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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321278/spemann-mangold-grafts
#1
Hélène Cousin
In 1924, Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold (née Pröscholdt) published their famous work describing the transplantation of dorsal blastopore lip of one newt gastrula embryo onto the ventral side of a host embryo at the same stage. They performed these grafts using two newt species with different pigmentation (Triturus taeniatus and Triturus cristatus) to follow the fate of the grafted tissue. These experiments resulted in the development of conjoined twins attached through their belly. Because of the difference in embryo pigmentation between the two Triturus species, they determined that the bulk of the secondary embryo arose from the host embryo while the grafted tissue per se gave increase to the notochord and a few somitic cells...
January 10, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315541/tail-reduction-process-during-human-embryonic-development
#2
Sayaka Tojima, Haruyuki Makishima, Tetsuya Takakuwa, Shigehito Yamada
Although the human tail is completely absent at birth, the embryonic tail is formed just as in other tailed amniotes. Since all morphological variations are created from variations in developmental processes, elucidation of the tail reduction process during embryonic development may be necessary to clarify the human evolutionary process. The tail has also been of great interest to the medical community. The congenital anomaly referred to as 'human tail', i.e. the occurrence of a tail-like structure, has been reported and was thought to represent a vestige of the embryonic tail; however, this hypothesis has not been verified...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313199/effects-of-glyphosate-on-early-life-stages-comparison-between-cyprinus-carpio-and-danio-rerio
#3
Emma Fiorino, Pavla Sehonova, Lucie Plhalova, Jana Blahova, Zdenka Svobodova, Caterina Faggio
Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is an active substance of many herbicides. According to literature studies, glyphosate residues and their metabolites have been commonly detected in surface waters and toxicological reports confirmed negative effects on living organisms. In this study, the acute embryo toxicity of glyphosate into two different fish species-common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and zebrafish (Danio rerio)-was investigated. Lethal endpoints, development disorder, and, in addition, other sublethal endpoints such as hatching rate, formation of somites, and development of eyes, spontaneous movement, heartbeat/blood circulation, pigmentation, and edema were recorded to indicate the mode of action of the toxic compound...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311656/defining-murine-organogenesis-at-single-cell-resolution-reveals-a-role-for-the-leukotriene-pathway-in-regulating-blood-progenitor-formation
#4
Ximena Ibarra-Soria, Wajid Jawaid, Blanca Pijuan-Sala, Vasileios Ladopoulos, Antonio Scialdone, David J Jörg, Richard C V Tyser, Fernando J Calero-Nieto, Carla Mulas, Jennifer Nichols, Ludovic Vallier, Shankar Srinivas, Benjamin D Simons, Berthold Göttgens, John C Marioni
During gastrulation, cell types from all three germ layers are specified and the basic body plan is established 1 . However, molecular analysis of this key developmental stage has been hampered by limited cell numbers and a paucity of markers. Single-cell RNA sequencing circumvents these problems, but has so far been limited to specific organ systems 2 . Here, we report single-cell transcriptomic characterization of >20,000 cells immediately following gastrulation at E8.25 of mouse development. We identify 20 major cell types, which frequently contain substructure, including three distinct signatures in early foregut cells...
January 8, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306198/a-glyphosate-based-herbicide-reduces-fertility-embryonic-upper-thermal-tolerance-and-alters-embryonic-diapause-of-the-threatened-annual-fish-austrolebias-nigrofasciatus
#5
Yuri Dornelles Zebral, Luize Real Lansini, Patrícia Gomes Costa, Mauricio Roza, Adalto Bianchini, Ricardo Berteaux Robaldo
Roundup is the most popular glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) worldwide. These formulations kill a wide range of plants. Despite that, non-target species can be jeopardized by GBH, such as the annual fish Austrolebias nigrofasciatus. This species occurs in wetlands that dries annually. Key-adaptations permit them to live in such harsh habitats, e. i. Elevated fertility, drought-tolerant diapausing embryos and elevated thermal tolerance. We aimed to evaluate acute (96 h) effects of Roundup exposure (0.36 or 3...
January 2, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283341/regulation-of-posterior-body-and-epidermal-morphogenesis-in-zebrafish-by-localized-yap1-and-wwtr1
#6
David Kimelman, Natalie L Smith, Jason Kuan Han Lai, Didier Yr Stainier
The vertebrate embryo undergoes a series of dramatic morphological changes as the body extends to form the complete anterior-posterior axis during the somite-forming stages. The molecular mechanisms regulating these complex processes are still largely unknown. We show that the Hippo pathway transcriptional coactivators Yap1 and Wwtr1 are specifically localized to the presumptive epidermis and notochord, and play a critical and unexpected role in posterior body extension by regulating Fibronectin assembly underneath the presumptive epidermis and surrounding the notochord...
December 28, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280270/cell-ingression-relevance-to-limb-development-and-for-adaptive-evolution
#7
REVIEW
Clarissa C Pasiliao, Sevan Hopyan
Cell ingression is an out-of-plane type of cell intercalation that is essential for the formation of multiple embryonic structures including the limbs. In particular, cell ingression underlies epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of lateral plate cells to initiate limb bud growth, delamination of neural crest cells to generate peripheral nerve sheaths, and emigration of myoblasts from somites to assemble muscles. Individual cells that ingress undergo apical constriction to generate bottle shaped cells, diminish adhesion to their epithelial cell neighbors, and generate protrusive blebs that likely facilitate their ingression into a subepithelial tissue layer...
December 27, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277600/morphometric-staging-of-organ-development-based-on-cross-sectional-images
#8
Aiko Kawasumi-Kita, Daisuke Ohtsuka, Yoshihiro Morishita
An objective, continuous, and robust method for staging developing embryos or organs is essential for providing a common measure of time when studying quantitative/systems developmental biology. However, classical methods based on factors such as somite number or qualitative visual attributes are discrete and/or ambiguous due to observers' subjectivity. Thus, an alternative staging method based on an explicit and continuous description of developmental states over time, such as anatomy/morphology, is needed...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245402/a-new-species-of-freshwater-crab-of-the-genus-i-oziotelphusa-i-m%C3%A3-ller-1887%C3%A2-crustacea-decapoda-brachyura-gecarcinucidae-from-tamil-nadu-southern-india
#9
Smrithy Raj, Appukuttannair Biju Kumar, Peter K L Ng
A new species of gecarcinucid freshwater crab of the genus Oziotelphusa Müller, 1887, is described from stationary or slow-flowing bodies of water in Keeriparai near Nagercoil, in the state of Tamil Nadu in southern India. Oziotelphusa ravi, new species, is distinguished from its congeners by several distinct characters: the median tooth of the posterior margin of epistome forms a distinct bilobed tip in frontal view, the male pleonal somite 6 is narrowly trapezoidal and slightly wider than long with the lateral margins concave, the terminal segment of the male first gonopod is distinctly bent laterally (along the longitudinal axis) at an angle of about 45°, and the proximal part of the outer margin of the subterminal segment of the male first gonopod has a prominent deep concavity...
December 10, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242584/mis-expression-of-grainyhead-like-transcription-factors-in-zebrafish-leads-to-defects-in-enveloping-layer-evl-integrity-cellular-morphogenesis-and-axial-extension
#10
Lee B Miles, Charbel Darido, Jan Kaslin, Joan K Heath, Stephen M Jane, Sebastian Dworkin
The grainyhead-like (grhl) transcription factors play crucial roles in craniofacial development, epithelial morphogenesis, neural tube closure, and dorso-ventral patterning. By utilising the zebrafish to differentially regulate expression of family members grhl2b and grhl3, we show that both genes regulate epithelial migration, particularly convergence-extension (CE) type movements, during embryogenesis. Genetic deletion of grhl3 via CRISPR/Cas9 results in failure to complete epiboly and pre-gastrulation embryonic rupture, whereas morpholino (MO)-mediated knockdown of grhl3 signalling leads to aberrant neural tube morphogenesis at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB), a phenotype likely due to a compromised overlying enveloping layer (EVL)...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242465/a-new-slipper-lobster-of-the-genus-i-petrarctus-i-holthuis-2002-crustacea-decapoda-scyllaridae-from-southwest-coast-of-india
#11
Chien-Hui Yang, Appukuttannair Biju Kumar, Tin-Yam Chan
A new species of slipper lobster of the genus Petrarctus Holthuis, 2002 was discovered from southwestern India during a survey of deep sea crustaceans. The new species closely resembles P. veliger Holthuis, 2002 from the Andaman Sea and western Pacific but differs mainly in the color marking on abdominal somite I, having a relatively lower cardiac tooth but with better developed tubercles on the abdomen, as well as a differently shaped anterior part of the thoracic sternum. Molecular genetic analysis also confirms the distinct taxonomic status of the new species...
October 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237861/the-early-cambrian-fossil-embryo-pseudooides-is-a-direct-developing-cnidarian-not-an-early-ecdysozoan
#12
Baichuan Duan, Xi-Ping Dong, Luis Porras, Kelly Vargas, John A Cunningham, Philip C J Donoghue
Early Cambrian Pseudooides prima has been described from embryonic and post-embryonic stages of development, exhibiting long germ-band development. There has been some debate about the pattern of segmentation, but this interpretation, as among the earliest records of ecdysozoans, has been generally accepted. Here, we show that the 'germ band' of P. prima embryos separates along its mid axis during development, with the transverse furrows between the 'somites' unfolding into the polar aperture of the ten-sided theca of Hexaconularia sichuanensis, conventionally interpreted as a scyphozoan cnidarian; co-occurring post-embryonic remains of ecdysozoans are unrelated...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228808/variation-in-phytochemical-composition-reveals-distinct-divergence-of-aloe-vera-l-burm-f-from-other-aloe-species-rationale-behind-selective-preference-of-aloe-vera-in-nutritional-and-therapeutic-use
#13
Priyankar Dey, Somit Dutta, Anurag Chowdhury, Abhaya Prasad Das, Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri
In the present study, we have phytochemically characterized 5 different abundant Aloe species, including Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., using silylation followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry technique and compared the data using multivariate statistical analysis. The results demonstrated clear distinction of the overall phytochemical profile of A vera, highlighted by its divergent spatial arrangement in the component plot. Lowest correlation of the phytochemical profiles were found between A vera and A aristata Haw...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217200/timing-is-everything-reiterative-wnt-bmp-and-ra-signaling-regulate-developmental-competence-during-endoderm-organogenesis
#14
Scott A Rankin, Kyle W McCracken, David M Luedeke, Lu Han, James M Wells, John M Shannon, Aaron M Zorn
A small number of signaling pathways are used repeatedly during organogenesis, and they can have drastically different effects on the same population of cells depending on the embryonic stage. How cellular competence changes over developmental time is not well understood. Here we used Xenopus, mouse, and human pluripotent stem cells to investigate how the temporal sequence of Wnt, BMP, and retinoic acid (RA) signals regulates endoderm developmental competence and organ induction, focusing on respiratory fate...
December 4, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167367/embryonic-origin-of-the-gnathostome-vertebral-skeleton
#15
Katharine E Criswell, Michael I Coates, J Andrew Gillis
The vertebral column is a key component of the jawed vertebrate (gnathostome) body plan, but the primitive embryonic origin of this skeleton remains unclear. In tetrapods, all vertebral components (neural arches, haemal arches and centra) derive from paraxial mesoderm (somites). However, in teleost fishes, vertebrae have a dual embryonic origin, with arches derived from somites, but centra formed, in part, by secretion of bone matrix from the notochord. Here, we test the embryonic origin of the vertebral skeleton in a cartilaginous fish (the skate, Leucoraja erinacea) which serves as an outgroup to tetrapods and teleosts...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162723/the-transcription-factor-foxc1a-in-zebrafish-directly-regulates-expression-of-nkx2-5-encoding-a-transcriptional-regulator-of-cardiac-progenitor-cells
#16
Yunyun Yue, Mingyang Jiang, Luqingqing He, Zhaojunjie Zhang, Qinxin Zhang, Chun Gu, Meijing Liu, Nan Li, Qingshun Zhao
Cardiogenesis is a tightly controlled biological process required for formation of a functional heart. The transcription factor Foxc1 not only plays a crucial role in outflow tract development in mice, but is also involved in  cardiac structure formation and normal function in human. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Foxc1 controls cardiac development remain poorly understood. Previously, we reported that zebrafish embryos deficient in foxc1a, an ortholog of mammalian Foxc1, display pericardial edemas and die 9-10 days post fertilization...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159938/proximate-cause-anatomical-correlates-and-obstetrical-implication-of-a-supernumerary-lumbar-vertebra-in-humans
#17
Robert G Tague
OBJECTIVES: Three issues are considered on variation in number of presacral vertebrae (PSV) in humans: (1) sexual difference in number of PSV, (2) inactivation of Hoxd-11 gene as etiology for a supernumerary lumbar vertebra, and (3) anatomical correlates of a supernumerary lumbar vertebra, including lumbar-sacral nearthrosis, and pelvic size. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sample was 407 skeletonized females and 1,318 males from United States; ages at death were 20 to 49 years...
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134016/a-new-species-of-notodiaptomus-from-the-ecuadorian-andes-copepoda-calanoida-diaptomidae
#18
Miguel Alonso, Edinaldo N Dos Santos-Silva, Damià Jaume
Notodiaptomus cannarensissp. n. is described from a reservoir on the Amazonian slope of the Ecuadorian Andes. The new species is unique among diaptomid calanoid copepods in the display of hypertrophied, symmetrical wing-like extensions at each side of the female composite genital somite. Furthermore, it displays a female urosome reduced to only two somites due to the incorporation of abdominal somites III and IV to the composite genital double-somite, and a male right fifth leg with the outer spine of second exopodal segment recurved and implanted proximally on margin...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118635/a-new-species-of-monstrillopsis-crustacea-copepoda-monstrilloida-from-the-lower-northwest-passage-of-the-canadian-arctic
#19
Aurélie Delaforge, Eduardo Suárez-Morales, Wojciech Walkusz, Karley Campbell, C J Mundy
A new species of monstrilloid copepod, Monstrillopsis planifronssp. n., is described from an adult female that was collected beneath snow-covered sea ice during the 2014 Ice Covered Ecosystem - CAMbridge bay Process Study (ICE-CAMPS) in Dease Strait of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Currently, up to six species of this order are known to occur in polar latitudes. The new species described herein shares similarities with Monstrillopsis dubia (Scott, 1904) but differs in its body proportions and cephalothorax ornamentation; the cephalothorax is covered by minute scattered papillae on dorsal and ventral surfaces; this species has a reduced fifth leg endopod, fifth leg exopod armed with three setae, antennule with fused segments 3-4, and the genital double-somite bears unique posterolateral processes...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103952/osteoblast-production-by-reserved-progenitor-cells-in-zebrafish-bone-regeneration-and-maintenance
#20
Kazunori Ando, Eri Shibata, Stefan Hans, Michael Brand, Atsushi Kawakami
Mammals cannot re-form heavily damaged bones as in large fracture gaps, whereas zebrafish efficiently regenerate bones even after amputation of appendages. However, the source of osteoblasts that mediate appendage regeneration is controversial. Several studies in zebrafish have shown that osteoblasts are generated by dedifferentiation of existing osteoblasts at injured sites, but other observations suggest that de novo production of osteoblasts also occurs. In this study, we found from cell-lineage tracing and ablation experiments that a group of cells reserved in niches serves as osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) and has a significant role in fin ray regeneration...
October 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
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