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Lisabertha L Clark, Rachael C Shaw
Hoarding or caching behaviour is a widely-used paradigm for examining a range of cognitive processes in birds, such as social cognition and spatial memory. However, much is still unknown about how caching develops in young birds, especially in the wild. Studying the ontogeny of caching in the wild will help researchers to identify the mechanisms that shape this advantageous foraging strategy. We examined the ontogeny of food caching behaviour in a wild New Zealand passerine, the North Island robin (Petroica longipes)...
March 6, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Raphaël Enaud, Louise-Eva Vandenborght, Noémie Coron, Thomas Bazin, Renaud Prevel, Thierry Schaeverbeke, Patrick Berger, Michael Fayon, Thierry Lamireau, Laurence Delhaes
In recent years, the gut microbiota has been considered as a full-fledged actor of the gut-brain axis, making it possible to take a new step in understanding the pathophysiology of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, most of the studies have been devoted to gut bacterial microbiota, forgetting the non-negligible fungal flora. In this review, we expose how the role of the fungal component in the microbiota-gut-brain axis is legitimate, through its interactions with both the host, especially with the immune system, and the gut bacteria...
March 9, 2018: Microorganisms
Sylvain Losdat, Jonathan D Blount, Viviana Marri, Lea Maronde, Heinz Richner, Fabrice Helfenstein
1.Early-life stressful conditions can shape individual phenotypes and ultimately influence fitness. Oxidative stress is a pervasive threat that affects many fitness-related traits and can modulate life-history trade-offs. Yet, the extent to which exposure to oxidative stress during early life can have long-lasting effects on key fitness-related traits remains to be elucidated, particularly in natural populations of vertebrates. 2.Using a wild population of great tits Parus major, we experimentally dosed 11 day-old birds with paraquat, a pro-oxidant molecule, aiming at increasing oxidative stress...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Sarah Guindre-Parker, Dustin R Rubenstein
Although cooperatively breeding vertebrates occur disproportionately in unpredictable environments, the underlying mechanism shaping this biogeographic pattern remains unclear. Cooperative breeding may buffer against harsh conditions (hard life hypothesis), or additionally allow for sustained breeding under benign conditions (temporal variability hypothesis). To distinguish between the hard life and temporal variability hypotheses, we investigated whether the number of alloparents at a nest increased reproductive success or load-lightening in superb starlings ( Lamprotornis superbus ), and whether these two types of benefits varied in harsh and benign years...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Gabrielle L Davidson, Michael S Reichert, Jodie M S Crane, William O'Shea, John L Quinn
Personality research suggests that individual differences in risk aversion may be explained by links with life-history variation. However, few empirical studies examine whether repeatable differences in risk avoidance behaviour covary with life-history traits among individuals in natural populations, or how these links vary depending on the context and the way risk aversion is measured. We measured two different risk avoidance behaviours (latency to enter the nest and inspection time) in wild great tits ( Parus major ) in two different contexts-response to a novel object and to a predator cue placed at the nest-box during incubation---and related these behaviours to female reproductive success and condition...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Shigeru Miyagawa, Cora Lesure, Vitor A Nóbrega
Early modern humans developed mental capabilities that were immeasurably greater than those of non-human primates. We see this in the rapid innovation in tool making, the development of complex language, and the creation of sophisticated art forms, none of which we find in our closest relatives. While we can readily observe the results of this high-order cognitive capacity, it is difficult to see how it could have developed. We take up the topic of cave art and archeoacoustics, particularly the discovery that cave art is often closely connected to the acoustic properties of the cave chambers in which it is found...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ricardo Castro, Nicolas Nin, Fernando Ríos, Leyla Alegría, Elisa Estenssoro, Gastón Murias, Gilberto Friedman, Manuel Jibaja, Gustavo Ospina-Tascon, Javier Hurtado, María Del Carmen Marín, Flavia R Machado, Alexandre Biasi Cavalcanti, Arnaldo Dubin, Luciano Azevedo, Maurizio Cecconi, Jan Bakker, Glenn Hernandez
BACKGROUND: Intensive care medicine is a relatively young discipline that has rapidly grown into a full-fledged medical subspecialty. Intensivists are responsible for managing an ever-increasing number of patients with complex, life-threatening diseases. Several factors may influence their performance, including age, training, experience, workload, and socioeconomic context. The aim of this study was to examine individual- and work-related aspects of the Latin American intensivist workforce, mainly with academic appointments, which might influence the quality of care provided...
February 21, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Zheng Wan, Abdel El Makhloufi, Yang Chen, Jiayuan Tang
Ship-source greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could increase by up to 250% by 2050 from their 2012 levels, owing to increasing global freight volumes. Binding international legal agreements to regulate GHGs, however, are lacking as technical solutions remain expensive, and crucial industrial support is absent. In 2003, the International Maritime Organization adopted Resolution A.963 (23) to regulate shipping CO2 emissions via technical, operational, and market-based routes. However, progress has been slow and uncertain; there is no concrete emission reduction target or definitive action plan...
January 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Tanja M Strand, Åke Lundkvist, Björn Olsen, Lars Gustafsson
BACKGROUND: The breeding consequences of virus infections have rarely been studied in avian natural breeding populations. In this paper we investigated the links between humoral immunity following a natural flavivirus infection and reproduction in a wild bird population of collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis). We analyzed plasma from 744 birds for antibodies and correlated these results to a number of reproductive components. RESULTS: Nearly one third (27.8%) of the sampled collared flycatchers were found seropositive for flavivirus...
February 5, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Israel Hershkovitz, Gerhard W Weber, Rolf Quam, Mathieu Duval, Rainer Grün, Leslie Kinsley, Avner Ayalon, Miryam Bar-Matthews, Helene Valladas, Norbert Mercier, Juan Luis Arsuaga, María Martinón-Torres, José María Bermúdez de Castro, Cinzia Fornai, Laura Martín-Francés, Rachel Sarig, Hila May, Viktoria A Krenn, Viviane Slon, Laura Rodríguez, Rebeca García, Carlos Lorenzo, Jose Miguel Carretero, Amos Frumkin, Ruth Shahack-Gross, Daniella E Bar-Yosef Mayer, Yaming Cui, Xinzhi Wu, Natan Peled, Iris Groman-Yaroslavski, Lior Weissbrod, Reuven Yeshurun, Alexander Tsatskin, Yossi Zaidner, Mina Weinstein-Evron
To date, the earliest modern human fossils found outside of Africa are dated to around 90,000 to 120,000 years ago at the Levantine sites of Skhul and Qafzeh. A maxilla and associated dentition recently discovered at Misliya Cave, Israel, was dated to 177,000 to 194,000 years ago, suggesting that members of the Homo sapiens clade left Africa earlier than previously thought. This finding changes our view on modern human dispersal and is consistent with recent genetic studies, which have posited the possibility of an earlier dispersal of Homo sapiens around 220,000 years ago...
January 26, 2018: Science
Gregory S Rizzolo
Traditional psychoanalytic theories of development hold that the adult neurotic can regress, or has already regressed, to the childhood arrests and/or fixations in which his pathology originated. More recent critiques have called this possibility into question. It is unlikely that anyone can roll back the additions and modifications of lifespan development in a full-fledged return to the needs, wishes, and anxieties of childhood. By regression, though, some analysts mean not a full-fledged return to an earlier developmental phase, but a non-phase-specific slip into primitive fantasies and defenses...
December 2017: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
Gerald L Kooyman, Robert P van Dam, Luis A Hückstädt
All through the bird literature and feature films, there is much ado about dedicated emperor penguin males fasting for 115 days while they do all the incubation of the single egg. Sometimes, they may not fast for so long. Based on a winter visit to Cape Washington, we obtained evidence that some birds may feed before the egg is laid, and if they do, and some are males, then their fast is much less than 115 days. The consequence of a shorter fast for the male is a better chance of completing the 65 day incubation fast and success in fledging the chick...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Francesco Gaetano Casino, Carlo Basile
Background: There is a recently heightened interest in incremental haemodialysis (IHD), the main advantage of which could likely be a better preservation of the residual kidney function of the patients. The implementation of IHD, however, is hindered by many factors, among them, the mathematical complexity of its prescription. The aim of our study was to design a user-friendly tool for IHD prescription, consisting of only a few rows of a common spreadsheet. Methods: The keystone of our spreadsheet was the following fundamental concept: the dialysis dose to be prescribed in IHD depends only on the normalized urea clearance provided by the native kidneys (KRUn) of the patient for each frequency of treatment, according to the variable target model recently proposed by Casino and Basile (The variable target model: a paradigm shift in the incremental haemodialysis prescription...
January 5, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Takahiro Kato, Shin Matsui, Yohey Terai, Hideyuki Tanabe, Sayaka Hashima, Satoe Kasahara, Gen Morimoto, Osamu K Mikami, Keisuke Ueda, Nobuyuki Kutsukake
Sex allocation theory predicts that parents bias the offspring sex ratio strategically. In avian species, the offspring sex ratio can be biased at multiple growth stages, although the mechanisms are not well known. It is crucial to reveal a cause and timing of biased offspring sex ratio. We investigated (i) offspring sex ratio at multiple growth stages, from laying to fledging; and (ii) the stage at which offspring sex ratio became biased; and (iii) the cause of biased offspring sex ratio in Eurasian tree sparrows Passer montanus...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Elisabeth Sonnleitner, Alexander Wulf, Sébastien Campagne, Xue-Yuan Pei, Michael T Wolfinger, Giada Forlani, Konstantin Prindl, Laetitia Abdou, Armin Resch, Frederic H-T Allain, Ben F Luisi, Henning Urlaub, Udo Bläsi
In Pseudomonas aeruginosa the RNA chaperone Hfq and the catabolite repression control protein (Crc) act as post-transcriptional regulators during carbon catabolite repression (CCR). In this regard Crc is required for full-fledged Hfq-mediated translational repression of catabolic genes. RNAseq based transcriptome analyses revealed a significant overlap between the Crc and Hfq regulons, which in conjunction with genetic data supported a concerted action of both proteins. Biochemical and biophysical approaches further suggest that Crc and Hfq form an assembly in the presence of RNAs containing A-rich motifs, and that Crc interacts with both, Hfq and RNA...
December 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Mindaugas Mitkus, Gabrielle A Nevitt, Almut Kelber
Little is known about the development of vision in wild birds. It is unknown, for example, whether the ability to see can be predicted by the level of prenatal growth or whether the eyes are open at hatching in a particular species. In this study, we investigated the growth of eyes, the formation of retinal ganglion cell topography, and the appearance of simple, visually guided behaviours in chicks of a small procellariiform seabird, Leach's storm petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa). This semi-precocial species, which has a well-developed sense of smell, nests in underground burrows where adults provision chicks for 6-8 weeks in the dark before fledging...
December 7, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Barbara M Tomotani, Henk van der Jeugd, Phillip Gienapp, Iván de la Hera, Jos Pilzecker, Corry Teichmann, Marcel E Visser
Shifts in reproductive phenology due to climate change have been well documented in many species but how, within the same species, other annual cycle stages (e.g. moult, migration) shift relative to the timing of breeding has rarely been studied. When stages shift at different rates, the interval between stages may change resulting in overlaps, and as each stage is energetically demanding, these overlaps may have negative fitness consequences. We used long-term data of a population of European pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) to investigate phenological shifts in three annual cycle stages: spring migration (arrival dates), breeding (egg-laying and hatching dates) and the onset of postbreeding moult...
February 2018: Global Change Biology
Junya Watanabe
Despite its importance in various disciplines, a general method to assess ontogenetic ages of skeletal and fossil specimens has been lacking for birds. Although the textural ageing method was formulated to assess relative ontogenetic ages of specimens from inspection of bone surface textures, the exact correspondence of surface textures to ontogenetic stages has not yet been clear. In this study, bone surface textures of six major limb bones (humerus, ulna, carpometacarpus, femur, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus) were described in postnatal ontogenies of four species of modern birds (Calonectris leucomelas, Phalacrocorax capillatus, Larus crassirostris, and Cerorhinca monocerata) from 14 to 28 individuals of known ontogenetic stages for each species...
December 1, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Nathan J McNeese, Mustafa Demir, Nancy J Cooke, Christopher Myers
Objective Three different team configurations are compared with the goal of better understanding human-autonomy teaming (HAT). Background Although an extensive literature on human-automation interaction exists, much less is known about HAT in which humans and autonomous agents interact as coordinated units. Further research must be conducted to better understand how all-human teams compare to HAT. Methods In an unmanned aerial system (UAS) context, a comparison was made among three types of three-member teams: (1) synthetic teams in which the pilot role is assigned to a synthetic teammate, (2) control teams in which the pilot was an inexperienced human, and (3) experimenter teams in which an experimenter served as an experienced pilot...
March 2018: Human Factors
Aline de Conti, Juliana Festa Ortega, Volodymyr Tryndyak, Kostiantyn Dreval, Fernando Salvador Moreno, Ivan Rusyn, Frederick A Beland, Igor P Pogribny
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fastest-rising cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Recent epidemiological studies have identified nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as a major risk factor for HCC. Elucidating the underlying mechanisms associated with the development of NASH-derived HCC is critical for identifying early biomarkers for the progression of the disease and for treatment and prevention. In the present study, using liver samples from C57BL/6J mice submitted to the Stelic Animal Model (STAM) of NASH-associated liver carcinogenesis, we investigated the role of microRNA (miRNA) alterations in the pathogenesis of NASH-derived HCC...
October 24, 2017: Oncotarget
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