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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334873/nobiletin-prevents-cadmium-induced-neuronal-apoptosis-by-inhibiting-reactive-oxygen-species-and-modulating-jnk-erk1-2-and-akt-mtor-networks-in-rats
#1
Youyang Qu, Yu Liu, Li Chen, Yanmei Zhu, Xingjun Xiao, Di Wang, Yulan Zhu
Objectives Cadmium (Cd), an extremely noxious environmental pollutant is known to induce oxidative stress leading to neurodegenerative diseases. Nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid is reported to possess various pharmacological properties. This study investigates the effects of nobiletin over Cd-induced neuronal apoptosis in rodent experimental model. Methods To separate group of male Sprague Dawley rats, Cd (2 mL/kg/day) was subcutaneously injected for one month which results in a dose level of 1 mg/kg Cd. Couple of days prior to Cd injection, the treatment group rats regularly received nobiletin (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg b...
January 16, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330087/comparing-the-antipredator-behaviour-of-two-sympatric-but-not-syntopic-liolaemus-lizards
#2
Javiera Constanzo-Chávez, Mario Penna, Antonieta Labra
The microhabitat preferences of prey animals can modulate how they perceive predation risk, and therefore, their antipredator behaviour. We tested under standardized conditions how microhabitat preferences of two Liolaemus lizards affected their responses when confronted with two types of ambush predators (raptor vs. snake), under two levels of predation risk (low vs. high). These lizard species are sympatric, but not syntopic; L. chiliensis basks on bushes, a complex microhabitat that may provide protection against visual predators, while L...
January 9, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329496/positive-feedback-regulation-of-subchondral-h-type-vessel-formation-by-chondrocyte-promotes-osteoarthritis-development-in-mice
#3
Jiansen Lu, Haiyan Zhang, Daozhang Cai, Chun Zeng, Pinglin Lai, Yan Shao, Hang Fang, Delong Li, Jiayao Ouyang, Chang Zhao, Denghui Xie, Bin Huang, Jian Yang, Yu Jiang, Xiaochun Bai
Vascular-invasion-mediated interactions between activated articular chondrocytes and subchondral bone are essential for osteoarthritis (OA) development. Here, we determined the role of nutrient sensing mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling in the crosstalk across the bone cartilage interface and its regulatory mechanisms. Then mice with chondrocyte-specific mTORC1 activation (Tsc1 CKO and Tsc1 CKOER ) or inhibition (Raptor CKOER ) and their littermate controls were subjected to OA induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) or not...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328863/overexpression-of-mtor-and-p-240-244-s6-in-idh1-wild-type-human-glioblastomas-is-predictive-of-low-survival
#4
Luis Eduardo Machado, Arthur William Alvarenga, Fernanda Ferreira da Silva, Martín Roffé, Maria Dirlei Begnami, Luís Fernando Bleggi Torres, Isabela Werneck da Cunha, Vilma Regina Martins, Glaucia Noeli Maroso Hajj
PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway activation is a hallmark of high-grade gliomas, which prompted clinical trials for the use of PI3K and mTOR inhibitors. However, the poor results in the original trials suggested that better patient profiling was needed for such drugs. Thus, accurate and reproducible monitoring of mTOR complexes can lead to improved therapeutic strategies. In this work, we evaluated the expression and phosphorylation of mTOR, RAPTOR, and rpS6 in 195 human astrocytomas and 30 normal brain tissue samples...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312623/notoginsenoside-r7-suppresses-cervical-cancer-via-pi3k-pten-akt-mtor-signaling
#5
Li Li, Jin-Xia Sun, Xiao-Qi Wang, Xiao-Kai Liu, Xian-Xiong Chen, Bo Zhang, Zhen-Dan He, Dong-Zhou Liu, Li-Xin Chen, Li-Wei Wang, Zhong Huang
Notoginsenoside R7 was isolated from Panax notoginseng, a plant used commonly in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the anti-cancer effects of R7 in HeLa cells in vitro and in vivo, and explored the underlying mechanisms of action. R7 dose-dependently inhibited HeLa cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in vitro, In silico docking-based screening assays showed that R7 can directly bind Akt. Pretreatment with the Akt inhibitor LY294002 synergistically enhanced the R7 anti-proliferation and anti-apoptosis effects in HeLa cells, confirming that R7 acts through the PI3K/Akt pathway...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299258/fungi-feather-damage-and-risk-of-predation
#6
Zaid Al Rubaiee, Haider Al Murayati, Jan Tøttrup Nielsen, Anders Pape Møller
Predation is a powerful selective force with important effects on behavior, morphology, life history, and evolution of prey. Parasites may change body condition, health status, and ability to escape from or defend prey against predators. Once a prey individual has been detected, it can rely on a diversity of means of escape from the pursuit by the predator. Here we tested whether prey of a common raptor differed in terms of fungi from nonprey recorded at the same sites using the goshawk Accipiter gentilis and its avian prey as a model system...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291560/wildfires-as-collateral-effects-of-wildlife-electrocution-an-economic-approach-to-the-situation-in-spain-in-recent-years
#7
Francisco Guil, Mª Ángeles Soria, Antoni Margalida, Juan M Pérez-García
The interaction between wildlife and power lines has collateral effects that include wildfires and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions. However, currently available information is scarce and so new approaches are needed to increase our understanding of this issue. Here, we present the first analysis of wildfires and their incidence as a result of this interaction in Spain during the period 2000-2012. Amongst the 2788 Power-Line Mediated Wildfires (PLMW recorded) during this period, 30 records of Fauna Mediated Wildfires (FMW) were found, with an average affected vegetation cover of 9...
December 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290610/reciprocal-regulation-of-the-tor-kinase-and-aba-receptor-balances-plant-growth-and-stress-response
#8
Pengcheng Wang, Yang Zhao, Zhongpeng Li, Chuan-Chih Hsu, Xue Liu, Liwen Fu, Yueh-Ju Hou, Yanyan Du, Shaojun Xie, Chunguang Zhang, Jinghui Gao, Minjie Cao, Xiaosan Huang, Yingfang Zhu, Kai Tang, Xingang Wang, W Andy Tao, Yan Xiong, Jian-Kang Zhu
As sessile organisms, plants must adapt to variations in the environment. Environmental stress triggers various responses, including growth inhibition, mediated by the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA). The mechanisms that integrate stress responses with growth are poorly understood. Here, we discovered that the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase phosphorylates PYL ABA receptors at a conserved serine residue to prevent activation of the stress response in unstressed plants. This phosphorylation disrupts PYL association with ABA and with PP2C phosphatase effectors, leading to inactivation of SnRK2 kinases...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287158/pharmacokinetics-of-a-concentrated-buprenorphine-formulation-in-red-tailed-hawks-buteo-jamaicensis
#9
Molly D Gleeson, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Heather K Knych, Philip H Kass, Tracy L Drazenovich, Michelle G Hawkins
OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics and sedative effects of 2 doses of a concentrated buprenorphine formulation after SC administration to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). ANIMALS 6 adult red-tailed hawks. PROCEDURES Concentrated buprenorphine (0.3 mg/kg, SC) was administered to all birds. Blood samples were collected at 10 time points over 24 hours after drug administration to determine plasma buprenorphine concentrations. After a 4-week washout period, the same birds received the same formulation at a higher dose (1...
January 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246861/ribosome-biogenesis-protein-urb1-acts-downstream-of-mtor-complex-1-to-modulate-digestive-organ-development-in-zebrafish
#10
Jia He, Yun Yang, Junren Zhang, Jinzi Chen, Xiangyong Wei, Jianbo He, Lingfei Luo
Ribosome biogenesis is essential for the cell growth and division. Disruptions in ribosome biogenesis result in developmental defects and a group of diseases, known as ribosomopathies. Here, we report a mutation in zebrafish urb1, which encodes an essential ribosome biogenesis protein. The urb1cq31 mutant exhibits hypoplastic digestive organs, which is caused by impaired cell proliferation with the differentiation of digestive organ progenitors unaffected. Knockdown of mtor or raptor leads to similar hypoplastic phenotypes and reduced expression of urb1 in the digestive organs...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238878/offal-dumping-sites-influence-the-relative-abundance-and-roosting-site-selection-of-black-kites-milvus-migrans-govinda-in-urban-landscape-a-study-from-kolkata-metropolis-india
#11
Subhendu Mazumdar, Dipankar Ghose, Goutam Kumar Saha
Although Black Kites (Milvus migrans govinda) serve as major scavenging raptor in most of the urban areas, scientific studies on this important ecosystem service provider are almost non-existent in Indian context. The present study was carried out in a metropolis in eastern India to find out the factors influencing relative abundance and roosting site selection of Black Kites. Separate generalized linear models (GLMs) were performed considering encounter rate and roosting Black Kite abundance as response variables...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238469/the-role-of-sirolimus-in-proteinuria-in-diabetic-nephropathy-rats
#12
JinJun Wang, ZiQiang Xu, BiCheng Chen, ShaoLing Zheng, Peng Xia, Yong Cai
Objectives: The aim of this study was to observe the impact of sirolimus on proteinuria in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were given a single injection of STZ to induce diabetic rat model. Rats' 24 hr urine was collected to test, urinary and the kidney tissues were harvested at the 8th and 20th weeks, respectively. Podocyte morphological changes were examined by electron microscopy and the ZO-1, podocin expressions in kidneys were detected by immunohistochemistry; the protein levels of Raptor and pS6 were measured by Western blot assay...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236692/mechanisms-of-mtorc1-activation-by-rheb-and-inhibition-by-pras40
#13
Haijuan Yang, Xiaolu Jiang, Buren Li, Hyo J Yang, Meredith Miller, Angela Yang, Ankita Dhar, Nikola P Pavletich
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) controls cell growth and metabolism in response to nutrients, energy levels, and growth factors. It contains the atypical kinase mTOR and the RAPTOR subunit that binds to the Tor signalling sequence (TOS) motif of substrates and regulators. mTORC1 is activated by the small GTPase RHEB (Ras homologue enriched in brain) and inhibited by PRAS40. Here we present the 3.0 ångström cryo-electron microscopy structure of mTORC1 and the 3.4 ångström structure of activated RHEB-mTORC1...
December 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233971/implication-of-4e-bp1-protein-dephosphorylation-and-accumulation-in-pancreatic-cancer-cell-death-induced-by-combined-gemcitabine-and-trail
#14
Androulla Elia, Ricky Henry-Grant, Charlotte Adiseshiah, Catherine Marboeuf, Rebecca J Buckley, Michael J Clemens, Satvinder Mudan, Stéphane Pyronnet
Pancreatic cancer cells show varying sensitivity to the anticancer effects of gemcitabine. However, as a chemotherapeutic agent, gemcitabine can cause intolerably high levels of toxicity and patients often develop resistance to the beneficial effects of this drug. Combination studies show that use of gemcitabine with the pro-apoptotic cytokine TRAIL can enhance the inhibition of survival and induction of apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells. Additionally, following combination treatment there is a dramatic increase in the level of the hypophosphorylated form of the tumour suppressor protein 4E-BP1...
December 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228185/dncon2-improved-protein-contact-prediction-using-two-level-deep-convolutional-neural-networks
#15
Badri Adhikari, Jie Hou, Jianlin Cheng
Motivation: Significant improvements in the prediction of protein residue-residue contacts are observed in the recent years. These contacts, predicted using a variety of coevolution-based and machine learning methods, are the key contributors to the recent progress in ab initio protein structure prediction, as demonstrated in the recent CASP experiments. Continuing the development of new methods to reliably predict contact maps is essential to further improve ab initio structure prediction...
December 8, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215029/mtorc1-signaling-is-a-critical-regulator-of-postnatal-tendon-development
#16
Joohyun Lim, Elda Munivez, Ming-Ming Jiang, I-Wen Song, Francis Gannon, Douglas R Keene, Ronen Schweitzer, Brendan H Lee, Kyu Sang Joeng
Tendons transmit contractile forces between musculoskeletal tissues. Whereas the biomechanical properties of tendons have been studied extensively, the molecular mechanisms regulating postnatal tendon development are not well understood. Here we examine the role of mTORC1 signaling in postnatal tendon development using mouse genetic approaches. Loss of mTORC1 signaling by removal of Raptor in tendons caused severe tendon defects postnatally, including decreased tendon thickness, indicating that mTORC1 is necessary for postnatal tendon development...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208678/microrna-100-suppresses-chronic-vascular-inflammation-by-stimulation-of-endothelial-autophagy
#17
Franziska Pankratz, Catherine Hohnloser, Xavier Bemtgen, Caterina Jaenich, Sheena Kreuzaler, Imo E Hoefer, Gerard Pasterkamp, Justin Mastroianni, Robert Zeiser, Christian Smolka, Laura A Schneider, Julien Martin, Maike Juschkat, Thomas Helbing, Martin Moser, Christoph Bode, Sebastian Grundmann
Rationale: The interaction of circulating cells within the vascular wall is a critical event in chronic inflammatory processes such as atherosclerosis, but the control of the vascular inflammatory state is still largely unclear. Objective: This study was undertaken to characterize the function of the endothelial-enriched microRNA miR-100 during vascular inflammation and atherogenesis. Methods and Results: Based on a transcriptome analysis of endothelial cells after miR-100 overexpression, we identified miR-100 as potent suppressor of endothelial adhesion molecule expression, resulting in attenuated leukocyte-endothelial interaction in vitro and in vivo as shown by flow cytometry and intravital imaging approach...
December 5, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206332/inactivation-of-mtorc1-signaling-in-osterix-expressing-cells-impairs-b-cell-differentiation
#18
Yongkui Wang, Min Xiao, Chen Tao, Jing Chen, Zhenyu Wang, Jun Yang, Zhenguo Chen, Zhipeng Zou, Anling Liu, Daozhang Cai, Yu Jiang, Changhai Ding, Mangmang Li, Xiaochun Bai
Osteoblasts provide a microenvironmental niche for B-cell commitment and maturation in the bone marrow (BM). Any abnormity of osteoblasts function may result in the defect of B lymphopoiesis. Signaling from mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) has been implicated in regulating the expansion and differentiation of osteoblasts. Thus, we raise a hypothesis that mTORC1 signaling in osteoblasts plays a vital role in B-cell development. Inactivation of mTORC1 in osterix-expressing cells (mainly osteoblast lineage) through Osx-Cre-directed deletion of Raptor (an mTORC1-specific component) resulted in a reduction in the total B-cell population in the BM, which was due to a block in early B-cell development from the pro-B to pre-B cell stage...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206103/a-population-of-innate-myelolymphoblastoid-effector-cell-expanded-by-inactivation-of-mtor-complex-1-in-mice
#19
Fei Tang, Peng Zhang, Peiying Ye, Christopher A Lazarski, Qi Wu, Ingrid L Bergin, Timothy P Bender, Michael N Hall, Ya Cui, Liguo Zhang, Taijiao Jiang, Yang Liu, Pan Zheng
Adaptive autoimmunity is restrained by controlling population sizes and pathogenicity of harmful clones, while innate destruction is controlled at effector phase. We report here that deletion of Rptor in mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells causes self-destructive innate immunity by massively increasing the population of previously uncharacterized innate myelolymphoblastoid effector cells (IMLECs). Mouse IMLECs are CD3-B220-NK1.1-Ter119- CD11clow/-CD115-F4/80low/-Gr-1- CD11b+, but surprisingly express high levels of PD-L1...
December 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187187/syndromic-surveillance-for-west-nile-virus-using-raptors-in-rehabilitation
#20
Alba Ana, M Perez Andrés, Ponder Julia, Puig Pedro, Wünschmann Arno, Vander Waal Kimberly, Alvarez Julio, Willette Michelle
BACKGROUND: Wildlife rehabilitation centers routinely gather health-related data from diverse species. Their capability to signal the occurrence of emerging pathogens and improve traditional surveillance remains largely unexplored. This paper assessed the utility for syndromic surveillance of raptors admitted to The Raptor Center (TRC) to signal circulation of West Nile Virus (WNV) in Minnesota between 1990 and 2014. An exhaustive descriptive analysis using grouping time series structures and models of interrupted times series was conducted for indicator subsets...
November 29, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
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