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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150191/-big-data-generalities-and-integration-in-radiotherapy
#1
C Le Fèvre, L Poty, G Noël
The many advances in data collection computing systems (data collection, database, storage), diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities are responsible for an increase and a diversification of available data. Big data offers the capacities, in the field of health, to accelerate the discoveries and to optimize the management of patients by combining a large volume of data and the creation of therapeutic models. In radiotherapy, the development of big data is attractive because data are very numerous et heterogeneous (demographics, radiomics, genomics, radiogenomics, etc...
November 14, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150002/gene-editing-and-crispr-therapeutics-strategies-taught-by-cell-and-gene-therapy
#2
Juan C Ramirez
A few years ago, we assisted in the demonstration for the first time of the revolutionary idea of a type of adaptive-immune system in the bacteria kingdom. This system, named CRISPR, and variants engineered in the lab, have been demonstrated as functional with extremely high frequency and fidelity in almost all eukaryotic cells studied to date. The capabilities of this RNA-guided nuclease have added to the interest that was announced with the advent of previous technologies for genome editing tools, such as ZFN and TALEN...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149839/vitamin-d-parathyroid-hormone-and-metabolic-syndrome-the-pormets-study
#3
Luís Raposo, Sandra Martins, Daniela Ferreira, João Tiago Guimarães, Ana Cristina Santos
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D (VitD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) play important roles in calcium metabolism and skeletal homeostasis. Estimates of the VitD status in several European countries show large variations between them. In addition, no national population-based estimate has been published. VitD and PTH may also play important roles in cardiovascular risk, which has been suggested to be associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and is very prevalent in Portugal. The goal of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and its determinants as well as PTH serum level determinants and associations of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH serum levels with MetS and its individual components in a sample of the Portuguese mainland population...
November 17, 2017: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149267/taiwan-biobank-making-cross-database-convergence-possible-in-the-big-data-era
#4
Jui-Chu Lin, Chien-Te Fan, Chia-Cheng Liao, Yao-Sheng Chen
The Taiwan Biobank (TWB) is a biomedical research database of biopsy data from 200,000 participants. Access to this database has been granted to research communities taking part in the development of precision medicines; however, this has raised issues surrounding TWB's access to electronic medical records (EMR). The Personal Data Protection Act of Taiwan restricts access to EMR for purposes not covered by patients' original consent. This commentary explores possible legal solutions to help ensure that the access TWB has to EMR abides with legal obligations, and with governance frameworks associated with ethical, legal and social implications...
November 15, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149222/personalized-medicine-and-hispanic-health-improving-health-outcomes-and-reducing-health-disparities-a-national-heart-lung-and-blood-institute-workshop-report
#5
M Larissa Avilés-Santa, John Heintzman, Nangel M Lindberg, Rafael Guerrero-Preston, Kenneth Ramos, Ana L Abraído-Lanza, Jonca Bull, Adolph Falcón, Mary Ann McBurnie, Ernest Moy, George Papanicolaou, Ileana L Piña, Jennifer Popovic, Shakira F Suglia, Miguel A Vázquez
Persons of Hispanic/Latino descent may represent different ancestries, ethnic and cultural groups and countries of birth. In the U.S., the Hispanic/Latino population is projected to constitute 29% of the population by 2060. A personalized approach focusing on individual variability in genetics, environment, lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants of health may advance the understanding of some of the major factors contributing to the health disparities experienced by Hispanics/Latinos and other groups in the U...
2017: BMC Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149123/precision-medicine-accelerating-the-science-to-revolutionize-cancer-care%C3%A2
#6
Jeannine M Brant, Deborah K Mayer
BACKGROUND: Precision medicine in cancer care uses specific information about a person's tumor to help diagnose, plan treatment, prognosticate, and surveil throughout the cancer trajectory. Applications exist for cancer prevention, early detection, cancer treatment, and supportive care. Several national initiatives (e.g., National Cancer Moonshot Initiative) support these efforts to accelerate this science forward.
. OBJECTIVES: This article presents an overview of the way in which precision medicine is revolutionizing cancer care...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145285/degeneration-of-paramedian-nuclei-in-the-thalamus-induces-holmes-tremor-in-a-case-of-artery-of-percheron-infarction
#7
Tz-Shiang Wei, Chun-Sheng Hsu, Yu-Chun Lee, Shin-Tsu Chang
RATIONALE: Holmes' tremor is an uncommon neurologic disorder following brain insults, and its pathogenesis is undefined. The interruption of the dento-rubro-thalamic tract and secondary deterioration of the nigrostriatal pathway are both required to initiate Holmes' tremor. We used nuclear medicine imaging tools to analyze a patient with concurrent infarction in different zones of each side of the thalamus. Finding whether the paramedian nuclear groups of the thalamus were injured was a decisive element for developing Holmes' tremor...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144791/is-there-a-role-for-programmed-death-ligand-1-testing-and-immunotherapy-in-colorectal-cancer-with-microsatellite-instability-part-i-colorectal-cancer-microsatellite-instability-testing-and-clinical-implications
#8
Esmeralda Celia Marginean, Barbara Melosky
CONTEXT: - Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents the third most-common cancer in developed countries and is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Two recognized pathways contribute to CRC development: a more-common chromosomal instability pathway and, in 15% of cases, a deficient mismatch repair or microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) pathway. The MSI-H CRC can be associated with somatic or germline mutations. Microsatellite status has been recognized as a prognostic and predictive biomarker...
November 16, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144113/-can-we-transfer-the-mechanisms-of-the-generics-market-to-biosimilars
#9
Ch O Jacke, F Wild
Personalized medicines such as biologics and their generic equivalents, biosimilars, are pouring onto the pharmaceutical markets. Data of 16 private health insurance companies were used to describe the market shares of selected biosimilars available in 2014 and 2015. The purpose of this study focuses on the question of whether market access of biosimilars will lead to a price competition of the expense of innovation competition. The results show that prescriptions of biosimilars made up 37% of total prescriptions in 2015 compared to 35% in 2014, and that their share of prescription costs went up from 21% to 23% in the same period...
December 15, 2016: Versicherungsmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143582/personalized-medicine-in-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Gavin Giovannoni
The therapeutic approach in multiple sclerosis (MS) requires a personalized medicine frame beyond the precision medicine concept, which is not currently implementable due to the lack of robust biomarkers and detailed understanding of MS pathogenesis. Personalized medicine demands a patient-focused approach, with disease taxonomy informed by characterization of pathophysiological processes. Important questions concerning MS taxonomy are: when does MS begin? When does the progressive phase begin? Is MS really two or three diseases? Does a therapeutic window truly exist? Newer evidence points to a disease spectrum and a therapeutic lag of several years for benefits to be observed from disease-modifying therapy...
November 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142343/calculating-gamma-camera-uniformity-parameters-beyond-the-vendor-specific-protocol
#11
Anil Kumar Pandey, Param Dev Sharma, Jay Prakash Kumar, Kartik Saroha, Chetan Patel, Chandra Sekhar Bal, Rakesh Kumar
Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop and verify a personal computer-based software tool for calculating uniformity indices of gamma camera. Materials and Methods: The program was developed in MATLAB R2013b under Microsoft Windows operating system. Noise-less digital phantoms with known uniformity parameters were used to verify the accuracy of the program. Two hundred and forty-four Co-57 flood source images were acquired on Symbia T6 and Discovery nuclear medicine/computed tomography 670...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141689/patient-derived-xenograft-in-zebrafish-embryos-a-new-platform-for-translational-research-in-gastric-cancer
#12
Jia-Qi Wu, Jing Zhai, Chong-Yong Li, Ai-Min Tan, Ping Wei, Li-Zong Shen, Ming-Fang He
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is among the most commonly cancer occurred in Asian, especially in China. With its high heterogeneity and few of validated drug targets, GC remains to be one of the most under explored areas of precision medicine. In this study, we aimed to establish an in vivo patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model based on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, allowing for a rapid analysis of the angiogenic and invasive potentials, as well as a fast drug sensitivity testing...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141507/sandwiched-white-adipose-tissue-a-novel-microphysiological-system-of-human-adipose-tissue
#13
Frank H Lau, Kelly Vogel, John P Luckett, Maxwell Hunt, Alicia Meyer, Camille L Rogers, Oren Tessler, Charles L Dupin, Hugo St Hilaire, Kazi N Islam, Trivia Frazier, Jeffrey Gimble, Steven Scahill
White adipose tissue (WAT) is a critical organ in both health and disease. However, physiologically faithful tissue culture models of primary human WAT remain limited, at best. Here we describe a novel WAT culture system in which primary human WAT is sandwiched between tissue-engineered sheets of adipose-derived stromal cells. This construct, called "sandwiched white adipose tissue" (SWAT), can be defined as a Microphysiological System (MPS) since it is a tissue-engineered, multicellular, 3D organ construct produced using human cells...
November 16, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141482/obstetric-practice-guidelines-labor-s-love-lost
#14
Wayne R Cohen, Emanuel A Friedman
Implementation of clinical practice guidelines may moderate health care costs, improve care, reduce medicolegal liability, and provide a uniformity in care allowing meaningful investigation of treatments and outcomes. However, new guidelines are often uncritically embraced by clinicians, risk management organizations, insurance companies, and the courts as the standard of care. Adoption of incompletely vetted recommendations can lead to patient harm. Recent recommendations made by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine for assessment and management of labor provide an example of well-intended guidelines adopted uncritically...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140915/the-actual-versus-idealized-self-exploring-responses-to-feedback-about-implicit-bias-in-health-professionals
#15
Javeed Sukhera, Alexandra Milne, Pim W Teunissen, Lorelei Lingard, Chris Watling
PURPOSE: Implicit bias can adversely affect health disparities. The implicit association test (IAT) is a prompt to stimulate reflection; however, feedback about bias may trigger emotions that reduce the effectiveness of feedback interventions. Exploring how individuals process feedback about implicit bias may inform bias recognition and management curricula. The authors sought to explore how health professionals perceive the influence of the experience of taking the IAT and receiving their results...
November 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140757/new-insights-into-lymphoma-pathogenesis
#16
Kojo S J Elenitoba-Johnson, Megan S Lim
Lymphomas represent clonal proliferations of lymphocytes that are broadly classified based upon their maturity (peripheral or mature versus precursor) and lineage (B cell, T cell, and natural killer cell). Insights into the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in lymphoma impact the classification of lymphoma and have significant implications for the diagnosis and clinical management of patients. Serial scientific and technologic advances over the last 30 years in immunology, cytogenetics, molecular biology, gene expression profiling, mass spectrometry-based proteomics, and, more recently, next-generation sequencing have contributed to greatly enhance our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms in lymphoma...
November 15, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140483/integrative-whole-person-oncology-care-in-the-uk
#17
Catherine Zollman, Axel Walther, Helen E Seers, Rachel C Jolliffe, Marie J Polley
The term "whole-person cancer care"-an approach that addresses the needs of the person as well as treating the disease-is more widely understood in the United Kingdom than its synonym "integrative oncology." The National Health Service (NHS) provides free access to care for all, which makes it harder to prioritize NHS funding of whole-person medicine, where interventions may be multimodal and lacking in cost-effectiveness data. Despite this, around 30% of cancer patients are known to use some form of complementary or alternative medicine (CAM)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140300/novel-strategies-on-personalized-medicine-for-breast-cancer-treatment-an-update
#18
REVIEW
Carmen W H Chan, Bernard M H Law, Winnie K W So, Ka Ming Chow, Mary M Y Waye
Breast cancer is the most common cancer type among women worldwide. With breast cancer patients and survivors being reported to experience a repertoire of symptoms that are detrimental to their quality of life, the development of breast cancer treatment strategies that are effective with minimal side effects is therefore required. Personalized medicine, the treatment process that is tailored to the individual needs of each patient, is recently gaining increasing attention for its prospect in the development of effective cancer treatment regimens...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138271/addressing-the-perfect-storm-biomarkers-in-obesity-and-pathophysiology-of-cardiometabolic-risk
#19
REVIEW
Krasimira Aleksandrova, Dariush Mozaffarian, Tobias Pischon
BACKGROUND: The worldwide rise of obesity has provoked intensified research to better understand its pathophysiology as a means for disease prevention. Several biomarkers that may reflect various pathophysiological pathways that link obesity and cardiometabolic diseases have been identified over the past decades. CONTENT: We summarize research evidence regarding the role of established and novel obesity-related biomarkers, focusing on recent epidemiological evidence for detrimental associations with cardiometabolic diseases including obesity-related cancer...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138197/incidence-of-shoulder-dislocations-in-the-uk-1995-2015-a-population-based-cohort-study
#20
Anjali Shah, Andrew Judge, Antonella Delmestri, Katherine Edwards, Nigel K Arden, Daniel Prieto-Alhambra, Tim A Holt, Rafael A Pinedo-Villanueva, Sally Hopewell, Sarah E Lamb, Amar Rangan, Andrew J Carr, Gary S Collins, Jonathan L Rees
OBJECTIVE: This cohort study evaluates the unknown age-specific and gender-specific incidence of primary shoulder dislocations in the UK. SETTING: UK primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) were used to identify patients aged 16-70 years with a shoulder dislocation during 1995-2015. Coding of primary shoulder dislocations was validated using the CPRD general practitioner questionnaire service. PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of 16 763 patients with shoulder dislocation aged 16-70 years during 1995-2015 were identified...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Open
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