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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813574/dynamic-imaging-of-the-eye-optic-nerve-and-extraocular-muscles-with-golden-angle-radial-mri
#1
Saikat Sengupta, David S Smith, Alex K Smith, E Brian Welch, Seth A Smith
Purpose: The eye and its accessory structures, the optic nerve and the extraocular muscles, form a complex dynamic system. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of this system in motion can have substantial benefits in understanding oculomotor functioning in health and disease, but has been restricted to date to imaging of static gazes only. The purpose of this work was to develop a technique to image the eye and its accessory visual structures in motion. Methods: Dynamic imaging of the eye was developed on a 3-Tesla MRI scanner, based on a golden angle radial sequence that allows freely selectable frame-rate and temporal-span image reconstructions from the same acquired data set...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808233/the-influence-of-affective-state-on-exogenous-attention-to-emotional-distractors-behavioral-and-electrophysiological-correlates
#2
Alejandra Carboni, Dominique Kessel, Almudena Capilla, Luis Carretié
The interplay between exogenous attention to emotional distractors and the baseline affective state has not been well established yet. The present study aimed to explore this issue through behavioral measures and event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants (N = 30) completed a digit categorization task depicted over negative, positive or neutral distractor background pictures, while they experienced negative, positive and neutral affective states elicited by movie scenes. Behavioral results showed higher error rates and longer reaction times for negative distractors than for neutral and positive ones, irrespective of the current emotional state...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803040/attachment-and-thought-problems-in-an-adolescent-inpatient-sample-the-mediational-role-of-theory-of-mind
#3
Jessica R Hart, Amanda Venta, Carla Sharp
BACKGROUND: Previous research has documented increased incidence of insecure attachment and theory of mind (ToM) deficits in individuals experiencing psychotic disorders. ToM has been theorized as a possible mediator of the relation between attachment and psychosis (Korver-Nieberg et al., 2014). The current study sought to extend this area of research to adolescents for the first time by examining adolescent-parent attachment and ToM in inpatient adolescents. METHODS: Participants were 362 inpatient adolescents and their parents; participants completed the Child Attachment Interview, Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, Youth Self Report, and Child Behavior Checklist...
July 13, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802702/novel-method-of-extracting-motion-from-natural-movies
#4
Wataru Suzuki, Noritaka Ichinohe, Toshiki Tani, Taku Hayami, Naohisa Miyakawa, Satoshi Watanabe, Hiroshige Takeichi
BACKGROUND: The visual system in primates can be segregated into motion and shape pathways. Interaction occurs at multiple stages along these pathways. Processing of shape-from-motion and biological motion is considered to be a higher-order integration process involving motion and shape information. However, relatively limited types of stimuli have been used in previous studies on these integration processes. NEW METHOD: We propose a new algorithm to extract object motion information from natural movies and to move random dots in accordance with the information...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801255/decoding-naturalistic-experiences-from-human-brain-activity-via-distributed-representations-of-words
#5
REVIEW
Satoshi Nishida, Shinji Nishimoto
Natural visual scenes induce rich perceptual experiences that are highly diverse from scene to scene and from person to person. Here, we propose a new framework for decoding such experiences using a distributed representation of words. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity evoked by natural movie scenes. Then, we constructed a high-dimensional feature space of perceptual experiences using skip-gram, a state-of-the-art distributed word embedding model. We built a decoder that associates brain activity with perceptual experiences via the distributed word representation...
August 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779837/single-molecule-fluorescence-studies-of-membrane-transporters-using-total-internal-reflection-microscopy
#6
Joris M H Goudsmits, Antoine M van Oijen, Dirk J Slotboom
Cells are delineated by a lipid bilayer that physically separates the inside from the outer environment. Most polar, charged, or large molecules require proteins to reduce the energetic barrier for passage across the membrane and to achieve transport rates that are relevant for life. Here, we describe techniques to visualize the functioning of membrane transport proteins with fluorescent probes at the single-molecule level. First, we explain how to produce membrane-reconstituted transporters with fluorescent labels...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769841/relative-time-compression-for-slow-motion-stimuli-through-rapid-recalibration
#7
Saya Kashiwakura, Isamu Motoyoshi
A number of psychophysical studies have shown that moving stimuli appear to last longer than static stimuli. Here, we report that the perceived duration for slow moving stimuli can be shorter than for static stimuli under specific circumstances. Observers were tested using natural movies presented at various speeds (0.0× = static, 0.25× = slow, or 1.9× = fast, relative to original speed) and indicated whether test duration was perceived as longer or shorter than comparison movies presented at their original speed...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765130/the-child-s-perspective-on-discomfort-during-medical-research-procedures-a-descriptive-study
#8
Mira S Staphorst, Marc A Benninga, Margriet Bisschoff, Irma Bon, Jan J V Busschbach, Kay Diederen, Johannes B van Goudoever, Eric G Haarman, Joke A M Hunfeld, Vincent V W Jaddoe, Karin J M de Jong, Johan C de Jongste, Angelika Kindermann, Marsh Königs, Jaap Oosterlaan, Jan Passchier, Mariëlle W Pijnenburg, Liesbeth Reneman, Lissy de Ridder, Hyke G Tamminga, Henning W Tiemeier, Reinier Timman, Suzanne van de Vathorst
OBJECTIVE: The evaluation of discomfort in paediatric research is scarcely evidence-based. In this study, we make a start in describing children's self-reported discomfort during common medical research procedures and compare this with discomfort during dental check-ups which can be considered as a reference level of a 'minimal discomfort' medical procedure. We exploratory study whether there are associations between age, anxiety-proneness, gender, medical condition, previous experiences and discomfort...
August 1, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763527/speed-size-illusion-correlates-with-retinal-level-motion-statistics
#9
Zixin Yong, Po-Jang Hsieh
It is a common perceptual experience that smaller objects appear to move faster than larger ones when their physical speeds are the same in either the laboratory or daily life. In this study, we show that the speed-size illusion is correlated with retinal image speed distribution bias. The illusion was quantified with a two-alternative, forced choice speed comparison paradigm, and retinal image speed distributions for different image sizes were obtained by simulation. Simulation results show that smaller retinal images tend to have slower projected speed, and the retinal image speed distribution bias correlates with the strength of the speed-size illusion...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762198/directly-watching-biomolecules-in-action-by-high-speed-atomic-force-microscopy
#10
REVIEW
Toshio Ando
Proteins are dynamic in nature and work at the single molecule level. Therefore, directly watching protein molecules in dynamic action at high spatiotemporal resolution must be the most straightforward approach to understanding how they function. To make this observation possible, high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) has been developed. Its current performance allows us to film biological molecules at 10-16 frames/s, without disturbing their function. In fact, dynamic structures and processes of various proteins have been successfully visualized, including bacteriorhodopsin responding to light, myosin V walking on actin filaments, and even intrinsically disordered proteins undergoing order/disorder transitions...
July 31, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757306/functional-subpopulations-of-neurons-in-a-macaque-face-patch-revealed-by-single-unit-fmri-mapping
#11
Soo Hyun Park, Brian E Russ, David B T McMahon, Kenji W Koyano, Rebecca A Berman, David A Leopold
Neurons within fMRI-defined face patches of the macaque brain exhibit shared categorical responses to flashed images but diverge in their responses under more natural viewing conditions. Here we investigate functional diversity among neurons in the anterior fundus (AF) face patch, combining whole-brain fMRI with longitudinal single-unit recordings in a local population (<1 mm(3)). For each cell, we computed a whole-brain correlation map based on its shared time course with voxels throughout the brain during naturalistic movie viewing...
July 24, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753448/negativity-bias-and-instability-in-spontaneous-and-deliberate-evaluations-of-others-the-role-of-borderline-personality-features
#12
Félix Gauthier Mongeon, Jean Gagnon
This study tested the hypotheses that borderline personality (BP) features are characterized by a negativity bias and instability in spontaneous and deliberate evaluations of others. Undergraduate women (N = 204) watched two movie clips depicting either positive or negative conjugal interactions. Spontaneous and deliberate evaluations of the male character were assessed after each clip with an Evaluative Priming Task and a self-report measure, respectively. Participants with high BP features showed unstable spontaneous evaluations...
July 19, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752782/the-feasibility-of-substituting-left-atrial-wall-strain-for-flow-velocity-of-left-atrial-appendage
#13
Akihito Miyoshi, Yoichi Nakamura, Yukio Kazatani, Hiroshi Ito
OBJECTIVE: Non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is frequently complicated by thromboembolism. Left atrial appendage (LAA) flow is a predictor of LAA thrombosis. LAA flow is measured by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), which is a semi-invasive diagnostic tool. Recently, speckle-tracking methods have been adapted for the evaluation of local cardiac function. We hypothesised that if we could determine LAA wall motion utilising a speckle tracking technique, we could non-invasively analyse LAA flow...
July 28, 2017: Acta Cardiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752108/measuring-behavioral-individuality-in-the-acoustic-startle-behavior-in-zebrafish
#14
Carlos Pantoja, Adam Hoagland, Elizabeth Carroll, David Schoppik, Ehud Y Isacoff
The objective of this protocol is to provide a detailed description for the construction and use of a behavioral apparatus, the zBox, for high-throughput behavioral measurements in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio). The zBox is used to measure behavior in multiple individuals simultaneously. Individual fish are housed in wells of multi-well plates and receive acoustic/vibration stimuli with simultaneous recording of behavior. Automated analysis of behavioral movies is performed with MATLAB scripts. This protocol was adapted from two of our previously published papers (Levitz et al...
April 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751744/laboratory-based-x-ray-phase-imaging-scanner-using-talbot-lau-interferometer-for-non-destructive-testing
#15
Shivaji Bachche, Masahiro Nonoguchi, Koichi Kato, Masashi Kageyama, Takafumi Koike, Masaru Kuribayashi, Atsushi Momose
An X-ray Talbot-Lau interferometer scanning setup consisting of three transmission gratings, a laboratory-based X-ray source that emits X-rays vertically, and an image detector on the top has been developed for the application of X-ray phase imaging to moving objects that cannot be tested clearly with conventional absorption contrast. The grating-based X-ray phase imaging method usually employs a phase-stepping (or fringe-scanning) technique by displacing one of the gratings step-by-step while the object stays still...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749630/influence-of-training-about-carcinogenic-effects-of-hookah-smoking-on-the-awareness-attitude-and-performance-of-women
#16
Saideh Mahoozi, Mohammad Heidari, Sara Shahbazi, Ladan Naseh
Background: Wrong attitudes and beliefs about the less carcinogenic effects of hookah smoking comparing to cigarette, easy availability, low cost, and other factors have caused that the usage of hookah smoking increase a lot in our country. Objective: This study has been done with the purpose of examining the influence of education about carcinogenic effects of hookah smoking on the awareness, attitude, and performance of women who refer to the healthcare and medical treatment centers. Materials and Methods: At this semi experimental study, 60 women who refer to the medical and hygienic centers of Bushehr were placed in 3 educational groups based on simple accidental sampling...
July 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747663/four-dimensional-material-movies-high-speed-phase-contrast-tomography-by-backprojection-along-dynamically-curved-paths
#17
A Ruhlandt, M Töpperwien, M Krenkel, R Mokso, T Salditt
We present an approach towards four dimensional (4d) movies of materials, showing dynamic processes within the entire 3d structure. The method is based on tomographic reconstruction on dynamically curved paths using a motion model estimated by optical flow techniques, considerably reducing the typical motion artefacts of dynamic tomography. At the same time we exploit x-ray phase contrast based on free propagation to enhance the signal from micron scale structure recorded with illumination times down to a millisecond (ms)...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742452/-the-third-sex-is-here-to-stay-rhetorical-reconstructions-of-lesbian-sexuality-in-vice-versa
#18
Kate Litterer
Vice Versa, published in Los Angeles from 1947-1948 and regarded as the first lesbian periodical in the United States, was authored and edited by Lisa Ben (anagram for "lesbian"). While Vice Versa is lauded for inspiring later lesbian publications, little scholarship has analyzed the magazine's contents. Queer rhetorical analysis allows me to demonstrate the integral role Vice Versa played in counteracting cultural and medical classifications of lesbians during the 1940s. Through an analysis of Vice Versa's book and movie reviews, an editorial, and creative writing, this article analyzes the way Ben uses queer rhetoric to turn narratives of medical and psychological deviancy and inferiority into a means for empowerment and community building...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Lesbian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729870/plastid-nucleus-distance-alters-the-behavior-of-stromules
#19
Jessica L Erickson, Matthias Kantek, Martin H Schattat
Plastids send "retrograde" signals to the nucleus to deliver information regarding their physiological status. One open question concerning this signal transfer is how the signal bridges the cytoplasm. Based on individual reports of plastid derived tubular membrane extensions connecting to nuclei, these so-called stromules have been suggested to function as communication routes between plastids and nuclei in response to biotic stress. However, based on the data currently available it is unclear whether interactions between stromules and nuclei are truly intentional or observed as a result of an inflated stromule frequency throughout the cell, and are thus a random event...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724419/real-life-clinical-practice-results-with-vinflunine-in-patients-with-relapsed-platinum-treated-metastatic-urothelial-carcinoma-an-italian-multicenter-study-movie-goirc-01-2014
#20
Rodolfo Passalacqua, Silvia Lazzarelli, Maddalena Donini, Rodolfo Montironi, Rosa Tambaro, Ugo De Giorgi, Sandro Pignata, Raffaella Palumbo, Giovanni Luca Ceresoli, Gianluca Del Conte, Giuseppe Tonini, Franco Morelli, Franco Nolè, Stefano Panni, Ermanno Rondini, Annalisa Guida, Paolo Andrea Zucali, Laura Doni, Elisa Iezzi, Caterina Caminiti
BACKGROUND: Vinflunine is the only chemotherapeutic agent shown to improve survival in platinum-refractory patients with metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium (TCCU) in a phase III clinical trial, which led to product registration for this indication in Europe. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of vinflunine and to evaluate the prognostic significance of risk factors in a large, unselected cohort of patients with metastatic TCCU treated according to routine clinical practice...
July 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
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