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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529298/an-aspect-of-the-history-of-medicine-in-ancient-korea-as-examined-through-silla-buddhist-monks-annotations-on-the-chapter-on-eliminating-disease-in-the-sutra-of-golden-light-suvarnabh%C3%A4-sa-s%C3%A5-tra
#1
Chaekun Oh, Jongwook Jeon, Dongwon Shin
Nearly nothing is known of medicine in ancient Korea due to insufficient materials. With several extant prescriptions and esoteric methods of treating diseases alone, it is impossible to gauge in depth the management of medicine during this period. If one exception were to be cited, that would be the fact that the annotations for understanding the contents on Indian medicine in the "Chapter on Eliminating Disease" in the Sutra of Golden Light, a Buddhist sutra originating from India, reflected the medical knowledge of Buddhist monks from Silla (57 BC-935 AD) who were active immediately after the nation's unification of the two other kingdoms on the Korean Peninsula (668 AD) such as Wonhyo (617-686 AD), Gyeongheung (620?-700? AD), and Seungjang (684-? AD)...
December 2016: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524249/telomere-attrition-and-growth-a-life-history-framework-and-case-study-in-common-terns
#2
Oscar Vedder, Simon Verhulst, Christina Bauch, Sandra Bouwhuis
The relationship between growth and age-specific telomere length, as a proxy of somatic state, is increasingly investigated, but observed patterns vary and a predictive framework is lacking. We outline expectations based on the assumption that telomere maintenance is costly and argue that individual heterogeneity in resource acquisition is predicted to lead to positive covariance between growth and telomere length. However, canalization of resource allocation to the trait with a larger effect on fitness, rendering that trait relatively invariant, can cause the absence of covariance...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515884/cooperative-breeding-shapes-post-fledging-survival-in-an-afrotropical-forest-bird
#3
Dries Van de Loock, Diederik Strubbe, Liesbeth De Neve, Mwangi Githiru, Erik Matthysen, Luc Lens
For avian group living to be evolutionary stable, multiple fitness benefits are expected. Yet, the difficulty of tracking fledglings, and thus estimating their survival rates, limits our knowledge on how such benefits may manifest postfledging. We radio-tagged breeding females of the Afrotropical cooperatively breeding Placid greenbul (Phyllastrephus placidus) during nesting. Tracking these females after fledging permitted us to locate juvenile birds, their parents, and any helpers present and to build individual fledgling resighting datasets without incurring mortality costs or causing premature fledging due to handling or transmitter effects...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508394/disentangling-the-effects-of-date-individual-and-territory-quality-on-the-seasonal-decline-in-fitness
#4
Tomas Pärt, Jonas Knape, Matthew Low, Meit Öberg, Debora Arlt
The seasonal timing of reproduction is a major fitness factor in many organisms. Commonly, individual fitness declines with time in the breeding season. We investigated three suggested but rarely tested hypotheses for this seasonal fitness decline: (1) time per se (date hypothesis), (2) late breeders are of lower quality than early ones (individual quality hypothesis), and (3) late breeders are breeding at poorer territories than early ones (territory quality hypothesis). We used Bayesian variance component analyses to examine reproductive output (breeding success, number fledged, and number of recruits) from repeated observations of female northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) and individual territories from a 20-year population study...
May 16, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504469/subtle-but-ubiquitous-selection-on-body-size-in-a-natural-population-of-collared-flycatchers-over-33-years
#5
Mats Björklund, Lars Gustafsson
Understanding the magnitude and long-term patterns of selection in natural populations is of importance, for example, when analyzing the evolutionary impact of climate change. We estimated univariate and multivariate directional, quadratic and correlational selection on four morphological traits (adult wing, tarsus and tail length, body mass) over a time period of 33 years (≈ 19 000 observations) in a nest-box breeding population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis). In general, selection was weak in both males and females over the years regardless of fitness measure (fledged young, recruits and survival) with only few cases with statistically significant selection...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502109/reproductive-performance-of-resident-and-migrant-males-females-and-pairs-in-a-partially-migratory-bird
#6
Hannah Grist, Francis Daunt, Sarah Wanless, Sarah J Burthe, Mark A Newell, Mike P Harris, Jane M Reid
1.Quantifying among-individual variation in life-history strategies, and associated variation in reproductive performance and resulting demographic structure, is key to understanding and predicting population dynamics and life-history evolution. Partial migration, where populations comprise a mixture of resident and seasonally-migrant individuals, constitutes a dimension of life-history variation that could be associated with substantial variation in reproductive performance. However, such variation has rarely been quantified due to the challenge of measuring reproduction and migration across a sufficient number of seasonally-mobile males and females...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500334/using-change-trajectories-to-study-the-impacts-of-multi-annual-habitat-loss-on-fledgling-production-in-an-old-forest-specialist-bird
#7
Eric Le Tortorec, Niina Käyhkö, Harri Hakkarainen, Petri Suorsa, Esa Huhta, Samuli Helle
The loss and subdivision of habitat into smaller and more spatially isolated units due to human actions has been shown to adversely affect species worldwide. We examined how changes in old forest cover during eight years were associated with the cumulative number of fledged offspring at the end of study period in Eurasian treecreepers (Certhia familiaris) in Central Finland. We were specifically interested in whether the initial level of old forest cover moderated this relation. We applied a flexible and powerful approach, latent growth curve modelling in a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework, to create trajectories describing changes in old forest cover through time, and studied how this change at both the territory core and landscape scales impacted fledging numbers...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495873/intestinal-digestive-enzyme-modulation-in-house-sparrow-nestlings-occurs-within-24-hours-of-a-change-in-diet-composition
#8
Katherine H Rott, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal, William H Karasov
Nestling house sparrows near fledging age (12 days) were previously found to reversibly modulate the activity of their intestinal digestive enzymes in response to changes in diet composition. However, it is not known how quickly nestlings can adjust to new diets with different substrate compositions, nor is it known how early in life nestlings can modulate their enzyme activity in response to changes in diet. In the current study, 3-day-old nestlings were captured from the wild and fed and switched among contrasting diets - one high in protein and low in carbohydrate and another higher in carbohydrate and with lower but adequate protein - in order to determine (1) how quickly house sparrow nestlings could adjust to changes in diet composition, (2) how early in life nestlings could modulate their digestive enzyme activity in response to these changes, and (3) which digestive enzymes could be modulated in house sparrow nestlings earlier in life...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472878/neuropeptide-kyotorphin-impacts-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-glucocorticoid-mediated-inflammatory-response-a-molecular-link-to-nociception-neuroprotection-and-anti-inflammatory-action
#9
Juliana Perazzo, Carla Lima, Montserrat Heras, Eduard Bardají, Mônica Lopes-Ferreira, Miguel Castanho
Neuropeptide kyotorphin (KTP) is a potent analgesic if administered directly into the brain. In contrast, KTP-amide (KTP-NH2) is analgesic, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory following systemic administration, albeit its mechanism of action is unknown. The aim of this study was to shed light on the mechanism of action of KTP-NH2 at the molecular level. KTP-NH2 does not inhibit the enkephalinases angiotensin-converting-enzyme and dipeptidyl-peptidase 3. Intravital microscopy showed that KTP-NH2 decreased the number of rolling leukocytes in a mouse model of inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
May 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460757/our-intellectuals-have-failed-us-system-of-a-down
#10
EDITORIAL
Sundeep Mishra
Medical profession is at cross-roads. On one hand are issues like medical mal-practice and negligence but on the other are loss of respect, low re-imbursement, lawsuits against medical professionals, violence against physicians all contributing to a lot of stress as also a high suicide rate among medical practitioners. While some of the problems seem related to changing societal norms, most of them seem to stem from a failure, active or passive on the part of medical intellectual, moving away from altruism, justice and self regulation to pursuance of self interest with a consequent loss of trust in doctor-patient relationship...
March 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431743/opportunistic-sampling-to-quantify-plastics-in-the-diet-of-unfledged-black-legged-kittiwakes-rissa-tridactyla-northern-fulmars-fulmarus-glacialis-and-great-cormorants-phalacrocorax-carbo
#11
Heidi Acampora, Stephen Newton, Ian O'Connor
Seabirds can interact with marine litter, mainly by entanglement or ingestion. The ingestion of plastics can lead to starvation or physical damage to the digestive tract. For chicks, it could additionally lead to reduced growth, affecting survival and fledging. This study quantified the ingestion of plastics by seabird chicks via an opportunistic sampling strategy. When ringing is carried out at colonies, birds may spontaneously regurgitate their stomach contents due to the stress or as a defence mechanism...
April 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405278/seasonal-patterns-in-reproductive-success-of-temperate-breeding-birds-experimental-tests-of-the-date-and-quality-hypotheses
#12
Vanessa B Harriman, Russell D Dawson, Lauren E Bortolotti, Robert G Clark
For organisms in seasonal environments, individuals that breed earlier in the season regularly attain higher fitness than their late-breeding counterparts. Two primary hypotheses have been proposed to explain these patterns: The quality hypothesis contends that early breeders are of better phenotypic quality or breed on higher quality territories, whereas the date hypothesis predicts that seasonally declining reproductive success is a response to a seasonal deterioration in environmental quality. In birds, food availability is thought to drive deteriorating environmental conditions, but few experimental studies have demonstrated its importance while also controlling for parental quality...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403152/linking-phenological-events-in-migratory-passerines-with-a-changing-climate-50-years-in-the-laurel-highlands-of-pennsylvania
#13
Molly E McDermott, Lucas W DeGroote
Advanced timing of both seasonal migration and reproduction in birds has been strongly associated with a warming climate for many bird species. Phenological responses to climate linking these stages may ultimately impact fitness. We analyzed five decades of banding data from 17 migratory bird species to investigate 1) how spring arrival related to timing of breeding, 2) if the interval between arrival and breeding has changed with increasing spring temperatures, and 3) whether arrival timing or breeding timing best predicted local productivity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393635/assessment-of-environmental-policy-implementation-in-solid-waste-management-in-kathmandu-nepal
#14
Mohan B Dangi, Erica Schoenberger, John J Boland
In Nepal, full-fledged environmental legislation was rare before the democratic constitution of 1990. The first law covering the environment and sustainability was the Environment Protection Act 1997. While the Solid Waste Act was introduced in 1987, the problem of solid waste management still surfaces in Kathmandu. In order to understand the bedrock of this unrelenting failure in solid waste management, the manuscript digs deeper into policy implementation by dissecting solid waste rules, environmental legislations, relevant local laws, and solid waste management practices in Kathmandu, Nepal...
April 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389873/molecular-barriers-to-direct-cardiac-reprogramming
#15
REVIEW
Haley Vaseghi, Jiandong Liu, Li Qian
Myocardial infarction afflicts close to three quarters of a million Americans annually, resulting in reduced heart function, arrhythmia, and frequently death. Cardiomyocyte death reduces the heart's pump capacity while the deposition of a non-conductive scar incurs the risk of arrhythmia. Direct cardiac reprogramming emerged as a novel technology to simultaneously reduce scar tissue and generate new cardiomyocytes to restore cardiac function. This technology converts endogenous cardiac fibroblasts directly into induced cardiomyocyte-like cells using a variety of cocktails including transcription factors, microRNAs, and small molecules...
April 7, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379045/self-rehabilitation-of-a-captive-american-crow-at-binghamton-zoo
#16
Clara Davie, Anne B Clark
The behavioral transition from an entirely unflighted-to-flighted, female yearling American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) in captivity in a specially designed exhibit was documented at the Binghamton Zoo at Ross Park in Binghamton, NY. Upon arrival, the focal crow had no complete primary feathers or retrices and had been in captivity since fledging. She apparently had never flown successfully and was using her legs and an abnormal body orientation to cushion her landing on the ground. In a social and physical environment with 3 flying companion crows and staggered perches, she developed and appeared to "practice" routines that ultimately resulted in her recovering normal body posture and flight ability...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369105/population-size-breeding-biology-and-on-land-threats-of-cape-verde-petrel-pterodroma-feae-in-fogo-island-cape-verde
#17
Teresa Militão, Herculano Andrade Dinis, Laura Zango, Pascual Calabuig, Laura M Stefan, Jacob González-Solís
Cape Verde petrel (Pterodroma feae) is currently considered near threatened, but little is known about its population size, breeding biology and on land threats, jeopardizing its management and conservation. To improve this situation, we captured, marked and recaptured (CMR) birds using mist-nets over 10 years; measured and sexed them; monitored up to 14 burrows, deployed GPS devices on breeders and analyzed activity data of geolocators retrieved from breeders in Fogo (Cape Verde). We set cat traps over the colony and investigated their domestic/feral origin by marking domestic cats from a nearby village with transponders, by deploying GPS devices on domestic cats and by performing stable isotope analyses of fur of the trapped and domestic cats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352542/biosynthesis-of-silver-nanoparticle-and-its-application-in-cell-wall-disruption-to-release-carbohydrate-and-lipid-from-c-vulgaris-for-biofuel-production
#18
Sirajunnisa Abdul Razack, Surendhiran Duraiarasan, Vijay Mani
Microalgae are the fledging feedstocks yielding raw materials for the production of third generation biofuel. Assorted and conventional cell wall disruption techniques were helpful in extracting lipids and carbohydrates, nevertheless the disadvantages have led the biotechnologists to explore new process to lyse cell wall in a faster and an economical manner. Silver nanoparticles have the ability to break the cell wall of microalgae and release biomolecules effectively. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was performed using a novel bacterial isolate of Bacillus subtilis...
September 2016: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331976/nosy-neighbours-large-broods-attract-more-visitors-a-field-experiment-in-the-pied-flycatcher-ficedula-hypoleuca
#19
Wiebke Schuett, Pauliina E Järvistö, Sara Calhim, William Velmala, Toni Laaksonen
Life is uncertain. To reduce uncertainty and make adaptive decisions, individuals need to collect information. Individuals often visit the breeding sites of their conspecifics (i.e., "prospect"), likely to assess conspecifics' reproductive success and to use such information to identify high-quality spots for future breeding. We investigated whether visitation rate by prospectors and success of visited sites are causally linked. We manipulated the reproductive success (enlarged, reduced, and control broods) in a nest-box population of migratory pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca, in Finland...
May 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327242/the-out-of-my-league-effect
#20
Fabrice Le Lec, Theodore Alexopoulos, Béatrice Boulu-Reshef, Marie-Pierre Fayant, Franck Zenasni, Todd Lubart, Nicolas Jacquemet
When taking into account the chances of success, strategic mating motivations do imply a bias not toward the most attractive individuals, but toward average or mildly attractive individuals, undermining the explanation of Maestripieri et al. at a fundamental level. This leaves open the possibility of alternative explanations and calls for a full-fledged explicit model of courtship behavior.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
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