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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918914/transformation-of-jaw-muscle-satellite-cells-to-cardiomyocytes
#1
Randall S Daughters, Susan A Keirstead, Jonathan M W Slack
In the embryo a population of progenitor cells known as the second heart field forms not just parts of the heart but also the jaw muscles of the head. Here we show that it is possible to take skeletal muscle satellite cells from jaw muscles of the adult mouse and to direct their differentiation to become heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes). This is done by exposing the cells to extracellular factors similar to those which heart progenitors would experience during normal embryonic development. By contrast, cardiac differentiation does not occur at all from satellite cells isolated from trunk and limb muscles, which originate from the somites of the embryo...
December 2, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913274/two-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-5-genes-exhibit-different-yet-conserved-functions-in-development-and-growth
#2
Guo-Dong Zheng, Chun-Xue Zhou, Si-Tong Lin, Jie Chen, Xia-Yun Jiang, Shu-Ming Zou
Insulin-like growth factor binding-protein 5 (igfbp5), the most conserved member of the IGFBP family in vertebrates, plays a critical role in controlling cell survival, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, we characterized the expression patterns of igfbp5a and igfbp5b in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), which are retained in many fish species, likely from the teleost-specific whole-genome duplication. Both igfbp5a and igfbp5b encode 268- and 263-aa peptides, respectively, which share a sequence identity of 71%...
November 29, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911385/application-of-impermeable-barriers-combined-with-candidate-factor-soaked-beads-to-study-inductive-signals-in-the-chick
#3
Susan Wilde, Malcolm P Logan
The chick embryo provides a superb vertebrate model that can be used to dissect developmental questions in a direct way. Its accessibility and robustness following surgical intervention are key experimental strengths. Mica plates were the first barriers used to prevent chick limb bud initiation(1). Protocols that use aluminum foil as an impermeable barrier to wing bud or leg bud induction and or initiation are described. We combine this technique with bead placement lateral to the barrier to exogenously supply candidate endogenous factors that have been blocked by the barrier...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908722/unexpected-regulation-of-mirna-abundance-during-adaptation-of-early-somite-mouse-embryos-to-diabetic-pregnancy
#4
J Zhao, T B M Hakvoort, A Jongejan, J M Ruijter, A H C van Kampen, W H Lamers
Maternal diabetes is one of major causes of congenital malformations in offspring, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. MiRNAs play an important role in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. However, no miRNA expression profiling of hyperglycemic offspring are thus far available. Female mice were made diabetic with streptozotocin, treated with slow-release insulin tablets, and mated. MiRNA expression profiling with Next Generation Sequencing on the SOLiD5 platform was performed on 8 control and 5 hyperglycemic embryonic day (ED)8...
November 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906061/laminin-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-11-regulate-fibronectin-levels-in-the-zebrafish-myotendinous-junction
#5
Molly H Jenkins, Sarah S Alrowaished, Michelle F Goody, Bryan D Crawford, Clarissa A Henry
BACKGROUND: Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell adhesion as well as signaling between cells and their microenvironment. Despite the importance of tightly regulated ECM remodeling for normal muscle development and function, mechanisms underlying ECM remodeling in vivo remain elusive. One excellent paradigm in which to study ECM remodeling in vivo is morphogenesis of the myotendinous junction (MTJ) during zebrafish skeletal muscle development. During MTJ development, there are dramatic shifts in the primary components comprising the MTJ matrix...
May 2, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894818/supt20-is-required-for-development-of-the-axial-skeleton
#6
Sunita Warrier, Samer Nuwayhid, Julia A Sabatino, Kelsey F Sugrue, Irene E Zohn
Somitogenesis and subsequent axial skeletal development is regulated by the interaction of pathways that determine the periodicity of somite formation, rostrocaudal somite polarity and segment identity. Here we use a hypomorphic mutant mouse line to demonstrate that Supt20 (Suppressor of Ty20) is required for development of the axial skeleton. Supt20 hypomorphs display fusions of the ribs and vertebrae at lower thoracic levels along with anterior homeotic transformation of L1 to T14. These defects are preceded by reduction of the rostral somite and posterior shifts in Hox gene expression...
November 25, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880803/wdr68-mediates-dorsal-and-ventral-patterning-events-for-craniofacial-development
#7
Estibaliz Alvarado, Mina Yousefelahiyeh, Greg Alvarado, Robin Shang, Taryn Whitman, Andrew Martinez, Yang Yu, Annie Pham, Anish Bhandari, Bingyan Wang, Robert M Nissen
Birth defects are among the leading causes of infant mortality and contribute substantially to illness and long-term disability. Defects in Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling are associated with cleft lip/palate. Many craniofacial syndromes are caused by defects in signaling pathways that pattern the cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs) along the dorsal-ventral axis. For example, auriculocondylar syndrome is caused by impaired Endothelin-1 (Edn1) signaling, and Alagille syndrome is caused by defects in Jagged-Notch signaling...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879100/topika-und-deren-einsatz-in-der-dermatologie
#8
Johannes Wohlrab
Grundkenntnisse zur Zusammensetzung und den regulatorischen Hintergründen von Topika gehören zu den alltäglich benötigten Herausforderungen dermatologisch-ärztlichen Handelns. Ein professioneller und indikationsgerechter Umgang bei der Auswahl, Verordnung und Anwendung topischer Präparate ist somit Voraussetzung für eine verantwortungsvolle fachärztliche Tätigkeit. Dabei bereiten die regulatorische Zuordnung (Arzneimittel, Medizinprodukt, Kosmetikum), die Feststellung der Erstattungsfähigkeit durch die GKV und die unzureichende Kennzeichnung des Vehikelsystems einzelner Präparate nicht selten Probleme...
November 2016: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861498/somite-derived-retinoic-acid-regulates-zebrafish-hematopoietic-stem-cell-formation
#9
Laura M Pillay, Kacey J Mackowetzky, Sonya A Widen, Andrew Jan Waskiewicz
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are multipotent progenitors that generate all vertebrate adult blood lineages. Recent analyses have highlighted the importance of somite-derived signaling factors in regulating HSC specification and emergence from dorsal aorta hemogenic endothelium. However, these factors remain largely uncharacterized. We provide evidence that the vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) functions as an essential regulator of zebrafish HSC formation. Temporal analyses indicate that RA is required for HSC gene expression prior to dorsal aorta formation, at a time when the predominant RA synthesis enzyme, aldh1a2, is strongly expressed within the paraxial mesoderm and somites...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856964/neonatal-satellite-cells-form-small-myotubes-in-vitro
#10
P L Carvajal Monroy, S Grefte, A M Kuijpers-Jagtman, J W Von den Hoff, F A D T G Wagener
Although palatal muscle reconstruction in patients with cleft palate takes place during early childhood, normal speech development is often not achieved. We hypothesized that the intrinsic properties of head satellite cells (SCs) and the young age of these patients contribute to the poor muscle regeneration after surgery. First, we studied the fiber type distribution and the expression of SC markers in ex vivo muscle tissue from head (branchiomeric) and limb (somite-derived) muscles from neonatal (2-wk-old) and young (9-wk-old) rats...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836965/exon-and-contraction-dependent-functions-of-titin-in-sarcomere-assembly
#11
Yu-Huan Shih, Alexey V Dvornikov, Ping Zhu, Xiao Ma, Maeng Jo Kim, Yonghe Ding, Xiaolei Xu
Truncating TTN variants (TTNtvs) are the major cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM); however, allelic heterogeneity, i.e., TTNtvs in different exons, results in variable phenotypes, remains a major hurdle for disease diagnosis and therapy. Here, we generated a panel of ttn mutants in zebrafish. Four single deletion mutants in ttn.2 or ttn.1 resulted in 4 phenotypes, and 3 double ttn.2/ttn.1 mutants exhibited more severe phenotypes in somites. Protein analysis identified ttn(xu071) as a near-null mutant and the other 6 mutants as hypomorphic alleles...
November 11, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834030/does-the-grass-snake-natrix-natrix-squamata-serpentes-natricinae-fit-the-amniotes-specific-model-of-myogenesis
#12
Damian Lewandowski, Magda Dubińska-Magiera, Ewelina Posyniak, Weronika Rupik, Małgorzata Daczewska
In the grass snake (Natrix natrix), the newly developed somites form vesicles that are located on both sides of the neural tube. The walls of the vesicles are composed of tightly connected epithelial cells surrounding the cavity (the somitocoel). Also, in the newly formed somites, the Pax3 protein can be observed in the somite wall cells. Subsequently, the somite splits into three compartments: the sclerotome, dermomyotome (with the dorsomedial [DM] and the ventrolateral [VL] lips) and the myotome. At this stage, the Pax3 protein is detected in both the DM and VL lips of the dermomyotome and in the mononucleated cells of the myotome, whereas the Pax7 protein is observed in the medial part of the dermomyotome and in some of the mononucleated cells of the myotome...
November 10, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832381/assembly-and-maintenance-of-myofibrils-in-striated-muscle
#13
Joseph W Sanger, Jushuo Wang, Yingli Fan, Jennifer White, Lei Mi-Mi, Dipak K Dube, Jean M Sanger, David Pruyne
In this chapter, we present the current knowledge on de novo assembly, growth, and dynamics of striated myofibrils, the functional architectural elements developed in skeletal and cardiac muscle. The data were obtained in studies of myofibrils formed in cultures of mouse skeletal and quail myotubes, in the somites of living zebrafish embryos, and in mouse neonatal and quail embryonic cardiac cells. The comparative view obtained revealed that the assembly of striated myofibrils is a three-step process progressing from premyofibrils to nascent myofibrils to mature myofibrils...
November 11, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828766/prevalence-abundance-and-intensity-of-implanted-spermatophores-in-the-leech-haementeria-officinalis-glossiphoniidae-hirudinida-from-guanajuato-mexico
#14
Ricardo Salas-Montiel, Anna Phillips, Samantha Contreras-Mirà  N, Alejandro Francisco Oceguera-Figueroa
Fertilization through hypodermic implantation of spermatophores has been recorded in at least 4 groups of leeches: Glossiphoniidae, Piscicolidae, Ozobranchidae and Erpobdelliformes. In Piscicola respirans (Piscicolidae), vector tissue responsible for sperm transfer from a specialized region of the body to the ovaries has led to the non-random attachment of spermatophores on the body surface of the recipient leech. It has been suggested that in glossiphoniid leeches, spermatophores are implanted in any part of the body surface of the recipient leech without a clear pattern or preference for region...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822764/hemimetameric-shift-in-spina-bifida-three-case-reports
#15
Huseyin Canaz, Gokhan Canaz, Bekir Yavuz Ucar, Ibrahim Alatas
PURPOSE: Hemivertebrae is the most frequent reason of congenital scoliosis, and hemimetameric shift is a finding, which is characterized by two hemivertebraes located contralateral, with at least one normal vertebra between them. Embryologically, hemivertebrae is caused by delay in somite movements and as a result, a total vertebral shift occurs because of mismatches in the following segments. Hemimetameric shift accompanying spina bifida is described as extremely rare. There are only two case series of hemimetameric shift in literature but no spina bifida patient was reported in these series...
November 7, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821527/left-right-analysis-of-mammary-gland-development-in-retinoid-x-receptor-%C3%AE-mice
#16
Jacqulyne P Robichaux, John W Fuseler, Shrusti S Patel, Steven W Kubalak, Adam Hartstone-Rose, Ann F Ramsdell
Left-right (L-R) differences in mammographic parenchymal patterns are an early predictor of breast cancer risk; however, the basis for this asymmetry is unknown. Here, we use retinoid X receptor alpha heterozygous null (RXRα(+/-)) mice to propose a developmental origin: perturbation of coordinated anterior-posterior (A-P) and L-R axial body patterning. We hypothesized that by analogy to somitogenesis-in which retinoic acid (RA) attenuation causes anterior somite pairs to develop L-R asynchronously-that RA pathway perturbation would likewise result in asymmetric mammary development...
December 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811800/cepolacanthus-kimi-a-new-genus-and-species-of-copepod-cyclopoida-%C3%A2-taeniacanthidae-parasitic-on-bandfish-acanthocepola-abbreviata-valenciennes-1835-actinopterygii-cepolidae-caught-off-the-iraqi-coast
#17
Balu Alagar Venmathi Maran, Seong Yong Moon, Thamir Katea Adday, Danny Tang
A new genus and species, Cepolacanthus kimi, of the family Taeniacanthidae is established based on adult female specimens collected from the gills of Bandfish Acanthocepola abbreviata (Valenciennes, 1835) (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Cepolidae) caught off the coast of Iraq. The new genus is characterised by the following combination of features: 1) the urosome is composed of five somites, with the last urosomite probably being a compound somite formed from the failure of the third and fourth abdominal somites to separate; 2) the seta on the maxillary basis is displaced proximally from the free spinulated element; 3) the terminal claw (endopod) of the maxilliped is long and attenuate; 4) the endopod of legs 2-4 is 2-segmented; and 5) the terminal exopodal segment of leg 4 bears a prominent distolateral protuberance...
October 11, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811798/a-review-of-the-taeniacanthus-balistae-species-group-crustacea-copepoda-taeniacanthidae-with-descriptions-of-two-new-species
#18
Danny Tang, Daisuke Uyeno, Kazuya Nagasawa
The Taeniacanthus balistae species group is characterized by two displaced elements on an outwardly curved and elongated terminal exopodal segment of leg 4. Members of this group parasitize tetraodontiform fishes. The group is reviewed herein based on both new material collected from tetraodontiform fishes and re-examination of voucher specimens housed at the Smithsonian Institution, U.S.A. Five species are considered valid in this group, including two new species described here, Taeniacanthus dojirii sp. nov...
October 11, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811792/discovery-of-the-male-of-the-rare-caligiform-copepod-kabataia-kazachenko-korotaeva-kurochkin-1972-copepoda-siphonostomatoida-with-a-reconsideration-of-its-phylogenetic-affinities
#19
Kate S Hutson, Geoffrey A Boxshall
We report the discovery of the male of the rare caligiform copepod Kabataia ostorhynchi Kazachenko, Korotaeva & Kurochkin, 1972 on the gills of the type-host Oplegnathus woodwardi (Waite, 1900) captured in the Southern Ocean, off Australia. Light and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the unusual body plan of Kabataia Kazachenko, Korotaeva & Kurochkin, 1972, where only the first pedigerous somite is incorporated into the cephalothorax and the second and third pedigerous somites are fused to form a double-somite, visible both dorsally and ventrally...
October 11, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780917/the-somite-secreted-factor-maeg-promotes-zebrafish-embryonic-angiogenesis
#20
Xin Wang, Wei Yuan, Xueqian Wang, Jialing Qi, Yinyin Qin, Yunwei Shi, Jie Zhang, Jie Gong, Zhangji Dong, Xiaoyu Liu, Chen Sun, Renjie Chai, Ferdinand Le Noble, Dong Liu
MAM and EGF containing gene (MAEG), also called Epidermal Growth Factor-like domain multiple 6 (EGFL6), belongs to the epidermal growth factor repeat superfamily. The role of Maeg in zebrafish angiogenesis remains unclear. It was demonstrated that maeg was dynamically expressed in zebrafish developing somite during a time window encompassing many key steps in embryonic angiogenesis. Maeg loss-of-function embryos showed reduced endothelial cell number and filopodia extensions of intersegmental vessels (ISVs)...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
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