the onset of adult renal and cardiovascular disease associated with low nephron numbers. We conditionally deleted either Mtor or Tsc1 (coding for hamartin, an inhibitor of Mtor) in renal progenitor cells. Loss of one Mtor allele caused a reduction in nephron numbers; complete deletion led to severe paucity of glomeruli in the kidney resulting in early death after birth...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Simon Potier, Olivier Duriez, Gregory B Cunningham, Vincent Bonhomme, Colleen O'Rourke, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Francesco Bonadonna
Birds, particularly raptors, are believed to forage primarily using visual cues. However, raptor foraging tactics are highly diverse - from chasing mobile prey to scavenging - which may reflect adaptations of their visual systems. To investigate this, we studied the visual field configuration of 15 species of diurnal Accipitriformes that differ in such tactics, first focusing on the binocular field and blind area by using a single traits approach, and then exploring the shape of the binocular field with morphometric approaches...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Facundo Barbar, Gonzalo O Ignazi, Fernando Hiraldo, Sergio A Lambertucci
The introduction of alien species could be changing food source composition, ultimately restructuring demography and spatial distribution of native communities. In Argentine Patagonia, the exotic European hare has one of the highest numbers recorded worldwide and is now a widely consumed prey for many predators. We examine the potential relationship between abundance of this relatively new prey and the abundance and breeding spacing of one of its main consumers, the Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle ( Geranoaetus melanoleucus )...
2018: PeerJ
Aurelia Lamanuzzi, Ilaria Saltarella, Vanessa Desantis, Maria Antonia Frassanito, Patrizia Leone, Vito Racanelli, Beatrice Nico, Domenico Ribatti, Paolo Ditonno, Marcella Prete, Antonio Giovanni Solimando, Francesco Dammacco, Angelo Vacca, Roberto Ria
The mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) is an intracellular serine/threonine kinase that mediates intracellular metabolism, cell survival and actin rearrangement. mTOR is made of two independent complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, activated by the scaffold proteins RAPTOR and RICTOR, respectively. The activation of mTORC1 triggers protein synthesis and autophagy inhibition, while mTORC2 activation promotes progression, survival, actin reorganization, and drug resistance through AKT hyper-phosphorylation on Ser473...
April 17, 2018: Oncotarget
S Shyamal, S Das, A Guruacharya, D L Mykles, D S Durica
The intermolt crustacean Y-organ (YO) maintains a basal state mediated by pulsatile release of molt inhibiting hormone (MIH), a neuropeptide produced in the eyestalk ganglia, inhibiting YO ecdysteroidogenesis. Reduction of MIH results in YO activation and the animal enters premolt. In the crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, molting was induced by eyestalk ablation (ESA). ESA animals were injected with either rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, or DMSO vehicle at Day 0. YOs were harvested at 1, 3, and 7 days post-ESA and processed for high throughput RNA sequencing...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ora Son, Sunghan Kim, Dooil Kim, Yoon-Sun Hur, Jiyoung Kim, Choong-Ill Cheon
In our previous studies, we have demonstrated that a stretch of amino-acid sequences identified from Arabidopsis ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (AtS6K1) provided a plant version of the TOS (TOR-signaling) motif, mediating the interaction with the Raptor protein in the TOR (Target of Rapamycin) kinase complex. Here we report the presence of same element in Arabidopsis Autophagy related-13 (AtATG13) protein, which is a key component of the plant autophagy response. Its composition is nearly identical to that found in the AtS6K1 in the five-amino-acid core sequence, and the presence of this five-amino-acid sequence was found to be essential for its interaction with the Raptor protein...
May 5, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Meenu R Rajan, Elin Nyman, Cecilia Brännmark, Charlotta S Olofsson, Peter Strålfors
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance in the expanding adipose tissue of obesity. The insulin resistance manifests in human adipocytes as system-wide impairment of insulin signalling. An exception is regulation of transcription factor FOXO1, which is phosphorylated downstream of mTORC2 and is therefore not exhibiting impaired response to insulin. However, the abundance, and activity, of FOXO1 is reduced by half in adipocytes from patients with diabetes. To elucidate the effect of reduced FOXO1 activity, we herein transduced human adipocytes with a dominant-negative construct of FOXO1 (DN-FOXO1)...
May 3, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Mélanie F Guigueno, Natalie K Karouna-Renier, Paula F P Henry, Jessica A Head, Lisa E Peters, Vince P Palace, Robert J Letcher, Kim J Fernie
The brain and underlying cognition may vary adaptively according to an organism's ecology. As with all raptor species, adult American kestrels (Falco sparverius) are sexually dimorphic with females being larger than males. Related to this sexual dimorphism, kestrels display sex differences in hunting and migration, with females ranging more widely than males, suggesting possible sex differences in spatial cognition. However, hippocampus volume, the brain region responsible for spatial cognition, has not been investigated in raptors...
April 24, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Nafees Ahamad, Tanuj Sharma, Saman Khan, Mohammad Imran Siddiqi, Shakil Ahmed
Mammalian Lst8 interacts with the kinase domain of mTOR and stabilizes its interaction with Raptor regulating cell growth through the mTOR-S6K1 signalling pathway. Fission yeast Wat1, an ortholog of mammalian Lst8 is also an essential component of TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR Complex 2 (TORC2) that control protein kinases essential for metabolic pathways. Here, we show that in response to osmotic stress, the Wat1 protein undergoes hyper-phosphorylation at S116 position. Wat1 interacts with the C-terminal region of Tor1 that also contain kinase domain...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Jonathan M Cracknell, Alistair M Lawrie, Lisa Yon, Jane S Hopper, Yolanda Martinez Pereira, Eve Smaller, Romain Pizzi
Coracoid fractures are a frequent presentation in wild birds, commonly caused by collisions with motor vehicles, windows, or other obstacles such as pylons. Despite this, there are few reports of outcomes, and those published consist of small numbers of birds with conflicting results when comparing conservative management with surgical intervention. To determine outcome success of conservative management in a larger population of wild birds, records of 232 adult wild birds in the United Kingdom (UK) with closed unilateral coracoid fractures confirmed on radiography and surviving more than 48 hours after admission were retrospectively analyzed...
March 2018: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Susanne M Ceulemans, Hugues Beaufrère, Glenn H Olsen, Joanne R Paul-Murphy
Previous studies have validated the clinical use of opioids with μ-receptor affinities for pain management in raptors. Buprenorphine has a longer duration of action and minimal adverse effects when compared with other opioids in American kestrels ( Falco sparverius). To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects, sedative effects, and duration of action of sustained-release buprenorphine given intramusculary in American kestrels, 12 adult kestrels (8 females and 4 males) were used in a randomized masked complete-crossover experimental design...
March 2018: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Camilla Norrmén, Gianluca Figlia, Patrick Pfistner, Jorge A Pereira, Sven Bachofner, Ueli Suter
Schwann cells (SCs) are endowed with a remarkable plasticity. When peripheral nerves are injured, SCs dedifferentiate and acquire new functions to coordinate nerve repair as so-called repair SCs. Subsequently, SCs redifferentiate to remyelinate regenerated axons. Given the similarities between SC de/redifferentiation in injured nerves and in demyelinating neuropathies, elucidating the signals involved in SC plasticity after nerve injury has potentially wider implications. c-Jun has emerged as a key transcription factor regulating SC dedifferentiation and the acquisition of repair SC features...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Vinod K Srivastava, Jill K Hiney, William L Dees
BACKGROUND: Because alcohol (ALC) delays signs of pubertal development, we assessed the time course of events associated with the synthesis of critical hypothalamic peptides that regulate secretion of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), the peptide that drives the pubertal process. METHODS: Immature female rats were administered either lab chow or Bio-Serve isocaloric control or ALC liquid diets from 27 through 33 days of age. On days 28, 29, 31 and 33 animals were killed by decapitation and tissue blocks containing the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) and the rostral hypothalamic area (RHA) were isolated and stored frozen until assessed by Western blot analysis...
April 24, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Rosli Ramli, Aimi Fauzi
Black-shouldered Kite ( Elanus caeruleus ) is a well-known raptor that inhabits open areas such as oil palm plantation or paddy field. To determine preferable habitat and nesting site of Black-shouldered Kite in oil palm landscape, we conducted a study on Black-shouldered Kite's nesting biology in Carey Island, Selangor, Malaysia. We divided the island into six types of habitat and conducted road-side count of Black-shouldered Kite from April 2009 to February 2011. Whenever the Black-shouldered Kite was detected, we thoroughly searched the surrounding area for their nest...
March 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Mohamed A Salem, Yan Li, Krzysztof Bajdzienko, Joachim Fisahn, Mutsumi Watanabe, Rainer Hoefgen, Mark Aurel Schöttler, Patrick Giavalisco
Vegetative growth requires the systemic coordination of numerous cellular processes, which are controlled by regulatory proteins that monitor extra- and intra-cellular cues and translate them into growth decisions. In eukaryotes, one of the central factors regulating growth is the Ser/Thr protein kinase Target of Rapamycin (TOR), which forms complexes with regulatory proteins. To understand the function of one such regulatory protein, Regulatory-Associated Protein of TOR 1B (RAPTOR1B) in plants, we analyzed the effect of raptor1b mutations on growth and physiology in Arabidopsis thaliana by detailed phenotyping, metabolomic, lipidomic, and proteomic analysis...
April 23, 2018: Plant Physiology
Diego Montecino-Latorre, Christopher M Barker
In temperate climates, transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) is detectable rarely during the coldest months (late fall through early spring), yet the virus has reappeared consistently during the next warm season. Several mechanisms may contribute to WNV persistence through winter, including bird-to-bird transmission among highly viremic species. Here we consider whether, under realistic scenarios supported by field and laboratory evidence, a winter bird community could sustain WNV through the winter in the absence of mosquitoes...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elham Nourani, Kamran Safi, Noriyuki M Yamaguchi, Hiroyoshi Higuchi
Flapping flight is relatively costly for soaring birds such as raptors. To avoid costly flight, migrating raptors generally avoid flying over water. As a result, all but one of the global raptor migration flyways are largely over land. The East Asian oceanic flyway for raptors is the exception. Raptor species using this flyway migrate by island-hopping, flying over open ocean for distances of up to 300 km between islands. We used satellite telemetry data for grey-faced buzzards Butastur indicus , a species that dominates the southern part of the flyway, to investigate the geographical and atmospheric factors responsible for the suitability of this flyway for raptor migration...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Robin Mills, Hanno Hildenbrandt, Graham K Taylor, Charlotte K Hemelrijk
The peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus is renowned for attacking its prey from high altitude in a fast controlled dive called a stoop. Many other raptors employ a similar mode of attack, but the functional benefits of stooping remain obscure. Here we investigate whether, when, and why stooping promotes catch success, using a three-dimensional, agent-based modeling approach to simulate attacks of falcons on aerial prey. We simulate avian flapping and gliding flight using an analytical quasi-steady model of the aerodynamic forces and moments, parametrized by empirical measurements of flight morphology...
April 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Aditi Sriram, Wendi Roe, Matu Booth, Brett Gartrell
Anthropogenic lead use has resulted in widespread environmental lead contamination known to affect wildlife populations worldwide. Ecotoxicological investigations in wild birds have thus far prioritised waterfowl and raptor species and primarily addressed contamination in natural ecosystems. Urban areas are increasingly associated with high levels of heavy metal contamination, however the risk of lead exposure in urban wildlife is less well known. This study investigates lead exposure in an urban population of North Island Kaka (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis), an endemic New Zealand parrot...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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