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Y S Tian, J J Zhang, Z T Li, J Tang, M L Cheng, Y P Wu, W H Ma, Z F Pang, W S Li, J M Zhai, B Li
Embryo cryopreservation is important for long-term preservation of germplasm and assisted reproduction. However, it is still very difficult to obtain viable embryos from cryopreserved fish embryos. In this study, embryos of Epinephelus moara were used to investigate the effects of various cryopreservation methods. Embryos in stages 10 pairs somite (10S), 18 pairs somite (18S), 22 pairs somite (22S), tail-bud (TB), embryo twitching (ET) and pre-hatch (PH) were treated with five-step equilibrium penetration in 40% PMG3T vitrification solution, which contained 15...
March 12, 2018: Theriogenology
Ji Dong, Yuqiong Hu, Xiaoying Fan, Xinglong Wu, Yunuo Mao, Boqiang Hu, Hongshan Guo, Lu Wen, Fuchou Tang
BACKGROUND: Organogenesis is crucial for proper organ formation during mammalian embryonic development. However, the similarities and shared features between different organs and the cellular heterogeneity during this process at single-cell resolution remain elusive. RESULTS: We perform single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of 1916 individual cells from eight organs and tissues of E9.5 to E11.5 mouse embryos, namely, the forebrain, hindbrain, skin, heart, somite, lung, liver, and intestine...
March 14, 2018: Genome Biology
Dini Wahyu Kartika Sari, Ryutaro Akiyama, Honda Naoki, Hannosuke Ishijima, Yasumasa Bessho, Takaaki Matsui
During somite segmentation, clock genes oscillate within the posterior presomitic mesoderm (PSM). The temporal information ties up with the posteriorly moving FGF gradient, leading to the formation of a presumptive somite within the PSM. We previously investigated Erk activity downstream of FGF signaling by collecting stained zebrafish embryos, and discovered that the steep gradient of Erk activity was generated in the PSM, and the Erk activity border regularly shifted in a stepwise manner. However, since these interpretations come from static analyses, we needed to firmly confirm them by applying an analysis that has higher spatiotemporal resolutions...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Susanne Ledig, Peter Wieacker
The Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome [MIM 277000] is characterised by the absence of a uterus and vagina in otherwise phenotypically normal women with karyotype 46,XX. Clinically, the MRKH can be subdivided into two subtypes: an isolated or type I form can be delineated from a type II form, which is characterised by extragenital malformations. The so-called Müllerian hypoplasia, renal agenesis, cervicothoracic somite dysplasia (MURCS) association can be seen as the most severe phenotypic outcome...
2018: Medizinische Genetik: Mitteilungsblatt des Berufsverbandes Medizinische Genetik E.V
Carolyn M Dancevic, Yann Gibert, Joachim Berger, Adam D Smith, Clifford Liongue, Nicole Stupka, Alister C Ward, Daniel R McCulloch
The ADAMTS5 metzincin, a secreted zinc-dependent metalloproteinase, modulates the extracellular matrix (ECM) during limb morphogenesis and other developmental processes. Here, the role of ADAMTS5 was investigated by knockdown of zebrafish adamts5 during embryogenesis. This revealed impaired Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling during somite patterning and early myogenesis. Notably, synergistic regulation of myod expression by ADAMTS5 and Shh during somite differentiation was observed. These roles were not dependent upon the catalytic activity of ADAMTS5...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
John W Stelzer, Miguel A Flores, Waleed Mohammad, Nathan Esplin, Jonathan J Mayl, Christopher Wasyliw
Introduction: Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is a congenital anomaly resulting from fusion of cervical vertebral bodies secondary to the dysregulation of signaling pathways during somite development. It is commonly associated with scoliosis and Sprengel deformity. We present a case of KFS with commonly associated abnormalities as well as deformities that have not yet been reported in the literature. Case Presentation: A 3-year-old girl presented for further evaluation of a left upper extremity deformity following a negative genetic workup...
2018: Case Reports in Orthopedics
Takayuki Onai
One of the definitive characteristics of chordates (cephalochordates, vertebrates) is the somites, which are a series of paraxial mesodermal blocks exhibiting segmentation. The presence of somites in the basal chordate amphioxus and in vertebrates, but not in tunicates (the sister group of vertebrates), suggests that the tunicates lost the somites secondarily. Somites are patterned from anterior to posterior during embryogenesis. How such a segmental pattern evolved from deuterostome ancestors is mysterious...
February 27, 2018: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
Yu Shi, Jiejing Li, Chunjiang Chen, Yongwu Xia, Yanxi Li, Pan Zhang, Ying Xu, Tingyu Li, Weihui Zhou, Weihong Song
Ketamine is a potent dissociative anesthetic and the most commonly used illicit drug. Many addicts are women at childbearing age. Although ketamine has been extensively studied as a clinical anesthetic, its effects on embryonic development are poorly understood. Here, we applied the Xenopus model to study the effects of ketamine on development. We found that exposure to ketamine from pre-gastrulation (stage 7) to early neural plate (stage 13.5) resulted in disruption of neural crest (NC) derivatives. Ketamine exposure did not affect mesoderm development as indicated by the normal expression of Chordin, Xbra, Wnt8, and Fgf8...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Noritaka Adachi, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Tamami Hirai, Shinnosuke Higuchi, Shigeru Kuratani
Background: The extant vertebrates include cyclostomes (lamprey and hagfish) and crown gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), but there are various anatomical disparities between these two groups. Conspicuous in the gnathostomes is the neck, which occupies the interfacial domain between the head and trunk, including the occipital part of the cranium, the shoulder girdle, and the cucullaris and hypobranchial muscles (HBMs). Of these, HBMs originate from occipital somites to form the ventral pharyngeal and neck musculature in gnathostomes...
2018: Zoological Letters
Jun Aruga
Zic family proteins have been investigated in various biomedical studies. Here we summarize the contact points between Zic proteins and recent medical research. The topics cover a wide range, reflecting the pleiotropic roles of these proteins in early embryogenesis and organogenesis. Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 proteins play important roles in the development of axial and limb bones, and of muscles, among the derivatives of the notochord and somites. Zic1 is involved in bone's response to mechanical stress, and it also serves as a marker specific for brown adipocytes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Kota Abe, Toru Kawanishi, Hiroyuki Takeda
The medaka contains seven zic genes, two of which, zic1 and zic4, have been studied extensively. The analyses are mainly based on the double anal fin (Da) mutant, which was isolated from the wild. Da is an enhancer mutant of zic1/zic4, and the expression of zic1/zic4 is specifically lost in the dorsal half of the somites, which leads to a mirror-image duplication of the ventral half across the lateral midline from larva to adult. The studies of medaka Da give us important insights into the function of zic1/zic4 in mesodermal tissues and also the mechanism of dorsoventral patterning in the vertebrate trunk region occurring during late development, which is a long-standing mystery in developmental biology...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Haiming Fan, Nobuyuki Sakamoto, Hirohiko Aoyama
Mesoderm is derived from the primitive streak. The rostral region of the primitive streak forms the somitic mesoderm. We have previously shown the developmental origin of each level of the somitic mesoderm using DiI fluorescence labeling of the primitive streak. We found that the more caudal segments were derived from the primitive streak during the later developmental stages. DiI labeled several pairs of somites and showed the distinct rostral boundary; however, the fluorescence gradually disappeared in the caudal region...
February 9, 2018: Anatomical Science International
Bao T Nguyen, Katherine L Dengler, Rhiana D Saunders
Background: Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a congenital condition characterized by aplasia of the vagina with or without concurrent uterine and/or cervical aplasia. Type II (MURCS) is a rare form involving MUllerian agenesis, Renal agenesis, and Cervicothoracic Somite anomalies. Case: A 17-yr-old virginal female presented for evaluation of primary amenorrhea and pelvic pain. Her medical history was significant for a bicuspid aortic valve and right radial dysplasia...
February 5, 2018: Military Medicine
Shigeru Kuratani, Rie Kusakabe, Tatsuya Hirasawa
The migration and distribution patterns of neural crest (NC) cells reflect the distinct embryonic environments of the head and trunk: cephalic NC cells migrate predominantly along the dorsolateral pathway to populate the craniofacial and pharyngeal regions, whereas trunk crest cells migrate along the ventrolateral pathways to form the dorsal root ganglia. These two patterns thus reflect the branchiomeric and somitomeric architecture, respectively, of the vertebrate body plan. The so-called vagal NC occupies a postotic, intermediate level between the head and trunk NC...
February 2, 2018: Developmental Biology
Siyu Wu, Lili Lei, Mengting Liu, Yang Song, Shibo Lu, Dan Li, Huahong Shi, Kathleen M Raley-Susman, Defu He
The decline in amphibian populations is a critical threat to global biodiversity, and pesticide pollution is considered as one of the major factors. Although effects of single pesticides on amphibians have been documented, toxicological interactions prevailing in mixtures of pesticides have not been well elucidated. Strobilurin and succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicides are new types of commonly used pesticides. In this study, effects of three strobilurins (pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin and azoxystrobin), two SDHIs (isopyrazam and bixafen), and their mixtures on X...
January 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Xu Cheng, Lei Song, Min Lan, Bing Shi, Jingtao Li
Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle and other somite-derived limb muscles remain the prototype in skeletal muscle study. The majority of head muscles, however, develop from branchial arches and maintain a number of heterogeneities in comparison with their limb counterparts. Levator veli palatini (LVP) muscle is a deep-located head muscle responsible for breathing, swallowing and speech, and is central to cleft palate surgery, yet lacks morphological and molecular investigation. In the present study, multiscale in vivo analyses were performed to compare TA and LVP muscle in terms of their myofiber composition, in-situ stem cell population and augmentation potential...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Molka Kammoun, Paul Brady, Luc De Catte, Jan Deprest, Koenraad Devriendt, Joris Robert Vermeesch
Nance-Horan syndrome is a rare X-linked developmental disorder characterized by bilateral congenital cataract, dental anomalies, facial dysmorphism, and intellectual disability. Here, we identify a patient with Nance-Horan syndrome caused by a new nonsense NHS variant. In addition, the patient presented congenital diaphragmatic hernia. NHS gene expression in murine fetal diaphragm was demonstrated, suggesting a possible involvement of NHS in diaphragm development. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia could result from NHS loss of function in pleuroperitoneal fold or in somites-derived muscle progenitor cells leading to an impairment of their cells migration...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Hélène Cousin
In 1924, Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold (née Pröscholdt) published their famous work describing the transplantation of dorsal blastopore lip of one newt gastrula embryo onto the ventral side of a host embryo at the same stage. They performed these grafts using two newt species with different pigmentation (Triturus taeniatus and Triturus cristatus) to follow the fate of the grafted tissue. These experiments resulted in the development of conjoined twins attached through their belly. Because of the difference in embryo pigmentation between the two Triturus species, they determined that the bulk of the secondary embryo arose from the host embryo while the grafted tissue per se gave increase to the notochord and a few somitic cells...
January 10, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Sayaka Tojima, Haruyuki Makishima, Tetsuya Takakuwa, Shigehito Yamada
Although the human tail is completely absent at birth, the embryonic tail is formed just as in other tailed amniotes. Since all morphological variations are created from variations in developmental processes, elucidation of the tail reduction process during embryonic development may be necessary to clarify the human evolutionary process. The tail has also been of great interest to the medical community. The congenital anomaly referred to as 'human tail', i.e. the occurrence of a tail-like structure, has been reported and was thought to represent a vestige of the embryonic tail; however, this hypothesis has not been verified...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Emma Fiorino, Pavla Sehonova, Lucie Plhalova, Jana Blahova, Zdenka Svobodova, Caterina Faggio
Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is an active substance of many herbicides. According to literature studies, glyphosate residues and their metabolites have been commonly detected in surface waters and toxicological reports confirmed negative effects on living organisms. In this study, the acute embryo toxicity of glyphosate into two different fish species-common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and zebrafish (Danio rerio)-was investigated. Lethal endpoints, development disorder, and, in addition, other sublethal endpoints such as hatching rate, formation of somites, and development of eyes, spontaneous movement, heartbeat/blood circulation, pigmentation, and edema were recorded to indicate the mode of action of the toxic compound...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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