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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431743/opportunistic-sampling-to-quantify-plastics-in-the-diet-of-unfledged-black-legged-kittiwakes-rissa-tridactyla-northern-fulmars-fulmarus-glacialis-and-great-cormorants-phalacrocorax-carbo
#1
Heidi Acampora, Stephen Newton, Ian O'Connor
Seabirds can interact with marine litter, mainly by entanglement or ingestion. The ingestion of plastics can lead to starvation or physical damage to the digestive tract. For chicks, it could additionally lead to reduced growth, affecting survival and fledging. This study quantified the ingestion of plastics by seabird chicks via an opportunistic sampling strategy. When ringing is carried out at colonies, birds may spontaneously regurgitate their stomach contents due to the stress or as a defence mechanism...
April 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405278/seasonal-patterns-in-reproductive-success-of-temperate-breeding-birds-experimental-tests-of-the-date-and-quality-hypotheses
#2
Vanessa B Harriman, Russell D Dawson, Lauren E Bortolotti, Robert G Clark
For organisms in seasonal environments, individuals that breed earlier in the season regularly attain higher fitness than their late-breeding counterparts. Two primary hypotheses have been proposed to explain these patterns: The quality hypothesis contends that early breeders are of better phenotypic quality or breed on higher quality territories, whereas the date hypothesis predicts that seasonally declining reproductive success is a response to a seasonal deterioration in environmental quality. In birds, food availability is thought to drive deteriorating environmental conditions, but few experimental studies have demonstrated its importance while also controlling for parental quality...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403152/linking-phenological-events-in-migratory-passerines-with-a-changing-climate-50-years-in-the-laurel-highlands-of-pennsylvania
#3
Molly E McDermott, Lucas W DeGroote
Advanced timing of both seasonal migration and reproduction in birds has been strongly associated with a warming climate for many bird species. Phenological responses to climate linking these stages may ultimately impact fitness. We analyzed five decades of banding data from 17 migratory bird species to investigate 1) how spring arrival related to timing of breeding, 2) if the interval between arrival and breeding has changed with increasing spring temperatures, and 3) whether arrival timing or breeding timing best predicted local productivity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393635/assessment-of-environmental-policy-implementation-in-solid-waste-management-in-kathmandu-nepal
#4
Mohan B Dangi, Erica Schoenberger, John J Boland
In Nepal, full-fledged environmental legislation was rare before the democratic constitution of 1990. The first law covering the environment and sustainability was the Environment Protection Act 1997. While the Solid Waste Act was introduced in 1987, the problem of solid waste management still surfaces in Kathmandu. In order to understand the bedrock of this unrelenting failure in solid waste management, the manuscript digs deeper into policy implementation by dissecting solid waste rules, environmental legislations, relevant local laws, and solid waste management practices in Kathmandu, Nepal...
April 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389873/molecular-barriers-to-direct-cardiac-reprogramming
#5
REVIEW
Haley Vaseghi, Jiandong Liu, Li Qian
Myocardial infarction afflicts close to three quarters of a million Americans annually, resulting in reduced heart function, arrhythmia, and frequently death. Cardiomyocyte death reduces the heart's pump capacity while the deposition of a non-conductive scar incurs the risk of arrhythmia. Direct cardiac reprogramming emerged as a novel technology to simultaneously reduce scar tissue and generate new cardiomyocytes to restore cardiac function. This technology converts endogenous cardiac fibroblasts directly into induced cardiomyocyte-like cells using a variety of cocktails including transcription factors, microRNAs, and small molecules...
April 7, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379045/self-rehabilitation-of-a-captive-american-crow-at-binghamton-zoo
#6
Clara Davie, Anne B Clark
The behavioral transition from an entirely unflighted-to-flighted, female yearling American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) in captivity in a specially designed exhibit was documented at the Binghamton Zoo at Ross Park in Binghamton, NY. Upon arrival, the focal crow had no complete primary feathers or retrices and had been in captivity since fledging. She apparently had never flown successfully and was using her legs and an abnormal body orientation to cushion her landing on the ground. In a social and physical environment with 3 flying companion crows and staggered perches, she developed and appeared to "practice" routines that ultimately resulted in her recovering normal body posture and flight ability...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369105/population-size-breeding-biology-and-on-land-threats-of-cape-verde-petrel-pterodroma-feae-in-fogo-island-cape-verde
#7
Teresa Militão, Herculano Andrade Dinis, Laura Zango, Pascual Calabuig, Laura M Stefan, Jacob González-Solís
Cape Verde petrel (Pterodroma feae) is currently considered near threatened, but little is known about its population size, breeding biology and on land threats, jeopardizing its management and conservation. To improve this situation, we captured, marked and recaptured (CMR) birds using mist-nets over 10 years; measured and sexed them; monitored up to 14 burrows, deployed GPS devices on breeders and analyzed activity data of geolocators retrieved from breeders in Fogo (Cape Verde). We set cat traps over the colony and investigated their domestic/feral origin by marking domestic cats from a nearby village with transponders, by deploying GPS devices on domestic cats and by performing stable isotope analyses of fur of the trapped and domestic cats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352542/biosynthesis-of-silver-nanoparticle-and-its-application-in-cell-wall-disruption-to-release-carbohydrate-and-lipid-from-c-vulgaris-for-biofuel-production
#8
Sirajunnisa Abdul Razack, Surendhiran Duraiarasan, Vijay Mani
Microalgae are the fledging feedstocks yielding raw materials for the production of third generation biofuel. Assorted and conventional cell wall disruption techniques were helpful in extracting lipids and carbohydrates, nevertheless the disadvantages have led the biotechnologists to explore new process to lyse cell wall in a faster and an economical manner. Silver nanoparticles have the ability to break the cell wall of microalgae and release biomolecules effectively. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was performed using a novel bacterial isolate of Bacillus subtilis...
September 2016: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331976/nosy-neighbours-large-broods-attract-more-visitors-a-field-experiment-in-the-pied-flycatcher-ficedula-hypoleuca
#9
Wiebke Schuett, Pauliina E Järvistö, Sara Calhim, William Velmala, Toni Laaksonen
Life is uncertain. To reduce uncertainty and make adaptive decisions, individuals need to collect information. Individuals often visit the breeding sites of their conspecifics (i.e., "prospect"), likely to assess conspecifics' reproductive success and to use such information to identify high-quality spots for future breeding. We investigated whether visitation rate by prospectors and success of visited sites are causally linked. We manipulated the reproductive success (enlarged, reduced, and control broods) in a nest-box population of migratory pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca, in Finland...
March 22, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327242/the-out-of-my-league-effect
#10
Fabrice Le Lec, Theodore Alexopoulos, Béatrice Boulu-Reshef, Marie-Pierre Fayant, Franck Zenasni, Todd Lubart, Nicolas Jacquemet
When taking into account the chances of success, strategic mating motivations do imply a bias not toward the most attractive individuals, but toward average or mildly attractive individuals, undermining the explanation of Maestripieri et al. at a fundamental level. This leaves open the possibility of alternative explanations and calls for a full-fledged explicit model of courtship behavior.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265492/evidence-for-high-inter-generational-individual-quality-in-yellow-eyed-penguins
#11
Aviva M Stein, Melanie J Young, John T Darby, Philip J Seddon, Yolanda van Heezik
Longitudinal studies focusing on lifetime reproductive success (LRS) have been used to measure individual breeding performance and identify commonalities among successful breeders. By extending the focus to subsequent generations we identify a proportion of high-quality individuals that contribute disproportionately to the population over multiple generations. We used 23 years of yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) breeding data from one breeding area to identify the proportion of individual birds that raised successful breeders, which in turn raised offspring...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261449/happy-to-breed-in-the-city-urban-food-resources-limit-reproductive-output-in-western-jackdaws
#12
Eva Meyrier, Lukas Jenni, Yves Bötsch, Stephan Strebel, Bruno Erne, Zulima Tablado
Urban areas expand worldwide, transforming landscapes and creating new challenging habitats. Some bird species, mainly omnivorous feeding on human waste and cavity nesters, commonly breed in these habitats and are, therefore, regarded as urban-adapted. Although urban areas may provide new nesting sites and abundant human waste, the low breeding success found in some of these species suggests that the poor protein content in human waste might limit breeding parameters. We investigated whether the breeding success of a cavity nester and omnivorous species commonly breeding in urban areas, the Western Jackdaw (Corvus monedula), depended on the availability of good-quality non-urban food...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242327/cracking-the-barcode-of-fullerene-like-cortical-microcolumns
#13
Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Ottorino Ori
Artificial neural systems and nervous graph theoretical analysis rely upon the stance that the neural code is embodied in logic circuits, e.g., spatio-temporal sequences of ON/OFF spiking neurons. Nevertheless, this assumption does not fully explain complex brain functions. Here we show how nervous activity, other than logic circuits, could instead depend on topological transformations and symmetry constraints occurring at the micro-level of the cortical microcolumn, i.e., the embryological, anatomical and functional basic unit of the brain...
February 24, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202814/early-mortality-saves-energy-estimating-the-energetic-cost-of-excess-offspring-in-a-seabird
#14
Oscar Vedder, He Zhang, Sandra Bouwhuis
Offspring are often produced in excess as insurance against stochastic events or unpredictable resources. This strategy may result in high early-life mortality, yet age-specific mortality before offspring independence and its associated costs have rarely been quantified. In this study, we modelled age-specific survival from hatching to fledging using 24 years of data on hatching order (HO), growth and age of mortality of more than 15 000 common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks. We found that mortality peaked directly after hatching, after which it declined rapidly...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191934/electronic-structure-of-corrole-derivatives-insights-from-molecular-structures-spectroscopy-electrochemistry-and-quantum-chemical-calculations
#15
Abhik Ghosh
Presented herein is a comprehensive account of the electronic structure of corrole derivatives. Our knowledge in this area derives from a broad range of methods, including UV-vis-NIR absorption and MCD spectroscopies, single-crystal X-ray structure determination, vibrational spectroscopy, NMR and EPR spectroscopies, electrochemistry, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and quantum chemical calculations, the latter including both density functional theory and ab initio multiconfigurational methods. The review is organized according to the Periodic Table, describing free-base and main-group element corrole derivatives, then transition-metal corroles, and finally f-block element corroles...
February 13, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186493/telomeres-shorten-and-then-lengthen-before-fledging-in-magellanic-penguins-spheniscus-magellanicus
#16
Jack A Cerchiara, Rosa Ana Risques, Donna Prunkard, Jeffrey R Smith, Olivia J Kane, P Dee Boersma
For all species, finite metabolic resources must be allocated toward three competing systems: maintenance, reproduction, and growth. Telomeres, the nucleoprotein tips of chromosomes, which shorten with age in most species, are correlated with increased survival. Chick growth is energetically costly and is associated with telomere shortening in most species. To assess the change in telomeres in penguin chicks, we quantified change in telomere length of wild known-age Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) chicks every 15 days during the species' growth period, from hatching to 60 days-of-age...
February 8, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156488/new-primary-palliative-care-pc-model-for-community-cancer-clinics-ccc
#17
Deborah Gray, Stephanie Struve, Carol Huibregtse, Qiaofang Chen
159 Background: Our CCC serving a mixed rural/urban population is part of a large integrated healthcare system in Eastern WI. The closest PC specialist/team is 45 miles away at one of the tertiary care facilities. To fill this service gap we implemented a primary PC model. An initial outpatient palliative care family conference (OFC) and use of cancer nurse navigators (CNN)are hallmarks of this program. METHODS: The VLCC, housed in a standalone facility is staffed by two medical oncologists and one radiation oncologist and has an infusion center and a full-fledged radiation oncology unit with support staff, including cancer nurse navigators, research nurses, social workers, a clinical psychologist, a pharmacist, a nutritionist, a therapy dog and a chaplain...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104276/optogenetic-toolkit-for-precise-control-of-calcium-signaling
#18
REVIEW
Guolin Ma, Shufan Wen, Lian He, Yun Huang, Youjun Wang, Yubin Zhou
Calcium acts as a second messenger to regulate a myriad of cell functions, ranging from short-term muscle contraction and cell motility to long-term changes in gene expression and metabolism. To study the impact of Ca(2+)-modulated 'ON' and 'OFF' reactions in mammalian cells, pharmacological tools and 'caged' compounds are commonly used under various experimental conditions. The use of these reagents for precise control of Ca(2+) signals, nonetheless, is impeded by lack of reversibility and specificity. The recently developed optogenetic tools, particularly those built upon engineered Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels, provide exciting opportunities to remotely and non-invasively modulate Ca(2+) signaling due to their superior spatiotemporal resolution and rapid reversibility...
January 16, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079674/borderline-intellectual-functioning-an-update
#19
Stephen Greenspan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a descriptive v-code that is often used, especially in forensic settings, as if it were a full-fledged disorder. Various historical and other aspects of this classification are reviewed, and commentary is made on the question of whether to upgrade BIF to a regular psychiatric category, or to eliminate it by folding it into an already recently expanded category of intellectual developmental disorder (IDD). RECENT FINDINGS: Full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) is an outmoded concept that is decreasingly being used...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078389/responses-of-a-federally-endangered-songbird-to-understory-thinning-in-oak-juniper-woodlands
#20
Ashley M Long, Mike E Marshall, Michael L Morrison, K Brian Hays, Shannon L Farrell
Wildlife conservation and management on military lands must be accomplished in the context of military readiness, which often includes ground-based training that is perceived to conflict with wildlife needs and environmental regulations. From 2008‒2012, we examined territory density, pairing success, and fledging success of the federally endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter warbler) in relation to removal of small-diameter trees from the understory of mature oak-juniper (Quercus-Juniperus) woodland at the 87,890 ha Fort Hood Military Reservation in central Texas...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Management
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