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Ishfaq Ahmad Ganaie, Samar Husain Naqvi, Swatantra Kumar Jain, Saima Wajid
Breast cancer is a major global health concern, appealing for precise prognostic approaches. Thus, the need is to have studies focusing on the identification and recognition of preliminary events leading to the disease. The present study reports the tracing of precancerous progression and serum proteomic analysis in a breast cancer model developed as a result of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) administration. Mammary gland histological changes of prime importance were examined by histopathology, and immunohistochemical analysis with Ki-67 was performed to monitor enhanced cell proliferation, right from the onset of hyperplasia till neoplasia...
October 20, 2016: Protoplasma
Patrycja Podlaszczuk, Maciej Kamiński, Radosław Włodarczyk, Krzysztof Kaczmarek, Tomasz Janiszewski, Piotr Minias
BACKGROUND: Moult is one of the most costly activities in the annual cycle of birds and most avian species separate moult from other energy-demanding activities, such as migration. To this end, young birds tend to undergo the first post-juvenile moult before the onset of migration, but in some species the time window for the pre-migratory feather replacement is too narrow. We hypothesized that in such species an increased investment in the structural quality of juvenile feathers may allow to retain juvenile plumage throughout the entire migratory period and delay moult until arriving at wintering grounds, thus avoiding a moult-migration overlap...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
Christopher E Cattau, Robert J Fletcher, Brian E Reichert, Wiley M Kitchens
Identifying impacts of non-native species on native populations is central to conservation and ecology. While effects of non-native predators on native prey populations have recently received much attention, impacts of introduced prey on native predator populations are less understood. Non-native prey can influence predator behavior and demography through direct and indirect pathways, yet quantitative assessments of the relative impacts of multiple, potentially counteracting, effects on native predator population growth remain scarce...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Khushboo Gualti, Krishna Mohan Poluri
BACKGROUND: Unraveling the comprehensive networks of molecular signaling in various cellular processes and redesign/rewire them as per human wish is the ultimate dream of the biomedical researchers. Recent advances in the experimental and computational biophysics have provided us with enormous amount of protein sequences and a wide variety of structural information. Protein engineering is a fledging field and a creative process to design the target proteins or signaling networks with desirable structure and functions...
October 13, 2016: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
Xin Chen, Yingjie Nie, Haitao Xiao, Zhaoxiang Bian, Anthony J Scarzello, Na-Young Song, Anna L Trivett, De Yang, Joost J Oppenheim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Oliver Hochadel
The Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain is ranked among the most important excavation sites in human origins research worldwide. The project boasts not only spectacular hominid fossils, among them the 'oldest European', but also a fully fledged 'popularization industry'. This article interprets this multimedia industry as a generator of different narratives about the researchers as well as about the prehistoric hominids of Atapuerca. It focuses on the popular works of the three co-directors of the project...
September 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
Edward M Dzialowski, Tushar S Sirsat, Sarah K G Sirsat, Edwin Rockwell Price
Altricial bird species, like red-winged blackbirds, hatch at an immature state of functional maturity with limited aerobic capacity and no endothermic capacity. Over the next 10-12 days in the nest, red-winged blackbirds develop increased metabolic capacity before fledging. Although ontogeny of respiration has been described in precocial birds, ontogeny of ventilatory chemosensitivity is unknown in altricial species. Here we examined developmental changes in chemosensitivity of tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (ƒ), minute ventilation (VE), and whole-animal oxygen consumption (Vo2) from hatching to just before fledging in red-winged blackbirds on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 post-hatching (dph) in response to hypercapnia (2 and 4% CO2) and hypoxia (15 and 10% O2)...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Gabriella Airenti
In the developmental literature, the idea has been proposed that young children do not understand the specificity of non-literal communicative acts. In this article, I focus on young children's ability to produce and understand different forms of humor. I explore the acquisition of the communicative contexts that enable children to engage in humorous interactions before they possess the capacity to analyze them in the terms afforded by a full-fledged theory of mind. I suggest that different forms of humor share several basic features and that we can construct a continuum from simple to sophisticated forms...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
O Wirjadi, Y-J Kim, F Stech, L Bonfert, M Wagner
Image segmentation aims to determine structures of interest inside a digital picture in biomedical sciences. State-of-the art automatic methods however still fail to provide the segmentation quality achievable by humans who employ expert knowledge and use software to mark target structures on an image. Manual segmentation is time-consuming, tedious and suffers from interoperator variability, thus not serving the requirements of daily use well. Therefore, the approach presented here abandons the goal of full-fledged segmentation and settles for the localization of circular objects in photographs (10 training images and 20 testing images with several hundreds of nuclei each)...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
Veli-Matti Pakanen, Markku Orell, Emma Vatka, Seppo Rytkönen, Juli Broggi
Correct reproductive timing is crucial for fitness. Breeding phenology even in similar species can differ due to different selective pressures on the timing of reproduction. These selection pressures define species' responses to warming springs. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis suggests that timing of breeding in animals is selected to match with food availability (synchrony). Alternatively, time-dependent breeding success (the date hypothesis) can result from other seasonally deteriorating ecological conditions such as intra- or interspecific competition or predation...
2016: PloS One
Jason J Williams, Tracy K Teal
In biology, a missing link connecting data generation and data-driven discovery is the training that prepares researchers to effectively manage and analyze data. National and international cyberinfrastructure along with evolving private sector resources place biologists and students within reach of the tools needed for data-intensive biology, but training is still required to make effective use of them. In this concept paper, we review a number of opportunities and challenges that can inform the creation of a national bioinformatics training infrastructure capable of servicing the large number of emerging and existing life scientists...
September 7, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Xin Chen, Yingjie Nie, Haitao Xiao, Zhaoxiang Bian, Anthony J Scarzello, Na-Young Song, Trivett L Anna, De Yang, Joost J Oppenheim
There is now compelling evidence that TNFR2 is constitutively expressed on CD4(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and TNF-TNFR2 interaction is critical for the activation, expansion and functional stability of Tregs. However, we showed that the expression of TNFR2 was also up-regulated on CD4(+) Foxp3(-) effector T cells (Teffs) upon TCR stimulation. In order to define the role of TNFR2 in the pathogenic CD4 T cells, we compared the effect of transferred naïve CD4 cells from WT mice and TNFR2(-/-) mice into Rag 1(-/-) recipients...
2016: Scientific Reports
Vicky W Y Lam, William W L Cheung, Gabriel Reygondeau, U Rashid Sumaila
Previous studies highlight the winners and losers in fisheries under climate change based on shifts in biomass, species composition and potential catches. Understanding how climate change is likely to alter the fisheries revenues of maritime countries is a crucial next step towards the development of effective socio-economic policy and food sustainability strategies to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Particularly, fish prices and cross-oceans connections through distant water fishing operations may largely modify the projected climate change impacts on fisheries revenues...
2016: Scientific Reports
Joonkoo Park, Vanessa Bermudez, Rachel C Roberts, Elizabeth M Brannon
Math proficiency at early school age is an important predictor of later academic achievement. Thus, an important goal for society should be to improve math readiness in preschool-age children, especially in low-income children who typically arrive in kindergarten with less mathematical competency than their higher income peers. The majority of existing research-based math intervention programs target symbolic verbal number concepts in young children. However, very little attention has been paid to the preverbal intuitive ability to approximately represent numerical quantity, which is hypothesized to be an important foundation for full-fledged mathematical thinking...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Annette L Fayet, Robin Freeman, Akiko Shoji, Holly L Kirk, Oliver Padget, Chris M Perrins, Tim Guilford
Long-lived migratory animals must balance the cost of current reproduction with their own condition ahead of a challenging migration and future reproduction. In these species, carry-over effects, which occur when events in one season affect the outcome of the subsequent season, may be particularly exacerbated. However, how carry-over effects influence future breeding outcomes and whether (and how) they also affect behaviour during migration and wintering is unclear. Here we investigate carry-over effects induced by a controlled, bidirectional manipulation of the duration of reproductive effort on the migratory, wintering and subsequent breeding behaviour of a long-lived migratory seabird, the Manx shearwater Puffinus puffinus...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Didone Frigerio, Lara Cibulski, Sonja C Ludwig, Irene Campderrich, Kurt Kotrschal, Claudia A F Wascher
Individual reproductive success largely depends on the ability to optimize behaviour, immune function and the physiological stress response. We have investigated correlations between behaviour, faecal steroid metabolites, immune parameters, parasite excretion patterns and reproductive output in a critically endangered avian species, the Northern Bald Ibis (Geronticus eremita). In particular, we related haematocrit, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, excreted immune-reactive corticosterone metabolites and social behaviour with parasite excretion and two individual fitness parameters, namely, number of eggs laid and number of fledglings...
2016: Journal of Ornithology
A R Weighall, L M Henderson, D J Barr, S A Cairney, M G Gaskell
Lexical competition is a hallmark of proficient, automatic word recognition. Previous research suggests that there is a delay before a new spoken word becomes engaged in this process, with sleep playing an important role. However, data from one method - the visual world paradigm - consistently show competition without a delay. We trained 42 adults and 40 children (aged 7-8) on novel word-object pairings, and employed this paradigm to measure the time-course of lexical competition. Fixations to novel objects upon hearing existing words (e...
August 22, 2016: Brain and Language
Jongmin Yoon, Byung-Su Kim, Eun-Jin Joo, Shi-Ryong Park
Some nest predators visually assess parental activities to locate a prey nest, whereas parents modify fitness-related traits to reduce the probability of nest predation, and/or nestlings fledge early to escape the risky nest environment. Here, we experimentally tested if the parental and fledging behaviours of oriental tits (Parus minor) that bred in the nest-box varied with cavity conditions associated with nest predation risk during the nestling period. The entrance of experimental nest-boxes was enlarged to create a long-term risk soon after clutch competition...
2016: Scientific Reports
Derek Engelbrecht
Galagos are generally regarded as dietary specialists that feed predominantly on insects and gum. The diet of the thick-tailed greater galago is more varied and also includes fruit and small vertebrates, although the latter is rare and restricted to certain populations. The southern lesser galago is seemingly a more specialist forager, but frugivory was recently reported in two separate populations, suggesting at least some dietary plasticity in this species. The species is not known to consume vertebrates...
October 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Oscar Vedder, Sandra Bouwhuis, María M Benito, Peter H Becker
Optimal sex allocation is frequency-dependent, but senescence may cause behaviour at old age to be suboptimal. We investigated whether sex allocation changes with parental age, using 16 years of data comprising more than 2500 molecularly sexed offspring of more than 600 known-age parents in common terns (Sterna hirundo), slightly sexually size-dimorphic seabirds. We decomposed parental age effects into within-individual change and sex allocation-associated selective (dis)appearance. Individual parents did not differ consistently in sex allocation, but offspring sex ratios at fledging changed from female- to male-biased as parents aged...
August 2016: Biology Letters
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