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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164156/disseminated-mycobacterium-avium-intracellulare-complex-infection-presenting-with-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-in-an-aids-patient
#1
Folusakin Ayoade, James Cotelingam, Andrew Stevenson Joel Chandranesan
Disseminated Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) infection is one of the relatively common opportunistic infections seen in severely immunocompromised AIDS patients. A constellation of clinical, laboratory, and pathological features involving multiple organ systems are often present in disseminated MAC infection but disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) has not been previously described in association with this condition. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of DIC complicating disseminated MAC infection in an AIDS patient...
October 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134087/do-glucocorticoids-predict-fitness-linking-environmental-conditions-corticosterone-and-reproductive-success-in-the-blue-tit-cyanistes-caeruleus
#2
L J Henderson, N P Evans, B J Heidinger, K A Herborn, K E Arnold
Glucocorticoids, including corticosterone (CORT), have been suggested to provide a physiological link between ecological conditions and fitness. Specifically, CORT, which is elevated in response to harsh conditions, is predicted to be correlated with reduced fitness. Yet, empirical studies show that CORT can be non-significantly, positively and negatively linked with fitness. Divergent environmental conditions between years or study systems may influence whether CORT is linked to fitness. To test this, we monitored free-living blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) during breeding over 3 years...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127934/experimental-manipulation-of-dietary-arsenic-levels-in-great-tit-nestlings-accumulation-pattern-and-effects-on-growth-survival-and-plasma-biochemistry
#3
Pablo Sánchez-Virosta, Silvia Espín, Sandra Ruiz, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Antonio J García-Fernández, Tapio Eeva
Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous metalloid classified as one of the most hazardous substances, but information about its exposure and effects in free-living passerines is lacking. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of an As manipulation experiment on survival, growth and physiology of great tits (Parus major). Wild P. major nestlings inhabiting an unpolluted area were dosed with water, 0.2 or 1 μg g(-1) d(-1) of sodium arsenite (Control, Low and High As groups), whereas those living in a metal-polluted area were dosed with water (Smelter group)...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102182/the-spatial-and-temporal-variation-of-total-suspended-solid-concentration-in-pearl-river-estuary-during-1987-2015-based-on-remote-sensing
#4
Chongyang Wang, Weijiao Li, Shuisen Chen, Dan Li, Danni Wang, Jia Liu
The movement and migration of total suspended solid (TSS) are the essential component of global material cycling and change. Based on the TSS concentrations retrieved from 112 scenes of Landsat remote sensing imageries during 1987-2015, the spatial and temporal variations of TSS concentration in high flow season and low flow seasons of six sub-regions (west shoal, west channel, middle shoal, east channel, east shoal and Pearl River Estuary Chinese White Dolphin National Nature Reserve and its adjacent waters (NNR)) of Pearl River Estuary (PRE) were analyzed and compared by statistical simulation...
October 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092255/tunable-high-harmonic-pulses-from-nanorings-swirled-by-optical-vortices
#5
J Wätzel, J Berakdar
Irradiating intercalated nanorings by optical vortices ignites a charge flow that emits coherent trains of high harmonic bursts with frequencies and time structures that are controllable by the topological charge of the driving vortex beam. Similar to synchrotron radiation, the polarization of emitted harmonics is also selectable by tuning to the appropriate emission angle with respect to the ring plane. The nonequilibrium orbital magnetic moment triggered in a ring tunnels quantum mechanically to smaller and larger rings leading respectively to high and low-frequency harmonic generation...
October 30, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078397/silent-memory-engrams-as-the-basis-for-retrograde-amnesia
#6
Dheeraj S Roy, Shruti Muralidhar, Lillian M Smith, Susumu Tonegawa
Recent studies identified neuronal ensembles and circuits that hold specific memory information (memory engrams). Memory engrams are retained under protein synthesis inhibition-induced retrograde amnesia. These engram cells can be activated by optogenetic stimulation for full-fledged recall, but not by stimulation using natural recall cues (thus, amnesia). We call this state of engrams "silent engrams" and the cells bearing them "silent engram cells." The retention of memory information under amnesia suggests that the time-limited protein synthesis following learning is dispensable for memory storage, but may be necessary for effective memory retrieval processes...
October 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074327/thyrotropic-activity-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-an-altricial-bird-species-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#7
Yugo Watanabe, Sylvia V H Grommen, Bert De Groef
In chicken, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) acts as a thyrotropin (TSH)-releasing factor, mediated by the type 2 CRH receptor (CRHR2) on the thyrotropes of the pituitary gland. It is not known whether CRH also controls TSH release in non-precocial avian species that have a different pattern of thyroidal activity during their life cycle. Therefore, we investigated the TSH-releasing capacity of CRH in an altricial species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Cellular localisation of type 1 CRH receptor (CRHR1) and CRHR2 mRNA in the pituitary was determined by in situ hybridisation, combined with immunohistochemical staining of pituitary thyrotropes...
October 23, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066750/ontogeny-of-foraging-behaviour-in-juvenile-red-footed-boobies-sula-sula
#8
Loriane Mendez, Aurélien Prudor, Henri Weimerskirch
The early life stages represent a crucial period that can strongly influence population dynamics. We studied the development of foraging behaviour in the red-footed booby, a tropical seabird with an extensive post-fledging care period (3 to 6 months). Adults and juveniles were observed from shore and tracked at sea using GPS loggers over 3 consecutive 12-day periods. Juveniles initially made a majority of flights inland, likely to practice flying, and formed groups of up to 10 juveniles before making short trips at sea...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044747/evidence-for-a-17-pi-electronic-full-fledged-non-innocent-ga-iii-corrole-radical
#9
Biju Basumatary, Jyoti Rai, R V Ramana Reddy, Jeyaraman Sankar
One-electron oxidation of a Ga(III)-corrole with N(4-BrC6H4)3SbCl6 resulted in an air-stable non-innocent Ga(III)-corrole radical. Single crystal X-ray crystallography of 1,18-bisformyl[(TPFC)Ga(III)-Cl]* revealed delocalization of the unpaired electron, which was further confirmed by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and spin density distribution plot. In addition, the nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS), anisotropy induced-current density (AICD) and harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA) supported a [17] pi-electron conjugated (or antiaromatic) radical...
October 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028170/mediating-reductive-charge-shift-reactions-in-electron-transport-chains
#10
Maximilian Wolf, Carmen Villegas, Olga Trukhina, Juan Luis Delgado, Tomás Torres, Nazario Martín, Timothy Clark, Dirk M Guldi
We report the synthesis of a full-fledged family of covalent electron donor-acceptor1-acceptor2 conjugates and their charge-transfer characterization by means of advanced photophysical assays. By virtue of variable excited state energies and electron donor strengths, either Zn(II)Porphyrins or Zn(II)Phthalocyanines were linked to different electron-transport chains featuring pairs of electron accepting fullerenes, that is, C60 and C70. In this way, a fine-tuned redox gradient is established to power a unidirectional, long-range charge transport from the excited-state electron donor via a transient C60(•-) toward C70(•-)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022240/mercury-alters-initiation-and-construction-of-nests-by-zebra-finches-but-not-incubation-or-provisioning-behaviors
#11
Stephanie Y Chin, William A Hopkins, Daniel A Cristol
Mercury is an environmental contaminant that impairs avian reproduction, but the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying this effect are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifetime dietary exposure to mercury (1.2 µg/g wet weight in food) impacted avian parental behaviors, and how this might influence reproductive success. To distinguish between the direct effects of mercury on parents and offspring, we created four treatment groups of captive-bred zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), with control and mercury-exposed adults raising cross-fostered control or mercury-exposed eggs (from maternal transfer)...
November 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992335/how-to-set-the-stage-for-a-full-fledged-clinical-trial-testing-incremental-haemodialysis
#12
Francesco Gaetano Casino, Carlo Basile
Most people who make the transition to maintenance haemodialysis (HD) therapy are treated with a fixed dose of thrice-weekly HD (3HD/week) regimen without consideration of their residual kidney function (RKF). The RKF provides an effective and naturally continuous clearance of both small and middle molecules, plays a major role in metabolic homeostasis, nutritional status and cardiovascular health, and aids in fluid management. The RKF is associated with better patient survival and greater health-related quality of life...
July 21, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990473/chick-development-and-asynchroneous-hatching-in-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata-castanotis
#13
Maki Ikebuchi, Kazuo Okanoya, Toshikazu Hasegawa, Hans-Joachim Bischof
The mode of hatching in birds has important impacts on both parents and chicks, including the costs and risks of breeding for parents, and sibling competition in a clutch. Birds with multiple eggs in a single clutch often begin incubating when most eggs are laid, thereby reducing time of incubation, nursing burden, and sibling competition. In some songbirds and some other species, however, incubation starts immediately after the first egg is laid, and the chicks thus hatch asynchronously. This may result in differences in parental care and in sibling competition based on body size differences among older and younger chicks, which in turn might produce asynchronous development among siblings favoring the first hatchling, and further affect the development and fitness of the chicks after fledging...
October 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979786/balancing-personal-maintenance-with-parental-investment-in-a-chick-rearing-seabird-physiological-indicators-change-with-foraging-conditions
#14
Anne E Storey, Morag G Ryan, Michelle G Fitzsimmons, Amy-Lee Kouwenberg, Linda S Takahashi, Gregory J Robertson, Sabina I Wilhelm, Donald W McKay, Gene R Herzberg, Frances K Mowbray, Luke MacMillan, Carolyn J Walsh
Seabird parents use a conservative breeding strategy that favours long-term survival over intensive parental investment, particularly under harsh conditions. Here, we examine whether variation in several physiological indicators reflects the balance between parental investment and survival in common murres (Uria aalge) under a wide range of foraging conditions. Blood samples were taken from adults during mid-chick rearing from 2007 to 2014 and analysed for corticosterone (CORT, stress hormone), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BUTY, lipid metabolism reflecting ongoing mass loss), and haematocrit (reflecting blood oxygen capacity)...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956342/genetic-understanding-of-stroke-treatment-potential-role-for-phosphodiesterase-inhibitors
#15
Anjana Munshi, Satrupa Das
Phosphodiesterase (PDE) gene family is a large family having at least 21 genes and multiple versions (isoforms) of the phosphodiesterase enzymes. These enzymes catalyze the inactivation of intracellular mediators of signal transduction such as cAMP and cGMP and therefore, play a pivotal role in various cellular functions. PDE inhibitors (PDEI) are drugs that block one or more of the five subtypes of the PDE family and thereby prevent inactivation of the intracellular cAMP and cGMP by the respective PDE-subtypes...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939562/disentangling-drivers-of-reproductive-performance-in-urban-great-tits-a-food-supplementation-experiment
#16
Virginie Demeyrier, Anne Charmantier, Marcel M Lambrechts, Arnaud Grégoire
Worldwide urban expansion induces degradation of the natural environment, resulting in new constraints in terms of breeding sites, anthropogenic disturbances as well as food resources. The alteration of resource abundance and type may induce non-adaptive investments in reproduction from urban dwellers. Food availability and quality have been identified as potential drivers of the decline in passerine body mass and fledging success in urbanized landscapes, particularly if birds misinterpret cues of food abundance used to adjust their reproductive investment...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937818/divorce-in-an-island-bird-population-causes-consequences-and-lack-of-inheritance
#17
Nathaniel T Wheelwright, Céline Teplitsky
Divorce (mate switching) is widely considered an adaptive strategy that female birds use to improve their reproductive success. However, in few species are the causes and consequences of divorce well understood, and the genetic basis and inheritance of divorce have never been explored. In Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) breeding on Kent Island, New Brunswick, Canada, 47.0% of pairs in which both partners survived to the following breeding season ended in divorce. Secondary females, which received less parental assistance than primary females, tended to divorce when breeding success was low or when paired with small males...
October 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916680/variation-in-developmental-trajectories-of-physiological-and-somatic-traits-in-a-common-songbird-approaching-fledging
#18
Allison Cornell, Tony D Williams
In avian species, little is known about the development of physiological traits in the days preceding fledging, a critical life history transition marked by a high mortality rate. Developmental trajectory during this period may be flexible based on ecological context or hardwired, with potential costs for variation in growth in the form of oxidative stress. Patterns in development are likely to relate to variation in life history, for which seabirds and aerial insectivores have been well studied, while our focal species is a grassland ground forager, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910405/linking-extreme-interannual-changes-in-prey-availability-to-foraging-behaviour-and-breeding-investment-in-a-marine-predator-the-macaroni-penguin
#19
Cat Horswill, Philip N Trathan, Norman Ratcliffe
Understanding the mechanisms that link prey availability to predator behaviour and population change is central to projecting how a species may respond to future environmental pressures. We documented the behavioural responses and breeding investment of macaroni penguins Eudyptes chrysolophus across five breeding seasons where local prey density changed by five-fold; from very low to highly abundant. When prey availability was low, foraging trips were significantly longer and extended overnight. Birds also foraged farther from the colony, potentially in order to reach more distant foraging grounds and allow for increased search times...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904758/early-life-foraging-behavioral-responses-of-newly-fledged-albatrosses-to-environmental-conditions
#20
Sophie de Grissac, Frederic Bartumeus, Sam L Cox, Henri Weimerskirch
In order to survive and later recruit into a population, juvenile animals need to acquire resources through the use of innate and/or learnt behaviors in an environment new to them. For far-ranging marine species, such as the wandering albatross Diomedea exulans, this is particularly challenging as individuals need to be able to rapidly adapt and optimize their movement strategies in response to the highly dynamic and heterogeneous nature of their open-ocean pelagic habitats. Critical to this is the development and flexibility of dispersal and exploratory behaviors...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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