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Nathalie Feiner, Alfredo Rago, Geoffrey M While, Tobias Uller
Many features of the development of reptiles are affected by temperature, but very little is known about how incubation temperature affects gene expression. Here, we provide a detailed case study of gene expression profiles in common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) embryos developing at stressfully low (15°C) versus benign (24°C) temperature. For maximum comparability between the two temperature regimes, we selected a precise developmental stage early in embryogenesis defined by the number of somites. We used a split-clutch design and lizards from four different populations to evaluate the robustness of temperature-responsive gene expression profiles...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Michael Tessler, Danielle de Carle, Madeleine L Voiklis, Olivia A Gresham, Johannes Neumann, Stanisław Cios, Mark E Siddall
Annelids possessing a posterior sucker and a fixed number of somites - most famously leeches (Hirudinida), but also crayfish worms (Branchiobdellida) and salmonid parasites (Acanthobdellida) - form a clade; however, determining the relationships between these orders has proven challenging. Here, we compile the largest molecular phylogenetic dataset yet analysed for these groups, including new sequences for key taxa. We find robust model-based support for a clade formed by Hirudinida and Acanthobdellida, contrasting the largest prior studies...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Biplab Sarkar, Suresh K Verma, Javed Akhtar, Surya Prakash Netam, Sanjay Kr Gupta, Pritam Kumar Panda, Koel Mukherjee
With the enhancement of commercial manifestation of silver nanoparticles, concerned has risen on their accumulation in aquatic system and consequent effects on fish development and metabolism. In this study, experiments were conducted to assess the impacts of silver nanoparticles on early life cycles of fish considering Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as experimental model. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized through chemical reduction method and characterized through UV-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and HR-TEM...
May 4, 2018: Chemosphere
Kana Ishimatsu, Tom W Hiscock, Zach M Collins, Dini Wahyu Kartika Sari, Kenny Lischer, David L Richmond, Yasumasa Bessho, Takaaki Matsui, Sean G Megason
Little is known about how the sizes of animal tissues are controlled. A prominent example is somite size which varies widely both within an individual and across species. Despite intense study of the segmentation clock governing the timing of somite generation, how it relates to somite size is poorly understood. Here we examine somite scaling and find that somite size at specification scales with the length of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) despite considerable variation in PSM length across developmental stages and in surgically size-reduced embryos...
May 16, 2018: Development
Wei Zhao, Masayuki Oginuma, Rieko Ajima, Makoto Kiso, Akemi Okubo, Yumiko Saga
The metameric structure in vertebrates is based on the periodic formation of somites from the anterior end of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). The segmentation boundary is defined by the Tbx6 expression domain, whose anterior limit is determined by Tbx6 protein destabilization via Ripply2. However, the molecular mechanism of this process is poorly understood. Here, we show that Ripply2 directly binds to Tbx6 in cultured cells without changing the stability of Tbx6, indicating an unknown mechanism for Tbx6 degradation in vivo...
May 15, 2018: ELife
Dana Klatt Shaw, Derrick Gunther, Michael J Jurynec, Alexis A Chagovetz, Erin Ritchie, David Jonah Grunwald
Graded Shh signaling across fields of precursor cells coordinates patterns of gene expression, differentiation, and morphogenetic behavior as precursors form complex structures, such as the nervous system, the limbs, and craniofacial skeleton. Here we discover that intracellular calcium mobilization, a process tightly controlled and readily modulated, regulates the level of Shh-dependent gene expression in responding cells and affects the development of all Shh-dependent cell types in the zebrafish embryo. Reduced expression or modified activity of ryanodine receptor (RyR) intracellular calcium release channels shifted the allocation of Shh-dependent cell fates in the somitic muscle and neural tube...
May 8, 2018: Developmental Cell
Chompunut Lumsangkul, Yang-Kwang Fan, Shen-Chang Chang, Jyh-Cherng Ju, Hsin-I Chiang
Avian embryos are among the most convenient and the primary representatives for the study of classical embryology. It is well-known that the hatching time of duck embryos is approximately one week longer than that of chicken embryos. However, the key features associated with the slower embryonic development in ducks have not been adequately described. This study aimed to characterize the pattern and the speed of early embryogenesis in Brown Tsaiya Ducks (BTD) compared with those in Taiwan Country Chicken (TCC) by using growth parameters including embryonic crown-tail length (ECTL), primitive streak formation, somitogenesis, and other development-related parameters, during the first 72 h of incubation...
2018: PloS One
Sarah K Steinbach, Tao Wang, Martha H Carruthers, Angela Li, Rickvinder Besla, Adam P Johnston, Clinton S Robbins, Mansoor Husain
Sca-1<sup>+</sup> progenitor cells in the adult mouse aorta are known to generate vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), but their embryological origins and temporal abundance are not known. Using tamoxifen-inducible <i>Myf5-Cre</i><sup>ER</sup> mice, we demonstrate that Sca-1<sup>+</sup> adult aortic cells arise from the somitic mesoderm beginning at E8.5 and continue throughout somitogenesis. <i>Myf5</i> lineage-derived Sca-1<sup>+</sup> cells greatly expand in situ starting at 4 weeks of age and become a major source of aortic Sca-1<sup>+</sup> cells by 6 weeks of age...
May 2, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Somit Dutta, Arnab Kumar Chakraborty, Priyankar Dey, Pallab Kar, Pokhraj Guha, Subhajit Sen, Anoop Kumar, Arnab Sen, Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri
The progress in industrialization has blessed mankind with a technologically superior lifestyle but poor management of industrial waste has in turn poisoned nature. One such chemical is carbon tetra chloride (CCl4), which is a potent environmental toxin emitted from chemical industries and its presence in the atmosphere is increasing at an alarming rate. Presence of CCl4 in human body is reported to cause liver damage through free radical mediated inflammatory processes. Kupffer cells present in the liver are potentially more sensitive to oxidative stress than hepatocytes...
2018: PloS One
Samuel Gómez
Investigations on the effects of the oxygen minimum zone on the distribution, abundance, and diversity of deep-sea benthic and pelagic fauna of the Gulf of California and Eastern Tropical Pacific has received attention recently. However, very little is known about the diversity of deep-sea benthic harpacticoids from this region, and only three species, Ancorabolus hendrickxi Gómez & Conroy-Dalton, 2002, Ceratonotus elongatus Gómez & Díaz, 2017 and Dendropsyllus californiensis Gómez & Díaz, 2017, have been described so far...
2018: ZooKeys
Tomas Tomka, Dagmar Iber, Marcelo Boareto
The sculpturing of the vertebrate body plan into segments begins with the sequential formation of somites in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). The rhythmicity of this process is controlled by travelling waves of gene expression. These kinetic waves emerge from coupled cellular oscillators and sweep across the PSM. In zebrafish, the oscillations are driven by autorepression of her genes and are synchronized via Notch signalling. Mathematical modelling has played an important role in explaining how collective properties emerge from the molecular interactions...
April 24, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Elizabeth M Sefton, Mirialys Gallardo, Gabrielle Kardon
The diaphragm is a mammalian skeletal muscle essential for respiration and for separating the thoracic and abdominal cavities. Development of the diaphragm requires the coordinated development of muscle, muscle connective tissue, tendon, nerves, and vasculature that derive from different embryonic sources. However, defects in diaphragm development are common and the cause of an often deadly birth defect, Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH). Here we comprehensively describe the normal developmental origin and complex spatial-temporal relationship between the different developing tissues to form a functional diaphragm using a developmental series of mouse embryos genetically and immunofluorescently labeled and analyzed in whole mount...
April 18, 2018: Developmental Biology
Kun Dong, Xia Guo, Weiping Chen, Amanda C Hsu, Qiang Shao, Jian-Fu Chen, Shi-You Chen
Differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is critical for proper vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling SMC differentiation are not completely understood. During embryogenesis, the transcription factor mesenchyme homeobox 1 (Meox1) is expressed in the early developing somite, which is one of the origins of SMCs. In the present study, we identified Meox1 as a positive regulator of SMC differentiation. We found that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) induces Meox1 expression in the initial phase of SMC differentiation of pluripotent murine C3H10T1/2 cells...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Janine M Ziermann, Rui Diogo, Drew M Noden
Patterning of craniofacial muscles overtly begins with the activation of lineage-specific markers at precise, evolutionarily conserved locations within prechordal, lateral, and both unsegmented and somitic paraxial mesoderm populations. Although these initial programming events occur without influence of neural crest cells, the subsequent movements and differentiation stages of most head muscles are neural crest-dependent. Incorporating both descriptive and experimental studies, this review examines each stage of myogenesis up through the formation of attachments to their skeletal partners...
April 16, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Daniel Concepcion, Hiroshi Hamada, Virginia E Papaioannou
The Tbx6 transcription factor plays multiple roles during gastrulation, somite formation and body axis determination. One of the notable features of the Tbx6 homozygous mutant phenotype is randomization of left/right axis determination. Cilia of the node are morphologically abnormal leading to the hypothesis that disrupted nodal flow is the cause of the laterality defect. However, Tbx6 is expressed around but not in the node, leading to uncertainty as to the mechanism of this effect. In this study, we have examined the molecular characteristics of the node and the genetic cascade determining left/right axis determination...
April 12, 2018: Biology Open
Olivier Pourquié
Somites are epithelial blocks of paraxial mesoderm that define the vertebrate embryonic segments. They are responsible for imposing the metameric pattern observed in many tissues of the adult such as the vertebrae, and they give rise to most of the axial skeleton and skeletal muscles of the trunk. Due to its easy accessibility in the egg, the chicken embryo has provided an ideal model to study somite development. Somites were first described in the chicken embryo by Malpighi in the 17th century, soon after the invention of the microscope...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Roger Keynes, Geoffrey Cook
The chick embryo has provided a prominent model system for the study of segmental patterning in the nervous system. During early development, motor and sensory axon growth cones traverse the anterior/rostral half of each somite, so avoiding the developing vertebral components and ensuring separation of spinal nerves from vertebral bones. A glycoprotein expressed on the surface of posterior half-somite cells confines growth cones to the anterior half-somites by a contact repulsive mechanism. Hindbrain segmentation is also a conspicuous feature of chick brain development...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Ruth Bellairs
This paper provides a brief account of some aspects of the career of Ruth Bellairs using selected examples from her research publications, with the emphasis being placed on the early stages of chick embryo development, and in particular, on cell migration. Topics include the role of Hensen's node, the vitelline membrane, the structure and segmentation of somites, the tail bud and the Wolffian duct. Her research approach has involved embryo culture, experimental surgery, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, time-lapse filming and immunostaining techniques...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Kristina Vintersten Nagy, Andras Nagy
This protocol describes the production of teratomas and teratocarcinomas used to determine the in vivo developmental potential of adult or embryonic tissues, including early-stage embryos, somites, and tail bud, as well as embryonic and other pluripotent stem cells. Resulting tumors are screened by histology and markers to assess differentiation of the tissues. Methods and sites may vary, depending on cell and tissue type. Subcutaneous injections are easy to perform and do not need surgical manipulations. Suspension of cells in Matrigel Basement Membrane (BD Biosciences) promotes their anatomical localization and is a commonly used, efficient, and reproducible approach...
April 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Jason S Williams, Jessica Y Hsu, Christy Cortez Rossi, Kristin Bruk Artinger
Melanocytes derive from neural crest cells, which are a highly migratory population of cells that play an important role in pigmentation of the skin and epidermal appendages. In most vertebrates, melanocyte precursor cells migrate solely along the dorsolateral pathway to populate the skin. However, zebrafish melanocyte precursors also migrate along the ventromedial pathway, in route to the yolk, where they interact with other neural crest derivative populations. Here, we demonstrate the requirement for zebrafish paralogs pcdh10a and pcdh10b in zebrafish melanocyte precursor migration...
March 28, 2018: Developmental Biology
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