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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639989/use-of-expenditure-analysis-to-enhance-returns-on-investments-in-hiv-services
#1
Brian Honermann, Richael O'Hagan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Globally, the response to the HIV epidemic is at a crisis point. International investments in the HIV response have been essentially flat for 8 years and domestic budgets in low and middle-income countries - still recovering from the global recession - have not been able to fill the resource gap to drive a full-fledged HIV response. Still, efficiencies and prioritization of evidence-based interventions enable a significant scale-up of treatment, but millions more people remain without treatment...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629794/uncoupling-effect-of-palmitate-is-exacerbated-in-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-of-sea-acclimatized-king-penguins-aptenodytes-patagonicus
#2
Benjamin Rey, Claude Duchamp, Damien Roussel
In king penguin juveniles, the environmental transition from a terrestrial to a marine habitat, occurring at fledging, drastically stimulates lipid catabolism and the remodelling of muscle mitochondria to sustain extensive swimming activity and thermoregulation in the cold circumpolar oceans. However, the exact nature of these mechanisms remains only partially resolved. Here we investigated, in vitro, the uncoupling effect of increasing doses of fatty acids in pectoralis muscle intermyofibrillar mitochondria isolated, either from terrestrial never-immersed or experimentally cold water immersed pre-fledging king penguins or from sea-acclimatized fledged penguins...
June 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625618/low-incidence-of-plastics-in-food-loads-delivered-to-nestlings-by-a-zooplanktivorous-seabird-over-a-21-year-period
#3
J M Hipfner, K R Studholme, M Galbraith
We quantified the amount of plastic found in food loads delivered to nestlings in Cassin's Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus), a small, zooplanktivorous seabird, on Triangle Island, British Columbia, in 1996-2016. The density of plastic in surrounding waters is moderately high, yet few food loads contained any plastic (3 of 850), and none more than two pieces. That result accords well with previous observations on the other four North Pacific auklets (Aethia spp.), leading us to conclude that true auklets rarely transfer plastic to nestlings...
June 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623803/oxidative-status-in-relation-to-metal-pollution-and-calcium-availability-in-pied-flycatcher-nestlings-a-calcium-manipulation-experiment
#4
Silvia Espín, Sandra Ruiz, Pablo Sánchez-Virosta, Thomas Lilley, Tapio Eeva
Metal exposure can produce oxidative stress by disrupting the prooxidant/antioxidant balance. It has been suggested that calcium (Ca) may provide protection against metal toxicity in the organism. The objective of this study is to explore the effects of Ca availability and metal pollution on oxidative stress biomarkers in pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings. For this purpose, we performed a Ca-supplementation experiment with birds inhabiting a Ca-poor and metal-polluted area in SW Finland. An array of oxidative stress biomarkers (GSH, GSH:GSSG ratio, GPx, GST, CAT, SOD, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation) was measured in red blood cells...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584946/post-procedural-care-in-interventional-radiology-what-every-interventional-radiologist-should-know-part-ii-catheter-care-and-management-of-common-systemic-post-procedural-complications
#5
Bedros Taslakian, Divya Sridhar
Interventional radiology (IR) has evolved into a full-fledged clinical specialty with attendant comprehensive patient care responsibilities. Providing excellent and thorough clinical care is as essential to the practice of IR as achieving technical success in procedures. Basic clinical skills that every interventional radiologist should learn include routine management of percutaneously inserted drainage and vascular catheters and rapid effective management of common systemic post-procedural complications. A structured approach to post-procedural care, including routine follow-up and early identification and management of complications, facilitates efficient and thorough management with an emphasis on quality and patient safety...
June 5, 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584270/ambient-anthropogenic-noise-but-not-light-is-associated-with-the-ecophysiology-of-free-living-songbird-nestlings
#6
Thomas Raap, Rianne Pinxten, Giulia Casasole, Nina Dehnhard, Marcel Eens
Urbanization is associated with dramatic increases in noise and light pollution, which affect animal behaviour, physiology and fitness. However, few studies have examined these stressors simultaneously. Moreover, effects of urbanization during early-life may be detrimental but are largely unknown. In developing great tits (Parus major), a frequently-used model species, we determined important indicators of immunity and physiological condition: plasma haptoglobin (Hp) and nitric oxide (NOx) concentration. We also determined fledging mass, an indicator for current health and survival...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582990/to-what-extent-does-access-to-improved-sanitation-explain-the-observed-differences-in-infant-mortality-in-africa
#7
Aye M Alemu
BACKGROUND: To my knowledge, there was no systematic study so far that analysed the extent of the impact of improved sanitation on infant mortality in the African context with long years of full-fledged longitudinal data. AIM: The aim of this study was to empirically examine the extent to which improved sanitation explains the observed differences in infant mortality under 5 years of age across African countries. SETTING: The study covered a panel of 33 countries from north, south, east, west and central Africa for the years 1994-2013...
May 29, 2017: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573381/integrated-population-models-reveal-local-weather-conditions-are-the-key-drivers-of-population-dynamics-in-an-aerial-insectivore
#8
Mitch D Weegman, Todd W Arnold, Russell D Dawson, David W Winkler, Robert G Clark
Changes to weather patterns under a warming climate are complex: while warmer temperatures are expected virtually worldwide, decreased mean precipitation is expected at mid-latitudes. Migratory birds depend on broad-scale weather patterns to inform timing of movements, but may be more susceptible to local weather patterns during sedentary periods. We constructed Bayesian integrated population models (IPMs) to assess whether continental or local weather effects best explained population dynamics in an environmentally sensitive aerial insectivorous bird, the tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), along a transcontinental gradient from British Columbia to Saskatchewan to New York, and tested whether population dynamics were synchronous among sites...
June 1, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570991/from-antarctica-to-the-subtropics-contrasted-geographical-concentrations-of-selenium-mercury-and-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-skua-chicks-catharacta-spp
#9
Alice Carravieri, Yves Cherel, Maud Brault-Favrou, Carine Churlaud, Laurent Peluhet, Pierre Labadie, Hélène Budzinski, Olivier Chastel, Paco Bustamante
Seabirds integrate bioaccumulative contaminants via food intake and have revealed geographical trends of contamination in a variety of ecosystems. Pre-fledging seabird chicks are particularly interesting as bioindicators of chemical contamination, because concentrations in their tissues reflect primarily dietary sources from the local environment. Here we measured 14 trace elements and 18 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in blood of chicks of skuas that breed in four sites encompassing a large latitudinal range within the southern Indian Ocean, from Antarctica (Adélie Land, south polar skua Catharacta maccormicki), through subantarctic areas (Crozet and Kerguelen Islands, brown skua C...
May 29, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555872/local-density-regulates-migratory-songbird-reproductive-success-through-effects-on-double-brooding-and-nest-predation
#10
Bradley K Woodworth, Nathaniel T Wheelwright, Amy E M Newman, D Ryan Norris
Knowledge of the density-dependent processes that regulate animal populations is key to understanding, predicting, and conserving populations. In migratory birds, density-dependence is most often studied during the breeding season, yet we still lack a robust understanding of the reproductive traits through which density influences individual reproductive success. We used 27-years of detailed, individual-level productivity data from an island-breeding population of Savannah sparrows Passerculus sandwichensis to evaluate effects of local and total annual population density on female reproductive success...
May 27, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552843/cost-of-elective-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-malaysia-a-multicentre-cross-sectional-costing-study
#11
Kun Yun Lee, Tiong Kiam Ong, Ee Vien Low, Siow Yen Liow, Lawrence Anchah, Syuhada Hamzah, Houng Bang Liew, Rosli Mohd Ali, Omar Ismail, Wan Azman Wan Ahmad, Mas Ayu Said, Maznah Dahlui
OBJECTIVES: Limitations in the quality and access of cost data from low-income and middle-income countries constrain the implementation of economic evaluations. With the increasing prevalence of coronary artery disease in Malaysia, cost information is vital for cardiac service expansion. We aim to calculate the hospitalisation cost of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), using a data collection method customised to local setting of limited data availability. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional costing study from the perspective of healthcare providers, using top-down approach, from January to June 2014...
May 28, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548900/corticosterone-response-as-an-age-specific-mediator-of-nestling-body-mass-in-a-wild-passerine
#12
Vallo Tilgar, Marianne Lind, Jaanis Lodjak, Kadri Moks
The environment can affect individual performance directly via resource availability or indirectly through resource allocation among competing fitness components, such as body growth and maintenance activities related to short-term survival. Corticosterone (CORT), the main glucocorticoid in birds, may be an important mediator of energy allocation to different organismal functions, but its effect on the plasticity of fitness-related traits has rarely been investigated at different ontogenetic stages. Here, we evaluated the role of baseline and stress-induced CORT on nestling development of wild great tits (Parus major) under different growth conditions and at different developmental stages...
July 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545112/home-range-size-of-tengmalm-s-owl-during-breeding-in-central-europe-is-determined-by-prey-abundance
#13
Marek Kouba, Luděk Bartoš, Václav Tomášek, Alena Popelková, Karel Šťastný, Markéta Zárybnická
Animal home ranges typically characterized by their size, shape and a given time interval can be affected by many different biotic and abiotic factors. However, despite the fact that many studies have addressed home ranges, our knowledge of the factors influencing the size of area occupied by different animals is, in many cases, still quite poor, especially among raptors. Using radio-telemetry (VHF; 2.1 g tail-mounted tags) we studied movements of 20 Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus) males during the breeding season in a mountain area of Central Europe (the Czech Republic, the Ore Mountains: 50° 40' N, 13° 35' E) between years 2006-2010, determined their average hunting home range size and explored what factors affected the size of home range utilised...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543867/an-age-dependent-fitness-cost-of-migration-old-trans-saharan-migrating-spoonbills-breed-later-than-those-staying-in-europe-and-late-breeders-have-lower-recruitment
#14
Tamar Lok, Linde Veldhoen, Otto Overdijk, Joost M Tinbergen, Theunis Piersma
Migration is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom. On the basis of the considerable variation that exists between and within species, and even within populations, we may be able to infer the (age- and sex-specific) ecological trade-offs and constraints moulding migration systems from assessments of fitness associated with migration and wintering in different areas. During three consecutive breeding seasons, we compared the reproductive performance (timing of breeding, breeding success, chick body condition and post-fledging survival) of Eurasian spoonbills Platalea leucorodia that breed at a single breeding site in The Netherlands, but migrate different distances (ca...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529298/an-aspect-of-the-history-of-medicine-in-ancient-korea-as-examined-through-silla-buddhist-monks-annotations-on-the-chapter-on-eliminating-disease-in-the-sutra-of-golden-light-suvarnabh%C3%A4-sa-s%C3%A5-tra
#15
Chaekun Oh, Jongwook Jeon, Dongwon Shin
Nearly nothing is known of medicine in ancient Korea due to insufficient materials. With several extant prescriptions and esoteric methods of treating diseases alone, it is impossible to gauge in depth the management of medicine during this period. If one exception were to be cited, that would be the fact that the annotations for understanding the contents on Indian medicine in the "Chapter on Eliminating Disease" in the Sutra of Golden Light, a Buddhist sutra originating from India, reflected the medical knowledge of Buddhist monks from Silla (57 BC-935 AD) who were active immediately after the nation's unification of the two other kingdoms on the Korean Peninsula (668 AD) such as Wonhyo (617-686 AD), Gyeongheung (620?-700? AD), and Seungjang (684-? AD)...
December 2016: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524249/telomere-attrition-and-growth-a-life-history-framework-and-case-study-in-common-terns
#16
Oscar Vedder, Simon Verhulst, Christina Bauch, Sandra Bouwhuis
The relationship between growth and age-specific telomere length, as a proxy of somatic state, is increasingly investigated, but observed patterns vary and a predictive framework is lacking. We outline expectations based on the assumption that telomere maintenance is costly and argue that individual heterogeneity in resource acquisition is predicted to lead to positive covariance between growth and telomere length. However, canalization of resource allocation to the trait with a larger effect on fitness, rendering that trait relatively invariant, can cause the absence of covariance...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515884/cooperative-breeding-shapes-post-fledging-survival-in-an-afrotropical-forest-bird
#17
Dries Van de Loock, Diederik Strubbe, Liesbeth De Neve, Mwangi Githiru, Erik Matthysen, Luc Lens
For avian group living to be evolutionary stable, multiple fitness benefits are expected. Yet, the difficulty of tracking fledglings, and thus estimating their survival rates, limits our knowledge on how such benefits may manifest postfledging. We radio-tagged breeding females of the Afrotropical cooperatively breeding Placid greenbul (Phyllastrephus placidus) during nesting. Tracking these females after fledging permitted us to locate juvenile birds, their parents, and any helpers present and to build individual fledgling resighting datasets without incurring mortality costs or causing premature fledging due to handling or transmitter effects...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508394/disentangling-the-effects-of-date-individual-and-territory-quality-on-the-seasonal-decline-in-fitness
#18
Tomas Pärt, Jonas Knape, Matthew Low, Meit Öberg, Debora Arlt
The seasonal timing of reproduction is a major fitness factor in many organisms. Commonly, individual fitness declines with time in the breeding season. We investigated three suggested but rarely tested hypotheses for this seasonal fitness decline: (1) time per se (date hypothesis), (2) late breeders are of lower quality than early ones (individual quality hypothesis), and (3) late breeders are breeding at poorer territories than early ones (territory quality hypothesis). We used Bayesian variance component analyses to examine reproductive output (breeding success, number fledged, and number of recruits) from repeated observations of female northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) and individual territories from a 20-year population study...
May 16, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504469/subtle-but-ubiquitous-selection-on-body-size-in-a-natural-population-of-collared-flycatchers-over-33-years
#19
Mats Björklund, Lars Gustafsson
Understanding the magnitude and long-term patterns of selection in natural populations is of importance, for example, when analyzing the evolutionary impact of climate change. We estimated univariate and multivariate directional, quadratic and correlational selection on four morphological traits (adult wing, tarsus and tail length, body mass) over a time period of 33 years (≈ 19 000 observations) in a nest-box breeding population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis). In general, selection was weak in both males and females over the years regardless of fitness measure (fledged young, recruits and survival) with only few cases with statistically significant selection...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502109/reproductive-performance-of-resident-and-migrant-males-females-and-pairs-in-a-partially-migratory-bird
#20
Hannah Grist, Francis Daunt, Sarah Wanless, Sarah J Burthe, Mark A Newell, Mike P Harris, Jane M Reid
Quantifying among-individual variation in life-history strategies, and associated variation in reproductive performance and resulting demographic structure, is key to understanding and predicting population dynamics and life-history evolution. Partial migration, where populations comprise a mixture of resident and seasonally migrant individuals, constitutes a dimension of life-history variation that could be associated with substantial variation in reproductive performance. However, such variation has rarely been quantified due to the challenge of measuring reproduction and migration across a sufficient number of seasonally mobile males and females...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
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