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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331976/nosy-neighbours-large-broods-attract-more-visitors-a-field-experiment-in-the-pied-flycatcher-ficedula-hypoleuca
#1
Wiebke Schuett, Pauliina E Järvistö, Sara Calhim, William Velmala, Toni Laaksonen
Life is uncertain. To reduce uncertainty and make adaptive decisions, individuals need to collect information. Individuals often visit the breeding sites of their conspecifics (i.e., "prospect"), likely to assess conspecifics' reproductive success and to use such information to identify high-quality spots for future breeding. We investigated whether visitation rate by prospectors and success of visited sites are causally linked. We manipulated the reproductive success (enlarged, reduced, and control broods) in a nest-box population of migratory pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca, in Finland...
March 22, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327242/the-out-of-my-league-effect
#2
Fabrice Le Lec, Theodore Alexopoulos, Béatrice Boulu-Reshef, Marie-Pierre Fayant, Franck Zenasni, Todd Lubart, Nicolas Jacquemet
When taking into account the chances of success, strategic mating motivations do imply a bias not toward the most attractive individuals, but toward average or mildly attractive individuals, undermining the explanation of Maestripieri et al. at a fundamental level. This leaves open the possibility of alternative explanations and calls for a full-fledged explicit model of courtship behavior.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265492/evidence-for-high-inter-generational-individual-quality-in-yellow-eyed-penguins
#3
Aviva M Stein, Melanie J Young, John T Darby, Philip J Seddon, Yolanda van Heezik
Longitudinal studies focusing on lifetime reproductive success (LRS) have been used to measure individual breeding performance and identify commonalities among successful breeders. By extending the focus to subsequent generations we identify a proportion of high-quality individuals that contribute disproportionately to the population over multiple generations. We used 23 years of yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) breeding data from one breeding area to identify the proportion of individual birds that raised successful breeders, which in turn raised offspring...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261449/happy-to-breed-in-the-city-urban-food-resources-limit-reproductive-output-in-western-jackdaws
#4
Eva Meyrier, Lukas Jenni, Yves Bötsch, Stephan Strebel, Bruno Erne, Zulima Tablado
Urban areas expand worldwide, transforming landscapes and creating new challenging habitats. Some bird species, mainly omnivorous feeding on human waste and cavity nesters, commonly breed in these habitats and are, therefore, regarded as urban-adapted. Although urban areas may provide new nesting sites and abundant human waste, the low breeding success found in some of these species suggests that the poor protein content in human waste might limit breeding parameters. We investigated whether the breeding success of a cavity nester and omnivorous species commonly breeding in urban areas, the Western Jackdaw (Corvus monedula), depended on the availability of good-quality non-urban food...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242327/cracking-the-barcode-of-fullerene-like-cortical-microcolumns
#5
Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Ottorino Ori
Artificial neural systems and nervous graph theoretical analysis rely upon the stance that the neural code is embodied in logic circuits, e.g., spatio-temporal sequences of ON/OFF spiking neurons. Nevertheless, this assumption does not fully explain complex brain functions. Here we show how nervous activity, other than logic circuits, could instead depend on topological transformations and symmetry constraints occurring at the micro-level of the cortical microcolumn, i.e., the embryological, anatomical and functional basic unit of the brain...
February 24, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202814/early-mortality-saves-energy-estimating-the-energetic-cost-of-excess-offspring-in-a-seabird
#6
Oscar Vedder, He Zhang, Sandra Bouwhuis
Offspring are often produced in excess as insurance against stochastic events or unpredictable resources. This strategy may result in high early-life mortality, yet age-specific mortality before offspring independence and its associated costs have rarely been quantified. In this study, we modelled age-specific survival from hatching to fledging using 24 years of data on hatching order (HO), growth and age of mortality of more than 15 000 common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks. We found that mortality peaked directly after hatching, after which it declined rapidly...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191934/electronic-structure-of-corrole-derivatives-insights-from-molecular-structures-spectroscopy-electrochemistry-and-quantum-chemical-calculations
#7
Abhik Ghosh
Presented herein is a comprehensive account of the electronic structure of corrole derivatives. Our knowledge in this area derives from a broad range of methods, including UV-vis-NIR absorption and MCD spectroscopies, single-crystal X-ray structure determination, vibrational spectroscopy, NMR and EPR spectroscopies, electrochemistry, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and quantum chemical calculations, the latter including both density functional theory and ab initio multiconfigurational methods. The review is organized according to the Periodic Table, describing free-base and main-group element corrole derivatives, then transition-metal corroles, and finally f-block element corroles...
February 13, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186493/telomeres-shorten-and-then-lengthen-before-fledging-in-magellanic-penguins-spheniscus-magellanicus
#8
Jack A Cerchiara, Rosa Ana Risques, Donna Prunkard, Jeffrey R Smith, Olivia J Kane, P Dee Boersma
For all species, finite metabolic resources must be allocated toward three competing systems: maintenance, reproduction, and growth. Telomeres, the nucleoprotein tips of chromosomes, which shorten with age in most species, are correlated with increased survival. Chick growth is energetically costly and is associated with telomere shortening in most species. To assess the change in telomeres in penguin chicks, we quantified change in telomere length of wild known-age Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) chicks every 15 days during the species' growth period, from hatching to 60 days-of-age...
February 8, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156488/new-primary-palliative-care-pc-model-for-community-cancer-clinics-ccc
#9
Deborah Gray, Stephanie Struve, Carol Huibregtse, Qiaofang Chen
159 Background: Our CCC serving a mixed rural/urban population is part of a large integrated healthcare system in Eastern WI. The closest PC specialist/team is 45 miles away at one of the tertiary care facilities. To fill this service gap we implemented a primary PC model. An initial outpatient palliative care family conference (OFC) and use of cancer nurse navigators (CNN)are hallmarks of this program. METHODS: The VLCC, housed in a standalone facility is staffed by two medical oncologists and one radiation oncologist and has an infusion center and a full-fledged radiation oncology unit with support staff, including cancer nurse navigators, research nurses, social workers, a clinical psychologist, a pharmacist, a nutritionist, a therapy dog and a chaplain...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104276/optogenetic-toolkit-for-precise-control-of-calcium-signaling
#10
REVIEW
Guolin Ma, Shufan Wen, Lian He, Yun Huang, Youjun Wang, Yubin Zhou
Calcium acts as a second messenger to regulate a myriad of cell functions, ranging from short-term muscle contraction and cell motility to long-term changes in gene expression and metabolism. To study the impact of Ca(2+)-modulated 'ON' and 'OFF' reactions in mammalian cells, pharmacological tools and 'caged' compounds are commonly used under various experimental conditions. The use of these reagents for precise control of Ca(2+) signals, nonetheless, is impeded by lack of reversibility and specificity. The recently developed optogenetic tools, particularly those built upon engineered Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels, provide exciting opportunities to remotely and non-invasively modulate Ca(2+) signaling due to their superior spatiotemporal resolution and rapid reversibility...
January 16, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079674/borderline-intellectual-functioning-an-update
#11
Stephen Greenspan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a descriptive v-code that is often used, especially in forensic settings, as if it were a full-fledged disorder. Various historical and other aspects of this classification are reviewed, and commentary is made on the question of whether to upgrade BIF to a regular psychiatric category, or to eliminate it by folding it into an already recently expanded category of intellectual developmental disorder (IDD). RECENT FINDINGS: Full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) is an outmoded concept that is decreasingly being used...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078389/responses-of-a-federally-endangered-songbird-to-understory-thinning-in-oak-juniper-woodlands
#12
Ashley M Long, Mike E Marshall, Michael L Morrison, K Brian Hays, Shannon L Farrell
Wildlife conservation and management on military lands must be accomplished in the context of military readiness, which often includes ground-based training that is perceived to conflict with wildlife needs and environmental regulations. From 2008‒2012, we examined territory density, pairing success, and fledging success of the federally endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter warbler) in relation to removal of small-diameter trees from the understory of mature oak-juniper (Quercus-Juniperus) woodland at the 87,890 ha Fort Hood Military Reservation in central Texas...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078378/post-procedural-care-in-interventional-radiology-what-every-interventional-radiologist-should-know-part-i-standard-post-procedural-instructions-and-follow-up-care
#13
Bedros Taslakian, Divya Sridhar
Interventional radiology (IR) has evolved into a full-fledged clinical specialty with attendant patient care responsibilities. Success in IR now requires development of a full clinical practice, including consultations, inpatient admitting privileges, and an outpatient clinic. In addition to technical excellence and innovation, maintaining a comprehensive practice is imperative for interventional radiologists to compete successfully for patients and referral bases. A structured approach to periprocedural care, including routine follow-up and early identification and management of complications, facilitates efficient and thorough management with an emphasis on quality and patient safety...
January 11, 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070279/legacy-or-colonization-posteruption-establishment-of-peregrine-falcons-falco-peregrinus-on-a-volcanically-active-subarctic-island
#14
Sarah A Sonsthagen, Jeffrey C Williams, Gary S Drew, Clayton M White, George K Sage, Sandra L Talbot
How populations and communities reassemble following disturbances are affected by a number of factors, with the arrival order of founding populations often having a profound influence on later populations and community structure. Kasatochi Island is a small volcano located in the central Aleutian archipelago that erupted violently August 8, 2008, sterilizing the island of avian biodiversity. Prior to the eruption, Kasatochi was the center of abundance for breeding seabirds in the central Aleutian Islands and supported several breeding pairs of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus)...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070217/health-systems-context-s-for-integrating-mental-health-into-primary-health-care-in-six-emerald-countries-a-situation-analysis
#15
REVIEW
James Mugisha, Jibril Abdulmalik, Charlotte Hanlon, Inge Petersen, Crick Lund, Nawaraj Upadhaya, Shalini Ahuja, Rahul Shidhaye, Ntokozo Mntambo, Atalay Alem, Oye Gureje, Fred Kigozi
BACKGROUND: Mental, neurological and substance use disorders contribute to a significant proportion of the world's disease burden, including in low and middle income countries (LMICs). In this study, we focused on the health systems required to support integration of mental health into primary health care (PHC) in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda. METHODS: A checklist guided by the World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) was developed and was used for data collection in each of the six countries participating in the Emerging mental health systems in low and middle-income countries (Emerald) research consortium...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065710/ecoimmunology-and-microbial-ecology-contributions-to-avian-behavior-physiology-and-life-history
#16
REVIEW
Jessica K Evans, Katherine L Buchanan, Simon C Griffith, Kirk C Klasing, BriAnne Addison
Bacteria have had a fundamental impact on vertebrate evolution not only by affecting the evolution of the immune system, but also generating complex interactions with behavior and physiology. Advances in molecular techniques have started to reveal the intricate ways in which bacteria and vertebrates have coevolved. Here, we focus on birds as an example system for understanding the fundamental impact bacteria have had on the evolution of avian immune defenses, behavior, physiology, reproduction and life histories...
February 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060907/sex-differences-in-brain-thyroid-hormone-levels-during-early-post-hatching-development-in-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#17
Shinji Yamaguchi, Shin Hayase, Naoya Aoki, Akihiko Takehara, Jun Ishigohoka, Toshiya Matsushima, Kazuhiro Wada, Koichi J Homma
Thyroid hormones are closely linked to the hatching process in precocial birds. Previously, we showed that thyroid hormones in brain had a strong impact on filial imprinting, an early learning behavior in newly hatched chicks; brain 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) peaks around hatching and imprinting training induces additional T3 release, thus, extending the sensitive period for imprinting and enabling subsequent other learning. On the other hand, blood thyroid hormone levels have been reported to increase gradually after hatching in altricial species, but it remains unknown how the brain thyroid hormone levels change during post-hatching development of altricial birds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051939/ecologically-relevant-cooling-early-in-life-alters-prefledging-adrenocortical-response-in-free-living-songbirds
#18
Sharon E Lynn, Michael D Kern
In vertebrates, exposure to stressful stimuli early in development may alter the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, with the potential for fitness consequences later in life. For altricial species, whose young rely on their parents for food, warmth, and protection from predators, adult behavior can modify the impact of some stressors on their offspring after birth or hatching. We have shown that single bouts of cooling that normally occur when brooding females leave the nest elevate corticosterone secretion in very young free-living eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) chicks...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031809/interpopulation-resource-partitioning-of-lesser-frigatebirds-and-the-influence-of-environmental-context
#19
Rowan Mott, Ashley Herrod, Rohan H Clarke
Conspecific individuals inhabiting nearby breeding colonies are expected to compete strongly for food resources owing to the constraints imposed by shared morphology, physiology, and behavior on foraging strategy. Consequently, colony-specific foraging patterns that effectively partition the available resources may be displayed. This study aimed to determine whether intraspecific resource partitioning occurs in two nearby colonies of Lesser Frigatebirds (Fregata ariel). A combination of stable isotope analysis and GPS tracking was used to assess dietary and spatial partitioning of foraging resources during the 2013 and 2014 breeding seasons...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997304/supporting-the-supporters-what-family-caregivers-need-to-care-for-a-loved-one-with-cancer
#20
Leonard L Berry, Shraddha Mahesh Dalwadi, Joseph O Jacobson
Patients with cancer who live at home often require help with activities of daily living, basic medical care (eg, injections), social needs, and patient advocacy. Most of that support comes from intimate caregivers, typically members of the patient's family. These family caregivers themselves require support so that they can be effective and maintain their own well-being while caring for the patient with cancer. Research shows that support for caregivers contributes to achieving these goals. We propose a four-part framework for supporting family caregivers: (1) assess caregivers' needs using formal measures, just as the cancer patient's own needs are assessed, (2) educate caregivers for their caregiving roles, most notably, with training in the low-level medical support that cancer patients require at home, (3) empower caregivers to become full-fledged members of the patient's cancer team, all working toward common goals, and (4) assist caregivers proactively in their duties, so that they retain a sense of control and self-efficacy rather than having to react to imminent medical crises without sufficient resources at their disposal...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
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