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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202814/early-mortality-saves-energy-estimating-the-energetic-cost-of-excess-offspring-in-a-seabird
#1
Oscar Vedder, He Zhang, Sandra Bouwhuis
Offspring are often produced in excess as insurance against stochastic events or unpredictable resources. This strategy may result in high early-life mortality, yet age-specific mortality before offspring independence and its associated costs have rarely been quantified. In this study, we modelled age-specific survival from hatching to fledging using 24 years of data on hatching order (HO), growth and age of mortality of more than 15 000 common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks. We found that mortality peaked directly after hatching, after which it declined rapidly...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191934/electronic-structure-of-corrole-derivatives-insights-from-molecular-structures-spectroscopy-electrochemistry-and-quantum-chemical-calculations
#2
Abhik Ghosh
Presented herein is a comprehensive account of the electronic structure of corrole derivatives. Our knowledge in this area derives from a broad range of methods, including UV-vis-NIR absorption and MCD spectroscopies, single-crystal X-ray structure determination, vibrational spectroscopy, NMR and EPR spectroscopies, electrochemistry, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and quantum chemical calculations, the latter including both density functional theory and ab initio multiconfigurational methods. The review is organized according to the Periodic Table, describing free-base and main-group element corrole derivatives, then transition-metal corroles, and finally f-block element corroles...
February 13, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186493/telomeres-shorten-and-then-lengthen-before-fledging-in-magellanic-penguins-spheniscus-magellanicus
#3
Jack A Cerchiara, Rosa Ana Risques, Donna Prunkard, Jeffrey R Smith, Olivia J Kane, P Dee Boersma
For all species, finite metabolic resources must be allocated toward three competing systems: maintenance, reproduction, and growth. Telomeres, the nucleoprotein tips of chromosomes, which shorten with age in most species, are correlated with increased survival. Chick growth is energetically costly and is associated with telomere shortening in most species. To assess the change in telomeres in penguin chicks, we quantified change in telomere length of wild known-age Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) chicks every 15 days during the species' growth period, from hatching to 60 days-of-age...
February 8, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156488/new-primary-palliative-care-pc-model-for-community-cancer-clinics-ccc
#4
Deborah Gray, Stephanie Struve, Carol Huibregtse, Qiaofang Chen
: 159 Background: Our CCC serving a mixed rural/urban population is part of a large integrated healthcare system in Eastern WI. The closest PC specialist/team is 45 miles away at one of the tertiary care facilities. To fill this service gap we implemented a primary PC model. An initial outpatient palliative care family conference (OFC) and use of cancer nurse navigators (CNN)are hallmarks of this program. METHODS: The VLCC, housed in a standalone facility is staffed by two medical oncologists and one radiation oncologist and has an infusion center and a full-fledged radiation oncology unit with support staff, including cancer nurse navigators, research nurses, social workers, a clinical psychologist, a pharmacist, a nutritionist, a therapy dog and a chaplain...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104276/optogenetic-toolkit-for-precise-control-of-calcium-signaling
#5
REVIEW
Guolin Ma, Shufan Wen, Lian He, Yun Huang, Youjun Wang, Yubin Zhou
Calcium acts as a second messenger to regulate a myriad of cell functions, ranging from short-term muscle contraction and cell motility to long-term changes in gene expression and metabolism. To study the impact of Ca(2+)-modulated 'ON' and 'OFF' reactions in mammalian cells, pharmacological tools and 'caged' compounds are commonly used under various experimental conditions. The use of these reagents for precise control of Ca(2+) signals, nonetheless, is impeded by lack of reversibility and specificity. The recently developed optogenetic tools, particularly those built upon engineered Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels, provide exciting opportunities to remotely and non-invasively modulate Ca(2+) signaling due to their superior spatiotemporal resolution and rapid reversibility...
January 16, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079674/borderline-intellectual-functioning-an-update
#6
Stephen Greenspan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a descriptive v-code that is often used, especially in forensic settings, as if it were a full-fledged disorder. Various historical and other aspects of this classification are reviewed, and commentary is made on the question of whether to upgrade BIF to a regular psychiatric category, or to eliminate it by folding it into an already recently expanded category of intellectual developmental disorder (IDD). RECENT FINDINGS: Full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) is an outmoded concept that is decreasingly being used...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078389/responses-of-a-federally-endangered-songbird-to-understory-thinning-in-oak-juniper-woodlands
#7
Ashley M Long, Mike E Marshall, Michael L Morrison, K Brian Hays, Shannon L Farrell
Wildlife conservation and management on military lands must be accomplished in the context of military readiness, which often includes ground-based training that is perceived to conflict with wildlife needs and environmental regulations. From 2008‒2012, we examined territory density, pairing success, and fledging success of the federally endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter warbler) in relation to removal of small-diameter trees from the understory of mature oak-juniper (Quercus-Juniperus) woodland at the 87,890 ha Fort Hood Military Reservation in central Texas...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078378/post-procedural-care-in-interventional-radiology-what-every-interventional-radiologist-should-know-part-i-standard-post-procedural-instructions-and-follow-up-care
#8
Bedros Taslakian, Divya Sridhar
Interventional radiology (IR) has evolved into a full-fledged clinical specialty with attendant patient care responsibilities. Success in IR now requires development of a full clinical practice, including consultations, inpatient admitting privileges, and an outpatient clinic. In addition to technical excellence and innovation, maintaining a comprehensive practice is imperative for interventional radiologists to compete successfully for patients and referral bases. A structured approach to periprocedural care, including routine follow-up and early identification and management of complications, facilitates efficient and thorough management with an emphasis on quality and patient safety...
January 11, 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070279/legacy-or-colonization-posteruption-establishment-of-peregrine-falcons-falco-peregrinus-on-a-volcanically-active-subarctic-island
#9
Sarah A Sonsthagen, Jeffrey C Williams, Gary S Drew, Clayton M White, George K Sage, Sandra L Talbot
How populations and communities reassemble following disturbances are affected by a number of factors, with the arrival order of founding populations often having a profound influence on later populations and community structure. Kasatochi Island is a small volcano located in the central Aleutian archipelago that erupted violently August 8, 2008, sterilizing the island of avian biodiversity. Prior to the eruption, Kasatochi was the center of abundance for breeding seabirds in the central Aleutian Islands and supported several breeding pairs of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus)...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070217/health-systems-context-s-for-integrating-mental-health-into-primary-health-care-in-six-emerald-countries-a-situation-analysis
#10
REVIEW
James Mugisha, Jibril Abdulmalik, Charlotte Hanlon, Inge Petersen, Crick Lund, Nawaraj Upadhaya, Shalini Ahuja, Rahul Shidhaye, Ntokozo Mntambo, Atalay Alem, Oye Gureje, Fred Kigozi
BACKGROUND: Mental, neurological and substance use disorders contribute to a significant proportion of the world's disease burden, including in low and middle income countries (LMICs). In this study, we focused on the health systems required to support integration of mental health into primary health care (PHC) in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda. METHODS: A checklist guided by the World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) was developed and was used for data collection in each of the six countries participating in the Emerging mental health systems in low and middle-income countries (Emerald) research consortium...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065710/ecoimmunology-and-microbial-ecology-contributions-to-avian-behavior-physiology-and-life-history
#11
REVIEW
Jessica K Evans, Katherine L Buchanan, Simon C Griffith, Kirk C Klasing, BriAnne Addison
Bacteria have had a fundamental impact on vertebrate evolution not only by affecting the evolution of the immune system, but also generating complex interactions with behavior and physiology. Advances in molecular techniques have started to reveal the intricate ways in which bacteria and vertebrates have coevolved. Here, we focus on birds as an example system for understanding the fundamental impact bacteria have had on the evolution of avian immune defenses, behavior, physiology, reproduction and life histories...
February 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060907/sex-differences-in-brain-thyroid-hormone-levels-during-early-post-hatching-development-in-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#12
Shinji Yamaguchi, Shin Hayase, Naoya Aoki, Akihiko Takehara, Jun Ishigohoka, Toshiya Matsushima, Kazuhiro Wada, Koichi J Homma
Thyroid hormones are closely linked to the hatching process in precocial birds. Previously, we showed that thyroid hormones in brain had a strong impact on filial imprinting, an early learning behavior in newly hatched chicks; brain 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) peaks around hatching and imprinting training induces additional T3 release, thus, extending the sensitive period for imprinting and enabling subsequent other learning. On the other hand, blood thyroid hormone levels have been reported to increase gradually after hatching in altricial species, but it remains unknown how the brain thyroid hormone levels change during post-hatching development of altricial birds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051939/ecologically-relevant-cooling-early-in-life-alters-prefledging-adrenocortical-response-in-free-living-songbirds
#13
Sharon E Lynn, Michael D Kern
In vertebrates, exposure to stressful stimuli early in development may alter the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, with the potential for fitness consequences later in life. For altricial species, whose young rely on their parents for food, warmth, and protection from predators, adult behavior can modify the impact of some stressors on their offspring after birth or hatching. We have shown that single bouts of cooling that normally occur when brooding females leave the nest elevate corticosterone secretion in very young free-living eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) chicks...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031809/interpopulation-resource-partitioning-of-lesser-frigatebirds-and-the-influence-of-environmental-context
#14
Rowan Mott, Ashley Herrod, Rohan H Clarke
Conspecific individuals inhabiting nearby breeding colonies are expected to compete strongly for food resources owing to the constraints imposed by shared morphology, physiology, and behavior on foraging strategy. Consequently, colony-specific foraging patterns that effectively partition the available resources may be displayed. This study aimed to determine whether intraspecific resource partitioning occurs in two nearby colonies of Lesser Frigatebirds (Fregata ariel). A combination of stable isotope analysis and GPS tracking was used to assess dietary and spatial partitioning of foraging resources during the 2013 and 2014 breeding seasons...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997304/supporting-the-supporters-what-family-caregivers-need-to-care-for-a-loved-one-with-cancer
#15
Leonard L Berry, Shraddha Mahesh Dalwadi, Joseph O Jacobson
Patients with cancer who live at home often require help with activities of daily living, basic medical care (eg, injections), social needs, and patient advocacy. Most of that support comes from intimate caregivers, typically members of the patient's family. These family caregivers themselves require support so that they can be effective and maintain their own well-being while caring for the patient with cancer. Research shows that support for caregivers contributes to achieving these goals. We propose a four-part framework for supporting family caregivers: (1) assess caregivers' needs using formal measures, just as the cancer patient's own needs are assessed, (2) educate caregivers for their caregiving roles, most notably, with training in the low-level medical support that cancer patients require at home, (3) empower caregivers to become full-fledged members of the patient's cancer team, all working toward common goals, and (4) assist caregivers proactively in their duties, so that they retain a sense of control and self-efficacy rather than having to react to imminent medical crises without sufficient resources at their disposal...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959355/embarking-on-a-research-project%C3%A2-or-research-for-the-absolute-novice
#16
L Wiblin, I Sleeman, D Burn
Research can be a difficult area for the novice to break into. A number of different obstacles face the new researcher, starting with selecting a suitable supervisor, writing a workable protocol and obtaining permissions from all the relevant organisations. This beginner's guide walks the fledging researcher through the required steps, including formulating a research question, designing a protocol and completing the Integrated Research Application System form to obtain the required permissions. The aim is to demystify the terms used in research and expose some of the pitfalls the authors experienced so that others can avoid them! Although challenges can arise throughout the research process, we aim to help you get underway...
September 2016: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957336/physical-condition-and-stress-levels-during-early-development-reflect-feeding-rates-and-predict-pre-and-post-fledging-survival-in-a-nearshore-seabird
#17
Juliet S Lamb, Kathleen M O'Reilly, Patrick G R Jodice
The effects of acute environmental stressors on reproduction in wildlife are often difficult to measure because of the labour and disturbance involved in collecting accurate reproductive data. Stress hormones represent a promising option for assessing the effects of environmental perturbations on altricial young; however, it is necessary first to establish how stress levels are affected by environmental conditions during development and whether elevated stress results in reduced survival and recruitment rates...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938431/high-rates-of-infection-by-blood-parasites-during-the-nestling-phase-in-uk-columbids-with-notes-on-ecological-associations
#18
Jenny C Dunn, Jennifer E Stockdale, Emma L Bradford, Alexandra McCubbin, Antony J Morris, Philip V Grice, Simon J Goodman, Keith C Hamer
Studies of blood parasite infection in nestling birds rarely find a high prevalence of infection. This is likely due to a combination of short nestling periods (limiting the age at which nestlings can be sampled) and long parasite prepatent periods before gametocytes can be detected in peripheral blood. Here we examine rates of blood parasite infection in nestlings from three Columbid species in the UK. We use this system to address two key hypotheses in the epidemiology of avian haemoparasites: first, that nestlings in open nests have a higher prevalence of infection; and second, that nestlings sampled at 14 days old have a higher apparent infection rate than those sampled at 7 days old...
December 12, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913599/the-effect-of-food-quality-during-growth-on-spatial-memory-consolidation-in-adult-pigeons
#19
M F Scriba, J Gasparini, L Jacquin, C Mettke-Hofmann, N C Rattenborg, A Roulin
Poor environmental conditions experienced during early development can have negative long-term consequences on fitness. Animals can compensate negative developmental effects through phenotypic plasticity by diverting resources from non-vital to vital traits such as spatial memory to enhance foraging efficiency. We tested in young feral pigeons (Columba livia) how diets of different nutritional value during development affect the capacity to retrieve food hidden in a spatially complex environment, a process we refer to as "spatial memory"...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909857/privacy-autonomy-and-public-policy-french-and-north-american-perspectives
#20
Jennifer Merchant
This article raises the question of whether in both the United States and in France, an individual's autonomy and private decision-making right(s) in matters of health care and access to reproductive technologies can be conciliated with the general interest, and more specifically, the role of the State. Can a full-fledged right to privacy, the ability to exercise one's autonomy, exist alongside the general interest, and depend neither on financial resources like in the United States nor on centralised government decisions or the medical hierarchy like in France? The contrast between these two modern democracies justify the importance of comparing them...
December 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
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