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Kendra C Baker, Christy L Rettenmund, Samantha J Sander, Anne E Rivas, Kaitlin C Green, Lisa Mangus, Ellen Bronson
Vector-borne hemoparasites are commonly found in avian species. Plasmodium spp., the causative agent of avian malaria, are intraerythrocytic parasites that can cause signs ranging from subclinical infection to severe acute disease. In raptor species, most hemoparasites are associated with subclinical infection and are generally not treated when seen on blood evaluation. This case series reviews five cases of hemoparasite infection in snowy owls ( Bubo scandiacus). These animals were infected with a variety of hemoparasites, including Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leukocytozoon spp...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Yujie Li, Sandra Finkbeiner, Athina Ganner, Julia Gerber, Marinella Klein, Manuel Grafe, Jakob Kandzia, Antje Thien, Kathrin Thedieck, Gerhard Breves, Thomas Jank, Ralf Baumeister, Gerd Walz, Elke Neumann-Haefelin
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase is central to metabolism and growth, and has a conserved role in aging. mTOR functions in two complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. In diverse eukaryotes, inhibition of mTORC1 signaling increases lifespan. mTORC1 transduces anabolic signals to stimulate protein synthesis and inhibits autophagy. In this study, we demonstrate that CGEF-1, the C. elegans homolog of the human guanine nucleotide exchange factor Dbl, is a novel binding partner of RHEB-1 and activator of mTORC1 signaling in C...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Alessandro Di Marzio, Pilar Gómez-Ramírez, Facundo Barbar, Sergio Agustín Lambertucci, Antonio Juan García-Fernández, Emma Martínez-López
Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that bioaccumulates and biomagnifies in food chains and is associated with adverse effects in both humans and wildlife. We used feather samples from bird scavengers to evaluate Hg concentrations in two different areas of Northern Patagonia. Hg concentrations were analyzed in feathers obtained from turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), Black Vultures (Coragyps atratus), and southern crested caracaras (Caracara plancus) from the two areas of Northern Patagonia (Argentina): Bariloche and El Valle...
March 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Barbara Ogórek, Hilaire C Lam, Damir Khabibullin, Heng-Jia Liu, Julie Nijmeh, Robinson Triboulet, David J Kwiatkowski, Richard I Gregory, Elizabeth P Henske
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by germline inactivating mutations of TSC1 or TSC2. In TSC-associated tumors of the brain, heart, skin, kidney, and lung, inactivation of both alleles of TSC1 or TSC2 leads to hyperactivation of the mTORC1 pathway. The TSC/mTORC1 pathway is a key regulator of cellular processes related to growth, proliferation and autophagy. We and others have previously found that mTORC1 regulates microRNA biogenesis, but the mechanisms are not fully understood...
March 2, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Anushika Bose, Tobias Dürr, Reinhard A Klenke, Klaus Henle
Biodiversity-related impacts at wind energy facilities have increasingly become a cause of conservation concern, central issue being the collision of birds. Utilizing spatial information of their carcass detections at wind turbines (WTs), we quantified the detections in relation to the metric distances of the respective turbines to different land-use types. We used ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA) to identify combinations of land-use distances with respect to the spatial allocation of WTs that led to higher proportions of collisions among the worst affected bird-groups: Buntings, Crows, Larks, Pigeons and Raptors...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qian Shi, Suryavathi Viswanadhapalli, William E Friedrichs, Chakradhar Velagapudi, Cédric Szyndralewiez, Shweta Bansal, Manzoor A Bhat, Goutam Ghosh Choudhury, Hanna E Abboud
The mechanism by which TSC2 inactivation or deficiency contributes to the pathology of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is not fully clear. We show that renal angiomyolipomas from TSC patients and kidney cortex from Tsc2+/- mice exhibit elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Downregulation of tuberin (protein encoded by TSC2 gene) in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells significantly increased ROS concomitant with enhanced Nox4. Similarly, we found elevated levels of Nox4 in the renal cortex of Tsc2+/- mice and in the renal angiomyolipomas from TSC patients...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vladimir R Babaev, Jiansheng Huang, Lei Ding, Youmin Zhang, James M May, MacRae F Linton
Background: Rictor is an essential component of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 (mTORC2), a conserved serine/threonine kinase that may play a role in cell proliferation, survival and innate or adaptive immune responses. Genetic loss of Rictor inactivates mTORC2, which directly activates Akt S473 phosphorylation and promotes pro-survival cell signaling and proliferation. Methods and results: To study the role of mTORC2 signaling in monocytes and macrophages, we generated mice with myeloid lineage-specific Rictor deletion (M Rictor -/- )...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Kari A Prassack, Michael C Pante, Jackson K Njau, Ignacio de la Torre
Fossil bird data (community composition and taphonomic profiles) are used here to infer the environmental context of the Oldowan-Acheulean transitional period at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. This is the first comprehensive report on the Middle Bed II avifauna and includes fossils excavated by the Olduvai Geochronology and Archaeology Project (OGAP) and recently rediscovered fossils collected by Mary Leakey. Crane, ibis, darter, owl, raptor, crow, and vulture are reported from Bed II for the first time. The presence of these taxa, absent earlier in this Bed, point to a general opening and drying of the landscape with grassland and open woodland expansion...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Di Kang, Dou Wang, Jianbing Xu, Chao Quan, Xuan Guo, Heng Wang, Jun Luo, Zhongzhou Yang, Shuai Chen, Jiong Chen
Cell growth and cell differentiation are two distinct yet coupled developmental processes, but how they are coordinated is not well understood. During Drosophila oogenesis, we found that the growth-promoting InR/Akt/TOR pathway was involved in suppressing the fate determination of the migratory border cells. The InR/Akt/TOR pathway signals through TOR and Raptor, components of TORC1, to downregulate the JAK/STAT pathway, which is necessary and sufficient for border cell fate determination. TORC1 promotes the protein stability of SOCS36E, the conserved negative regulator of JAK/STAT signaling, through physical interaction, suggesting that TORC1 acts as a key regulator coordinating both cell growth and cell differentiation...
February 26, 2018: Developmental Cell
Daohua Shi, Yanting Zhu, Peiguang Niu, Jintuo Zhou, Huajiao Chen
Purpose: Cardamonin inhibits the proliferation of SKOV3 cells by suppressing the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). However, the mechanism of cardamonin on mTORC1 inhibition has not been well demonstrated. The regulatory-associated protein of TOR (Raptor) is an essential component of mTORC1. Here, we investigated the role of Raptor in the mTORC1 inhibition effect of cardamonin in SKOV3 cells. Methods: The expression of Raptor was knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA)...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Tomáš Csank, Petra Drzewnioková, Ľuboš Korytár, Peter Major, Miklós Gyuranecz, Juraj Pistl, Tamás Bakonyi
In central Europe, at least three flaviviruses circulate among vectors and vertebrate hosts. West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are mosquito-borne viruses maintained in the nature by enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a flavivirus causing annual human cases in Slovakia. The aim of this study is the prevalence assessment of flavivirus infections in horses (n = 145) and birds (n = 109) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmation by neutralization test (VNT)...
February 13, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Randall S Reiserer, Gordon W Schuett, Harry W Greene
Seed dispersal is a key evolutionary process and a central theme in the population ecology of terrestrial plants. The primary producers of most land-based ecosystems are propagated by and maintained through various mechanisms of seed dispersal that involve both abiotic and biotic modes of transportation. By far the most common biotic seed transport mechanism is zoochory, whereby seeds, or fruits containing them, are dispersed through the activities of animals. Rodents are one group of mammals that commonly prey on seeds (granivores) and play a critical, often destructive, role in primary dispersal and the dynamics of plant communities...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Xujun Hu, Zirui Wang, Meikai Chen, Xuerong Chen, Wenqing Liang
mTOR over-activation is important for human osteosarcoma (OS) tumorigenesis and progression. RES-529 is a mTORC1/2 dual inhibitor. Here, our results show that RES-529 inhibited viability, cell cycle progression and proliferation of the established (U2OS line) and primary human OS cells. RES-529 induced apoptosis activation in OS cells. It was yet non-cytotoxic to OB-6 osteoblastic cells and the primary human osteoblasts. RES-529 disrupted assembling of mTORC1 (mTOR-Raptor association) and mTORC2 (mTOR-Rictor-mLST8 association) in human OS cells, blocking mTORC1/2 activation...
February 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Gang Liu, Feng-Li Chen, Feng Ji, Hao-Dong Fei, Yue Xie, Shou-Guo Wang
Activation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) could protect human osteoblasts from dexamethasone. Tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) is mTORC1 upstream inhibitory protein. We demonstrate here that microRNA-19a ("miR-19a", -3p) targets the 3' untranslated regions of TSC1 mRNA. Expression of miR-19a downregulated TSC1 in OB-6 osteoblastic cells and primary human osteoblasts. miR-19a activated mTORC1 and protected human osteoblasts from dexamethasone. mTORC1 inhibition, by RAD001 or Raptor shRNA, almost completely abolished miR-19a-induced osteoblast cytoprotection against dexamethasone...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Mamun Abdullah Al, Yangyang Gao, Guangjian Xu, Zheng Wang, Alan Warren, Henglong Xu
Vertical variations in trophic-functional patterns of biofilm-dwelling ciliates were studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China. A total of 50 species were identified and assigned to four trophic-functional groups (TFgrs): algivores (A), bacterivorous (B), non-selective (N) and raptors (R). The trophic-functional structures of the ciliate communities showed significant variability among different water depths: (1) with increasing water depth, relative species numbers and relative abundances of groups A and R decreased sharply whereas those of groups B and N increased gradually; (2) in terms of the frequency of occurrences, group A dominated at depths of 1-3...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Dianxin Liu, Ryan P Ceddia, Sheila Collins
OBJECTIVE: Activation of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and the ability to increase uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) levels and mitochondrial biogenesis in white fat (termed 'browning'), has great therapeutic potential to treat obesity and its comorbidities because of the net increase in energy expenditure. β-adrenergic-cAMP-PKA signaling has long been known to regulate these processes. Recently PKA-dependent activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) was shown to be necessary for adipose 'browning' as well as proper development of the interscapular BAT...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Jesús Nadal, Carolina Ponz, Antoni Margalida
Wild birds differ in size according to their age and sex, adult birds being larger than juveniles. In the galliforms, males are larger than females, in contrast to some groups, such as the raptors, in which the females are larger. Size generally influences the rank hierarchy within a group of birds, although the age, sex, temperament and behaviour of an individual may override its size related rank order. The scaled size of birds according to age and sex affects their physiology and behaviour. Precise details of body-size differences by age and sex are poorly known in most partridge species...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Philip Earwaker, Caroline Anderson, Frances Willenbrock, Adrian L Harris, Andrew S Protheroe, Valentine M Macaulay
The outlook for patients with advanced renal cell cancer (RCC) has been improved by targeted agents including inhibitors of the PI3 kinase (PI3K)-AKT-mTOR axis, although treatment resistance is a major problem. Here, we aimed to understand how RCC cells acquire resistance to PI3K-mTOR inhibition. We used the RCC4 cell line to generate a model of in vitro resistance by continuous culture in PI3K-mTOR kinase inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 (BEZ235, Dactolisib). Resistant cells were cross-resistant to mTOR inhibitor AZD2014...
2018: PloS One
Yimin Fang, Cristal M Hill, Justin Darcy, Adriana Reyes-Ordoñez, Edwin Arauz, Samuel McFadden, Chi Zhang, Jared Osland, John Gao, Tian Zhang, Stuart J Frank, Martin A Javors, Rong Yuan, John J Kopchick, Liou Y Sun, Jie Chen, Andrzej Bartke
It is well documented that inhibition of mTORC1 (defined by Raptor), a complex of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), extends life span, but less is known about the mechanisms by which mTORC2 (defined by Rictor) impacts longevity. Here, rapamycin (an inhibitor of mTOR) was used in GHR-KO (growth hormone receptor knockout) mice, which have suppressed mTORC1 and up-regulated mTORC2 signaling, to determine the effect of concurrently decreased mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling on life span. We found that rapamycin extended life span in control normal (N) mice, whereas it had the opposite effect in GHR-KO mice...
January 29, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Badri Adhikari, Jianlin Cheng
BACKGROUND: Contact-guided protein structure prediction methods are becoming more and more successful because of the latest advances in residue-residue contact prediction. To support contact-driven structure prediction, effective tools that can quickly build tertiary structural models of good quality from predicted contacts need to be developed. RESULTS: We develop an improved contact-driven protein modelling method, CONFOLD2, and study how it may be effectively used for ab initio protein structure prediction with predicted contacts as input...
January 25, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
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