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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134016/a-new-species-of-notodiaptomus-from-the-ecuadorian-andes-copepoda-calanoida-diaptomidae
#1
Miguel Alonso, Edinaldo N Dos Santos-Silva, Damià Jaume
Notodiaptomus cannarensissp. n. is described from a reservoir on the Amazonian slope of the Ecuadorian Andes. The new species is unique among diaptomid calanoid copepods in the display of hypertrophied, symmetrical wing-like extensions at each side of the female composite genital somite. Furthermore, it displays a female urosome reduced to only two somites due to the incorporation of abdominal somites III and IV to the composite genital double-somite, and a male right fifth leg with the outer spine of second exopodal segment recurved and implanted proximally on margin...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118635/a-new-species-of-monstrillopsis-crustacea-copepoda-monstrilloida-from-the-lower-northwest-passage-of-the-canadian-arctic
#2
Aurélie Delaforge, Eduardo Suárez-Morales, Wojciech Walkusz, Karley Campbell, C J Mundy
A new species of monstrilloid copepod, Monstrillopsis planifronssp. n., is described from an adult female that was collected beneath snow-covered sea ice during the 2014 Ice Covered Ecosystem - CAMbridge bay Process Study (ICE-CAMPS) in Dease Strait of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Currently, up to six species of this order are known to occur in polar latitudes. The new species described herein shares similarities with Monstrillopsis dubia (Scott, 1904) but differs in its body proportions and cephalothorax ornamentation; the cephalothorax is covered by minute scattered papillae on dorsal and ventral surfaces; this species has a reduced fifth leg endopod, fifth leg exopod armed with three setae, antennule with fused segments 3-4, and the genital double-somite bears unique posterolateral processes...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103952/osteoblast-production-by-reserved-progenitor-cells-in-zebrafish-bone-regeneration-and-maintenance
#3
Kazunori Ando, Eri Shibata, Stefan Hans, Michael Brand, Atsushi Kawakami
Mammals cannot re-form heavily damaged bones as in large fracture gaps, whereas zebrafish efficiently regenerate bones even after amputation of appendages. However, the source of osteoblasts that mediate appendage regeneration is controversial. Several studies in zebrafish have shown that osteoblasts are generated by dedifferentiation of existing osteoblasts at injured sites, but other observations suggest that de novo production of osteoblasts also occurs. In this study, we found from cell-lineage tracing and ablation experiments that a group of cells reserved in niches serves as osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) and has a significant role in fin ray regeneration...
October 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101371/identification-of-novel-cis-regulatory-elements-of-eya1-in-xenopus-laevis-using-bac-recombineering
#4
Santosh Kumar Maharana, Nicolas Pollet, Gerhard Schlosser
The multifunctional Eya1 protein plays important roles during the development of cranial sensory organs and ganglia, kidneys, hypaxial muscles and several other organs in vertebrates. Eya1 is encoded by a complex locus with candidate cis-regulatory elements distributed over a 329 kbp wide genomic region in Xenopus. Consequently, very little is currently known about how expression of Eya1 is controlled by upstream regulators. Here we use a library of Xenopus tropicalis genomic sequences in bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) to analyze the genomic region surrounding the Eya1 locus for enhancer activity...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095923/pofut1-point-mutations-that-disrupt-o-fucosyltransferase-activity-destabilize-the-protein-and-abolish-notch1-signaling-during-mouse-somitogenesis
#5
Rieko Ajima, Emiko Suzuki, Yumiko Saga
The segmental pattern of the vertebrate body is established via the periodic formation of somites from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). This periodical process is controlled by the cyclic and synchronized activation of Notch signaling in the PSM. Protein O-fucosyltransferase1 (Pofut1), which transfers O-fucose to the EGF domains of the Notch1 receptor, is indispensable for Notch signaling activation. The Drosophila homologue Ofut1 was reported to control Notch localization via two different mechanisms, working as a chaperone for Notch or as a regulator of Notch endocytosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089836/three-new-species-of-heteromysis-mysida-mysidae-heteromysini-from-the-cape-peninsula-south-africa-with-first-documentation-of-a-mysid-cephalopod-association
#6
Karl J Wittmann, Charles L Griffiths
Faunistic studies in sublittoral and littoral marine habitats on the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, have yielded three new species belonging to the genus Heteromysis, subgenus Heteromysis: H. cancellisp. n. associated with the diogenid hermit crab Cancellus macrothrix Stebbing, 1924, and H. fosterisp. n. extracted from 'empty' urchin and gastropod shells. The first documented mysid-cephalopod association is reported for H. octopodissp. n. which was found in dens occupied by Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797, but was also captured from tide pools...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079199/chd8short-a-naturally-occurring-truncated-form-of-a-chromatin-remodeler-lacking-the-helicase-domain-is-a-potent-transcriptional-coregulator
#7
Gary R Kunkel, Jessica A Tracy, Frank L Jalufka, Arne C Lekven
Chromodomain-Helicase-DNA binding protein 8 (CHD8) is a member of a large family of eukaryotic ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes. Loss of function alleles of human chd8 are correlated with autism spectrum disorder. The CHD subfamily members contain a tandem pair of chromodomains that are adjacent to a centrally located Snf2-like helicase domain. An alternatively spliced variant mRNA of CHD8 was identified years ago in mammals that encode a truncated form of the protein, called Duplin, that lacks the helicase domain and everything else in the carboxyl direction...
October 24, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078343/dual-origin-of-enteric-neurons-in-vagal-schwann-cell-precursors-and-the-sympathetic-neural-crest
#8
Isabel Espinosa-Medina, Ben Jevans, Franck Boismoreau, Zoubida Chettouh, Hideki Enomoto, Thomas Müller, Carmen Birchmeier, Alan J Burns, Jean-François Brunet
Most of the enteric nervous system derives from the "vagal" neural crest, lying at the level of somites 1-7, which invades the digestive tract rostro-caudally from the foregut to the hindgut. Little is known about the initial phase of this colonization, which brings enteric precursors into the foregut. Here we show that the "vagal crest" subsumes two populations of enteric precursors with contrasted origins, initial modes of migration, and destinations. Crest cells adjacent to somites 1 and 2 produce Schwann cell precursors that colonize the vagus nerve, which in turn guides them into the esophagus and stomach...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068314/a-minimally-sufficient-model-for-rib-proximal-distal-patterning-based-on-genetic-analysis-and-agent-based-simulations
#9
Jennifer L Fogel, Daniel L Lakeland, In Kyoung Mah, Francesca V Mariani
For decades, the mechanism of skeletal patterning along a proximal-distal axis has been an area of intense inquiry. Here, we examine the development of the ribs, simple structures that in most terrestrial vertebrates consist of two skeletal elements-a proximal bone and a distal cartilage portion. While the ribs have been shown to arise from the somites, little is known about how the two segments are specified. During our examination of genetically modified mice, we discovered a series of progressively worsening phenotypes that could not be easily explained...
October 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066359/postimplantation-mga-expression-and-embryonic-lethality-of-two-gene-trap-alleles
#10
Sally F Burn, Andrew J Washkowitz, Svetlana Gavrilov, Virginia E Papaioannou
BACKGROUND: The dual-specificity T-box/basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor MGA is part of the MAX-interacting network of proteins. In the mouse, MGA is necessary for the survival of the pluripotent epiblast cells of the peri-implantation embryo and a null, gene-trap allele Mga(Gt) results in embryonic lethality shortly after implantation. We have used this allele to document expression of Mga in postimplantation embryos and also investigated a second, hypomorphic gene-trap allele, Mga(Inv)...
October 21, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063597/patterning-spinal-nerves-and-vertebral-bones
#11
REVIEW
Roger Keynes
A prominent anatomical feature of the peripheral nervous system is the segmentation of mixed (motor, sensory and autonomic) spinal nerves alongside the spinal cord. During early development their axon growth cones avoid the developing vertebral elements by traversing the anterior/cranial half of each somite-derived sclerotome, so ensuring the separation of spinal nerves from vertebral bones as axons extend towards their peripheral targets. A glycoprotein expressed on the surface of posterior half-sclerotome cells confines growth cones to the anterior half-sclerotomes by contact repulsion...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053691/quantitative-whole-mount-immunofluorescence-analysis-of-cardiac-progenitor-populations-in-mouse-embryos
#12
Evan Bardot, Nikos Tzavaras, Deanna L Benson, Nicole C Dubois
The use of ever-advancing imaging techniques has contributed broadly to our increased understanding of embryonic development. Pre-implantation development and organogenesis are two areas of research that have benefitted greatly from these advances, due to the high quality of data that can be obtained directly from imaging pre-implantation embryos or ex vivo organs. While pre-implantation embryos have yielded data with especially high spatial resolution, later stages have been less amenable to three-dimensional reconstruction...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046533/anatomical-integration-of-the-sacral-hindlimb-unit-coordinated-by-gdf11-underlies-variation-in-hindlimb-positioning-in-tetrapods
#13
Yoshiyuki Matsubara, Tatsuya Hirasawa, Shiro Egawa, Ayumi Hattori, Takaya Suganuma, Yuhei Kohara, Tatsuya Nagai, Koji Tamura, Shigeru Kuratani, Atsushi Kuroiwa, Takayuki Suzuki
Elucidating how body parts from different primordia are integrated during development is essential for understanding the nature of morphological evolution. In tetrapod evolution, while the position of the hindlimb has diversified along with the vertebral formula, the mechanism responsible for this coordination has not been well understood. However, this synchronization suggests the presence of an evolutionarily conserved developmental mechanism that coordinates the positioning of the hindlimb skeleton derived from the lateral plate mesoderm with that of the sacral vertebrae derived from the somites...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027738/the-development-of-the-cucullaris-muscle-and-the-branchial-musculature-in-the-longnose-gar-lepisosteus-osseus-lepisosteiformes-actinopterygii-and-its-implications-for-the-evolution-and-development-of-the-head-trunk-interface-in-vertebrates
#14
Benjamin Naumann, Peter Warth, Lennart Olsson, Peter Konstantinidis
The vertebrate head/trunk interface is the region of the body where the different developmental programs of the head and trunk come in contact. Many anatomical structures that develop in this transition zone differ from similar structures in the head or the trunk. This is best exemplified by the cucullaris/trapezius muscle, spanning the head/trunk interface by connecting the head to the pectoral girdle. The source of this muscle has been claimed to be either the unsegmented head mesoderm or the somites of the trunk...
October 13, 2017: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016128/acute-toxicity-teratogenic-and-estrogenic-effects-of-bisphenol-a-and-its-alternative-replacements-bisphenol-s-bisphenol-f-and-bisphenol-af-in-zebrafish-embryo-larvae
#15
John Moreman, Okhyun Lee, Maciej Trznadel, Arthur David, Tetsuhiro Kudoh, Charles R Tyler
Bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical incorporated into plastics and resins, has estrogenic activity and is associated with adverse health effects in humans and wildlife. Similarly structured BPA analogues are widely used but far less is known about their potential toxicity or estrogenic activity in vivo. We undertook the first comprehensive analysis on the toxicity and teratogenic effects of the bisphenols BPA, BPS, BPF, and BPAF in zebrafish embryo-larvae and an assessment on their estrogenic mechanisms in an estrogen-responsive transgenic fish Tg(ERE:Gal4ff)(UAS:GFP)...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994750/use-of-immunolabeling-to-analyze-stable-dynamic-and-nascent-microtubules-in-the-zebrafish-embryo
#16
Rebecca J McFarland, Sharlene P Brown, Eudorah Vital, Jonathan M Werner, Rachel M Brewster
Microtubules (MTs) are dynamic and fragile structures that are challenging to image in vivo, particularly in vertebrate embryos. Immunolabeling methods are described here to analyze distinct populations of MTs in the developing neural tube of the zebrafish embryo. While the focus is on neural tissue, this methodology is broadly applicable to other tissues. The procedures are optimized for early to mid-somitogenesis-stage embryos (1 somite to 12 somites), however they can be adapted to a range of other stages with relatively minor adjustments...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979923/isolation-of-mouse-cardiac-neural-crest-cells-and-their-differentiation-into-smooth-muscle-cells
#17
Xia Wang, Sophie Astrof
Cardiac neural crest cells (CNCCs) originate at the dorsal edge of the neural tube between the otic pit and the caudal edge of the 3(rd) somite, and migrate into the pharyngeal arches and the heart. We have shown that fibronectin (Fn1) plays an important role in the development of the CNCC by regulating the differentiation of CNCCs into vascular smooth muscle cells around pharyngeal arch arteries (Wang and Astrof, 2016). This protocol describes the isolation of CNCCs from the neural tube and from the caudal pharyngeal arches, and the differentiation of neural crest-derived cells into smooth muscle cells...
September 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972999/effects-of-insulin-like-growth-factors-on-early-embryonic-chick-limb-myogenesis
#18
Rabeea Hazim Mohammed, Helen Anderton, John Michael Brameld, Dylan Sweetman
Limb muscles derive from pax3 expressing precursor cells that migrate from the hypaxial somite into the developing limb bud. Once there they begin to differentiate and express muscle determination genes such as MyoD. This process is regulated by a combination of inductive or inhibitory signals including Fgf18, retinoic acid, HGF, Notch and IGFs. IGFs are well known to affect late stages of muscle development and to promote both proliferation and differentiation. We examined their roles in early stage limb bud myogenesis using chicken embryos as an experimental model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970537/migratory-appendicular-muscles-precursor-cells-in-the-common-ancestor-to-all-vertebrates
#19
Eri Okamoto, Rie Kusakabe, Shigehiro Kuraku, Susumu Hyodo, Alexandre Robert-Moreno, Koh Onimaru, James Sharpe, Shigeru Kuratani, Mikiko Tanaka
In amniote embryos, skeletal muscles in the trunk are derived from epithelial dermomyotomes, the ventral margin of which extends ventrally to form body wall muscles. At limb levels, ventral dermomyotomes also generate limb-muscle precursors, an Lbx1-positive cell population that originates from the dermomyotome and migrates distally into the limb bud. In elasmobranchs, however, muscles in the paired fins were believed to be formed by direct somitic extension, a developmental pattern used by the amniote body wall muscles...
October 2, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959017/the-whhere-coactivator-complex-is-required-for-retinoic-acid-dependent-regulation-of-embryonic-symmetry
#20
Gonçalo C Vilhais-Neto, Marjorie Fournier, Jean-Luc Plassat, Mihaela E Sardiu, Anita Saraf, Jean-Marie Garnier, Mitsuji Maruhashi, Laurence Florens, Michael P Washburn, Olivier Pourquié
Bilateral symmetry is a striking feature of the vertebrate body plan organization. Vertebral precursors, called somites, provide one of the best illustrations of embryonic symmetry. Maintenance of somitogenesis symmetry requires retinoic acid (RA) and its coactivator Rere/Atrophin2. Here, using a proteomic approach we identify a protein complex, containing Wdr5, Hdac1, Hdac2 and Rere (named WHHERE), which regulates RA signaling and controls embryonic symmetry. We demonstrate that Wdr5, Hdac1, and Hdac2 are required for RA signaling in vitro and in vivo...
September 28, 2017: Nature Communications
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