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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918553/characteristic-of-microplastics-in-the-atmospheric-fallout-from-dongguan-city-china-preliminary-research-and-first-evidence
#1
Liqi Cai, Jundong Wang, Jinping Peng, Zhi Tan, Zhiwei Zhan, Xiangling Tan, Qiuqiang Chen
Microplastic pollution has exhibited a global distribution, including seas, lakes, rivers, and terrestrial environment in recent years. However, little attention was paid on the atmospheric environment, though the fact that plastic debris can escape as wind-blown debris was previously reported. Thus, characteristics of microplastics in the atmospheric fallout from Dongguan city were preliminarily studied. Microplastics of three different polymers, i.e., PE, PP, and PS, were identified. Diverse shapes of microplastics including fiber, foam, fragment, and film were found, and fiber was the dominant shape of the microplastics...
September 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918187/surface-modification-of-titanium-substrates-for-enhanced-osteogenetic-and-antibacterial-properties
#2
Peng Liu, Yansha Hao, Yongchun Zhao, Zhang Yuan, Yao Ding, Kaiyong Cai
The insufficient osseointegration and bacterial infection of titanium and its alloys remain the key challenges in their clinic applications, which may result in failure implantation. To improve osteogenetic and antibacterial properties, TiO2 nanotube arrays were fabricated on titanium substrates for loading of antibacterial drug. Then, TiO2 nanotube arrays were covered with chitosan/sodium alginate multilayer films. The successful construction of this system was verified via scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurement...
August 26, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917926/bioadhesive-and-biocompatible-films-as-wound-dressing-materials-based-on-a-novel-dendronized-chitosan-loaded-with-ciprofloxacin
#3
Mónica C García, Ana A Aldana, Luis I Tártara, Fabiana Alovero, Miriam C Strumia, Rubén H Manzo, Marisa Martinelli, Alvaro F Jimenez-Kairuz
The bioadhesive polymeric films as topical drug delivery systems are interesting alternatives to improve the pharmacotherapy and patient compliances. New derivate biomaterials based on weisocyanate- dendronized PVP- crosslinked chitosan and loaded with ciprofloxacin (CIP), as model drug, were used to prepare bioadhesive films. Relevant in vitro/in vivo attributes to define main physicochemical and biopharmaceutical characteristics for topical wound-healing applications were evaluated. A high proportion of CIP, uniformly dispersed along throughout the film, was loaded...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917921/effect-of-oxidized-chitin-nanocrystals-isolated-by-ammonium-persulfate-method-on-the-properties-of-carboxymethyl-cellulose-based-films
#4
Ahmed A Oun, Jong-Whan Rhim
Oxidized chitin nanocrystals (ChNCs) were isolated from crab shell chitin using ammonium persulfate (APS) method. The oxidized ChNCs were in needle shape with a diameter of 15nm, the length of 400-500nm, and crystallinity index of 93.5%. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-based films reinforced with the ChNCs (0, 1, 5, and 10wt.%) were flexible and transparent. The mechanical strength of the CMC film increased significantly (p<0.05) after blending with the ChNCs. The tensile strength (TS) and elastic modulus (EM) increased by 88% and 243% when 10wt...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917910/cota-laccase-abts-hydrogen-peroxide-system-an-efficient-approach-to-produce-active-and-decolorized-chitosan-genipin-films
#5
Idalina Gonçalves, Cláudia Nunes, Sónia Mendes, Lígia O Martins, Paula Ferreira, Manuel A Coimbra
Chitosan-genipin films present a bluish-green color due to the conjugated double bonds formed when monomeric or dimeric genipin residues bridge chitosan. This phenomenon limits their use when colorless materials are required. In this work, a two-step oxidation strategy was developed aiming to remove color from chitosan-genipin films while preserving their functional properties. A combined system using the recombinant CotA laccase from Bacillus subtilis mediated by 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) followed by a H2O2 oxidation step was settled...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917909/development-of-poly-1-8-octanediol-citrate-chitosan-blend-films-for-tissue-engineering-applications
#6
Ehsan Zeimaran, Sara Pourshahrestani, Belinda Pingguan-Murphy, Daniel Kong, Sangeetha Vasudevaraj Naveen, Tunku Kamarul, Nahrizul Adib Kadri
Blends of poly (1, 8-octanediol citrate) (POC) and chitosan (CS) were prepared through solution casting technique. Films with different component fractions (POC/CS: 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40, and 0/100) were successfully prepared and characterized for their mechanical, thermal, structural and morphological properties as well as biocompatibility. The incorporation of CS to POC significantly increased tensile strength and elastic modulus and presented limited influences on pH variation which is important to the biocompatibility of biomaterial implants...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917900/mineralized-agar-based-nanocomposite-films-potential-food-packaging-materials-with-antimicrobial-properties
#7
Ivana Malagurski, Steva Levic, Aleksandra Nesic, Miodrag Mitric, Vladimir Pavlovic, Suzana Dimitrijevic-Brankovic
New mineralized, agar-based nanocomposite films (Zn-carbonate and Zn-phosphate/agar) were produced by a combination of in situ precipitation and a casting method. The presence of minerals significantly influenced the morphology, properties and functionality of the obtained nanocomposites. Reinforcement with the Zn-mineral phase improved the mechanical properties of the carbonate-mineralized films, but had a negligible effect on the phosphate-mineralized samples. Both nanocomposites showed improved optical and thermal properties, better Zn(II) release potential in a slightly acidic environment and exhibited antimicrobial activity against S...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917885/magnetic-cellulose-nanocrystal-nanocomposites-for-the-development-of-green-functional-materials
#8
E Lizundia, A Maceiras, J L Vilas, P Martins, S Lanceros-Mendez
A magnetic cellulosic material composed of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles was developed through evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA). Nanoparticles demonstrated good dispersibility within the cellulose nanocrystal template. The addition of glucose to CNC network allows the development of homogeneous crack-free CNC-based films and does no modify neither the morphology nor the optical properties. In contrast, the introduction of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles produces a marked decrease in the amount of the transmitted light...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917884/%C3%AE%C2%BA-carrageenan-locust-bean-gum-as-hard-capsule-gelling-agents
#9
Huanghuang He, Jing Ye, Xueqin Zhang, Yayan Huang, Xiaohui Li, Meitian Xiao
A novel gelling agent, comprising blended κ-carrageenan (κ-C), a seaweed polysaccharide and locust bean gum (LBG), was used to prepare hard capsules. The distinct synergism between κ-C and LBG were verified by the textural profile analysis (TPA), FTIR and rheological measurement. Afterwards, films and hard capsules were prepared with the optimized LBG/κ-C blend gel. And the mechanical properties and morphology of films and hard capsules were analyzed by tensile testing and SEM, respectively. The results showed that the LBG/κ-C at 1:3 ratio could serve as an excellent gelling agent, which endowed hard capsule with the promoted mechanical properties, homogenous and smooth surface morphology...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917880/intercalated-chitosan-hydroxyapatite-nanocomposites-promising-materials-for-bone-tissue-engineering-applications
#10
Muhammad Anwaar Nazeer, Emel Yilgör, Iskender Yilgör
Preparation and characterization of chitosan/hydroxyapatite (CS/HA) nanocomposites displaying an intercalated structure is reported. Hydroxyapatite was synthesized through sol-gel process. Formic acid was introduced as a new solvent to obtain stable dispersions of nano-sized HA particles in polymer solution. CS/HA dispersions with HA contents of 5, 10 and 20% by weight were prepared. Self-assembling of HA nanoparticles during the drying of the solvent cast films led to the formation of homogeneous CS/HA nanocomposites...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917873/bionanocomposites-produced-from-cassava-starch-and-oil-palm-mesocarp-cellulose-nanowhiskers
#11
Adriana de Campos, Alfredo R de Sena Neto, Vanessa B Rodrigues, Bruno R Luchesi, Francys K V Moreira, Ana Carolina Correa, Luiz H C Mattoso, José M Marconcini
Cassava starch films reinforced with cellulose nanowhiskers from oil palm mesocarp fibers were produced by casting. Nanowhiskers were obtained by sulphuric acid hydrolysis followed by microfluidization and incorporated in starch films at various loadings (1-10wt%). Morphological and mechanical characterizations showed that the reinforcing effect of oil palm cellulose nanowhiskers was significant at loadings of up to 6wt%, which was determined to be the nanowhiskers percolation threshold. Above this content, formation of agglomerates became more significant, causing a decrease in mechanical properties of starch bionanocomposites...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917867/nanocrystalline-cellulose-isolated-from-discarded-cigarette-filters
#12
Segun A Ogundare, Vashen Moodley, Werner E van Zyl
We report the isolation of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) produced from discarded cigarette filters (DCF). The DCF were processed into cellulose via ethanolic extraction, hypochlorite bleaching, alkaline deacetylation, and then converted into NCC by sulfuric acid hydrolysis. The morphological structures of the isolated NCC established with TEM showed that the nanocrystals were needle-like with a mean length of 143nm. FEGSEM showed the morphological transition of the micro-sized DCF to self-assembled NCC while EDX revealed the presence of Ti (as TiO2) in DCF, which was retained in the NCC...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917862/antibacterial-hydroxypropyl-methyl-cellulose-edible-films-containing-nanoemulsions-of-thymus-daenensis-essential-oil-for-food-packaging
#13
Roya Moghimi, Atousa Aliahmadi, Hasan Rafati
Edible films containing essential oils (EO) as natural antibacterial agents are promising systems for food preservation. In this work, nanoemulsions of Thymus daenensis EO (wild; F1 and cultivated; F2) were loaded in hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) films and the effect of different parameters (polymer, plasticizer, and EO concentration) on the film properties were analyzed and optimized. Prepared HPMC films were characterized in terms of EO loading, morphology, mechanical properties, and the antibacterial activity...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917847/release-of-polyphenols-from-starch-chitosan-based-films-containing-thyme-extract
#14
Emma Talón, Kata T Trifkovic, María Vargas, Amparo Chiralt, Chelo González-Martínez
The release kinetics of thyme extract polyphenols (TE) from chitosan (CH), pea starch (S) and CH:S blend films in different solvents was evaluated, as well as their antioxidant activity in each release media. Pure starch films showed the fastest delivery rate and the highest delivery ratio of polyphenols, although the corresponding release media exhibited the lowest antioxidant capacity. TE provided CH based films with remarkable antioxidant activity, despite the lower polyphenol release obtained in all solvents, due to the strong polyphenols-chitosan interactions...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917811/electrochemical-characterization-of-in-situ-functionalized-gold-organosulfur-self-assembled-monolayer-with-conducting-polymer-and-carbon-nanotubes-for-determination-of-rutin
#15
Majid Arvand, Mona Farahpour, Masoomeh Sayyar Ardaki
In this study, attempts were made to present a sensitive strategy for determining rutin. To reach the goal of the study, a poly(sulfosalicylic acid) film was electropolymerized on a gold electrode, which was modified by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole self-assembled monolayer and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PSSA/CNTs/MBT/Au). The proposed sensor was characterized by different techniques including field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917810/nano-hemoglobin-film-based-sextet-state-biomemory-device-by-cross-linked-photosensitive-hapten-monomer
#16
Remziye Güzel, Arzu Ersöz, Recep Ziyadanoğulları, Rıdvan Say
In this study, a biomemory device, consisting of hemoglobin (Hb) cross-linked by MACys-Ru(bipyr)2-MACys) photosensitive monomer cross-linkers, which have memory effect through both Ru(3+/2+) in hapten monomer and Fe(3+/2+) in redox active center of Hb through multi-charge transfer mechanism, has been improved. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) has been used to determine the redox property of the Hb cross-linked MACys-Ru(bipyr)2-MACys) hapten. Three memory functions, writing, reading and erasing of the fabricated biomemory device, have been accomplished by chronoamperometry (CA) and open-circuit potential amperometry (OCPA)...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917796/simultaneous-phase-inversion-and-imprinting-based-sensor-for-highly-sensitive-and-selective-detection-of-bisphenol-a
#17
Qian Yang, Xiaqing Wu, Hailong Peng, Longwen Fu, Xingliang Song, Jinhua Li, Hua Xiong, Lingxin Chen
A novel recognition element of molecularly imprinted films (MIFs) was synthesized by wet phase inversion (WPI) on the surface of Ti/TiO2 electrode for highly selective and sensitive electrochemical detection of bisphenol A (BPA). The Ti/TiO2/MIFs sensor was constructed by casting the precursor poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) (p(AN-co-AA)) in dimethyl sulfoxide containing template molecule BPA onto the electrode and then immersing into water, resulting in simultaneous p(AN-co-AA) precipitation and BPA imprinting via the facile WPI...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917737/3-4-diaminotoluene-sensor-development-based-on-hydrothermally-prepared-mncoxoy-nanoparticles
#18
Mohammed M Rahman, M M Alam, Abdullah M Asiri, M A Islam
A facile hydrothermal process was used to prepare MnCoxOy nanoparticles (NPs) in alkaline medium (pH~10.5) at room temperature. The NPs were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV/vis), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). A thin layer of NPs film as a chemical sensor was fabricated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with the help of a conducting binder...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917125/what-makes-a-face-photo-a-good-likeness
#19
Kay L Ritchie, Robin S S Kramer, A Mike Burton
Photographs of people are commonly said to be 'good likenesses' or 'poor likenesses', and this is a concept that we readily understand. Despite this, there has been no systematic investigation of what makes an image a good likeness, or of which cognitive processes are involved in making such a judgement. In three experiments, we investigate likeness judgements for different types of images: natural images of film stars (Experiment 1), images of film stars from specific films (Experiment 2), and iconic images and face averages (Experiment 3)...
September 13, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917009/preparation-characterization-and-in-vitro%C3%A2-%C3%A2-in-vivo-evaluation-of-oral-time-controlled-release-etodolac-pellets
#20
Xiaoyu Zhang, Qi Li, Mingzhu Ye, Zhinan Zhao, Jiayi Sun, Xinggang Yang, Weisan Pan
The objective of this study was to prepare time-controlled release etodolac pellets to facilitate drug administration according to the body's biological rhythm, optimize the drug's desired effects, and minimize adverse effects. The preparation consisted of three laminal layers from center to outside: the core, the swelling layer, and the insoluble polymer membrane. Factors influenced the core and the coating films were investigated in this study. The core pellets formulated with etodolac, lactose, and sodium carboxymethyl starch (CMS-Na) were prepared by extrusion-spheronization and then coated by a fluidized bed coater...
September 15, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
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