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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107077/evaluation-of-cardiac-size-in-the-common-kestrel-falco-tinnunculus-based-on-radiographic-measurements
#1
Ali Mirshahi, Mahnaz Shariatzadeh, Jamshid Razmyar, Mohammad Azizzadeh
The common kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus ) is a common raptor found worldwide. To establish reference intervals for cardiac size by radiography, 14 adult common kestrels were evaluated clinically and with radiographs (lateral and ventrodorsal views). The cardiac width, thoracic width, distance between third and fourth ribs, synsacrum width, coracoid width, and distance between clavicle bones were measured on ventrodorsal radiographs. The ratio between cardiac width and the other 5 indices was calculated. Results showed a significant, positive correlation between the cardiac width and thoracic width and between cardiac width and coracoid width...
December 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107076/characterization-of-an-avipoxvirus-from-a-bald-eagle-haliaeetus-leucocephalus-using-novel-consensus-pcr-protocols-for-the-rpo147-and-dna-dependent-dna-polymerase-genes
#2
Alexa A Stephen, Angelique M Leone, David E Toplon, Linda L Archer, James F X Wellehan
A juvenile female bald eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) was presented with emaciation and proliferative periocular lesions. The eagle did not respond to supportive therapy and was euthanatized. Histopathologic examination of the skin lesions revealed plaques of marked epidermal hyperplasia parakeratosis, marked acanthosis and spongiosis, and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were done to amplify and sequence DNA polymerase and rpo147 genes. The 4b gene was also analyzed by a previously developed assay...
December 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102733/plk1-polo-like-kinase-1-inhibits-mtor-complex-1-and-promotes-autophagy
#3
Stefanie Ruf, Alexander Martin Heberle, Miriam Langelaar-Makkinje, Sara Gelino, Deepti Wilkinson, Carolin Gerbeth, Jennifer Jasmin Schwarz, Birgit Holzwarth, Bettina Warscheid, Chris Meisinger, Marcel A T M van Vugt, Ralf Baumeister, Malene Hansen, Kathrin Thedieck
Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (MTORC1) and PLK1 (polo like kinase 1) are major drivers of cancer cell growth and proliferation, and inhibitors of both protein kinases are currently being investigated in clinical studies. To date, MTORC1's and PLK1's functions are mostly studied separately, and reports on their mutual crosstalk are scarce. Here, we identify PLK1 as a physical MTORC1 interactor in human cancer cells. PLK1 inhibition enhances MTORC1 activity under nutrient sufficiency and in starved cells, and PLK1 directly phosphorylates the MTORC1 component RPTOR/RAPTOR in vitro...
January 19, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101526/rapamycin-resistant-mtor-activity-is-required-for-sensory-axon-regeneration-induced-by-a-conditioning-lesion
#4
Weitao Chen, Na Lu, Yue Ding, Yuan Wang, Leung Ting Chan, Xu Wang, Xin Gao, Songshan Jiang, Kai Liu
Neuronal mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity is a critical determinant of the intrinsic regenerative ability of mature neurons in the adult central nervous system (CNS). However, whether its action also applies to peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons after injury remains elusive. To address this issue unambiguously, we used genetic approaches to determine the role of mTOR signaling in sensory axon regeneration in mice. We showed that deleting mTOR in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons suppressed the axon regeneration induced by conditioning lesions...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070302/are-life-history-events-of-a-northern-breeding-population-of-cooper-s-hawks-influenced-by-changing-climate
#5
Robert N Rosenfield, Madeline G Hardin, John Bielefeldt, Edward R Keyel
Numerous studies have demonstrated earlier timing of spring migration and egg-laying in small passerines, but documentation of such responses to recent climate change in the life histories of higher trophic feeding birds such as raptors is relatively scarce. Raptors may be particularly susceptible to possible adverse effects of climate change due to their longer generation turnover times and lower reproductive capacity, which could lead to population declines because of an inability to match reproductive timing with optimal brood rearing conditions...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069737/mtorc1-plays-an-important-role-in-skeletal-development-by-controlling-pre-osteoblast-differentiation
#6
Stephen Fitter, Mary P Matthews, Sally K Martin, Jianling Xie, Soo Siang Ooi, Carl R Walkley, John D Codrington, Markus A Ruegg, Michael N Hall, Christopher G Proud, Stan Gronthos, Andrew C W Zannettino
The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is activated by extracellular factors that control bone accrual. However, the direct role of this complex in osteoblast biology remains to be determined. To investigate this question, we disrupted mTORC1 function in pre-osteoblasts by targeted deletion of Raptor (Rptor) in Osterix-expressing cells. Deletion of Rptor resulted in reduced limb length that was associated with smaller epiphyseal growth plates in the postnatal skeleton. Rptor deletion caused a marked reduction in pre- and post-natal bone accrual, which was evident in skeletal elements derived from both intramembranous and endochondrial ossification...
January 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060714/adaptive-reliable-h%C3%A2-static-output-feedback-control-against-markovian-jumping-sensor-failures
#7
Ding Zhai, Liwei An, Dan Ye, Qingling Zhang
This paper investigates the adaptive H∞ static output feedback (SOF) control problem for continuous-time linear systems with stochastic sensor failures. A multi-Markovian variable is introduced to denote the failure scaling factors for each sensor. Different from the existing results, the failure parameters are stochastically jumping and their bounds of are unknown. An adaptive reliable H∞ SOF control method is proposed, where the controller parameters are updated automatically to compensate for the failure effects on systems...
January 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058504/linking-pre-laying-energy-allocation-and-timing-of-breeding-in-a-migratory-arctic-raptor
#8
Vincent Lamarre, Alastair Franke, Oliver P Love, Pierre Legagneux, Joël Bêty
For migratory species, acquisition and allocation of energy after arrival on the breeding grounds largely determine reproductive decisions. Few studies have investigated underlying physiological mechanisms driving variation in breeding phenology so far. We linked physiological state to individual timing of breeding in pre-laying arctic-nesting female peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus tundrius). We captured females from two populations 2-20 days before egg-laying to assess plasma concentration of β-hydroxybutyric acid (BUTY) and triglyceride (TRIG), two metabolites known to reflect short-term changes in fasting and fattening rate, respectively...
January 5, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033565/isolation-molecular-characterization-and-in-vitro-schizogonic-development-of-sarcocystis-sp-ex-accipiter-cooperii-from-a-naturally-infected-cooper-s-hawk-accipiter-cooperii
#9
David S Lindsay, Shiv K Verma, David Scott, Jitender P Dubey, Alexa R von Dohlen
Raptors serve as the definitive host for several Sarcocystis species. The complete life cycles of only a few of these Sarcocystis species that use birds of prey as definitive hosts have been described. In the present study, Sarcocystis species sporocysts were obtained from the intestine of a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) and were used to infect cell cultures of African green monkey kidney cells to isolate a continuous culture and describe asexual stages of the parasite. Two clones of the parasite were obtained by limiting dilution...
December 26, 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010837/raptor-acupuncture-for-treating-chronic-degenerative-joint-disease
#10
Keum Hwa Choi, Gail Buhl, Julia Ponder
A permanently captive 21-year-old male bald eagle was diagnosed with chronic degenerative joint disease in the right stifle with severe lameness (Grade 5) based on radiography. Clinical signs included decreased movement, vocalization, non weight-bearing on the affected limb, inappetence, depression, and pododermatitis on the left foot (bumblefoot, Grade 3). The eagle was treated with anti-inflammatory or analgesic drugs including carprofen and celecoxib. As there was no observed clinical improvement with any of the treatments, acupuncture treatment was provided...
December 2016: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003524/genetic-colour-polymorphism-is-associated-with-avian-malarial-infections
#11
Laura Gangoso, Rafael Gutiérrez-López, Josué Martínez-de la Puente, Jordi Figuerola
Individual genetic diversity is predicted to influence host-parasite interactions. Together with the genes directly associated with immune responses, variation in genes regulating vertebrate melanin-based pigmentation may play an important role in these interactions, mainly through the pleiotropic effects that affect colour-specific physiology, behaviour and immunity. Here, we test the hypothesis that the prevalence of avian malarial parasites differs between phenotypes in a raptor species in which the genetic basis of colour polymorphism and its pleiotropic effects over immune functions are known...
December 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003522/patterns-of-migrating-soaring-migrants-indicate-attraction-to-marine-wind-farms
#12
Henrik Skov, Mark Desholm, Stefan Heinänen, Johnny A Kahlert, Bjarke Laubek, Niels Einar Jensen, Ramūnas Žydelis, Bo Præstegaard Jensen
Monitoring of bird migration at marine wind farms has a short history, and unsurprisingly most studies have focused on the potential for collisions. Risk for population impacts may exist to soaring migrants such as raptors with K-strategic life-history characteristics. Soaring migrants display strong dependence on thermals and updrafts and an affinity to land areas and islands during their migration, a behaviour that creates corridors where raptors move across narrow straits and sounds and are attracted to islands...
December 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995410/temporal-trends-in-mercury-concentrations-in-raptor-flight-feathers-stored-in-an-environmental-specimen-bank-in-galicia-nw-spain-between-2000-and-2013
#13
Rita García-Seoane, Zulema Varela, Alejo Carballeira, Jesús R Aboal, J Ángel Fernández
Temporal trends in Hg concentrations were investigated in primary flight feathers from 319 specimens of three birds of prey: P7 in the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), P6 in the common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and P5 in the tawny owl (Strix aluco). The samples were stored in a regional environmental specimen bank and belonged to specimens which died between 2000 and 2013 in Galicia (NW Spain). We would expect to see a decline in Hg concentrations across the study period, as data of atmospheric emissions show a gradual reduction of this pollutant in Europe in the last two decades...
December 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991928/stem-cell-like-transcriptional-reprogramming-mediates-metastatic-resistance-to-mtor-inhibition
#14
F Mateo, E J Arenas, H Aguilar, J Serra-Musach, G Ruiz de Garibay, J Boni, M Maicas, S Du, F Iorio, C Herranz-Ors, A Islam, X Prado, A Llorente, A Petit, A Vidal, I Català, T Soler, G Venturas, A Rojo-Sebastian, H Serra, D Cuadras, I Blanco, J Lozano, F Canals, A M Sieuwerts, V de Weerd, M P Look, S Puertas, N García, A S Perkins, N Bonifaci, M Skowron, L Gómez-Baldó, V Hernández, A Martínez-Aranda, M Martínez-Iniesta, X Serrat, J Cerón, J Brunet, M P Barretina, M Gil, C Falo, A Fernández, I Morilla, S Pernas, M J Plà, X Andreu, M A Seguí, R Ballester, E Castellà, M Nellist, S Morales, J Valls, A Velasco, X Matias-Guiu, A Figueras, J V Sánchez-Mut, M Sánchez-Céspedes, A Cordero, J Gómez-Miragaya, L Palomero, A Gómez, T F Gajewski, E E W Cohen, M Jesiotr, L Bodnar, M Quintela-Fandino, N López-Bigas, R Valdés-Mas, X S Puente, F Viñals, O Casanovas, M Graupera, J Hernández-Losa, S Ramón Y Cajal, L García-Alonso, J Saez-Rodriguez, M Esteller, A Sierra, N Martín-Martín, A Matheu, A Carracedo, E González-Suárez, M Nanjundan, J Cortés, C Lázaro, M D Odero, J W M Martens, G Moreno-Bueno, M H Barcellos-Hoff, A Villanueva, R R Gomis, M A Pujana
Inhibitors of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) are currently used to treat advanced metastatic breast cancer. However, whether an aggressive phenotype is sustained through adaptation or resistance to mTOR inhibition remains unknown. Here, complementary studies in human tumors, cancer models and cell lines reveal transcriptional reprogramming that supports metastasis in response to mTOR inhibition. This cancer feature is driven by EVI1 and SOX9. EVI1 functionally cooperates with and positively regulates SOX9, and promotes the transcriptional upregulation of key mTOR pathway components (REHB and RAPTOR) and of lung metastasis mediators (FSCN1 and SPARC)...
December 19, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988363/in-vitro-antiglioma-action-of-indomethacin-is-mediated-via-amp-activated-protein-kinase-mtor-complex-1-signalling-pathway
#15
Aleksandar Pantovic, Mihajlo Bosnjak, Katarina Arsikin, Milica Kosic, Milos Mandic, Biljana Ristic, Jelena Tosic, Danica Grujicic, Aleksandra Isakovic, Nikola Micic, Vladimir Trajkovic, Ljubica Harhaji-Trajkovic
We investigated the role of the intracellular energy-sensing AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in the in vitro antiglioma effect of the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin. Indomethacin was more potent than COX inhibitors diclofenac, naproxen, and ketoprofen in reducing the viability of U251 human glioma cells. Antiglioma effect of the drug was associated with p21 increase and G2M cell cycle arrest, as well as with oxidative stress, mitochondrial depolarization, caspase activation, and the induction of apoptosis...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960162/the-mtorc2-akt-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-mediated-activation-of-trpc6-participates-in-adriamycin-induced-podocyte-apoptosis
#16
Hai-Tao Zhang, Wei-Wei Wang, Li-Hong Ren, Xia-Xia Zhao, Zhi-Hui Wang, De-Li Zhuang, Yun-Nuo Bai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although increased expression and gain function of transient receptor potential cation channel 6 (TRPC6) has been associated with the pathogenesis of some proteinuric glomerular diseases, it remains elusive how TRPC6 participates in the process of podocyte damage. METHODS: The potential signaling responsible for TRPC6 activation was investigated using immunoblot assays in an in vitro podocyte injury model induced by Adriamycin (ADR). Podocyte apoptosis was measured using FITC-conjugated Annexin V and Propidium Iodide staining...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942006/ground-squirrel-shooting-and-potential-lead-exposure-in-breeding-avian-scavengers
#17
Garth Herring, Collin A Eagles-Smith, Mason T Wagner
Recreational ground squirrel shooting is a popular activity throughout the western United States and serves as a tool for managing ground squirrel populations in agricultural regions. Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) are routinely shot in California, Nevada, and Oregon across habitats that overlap with breeding avian scavengers. Ground squirrels shot with lead (Pb)-based bullets may pose a risk to avian scavengers if they consume carcasses containing Pb fragments. To assess the potential risk to breeding avian scavengers we developed a model to estimate the number, mass, and distribution of Pb fragments in shot ground squirrels using radiographic images...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936090/manure-preferences-and-postemergence-learning-of-two-filth-fly-parasitoids-spalangia-cameroni-and-muscidifurax-raptor-hymenoptera-pteromalidae
#18
Caitlin E Taylor, Erika T Machtinger, Christopher J Geden, Matthew Kramer
The efficiency of host-seeking behavior is crucial to the reproductive performance of female parasitoids. Initially, parasitoids may use chemical information garnered from the microhabitat in which they emerge to locate hosts. Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor are commercially available parasitoids of filth flies. Postemergence exposure to a specific manure may provide a way to increase parasitism in specific microhabitats found at livestock facilities upon release. In this study, female parasitoids of both species were exposed to equine manure, bovine manure, or clean pupae...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930730/effects-of-recreation-on-animals-revealed-as-widespread-through-a-global-systematic-review
#19
Courtney L Larson, Sarah E Reed, Adina M Merenlender, Kevin R Crooks
Outdoor recreation is typically assumed to be compatible with biodiversity conservation and is permitted in most protected areas worldwide. However, increasing numbers of studies are discovering negative effects of recreation on animals. We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature and analyzed 274 articles on the effects of non-consumptive recreation on animals, across all geographic areas, taxonomic groups, and recreation activities. We quantified trends in publication rates and outlets, identified knowledge gaps, and assessed evidence for effects of recreation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930713/detecting-methemoglobinemia-in-animals-with-a-drop-of-blood
#20
Toni G Patton, Stephen L Blamer, Katherine E Horak
A major concern during pesticide development and use is the impact on non-target species, such as raptors or domestic cats and dogs. Sodium nitrite and para-aminopropiophenone (PAPP) are two toxicants currently being studied for the control of invasive species, such as starlings and feral swine. When given to an animal these compounds oxidize hemoglobin, which renders it unable to carry oxygen resulting in methemoglobinemia. This study developed a method to estimate methemoglobin levels in mammals and birds by examining the efficacy of sodium nitrite to induce the conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin...
2016: PloS One
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