keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Somite

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735239/effects-of-a-glyphosate-based-herbicide-in-pejerrey-odontesthes-humensis-embryonic-development
#1
Yuri Dornelles Zebral, Patrícia Gomes Costa, Bruna de Castro Knopp, Luize Real Lansini, Bruna Zafalon-Silva, Adalto Bianchini, Ricardo Berteaux Robaldo
Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) are the major pesticides used worldwide. Among them, the Roundup formulations are the most popular. Some aspects of GBH toxicity are well known, such as induction of oxidative stress. However, embryotoxicity is scarcely known. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exposure to different Roundup Transorb R concentrations (0.36, 1.80, 3.62 and 5.43 mg glyphosate a.e./L) on Odontesthes humensis embryonic development. Embryos were sampled at three exposure times (48, 72 and 96 h)...
July 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719048/developmental-mechanisms-of-intervertebral-disc-and-vertebral-column-formation
#2
REVIEW
Lisa Y Lawson, Brian D Harfe
The vertebral column consists of repeating units of ossified vertebrae that are adjoined by fibrocartilagenous intervertebral discs. These structures form from the embryonic notochord and somitic mesoderm. In humans, congenital malformations of the vertebral column include scoliosis, kyphosis, spina bifida, and Klippel Feil syndrome. In adulthood, a common malady affecting the vertebral column includes disc degeneration and associated back pain. Indeed, recent reports estimate that low back pain is the number one cause of disability worldwide...
July 18, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716577/apoptosis-related-genes-induced-in-response-to-ketamine-during-early-life-stages-of-zebrafish
#3
Luís M Félix, Cindy Serafim, Ana M Valentim, Luís M Antunes, Manuela Matos, Ana M Coimbra
Increasing evidence supports that ketamine, a widely used anaesthetic, potentiates apoptosis during development through the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Defects in the apoptotic machinery can cause or contribute to the developmental abnormalities previously described in ketamine-exposed zebrafish. The involvement of the apoptotic machinery in ketamine-induced teratogenicity was addressed by assessing the apoptotic signals at 8 and 24 hpf following 20min exposure to ketamine at three stages of early zebrafish embryo development (256 cell, 50% epiboly and 1-4 somites stages)...
July 14, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716076/klf8-regulates-left-right-asymmetric-patterning-through-modulation-of-kupffer-s-vesicle-morphogenesis-and-spaw-expression
#4
Che-Yi Lin, Ming-Yuan Tsai, Yu-Hsiu Liu, Yu-Fen Lu, Yi-Chung Chen, Yun-Ren Lai, Hsin-Chi Liao, Huang-Wei Lien, Chung-Hsiang Yang, Chang-Jen Huang, Sheng-Ping L Hwang
BACKGROUND: Although vertebrates are bilaterally symmetric organisms, their internal organs are distributed asymmetrically along a left-right axis. Disruption of left-right axis asymmetric patterning often occurs in human genetic disorders. In zebrafish embryos, Kupffer's vesicle, like the mouse node, breaks symmetry by inducing asymmetric expression of the Nodal-related gene, spaw, in the left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). Spaw then stimulates transcription of itself and downstream genes, including lft1, lft2, and pitx2, specifically in the left side of the diencephalon, heart and LPM...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716037/phylogeny-expression-patterns-and-regulation-of-dna-methyltransferases-in-early-development-of-the-flatfish-solea-senegalensis
#5
Joana Firmino, Carlos Carballo, Paula Armesto, Marco A Campinho, Deborah M Power, Manuel Manchado
BACKGROUND: The identification of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt) expression patterns during development and their regulation is important to understand the epigenetic mechanisms that modulate larval plasticity in marine fish. In this study, dnmt1 and dnmt3 paralogs were identified in the flatfish Solea senegalensis and expression patterns in early developmental stages and juveniles were determined. Additionally, the regulation of Dnmt transcription by a specific inhibitor (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) and temperature was evaluated...
July 17, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710810/putative-binding-sites-for-mir-125-family-mirnas-in-the-mouse-lfng-3-utr-affect-transcript-expression-in-the-segmentation-clock-but-mir-125a-5p-is-dispensable-for-normal-somitogenesis
#6
Kanu Wahi, Sophia Friesen, Vincenzo Coppola, Susan E Cole
BACKGROUND: In vertebrate embryos, a "segmentation clock" times somitogenesis. Clock-linked genes, including Lunatic fringe (Lfng), exhibit cyclic expression in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM), with a period matching the rate of somite formation. The clock period varies widely across species, but the mechanisms that underlie this variability are not clear. The half-lives of clock components are proposed to influence the rate of clock oscillations, and are tightly regulated in the PSM. Interactions between Lfng and mir-125a-5p in the embryonic chicken PSM promote Lfng transcript instability, but the conservation of this mechanism in other vertebrates has not been tested...
July 14, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705896/bmp-signaling-maintains-a-mesoderm-progenitor-cell-state-in-the-mouse-tailbud
#7
Richa Sharma, Maxwell E R Shafer, Eric Bareke, Mathieu Tremblay, Jacek Majewski, Maxime Bouchard
Caudal somites are generated from a pool of progenitor cells located in the tailbud region. These progenitor cells form the presomitic mesoderm that gradually differentiates into somites under the action of the segmentation clock. The signals responsible for tailbud mesoderm progenitor pool maintenance during axial elongation are still elusive. Here, we show that Bmp signaling is sufficient to activate the entire mesoderm progenitor gene signature in primary cultures of caudal mesoderm cells. Bmp signaling acts through the key regulatory genes Brachyury (T) and Nkx1-2 and contributes to the activation of several other regulators of the mesoderm progenitor gene network...
July 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701377/microrna-206-modulates-an-rtn4a-cxcr4a-thbs3a-axis-in-newly-forming-somites-to-maintain-and-stabilize-the-somite-boundary-formation-of-zebrafish-embryos
#8
Cheng-Yung Lin, Jun-Yu He, Chih-Wei Zeng, Moo-Rumg Loo, Wen-Yen Chang, Po-Hsiang Zhang, Huai-Jen Tsai
Although microRNA-206 (miR-206) is known to regulate proliferation and differentiation of muscle fibroblasts, the role of miR-206 in early-stage somite development is still unknown. During somitogenesis of zebrafish embryos, reticulon4a (rtn4a) is specifically repressed by miR-206. The somite boundary was defective, and actin filaments were crossing over the boundary in either miR-206-knockdown or rtn4a-overexpressed embryos. In these treated embryos, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4a (cxcr4a) was reduced, while thrombospondin 3a (thbs3a) was increased...
July 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695966/dyrk2-displays-muscle-fiber-type-specific-function-during-zebrafish-early-somitogenesis
#9
Wei Sun, Shuang Jiao, Xungang Tan, Peijun Zhang, Feng You
Dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase 2 (DYRK2) is a serine/threonine kinase. In zebrafish, DYRK2 is expressed in the lateral somites and adaxial cells at the early stage of embryo development. However, its role in early myogenesis had not been elucidated yet. Here, we report that DYRK2 mRNA and MyoD mRNA were colocalized in the muscle progenitor cells in somites, including both the posterior compartment of the lateral somites and adaxial cells. Knockdown of DYRK2 reduced the levels of MyoD transcripts in the muscle progenitor cells in somites...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695959/migration-behavior-of-pgcs-and-asymmetrical-gonad-formation-in-pond-smelt-hypomesus-nipponensis
#10
Eisuke Takahashi, Yu Shimizu, Hirotaro Urushibata, Yutaka Kawakami, Katsutoshi Arai, Etsuro Yamaha
In teleost fish, the gonad originates from primordial germ cells (PGCs) and somatic cells. However, it is not clear whether the final gonadal position is determined by anteroposterior and dextrosinistral differentiation of endodermal organs or by the distribution of PGCs. The pond smelt has a transparent body even after hatching, enabling clear observation of PGC distribution and endodermal differentiation. Here, we first examined normal embryonic development to define the spatio-temporal characteristics of our developmental model...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691257/tbx6l-and-tbx16-are-redundantly-required-for-posterior-paraxial-mesoderm-formation-during-zebrafish-embryogenesis
#11
Zachary T Morrow, Adrienne M Maxwell, Kazuyuki Hoshijima, Jared C Talbot, David J Grunwald, Sharon L Amacher
BACKGROUND: T-box genes encode a large transcription factor family implicated in many aspects of development. We are focusing on two related zebrafish T-box genes, tbx6l and tbx16, that are expressed in highly overlapping patterns in embryonic paraxial mesoderm. tbx16 mutants are deficient in trunk, but not tail, somites; we explored whether presence of tail somites in tbx16 mutants was due to compensatory function provided by the tbx6l gene. RESULTS: We generated two zebrafish tbx6l mutant alleles...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667352/endothelium-derived-fibronectin-regulates-neonatal-vascular-morphogenesis-in-an-autocrine-fashion
#12
Christopher J Turner, Kwabena Badu-Nkansah, Richard O Hynes
Fibronectin containing alternatively spliced EIIIA and EIIIB domains is largely absent from mature quiescent vessels in adults, but is highly expressed around blood vessels during developmental and pathological angiogenesis. The precise functions of fibronectin and its splice variants during developmental angiogenesis however remain unclear due to the presence of cardiac, somitic, mesodermal and neural defects in existing global fibronectin KO mouse models. Using a rare family of surviving EIIIA EIIIB double KO mice, as well as inducible endothelial-specific fibronectin-deficient mutant mice, we show that vascular development in the neonatal retina is regulated in an autocrine manner by endothelium-derived fibronectin, and requires both EIIIA and EIIIB domains and the RGD-binding α5 and αv integrins for its function...
June 30, 2017: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655569/the-hypaxial-origin-of-the-epaxially-located-rhomboid-muscles
#13
Minu Saberi, Qin Pu, Petr Valasek, Tannaz Norizadeh Abbariki, Ketan Patel, Ruijin Huang
In vertebrates, skeletal muscles of the body are made up of epaxial and hypaxial muscles based on their innervation and relative position to the vertebral column. The epaxial muscles are innervated by the dorsal branches of the spinal nerves and comprise the intrinsic (deep) back muscles, while the hypaxial muscles are innervated by the ventral branches of the spinal nerves including the plexus and consist of a heterogeneous group of intercostal, abdominal, and limb as well as girdle muscles. The canonical view holds that the epaxial muscles are derived from the medial halves of the somites, whereas the hypaxial muscles are all derived from the lateral somitic halves...
June 24, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628137/-antagonistic-effect-of-quercetin-on-pm2-5-toxicity-in-the-rat-s-embryonic-development-in-vitro
#14
A Q Fan, J Q Feng, W Liu, M J Zhang, T Liu, Y L Zhou, Y J Xu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the antagonistic effect of quercetin on fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-induced embryonic developmental toxicity in vitro. METHODS: PM2.5 was collected on glass fiber filters by PM2.5 samplers during the heating period of Dec. 2015 to Mar. 2016 in an area of Haidian District, Beijing City. The sampled filters were cut into 1 cm×3 cm pieces followed by sonication. The PM2.5 suspension was filtered into a 10 cm glass dish through 8 layers of sterile carbasus and stored at -80 °C until freeze drying...
June 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607062/biomechanical-coupling-facilitates-spinal-neural-tube-closure-in-mouse-embryos
#15
Gabriel L Galea, Young-June Cho, Gauden Galea, Matteo A Molè, Ana Rolo, Dawn Savery, Dale Moulding, Lucy H Culshaw, Evanthia Nikolopoulou, Nicholas D E Greene, Andrew J Copp
Neural tube (NT) formation in the spinal region of the mammalian embryo involves a wave of "zippering" that passes down the elongating spinal axis, uniting the neural fold tips in the dorsal midline. Failure of this closure process leads to open spina bifida, a common cause of severe neurologic disability in humans. Here, we combined a tissue-level strain-mapping workflow with laser ablation of live-imaged mouse embryos to investigate the biomechanics of mammalian spinal closure. Ablation of the zippering point at the embryonic dorsal midline causes far-reaching, rapid separation of the elevating neural folds...
June 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606934/cell-lineage-of-timed-cohorts-of-tbx6-expressing-cells-in-wild-type-and-tbx6-mutant-embryos
#16
Daniel Concepcion, Andrew J Washkowitz, Akiko DeSantis, Phillip Ogea, Jason I Yang, Nataki C Douglas, Virginia E Papaioannou
Tbx6 is a T-box transcription factor with multiple roles in embryonic development as evidenced by dramatic effects on mesoderm cell fate determination, left/right axis determination, and somite segmentation in mutant mice. The expression of Tbx6 is restricted to the primitive streak and presomitic mesoderm, but some of the phenotypic features of mutants are not easily explained by this expression pattern. We have used genetically-inducible fate mapping to trace the fate of Tbx6-expressing cells in wild-type and mutant embryos to explain some of the puzzling features of the mutant phenotype...
July 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602768/effects-of-ultrasound-on-permeation-of-cryoprotectants-into-japanese-whiting-sillago-japonica-embryos
#17
Sheikh Mustafizur Rahman, Carlos Augusto Strüssmann, Toru Suzuki, Sullip Kumar Majhi, Ricardo Shohei Hattori, Md Ariful Alam
Cryopreservation of fish embryos requires the swift uptake of considerable amounts of cryoprotectant (CPA) but this process is hampered by the low permeability of the egg chorion. This study examined the relative efficiency of ultrasound to promote the incorporation of CPAs in two different embryonic developmental stages (somites and tail elongation) of Japanese whiting Sillago japonica and performed a preliminary cryopreservation trial using the best conditions determined during the study. Embryos tolerated ultrasound densities up to 37...
June 8, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585249/closure-of-the-vertebral-canal-in-human-embryos-and-fetuses
#18
Hayelom K Mekonen, Jill P J M Hikspoors, Greet Mommen, Nutmethee Kruepunga, S Eleonore Köhler, Wouter H Lamers
The vertebral column is the paradigm of the metameric architecture of the vertebrate body. Because the number of somites is a convenient parameter to stage early human embryos, we explored whether the closure of the vertebral canal could be used similarly for staging embryos between 7 and 10 weeks of development. Human embryos (5-10 weeks of development) were visualized using Amira 3D(®) reconstruction and Cinema 4D(®) remodelling software. Vertebral bodies were identifiable as loose mesenchymal structures between the dense mesenchymal intervertebral discs up to 6 weeks and then differentiated into cartilaginous structures in the 7th week...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584091/dissecting-bmp-signaling-input-into-the-gene-regulatory-networks-driving-specification-of-the-blood-stem-cell-lineage
#19
Arif Kirmizitas, Stuart Meiklejohn, Aldo Ciau-Uitz, Rachel Stephenson, Roger Patient
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that sustain lifelong blood production are created during embryogenesis. They emerge from a specialized endothelial population, termed hemogenic endothelium (HE), located in the ventral wall of the dorsal aorta (DA). In Xenopus, we have been studying the gene regulatory networks (GRNs) required for the formation of HSCs, and critically found that the hemogenic potential is defined at an earlier time point when precursors to the DA express hematopoietic as well as endothelial genes, in the definitive hemangioblasts (DHs)...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584083/gene-regulatory-networks-and-cell-lineages-that-underlie-the-formation-of-skeletal-muscle
#20
Margaret Buckingham
Skeletal muscle in vertebrates is formed by two major routes, as illustrated by the mouse embryo. Somites give rise to myogenic progenitors that form all of the muscles of the trunk and limbs. The behavior of these cells and their entry into the myogenic program is controlled by gene regulatory networks, where paired box gene 3 (Pax3) plays a predominant role. Head and some neck muscles do not derive from somites, but mainly form from mesoderm in the pharyngeal region. Entry into the myogenic program also depends on the myogenic determination factor (MyoD) family of genes, but Pax3 is not expressed in these myogenic progenitors, where different gene regulatory networks function, with T-box factor 1 (Tbx1) and paired-like homeodomain factor 2 (Pitx2) as key upstream genes...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
keyword
keyword
49235
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"