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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913599/the-effect-of-food-quality-during-growth-on-spatial-memory-consolidation-in-adult-pigeons
#1
M F Scriba, J Gasparini, L Jacquin, C Mettke-Hofmann, N C Rattenborg, A Roulin
Poor environmental conditions experienced during early development can have negative long-term consequences on fitness. Animals can compensate negative developmental effects through phenotypic plasticity by diverting resources from non-vital to vital traits such as spatial memory to enhance foraging efficiency. We tested in young feral pigeons (Columba livia) how diets of different nutritional value during development affect the capacity to retrieve food hidden in a spatially complex environment, a process we refer to as "spatial memory"...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909857/privacy-autonomy-and-public-policy-french-and-north-american-perspectives
#2
Jennifer Merchant
This article raises the question of whether in both the United States and in France, an individual's autonomy and private decision-making right(s) in matters of health care and access to reproductive technologies can be conciliated with the general interest, and more specifically, the role of the State. Can a full-fledged right to privacy, the ability to exercise one's autonomy, exist alongside the general interest, and depend neither on financial resources like in the United States nor on centralised government decisions or the medical hierarchy like in France? The contrast between these two modern democracies justify the importance of comparing them...
December 2, 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902754/how-do-growth-and-sibling-competition-affect-telomere-dynamics-in-the-first-month-of-life-of-long-lived-seabird
#3
Yuichi Mizutani, Yasuaki Niizuma, Ken Yoda
Telomeres are nucleotide sequences located at the ends of chromosomes that promote genome stability. Changes in telomere length (dynamics) are related to fitness or life expectancy, and telomere dynamics during the development phase are likely to be affected by growth and stress factors. Here, we examined telomere dynamics of black-tailed gull chicks (Larus crassirostris) in nests with and without siblings. We found that the initial telomere lengths of singletons at hatching were longer than those of siblings, indicating that singletons are higher-quality chicks than siblings in terms of telomere length...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896480/ultimate-regulation-of-fecundity-in-species-with-precocial-young-declining-marginal-value-of-offspring-with-increasing-brood-size-does-not-explain-maximal-clutch-size-in-black-brent-geese
#4
James S Sedinger, Amanda W VanDellen, Alan G Leach, Thomas V Riecke
Lack 18:125-128 (1967) proposed that clutch size in precocial species was regulated by nutrients available to females during breeding. Drent and Daan 68:225-252 (1980) proposed the individual optimization hypothesis, whereby individual state determines the optimal combination of breeding date and clutch size. Neither hypothesis accounts for variation in nutrients among females at the end of egg laying, strong right truncations in clutch size distributions, or the fact that many species with precocial young are determinate layers...
November 28, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892941/hatching-asynchrony-vs-foraging-efficiency-the-response-to-food-availability-in-specialist-vs-generalist-tit-species
#5
R Barrientos, J Bueno-Enciso, J J Sanz
Breeding mistiming is increasingly frequent in several ecosystems in the face of current climate change. Species belonging to higher trophic levels must employ mechanisms to reduce it. One of these mechanisms is hatching asynchrony, with the eggs in a clutch hatching over a period of several days. Some authors have suggested it to be adaptive when food is unpredictable. However, these birds can also suffer associated costs. We tested whether a species with higher foraging efficiency avoid hatching asynchrony compared to its sister species...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887566/the-common-redstart-as-a-suitable-model-to-study-cuckoo-host-coevolution-in-a-unique-ecological-context
#6
Peter Samaš, Jarkko Rutila, Tomáš Grim
BACKGROUND: Co-evolutionary arms-races result in spatio-temporally dynamic relationships between interacting species, e.g., brood parasites and their avian hosts. However, majority of avian co-evolutionary studies are limited to "snap-shots" of a single breeding season in an open-nesting host. In a long-term study (11 breeding seasons), we explored a unique system between the brood parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) and its host, the common redstart (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) which is exceptional among all cuckoo hosts due to being a cavity nester...
November 25, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882411/mercury-concentrations-in-feathers-of-adult-and-nestling-osprey-pandion-haliaetus-from-coastal-and-freshwater-environments-of-florida
#7
Darren G Rumbold, Karl E Miller, Timothy A Dellinger, Nicole Haas
We determined mercury (Hg) concentrations in feathers of osprey (Pandion haliaetus), both nestlings (n = 95) and adults (n = 110), across peninsular Florida and the Florida Keys during February-August 2014. Feathers plucked from nestlings, aged 3-7 weeks, contained Hg concentrations that ranged from 0.338 to 45.79 mg/kg and averaged 6.92 ± 7.58 mg/kg (mean ± 1SD). Feathers shed from adults contained significantly higher concentrations ranging from 0.375 to 93.65 mg/kg, with an average of 17.8 ± 16...
November 23, 2016: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881897/elevated-reproduction-does-not-affect-telomere-dynamics-and-oxidative-stress
#8
Joanna Sudyka, Giulia Casasole, Joanna Rutkowska, Mariusz Cichoń
ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and telomere dynamics are considered to be powerful biomarkers quantifying a potential trade-off between current reproduction and self-maintenance. Recent studies confirmed the negative impact of elevated reproduction on telomeres, but the evidence for the cost of reproduction in terms of oxidative stress remains equivocal. In order to induce reproductive costs, we experimentally manipulated reproductive effort by increasing brood size in captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and additionally challenged all birds by a low ambient temperature to facilitate detection of these costs...
2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878076/nonmotorized-recreation-and-motorized-recreation-in-shrub-steppe-habitats-affects-behavior-and-reproduction-of-golden-eagles-aquila-chrysaetos
#9
Robert J Spaul, Julie A Heath
Different forms of outdoor recreation have different spatiotemporal activity patterns that may have interactive or cumulative effects on wildlife through human disturbance, physical habitat change, or both. In western North America, shrub-steppe habitats near urban areas are popular sites for motorized recreation and nonmotorized recreation and can provide important habitat for protected species, including golden eagles. Our objective was to determine whether recreation use (i.e., number of recreationists) or recreation features (e...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859132/spring-temperatures-influence-selection-on-breeding-date-and-the-potential-for-phenological-mismatch-in-a-migratory-bird
#10
E Keith Bowers, Jennifer L Grindstaff, Sheryl Swartz Soukup, Nancy E Drilling, Kevin P Eckerle, Scott K Sakaluk, Charles F Thompson
Climate change has affected the seasonal phenology of a variety of taxa, including that of migratory birds and their critical food resources. However, whether climate-induced changes in breeding phenology affect individual fitness, and how these changes might therefore influence selection on breeding date remain unresolved. Here, we use a 36-yr dataset from a long-term, individual-based study of House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) to test whether the timing of avian breeding seasons is associated with annual changes in temperature, which have increased to a small but significant extent locally since the onset of the study in 1980...
October 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851816/human-disturbance-during-early-life-impairs-nestling-growth-in-birds-inhabiting-a-nature-recreation-area
#11
Carolina Remacha, Juan Antonio Delgado, Mateja Bulaic, Javier Pérez-Tris
Nature recreation conflicts with conservation, but its impacts on wildlife are not fully understood. Where recreation is not regulated, visitors to natural areas may gather in large numbers on weekends and holidays. This may increase variance in fitness in wild populations, if individuals whose critical life cycle stages coincide with periods of high human disturbance are at a disadvantage. We studied nestling development of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) in a natural area where recreation activities intensify during weekends and other public holidays at picnic and leisure facilities, but not in the surrounding woods...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851742/demographic-costs-associated-with-differences-in-habitat-space-occupancy
#12
Kelly A Williams, Donald B Miles
Delimiting the habitat characteristics describing the environmental conditions required by a species has become a critical tool for predicting organismal responses to environmental change. Grinnell emphasized the effects of environmental factors on the ability of a population to maintain a positive growth rate, yet few studies have included demographic or reproductive data in analyses of the Grinnellian niche. Identifying differences in habitat exploitation patterns in response to structural variation in the environment presents an incomplete description of the ability of species to adapt to changing habitats if demographic traits are not included...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846712/the-double-layer-structure-of-overscreened-surfaces-by-smeared-out-ions
#13
Derek Frydel
The present work focuses on the structure of a double-layer of overscreened charged surfaces by smeared-out charges and probes the link between the structure of a double-layer and the bulk properties of an electrolyte with special view to the role of the Kirkwood crossover. Just as the Kirkwood line divides a bulk solution into a fluid with monotonic and oscillatory decaying correlations, it similarly separates charge inversion into two broad domains, with and without oscillating charge density profile. As initially oscillations may appear like a far-field occurrence, eventually they develop into a full fledged layering of a charge density...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831877/steerable-discrete-cosine-transform
#14
Giulia Fracastoro, Sophie M Fosson, Enrico Magli
In image compression, classical block-based separable transforms tend to be inefficient when image blocks contain arbitrarily shaped discontinuities. For this reason, transforms incorporating directional information are an appealing alternative. In this paper, we propose a new approach to this problem, namely, a discrete cosine transform (DCT) that can be steered in any chosen direction. Such transform, called steerable DCT (SDCT), allows to rotate in a flexible way pairs of basis vectors, and enables precise matching of directionality in each image block, achieving improved coding efficiency...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803571/initial-experience-of-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-treated-in-an-oncologist-led-palliative-cancer-care-clinic-at-a-tertiary-cancer-care-center-in-uttar-pradesh-is-the-initiative-of-a-full-fledged-palliative-care-for-cancer-patients-justified
#15
Punita Lal, Mranalini Verma, Gaurav Kumar, Resham Shrivastava, Shaleen Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Poor socioeconomic status and illiteracy attribute to the advanced presentation of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients in India and are candidates for palliation in our setup. We set up a palliative cancer care clinic (PCCC), and an audit of initial 153 HNC patients is presented. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of palliative cancer care services. METHODOLOGY: Data of advanced HNC patients suited for palliation were collected to document demography, symptomatology, cancer treatment, and supportive care...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793722/maternal-thyroid-hormones-enhance-hatching-success-but-decrease-nestling-body-mass-in-the-rock-pigeon-columba-livia
#16
Bin-Yan Hsu, Cor Dijkstra, Veerle M Darras, Bonnie de Vries, Ton G G Groothuis
Thyroid hormones (THs) - triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) - are essential for embryonic development in vertebrates. All vertebrate embryos are exposed to THs from maternal origin. As maternal TH levels are known to be essential to embryonic development, the natural variation of maternal THs probably represents a pathway of maternal effects that can modify offspring phenotype. However, potential fitness consequences of variation of maternal TH exposure within the normal physiological range and without confounding effects of the mother have never been experimentally investigated...
January 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781170/vsearch-a-versatile-open-source-tool-for-metagenomics
#17
Torbjørn Rognes, Tomáš Flouri, Ben Nichols, Christopher Quince, Frédéric Mahé
BACKGROUND: VSEARCH is an open source and free of charge multithreaded 64-bit tool for processing and preparing metagenomics, genomics and population genomics nucleotide sequence data. It is designed as an alternative to the widely used USEARCH tool (Edgar, 2010) for which the source code is not publicly available, algorithm details are only rudimentarily described, and only a memory-confined 32-bit version is freely available for academic use. METHODS: When searching nucleotide sequences, VSEARCH uses a fast heuristic based on words shared by the query and target sequences in order to quickly identify similar sequences, a similar strategy is probably used in USEARCH...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779890/positive-negative-birefringence-in-multiferroic-layered-metasurfaces
#18
Ramaz Khomeriki, Levan Chotorlishvili, Igor Tralle, Jamal Berakdar
We uncover and identify the regime for a magnetically and ferroelectrically controllable negative refraction of light traversing multiferroic, oxide-based metastructure consisting of alternating nanoscopic ferroelectric (SrTiO2) and ferromagnetic (Y3Fe2(FeO4)3, YIG) layers. We perform analytical and numerical simulations based on discretized, coupled equations for the self-consistent Maxwell/ferroelectric/ferromagnetic dynamics and obtain a biquadratic relation for the refractive index. Various scenarios of ordinary and negative refraction in different frequency ranges are analyzed and quantified by simple analytical formula that are confirmed by full-fledge numerical simulations...
October 25, 2016: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771593/mercury-and-drought-along-the-lower-carson-river-nevada-iv-snowy-egret-post-fledging-dispersal-timing-of-migration-and-survival-2002-2004
#19
Charles J Henny, Elwood F Hill, Robert A Grove, Nathan D Chelgren, Patricia K Haggerty
This telemetry study is an extension of our 1997-2006 research on historical mercury contamination on snowy egrets (Egretta thula) up to ~ 20 days of age. Findings from initial studies at the mercury-contaminated Carson River colony at Lahontan Reservoir (LR) and a similar-sized reference (REF) colony on the Humboldt River included mercury-related physiological, biochemical, histopathological and reproductive effects up to ~20 days of age; with poor water years (2000-04), i.e., reduced prey availability, exacerbating effects...
October 20, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766425/reduced-expression-of-setd2-and-snx9-proteins-in-chemically-induced-mammary-tumorigenesis-in-wistar-rats-a-prognostic-histological-and-proteomic-study
#20
Ishfaq Ahmad Ganaie, Samar Husain Naqvi, Swatantra Kumar Jain, Saima Wajid
Breast cancer is a major global health concern, appealing for precise prognostic approaches. Thus, the need is to have studies focusing on the identification and recognition of preliminary events leading to the disease. The present study reports the tracing of precancerous progression and serum proteomic analysis in a breast cancer model developed as a result of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) administration. Mammary gland histological changes of prime importance were examined by histopathology, and immunohistochemical analysis with Ki-67 was performed to monitor enhanced cell proliferation, right from the onset of hyperplasia till neoplasia...
October 20, 2016: Protoplasma
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