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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916680/variation-in-developmental-trajectories-of-physiological-and-somatic-traits-in-a-common-songbird-approaching-fledging
#1
Allison Cornell, Tony D Williams
In avian species, little is known about the development of physiological traits in the days preceding fledging, a critical life history transition marked by a high mortality rate. Developmental trajectory during this period may be flexible based on ecological context or hardwired, with potential costs for variation in growth in the form of oxidative stress. Patterns in development are likely to relate to variation in life history, for which seabirds and aerial insectivores have been well studied, while our focal species is a grassland ground forager, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910405/linking-extreme-interannual-changes-in-prey-availability-to-foraging-behaviour-and-breeding-investment-in-a-marine-predator-the-macaroni-penguin
#2
Cat Horswill, Philip N Trathan, Norman Ratcliffe
Understanding the mechanisms that link prey availability to predator behaviour and population change is central to projecting how a species may respond to future environmental pressures. We documented the behavioural responses and breeding investment of macaroni penguins Eudyptes chrysolophus across five breeding seasons where local prey density changed by five-fold; from very low to highly abundant. When prey availability was low, foraging trips were significantly longer and extended overnight. Birds also foraged farther from the colony, potentially in order to reach more distant foraging grounds and allow for increased search times...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904758/early-life-foraging-behavioral-responses-of-newly-fledged-albatrosses-to-environmental-conditions
#3
Sophie de Grissac, Frederic Bartumeus, Sam L Cox, Henri Weimerskirch
In order to survive and later recruit into a population, juvenile animals need to acquire resources through the use of innate and/or learnt behaviors in an environment new to them. For far-ranging marine species, such as the wandering albatross Diomedea exulans, this is particularly challenging as individuals need to be able to rapidly adapt and optimize their movement strategies in response to the highly dynamic and heterogeneous nature of their open-ocean pelagic habitats. Critical to this is the development and flexibility of dispersal and exploratory behaviors...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895128/transitional-justice-as-social-control-political-transitions-human-rights-norms-and-the-reclassification-of-the-past
#4
Ron Dudai
This article offers an interpretation of transitional justice policies - the efforts of post-conflict and post-dictatorship societies to address the legacy of past abuses - as a form of social control. While transitional justice is commonly conceptualized as responding to a core problem of impunity, this article argues that such formulation is too narrow and leads to lack of coherence in the analysis of the diverse array of transitional mechanisms, which include among others trials, truth commissions, reparations for victims and apologies...
September 12, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886208/interacting-effects-of-unobserved-heterogeneity-and-individual-stochasticity-in-the-life-history-of-the-southern-fulmar
#5
Stéphanie Jenouvrier, Lise M Aubry, Christophe Barbraud, Henri Weimerskirch, Hal Caswell
1.Individuals are heterogeneous in many ways. Some of these differences are incorporated as individual states (e.g., age, size, breeding status) in population models. However, substantial amounts of heterogeneity may remain unaccounted for, due to unmeasurable genetic, maternal, or environmental factors. 2.Such unobserved heterogeneity (UH) affects the behavior of heterogeneous cohorts via intra-cohort selection and contributes to inter-individual variance in demographic outcomes such as longevity and lifetime reproduction...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878065/selective-disappearance-of-great-tits-with-short-telomeres-in-urban-areas
#6
Pablo Salmón, Johan F Nilsson, Hannah Watson, Staffan Bensch, Caroline Isaksson
Urban environments pose novel challenges, as well as opportunities, for urban-dwelling wildlife. Although differences have been reported in several phenotypic traits (e.g. morphology, physiology and behaviour) between urban and rural populations, it is poorly understood whether this affects individual fitness. Telomere dynamics are posited as one possible mechanism underlying senescence and mortality. It was recently shown that telomere shortening is accelerated when growing up in an urban, compared with a rural, environment...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852585/implications-of-nutritional-stress-as-nestling-or-fledgling-on-subsequent-attractiveness-and-fecundity-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#7
Mariam Honarmand, E Tobias Krause, Marc Naguib
The conditions an organism experiences during early development can have profound and long lasting effects on its subsequent behavior, attractiveness, and life history decisions. Most previous studies have exposed individuals to different conditions throughout development until nutritional independence. Yet under natural conditions, individuals may experience limitations for much shorter periods due to transient environmental fluctuations. Here, we used zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in captivity to determine if conditions experienced during distinctly different early developmental phases contribute differently to male and female attractiveness and subsequent reproduction...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811878/magellanic-penguin-telomeres-do-not-shorten-with-age-with-increased-reproductive-effort-investment-and-basal-corticosterone
#8
Jack A Cerchiara, Rosa Ana Risques, Donna Prunkard, Jeffrey R Smith, Olivia J Kane, P Dee Boersma
All species should invest in systems that enhance longevity; however, a fundamental adult life-history trade-off exists between the metabolic resources allocated to maintenance and those allocated to reproduction. Long-lived species will invest more in reproduction than in somatic maintenance as they age. We investigated this trade-off by analyzing correlations among telomere length, reproductive effort and output, and basal corticosterone in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). Telomeres shorten with age in most species studied to date, and may affect adult survival...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806150/the-puncta-enigma
#9
Daniel J Klionsky
This Editor's Corner may sound like the title of a mystery novel, but it actually reflects a question I have about the puncta articles that appear in Autophagy. In particular, I am surprised by the number of solicitations sent out for puncta that are either ignored, or, less frequently, declined. It is not that I expect the principal investigator (PI) to find the invitation to write a punctum undeniably attractive. Rather, it is the unilateral decision that it is not worthwhile for graduate students or postdocs who performed the work---and likely wrote at least the first draft of the paper---to write the punctum...
August 14, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803937/annual-variation-in-the-reproductive-hormone-and-behavior-rhythm-in-a-population-of-the-asian-short-toed-lark-can-spring-temperature-influence-activation-of-the-hpg-axis-of-wild-birds
#10
Shuping Zhang, Xianglong Xu, Weiwei Wang, Lidan Zhao, Lijun Gao, Wenyu Yang
Although a number of studies have demonstrated a correlation between ambient temperature and the timing of reproductive behavior in many bird species, the relationships between temperature, activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis, laying, and hatching in free-living birds, remain unclear. We investigated the relationships between spring temperature, reproductive hormones, and behavior, in a population of the Asian short-toed lark (Calandrella cheleensis) on the Inner Mongolian Grasslands in 2014, 2015 and 2016...
August 16, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797137/stay-at-home-strategy-brings-fitness-benefits-to-migrants
#11
James J Gilroy
In Focus: Lok, T., Veldhoen, L., Overdijk, O., Tinbergen, J. M., & Piersma, T. (2017). An age-dependent fitness cost of migration? Old trans-Saharan migrating spoonbills breed later than those staying in Europe, and late breeders have lower recruitment. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 998-1009. In Focus: Grist, H., Daunt, F., Wanless, S., Burthe, S. J., Newell, M. A., Harris, M. P., & Reid, J. M. (2017). Reproductive performance of resident and migrant males, females and pairs in a partially migratory bird. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 1010-1021...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791156/mismatch-between-the-eye-and-the-optic-lobe-in-the-giant-squid
#12
Yung-Chieh Liu, Tsung-Han Liu, Chun-Chieh Yu, Chia-Hao Su, Chuan-Chin Chiao
Giant squids (Architeuthis) are a legendary species among the cephalopods. They live in the deep sea and are well known for their enormous body and giant eyes. It has been suggested that their giant eyes are not adapted for the detection of either mates or prey at distance, but rather are best suited for monitoring very large predators, such as sperm whales, at distances exceeding 120 m and at a depth below 600 m (Nilsson et al. 2012 Curr. Biol.22, 683-688. (doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.02.031)). However, it is not clear how the brain of giant squids processes visual information...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770927/n-versus-p-doping-of-graphite-what-drives-its-wet-chemical-exfoliation
#13
Bingzhe Wang, Verena Engelhardt, Alexandra Roth, Rüdiger Faust, Dirk M Guldi
We have performed the syntheses of a novel pyrene-porphyrazine conjugate (ZnPzPy) and a reference porphyrazine (ZnPz) to promote the wet-chemical exfoliation of graphite based on the synergetic use of ultrasonication, centrifugation, and doping. ZnPzPy features, on one hand, a hydrophobic pyrene to anchor onto the basal plane of graphene, and, on the other hand, an amphoteric porphyrazine to either p- or n-dope graphene. To this end, we have characterized individual building blocks, that is, ZnPzPy and exfoliated graphite, and the resulting electron donor-acceptor nanohybrid, that is, ZnPzPy/graphene (ZnPzPy-G), by means of an arsenal of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques...
August 3, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764713/non-iterative-geometric-approach-for-inverse-kinematics-of-redundant-lead-module-in-a-radiosurgical-snake-like-robot
#14
Olatunji Mumini Omisore, Shipeng Han, Lingxue Ren, Nannan Zhang, Kamen Ivanov, Ahmed Elazab, Lei Wang
BACKGROUND: Snake-like robot is an emerging form of serial-link manipulator with the morphologic design of biological snakes. The redundant robot can be used to assist medical experts in accessing internal organs with minimal or no invasion. Several snake-like robotic designs have been proposed for minimal invasive surgery, however, the few that were developed are yet to be fully explored for clinical procedures. This is due to lack of capability for full-fledged spatial navigation. In rare cases where such snake-like designs are spatially flexible, there exists no inverse kinematics (IK) solution with both precise control and fast response...
August 1, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736461/behavioral-plasticity-in-response-to-perceived-predation-risk-in-breeding-house-wrens
#15
Erin E Dorset, Scott K Sakaluk, Charles F Thompson
Predation is a significant cause of nest failure in passerine birds, and, thus, natural selection is expected to favor behavioral plasticity to allow birds to respond to perceived changes in predation risk. However, behavioral plasticity in response to perceived predation risk, and its potential fitness-related costs, are understudied. In a wild population of breeding house wrens (Troglodytes aedon), we tested the hypotheses that (1) birds show behavioral plasticity in response to perceived nest-predation risk to reduce self-risk or risk to offspring, but (2) this plasticity incurs fitness-related costs...
June 2017: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723099/fledging-critical-zone-science-for-environmental-sustainability
#16
Yihe Lü, Ting Li, Kun Zhang, Bojie Fu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714819/an-institutional-repository-experience-at-a-large-health-care-system
#17
Brenda Fay, Jennifer Deal, Vicki Budzisz
Institutional repositories (IRs) collect, preserve, and disseminate the scholarly output of an organization. Though common in academic settings, they are less so in hospitals or health care systems. The librarians for Aurora Health Care decided to create a primarily citation-level IR to organize and promote the scholarly output of Aurora faculty, residents, and fellows using the proprietary software Digital Commons, a product of the company bepress. The repository also hosts a newly published peer-reviewed journal and includes digitized historical images and institutional memorabilia...
July 2017: Medical Reference Services Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690792/the-most-common-diet-results-in-low-reproduction-in-a-generalist-seabird
#18
Susanne van Donk, Kees C J Camphuysen, Judy Shamoun-Baranes, Jaap van der Meer
Dietary specialization has been described across a wide range of taxa in the animal kingdom. Fitness consequences are, however, not well documented. We examined the reproductive consequences of different dietary specializations in the herring gull Larus argentatus, an omnivorous seabird, using an extensive dataset which includes breeding and dietary data of 10 successive years. We hypothesized that pairs that focused on prey of higher energetic value would yield higher fledging rates. An alternative hypothesis is that pairs that relied on more resources simultaneously would reproduce better...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671216/cellulose-nanocrystals-by-acid-vapour-towards-more-effortless-isolation-of-cellulose-nanocrystals
#19
Marcel Lorenz, Stefan Sattler, Mehedi Reza, Alexander Bismarck, Eero Kontturi
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are topical in materials science but their full potential is yet to be fulfilled because of bottlenecks in the production: the process consumes huge amounts of water, recycling the strong acid catalyst is difficult, and purification steps are cumbersome, particularly with lengthy dialysis. Production of CNCs with HCl vapour overcomes many of these difficulties but the dispersion of CNCs from the already hydrolysed fibre matrix is a formidable challenge. This study is a fundamental effort to explore very basic means to facilitate CNC dispersion from cotton linter fibres (filter paper), hydrolysed to levelling off degree of polymerization by HCl vapour...
September 21, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668317/assessment-and-management-of-cervico-mediastinal-goiter
#20
E Brenet, X Dubernard, J C Mérol, M A Louges, M Labrousse, M Makeieff
Cervico-mediastinal goiter is a particular entity from the point of view of thyroid surgery. Its volume, hardness and intrathoracic extension require the surgeon to adapt technique and perform a painstaking preoperative work-up, so as to draw up fully-fledged plan. CT is now indispensable, to anticipate risks and determine whether sternotomy is needed. Surgery seems to induce more postoperative complications than in conventional surgery, although they can be reduced by retrograde dissection of the inferior laryngeal nerve and downward dissection of the posterior side of the lobe to optimize control of adjacent structures...
June 28, 2017: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
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