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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721219/two-rare-manifestations-of-primary-hyperparathyroidism-paralysis-and-peptic-ulcer-bleeding
#1
Maryam Heidarpour, Mehdi Karami, Pegah Hedayat, Ashraf Aminorroaya
Primary hyperparathyroidism revealed by thoracic spine brown tumor and peptic ulcer bleeding is rare. We presented a case of 33-year-old male patient who was admitted with paraplegia. Thoracic spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed extradural lesion at T4 level. He underwent surgical decompression in T4. According to histopathologic finding and elevated serum parathormone (PTH) and hypercalcemia (total serum calcium 12.1 mg/dL), the diagnosis of brown tumor was down. Ultrasonography of his neck showed a well-defined lesion of 26 × 14 × 6 mm...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717990/iron-based-phosphate-binders-a-paradigm-shift-in-the-treatment-of-hyperphosphatemic-anemic-ckd-patients
#2
REVIEW
Francesco Locatelli, Lucia Del Vecchio
The partial correction of anemia and the normalization of phosphate and blood pressure are the mainstay of treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Available anti-hypertensive drugs, erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) and iron supplements have resolved quite satisfactorily the goal of controlling hypertension and partially correcting anemia. Unfortunately, the treatment of hyperphosphatemia is still far from resolved. Phosphate binders have poor tolerability and/or limited efficacy, leading to the prescription of many tablets that achieve only a mild-to-moderate effect...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715143/repetitive-short-span-application-of-extracellular-calcium-is-osteopromotive-to-osteoprogenitor-cells
#3
Hyungjin Jung, Thomas Mbimba, Mustafa Unal, Ozan Akkus
Extracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ]E ) concentration has been suggested to stimulate osteoblastic activity; thus, calcium can be used to enhance fracture healing. However, systemic administration of calcium at high dose levels may cause physiological problems such as hypercalcemia. Short span application of single or repetitive [Ca(2+) ]E stimulus may be suggested as a novel regimen to reduce such side effects. However, osteopromotive effect of such short term [Ca(2+) ]E stimulus on osteoprogenitor cells has not yet been evaluated yet...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690726/-giant-parathyroid-carcinoma-diagnostic-difficulties-and-therapeutic-strategies
#4
Ilias Benchafai, Leila Afani, Noureddine Errami, Bouchaib Hemmaoui, Hassan Errihani, Fouad Benariba
Parathyroid carcinoma is a very rare malignancy responsible for 0.4 to 5.2% of hyperparathyroidism. Clinical diagnosis is difficult and treatment should be codified. Surgery is the only curative treatment. We report the case of a female patient treated for malignancy-associated hypercalcemia revealing parathyroid carcinoma. The patient underwent surgery; after three months she developed lymphatic recurrence. Given the absence of other secondary involvement, bilateral lymph node dissection followed by chemotherapy was performed...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680788/profile-of-abaloparatide-and-its-potential-in-the-treatment-of-postmenopausal-osteoporosis
#5
REVIEW
Sri Harsha Tella, Anuhya Kommalapati, Ricardo Correa
Abaloparatide (previously known as BA058) is a synthetic 34-amino acid peptide and novel selective activator of parathyroid hormone receptor 1 (PTHR1) currently under development as a new anabolic agent in the management of osteoporosis. This paper reviews the profile and potential of abaloparatide in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. This paper is based on clinical trials and a PubMed search. Search terms used were "abaloparatide", "BA058", and "PTHrP". This review outlines the effects of this anabolic PTHR1 activator, which increases bone mineral density in patients at high risk for osteoporosis...
May 31, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675766/hypercalcemia-remains-an-adverse-prognostic-factor%C3%A2-for-newly-diagnosed-multiple-myeloma-patients-in-the-era-of-novel-anti-myeloma-therapies
#6
Flora Zagouri, Efstathios Kastritis, Athanasios Zomas, Evangelos Terpos, Eirini Katodritou, Argiris Symeonidis, Sosana Delimpasi, Anastasia Pouli, Theodoros P Vassilakopoulos, Eurydiki Michalis, Stavroula Giannouli, Zafiris Kartasis, Anna Christoforidou, Kiriaki Kokoviadou, Eleftheria Hatzimichael, Dimitra Gika, Catherine Megalakaki, Maria Papaioannou, Marie-Christine Kyrtsonis, Kostas Konstantopoulos, Meletios A Dimopoulos
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prognostic impact of hypercalcemia in newly diagnosed patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM), especially after the incorporation of new agents. METHODS: we analyzed the outcomes of newly diagnosed patients with symptomatic myeloma included in the database of the Greek Myeloma Study Group for the prognostic effect of the presence of hypercalcemia (defined as corrected serum calcium ≥11 mg/dl) at diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 2129 consecutive patients with symptomatic MM, 19...
July 4, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671172/gastric-and-pulmonary-sarcoidosis-complicated-by-hypercalcemia-and-acute-renal-failure-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
A S Deepa, Vivek Anand Padegal, K S Poorna Chandra, H K Santhosh
Gastric sarcoidosis is a very rare manifestation of sarcoidosis. Only few case reports have been described in the literature. We present a case of coexisting gastric and pulmonary sarcoidosis in a 56-year-old female, who presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastric mucosal biopsies, transbronchial needle aspiration, and endobronchial mucosal biopsies revealed noncaseating granulomas. This case report emphasizes on early evaluation of other organ system and initiation of treatment.
July 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660709/patient-characteristics-prognostic-factors-and-outcome-of-dogs-with-high-grade-primary-mediastinal-lymphoma
#8
E L Moore, W Vernau, R B Rebhun, K A Skorupski, J H Burton
The goals of this retrospective study were to determine the patient characteristics of dogs with high-grade primary mediastinal lymphoma and to determine outcome and associated prognostic factors. A total of 42 dogs were identified, in which 36 received treatment and had follow-up information available. The most common clinical signs included lethargy, anorexia and polyuria/polydipsia. Hypercalcemia and pleural effusion were common findings at diagnosis. The phenotype was almost exclusively T-cell, most often in association with lymphoblastic cytomorphology as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) lymphoma classification scheme...
June 28, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658983/melphalan-hydrochloride-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-myeloma
#9
Fabrizio Esma, Marco Salvini, Rossella Troia, Mario Boccadoro, Alessandra Larocca, Chiara Pautasso
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable disease characterized by clonal plasma cell proliferation and overproduction of monoclonal paraprotein, hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, osteolytic bone lesions, and infections. Melphalan, a nitrogen mustard, is an alkylating agent synthesized in 1953, and it has been used in multiple myeloma therapy for fifty years. Although novel agents have been introduced in the past few decades improving prognosis of the disease, melphalan still maintains a crucial role in the treatment of MM acting both as cytotoxic agent through damage to DNA, and as immunostimulatory drug by inhibiting Interleukin-6, as well as interaction with dendritic cells, and immunogenic effects in tumor microenvironment...
August 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652455/rapid-progressive-disease-after-nivolumab-therapy-in-three-patients-with-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#10
Yuki Kobari, Tsunenori Kondo, Toshio Takagi, Kenji Omae, Hayakazu Nakazawa, Kazunari Tanabe
BACKGROUND/AIM: Rapid progressive disease (RPD), accelerated tumour growth immediate after the initiation of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy, has been reported in melanoma and lung cancer. Herein, we describe 3 cases of RPD during the initial phase of nivolumab treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The first and second patients received nivolumab in the fourth-line setting. The third patient received nivolumab therapy as third-line treatment...
July 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651310/clinicopathological-characteristics-of-extremely-young-korean-multiple-myeloma-patients-therapeutic-implications
#11
Junghoon Shin, Youngil Koh, Jeonghwan Youk, Miso Kim, Byung Soo Kim, Chul Won Choi, Hwa Jung Sung, Yong Park, Sung-Soo Yoon, Inho Kim
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although multiple myeloma (MM) is typically a disease of the elderly, a certain subset of extremely young patients exists. It is necessary to establish clinicopathological characteristics for this population. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of MM patients whose age was 40 years or younger at diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 32 patients were analyzed (male to female ratio 19:13, median age 37 years). According to International Staging System, 29%, 48%, and 16% were in stage I, II, and III, respectively...
July 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643220/denosumab-an-emerging-therapy-in-pediatric-bone-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Alison M Boyce
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Denosumab is an inhibitor of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and has emerged as an important novel therapy for skeletal disorders. This article examines the use of denosumab in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Considerable safety and efficacy data exists for denosumab treatment of adults with osteoporosis, bone metastases, and giant cell tumors. Pediatric data is limited; however, evidence suggests denosumab may be beneficial in decreasing bone turnover, increasing bone density, and preventing growth of certain skeletal neoplasms in children...
June 22, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639211/selective-venous-sampling-for-primary-hyperparathyroidism-how-to-perform-an-examination-and-interpret-the-results-with-reference-to-thyroid-vein-anatomy
#13
REVIEW
Takayuki Yamada, Masaya Ikuno, Yasumoto Shinjo, Atsushi Hiroishi, Shoichiro Matsushita, Tsuyoshi Morimoto, Reiko Kumano, Kunihiro Yagihashi, Takuyuki Katabami
Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) causes hypercalcemia. The treatment for pHPT is surgical dissection of the hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland. Lower rates of hypocalcemia and recurrent laryngeal nerve injury imply that minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) is safer than bilateral neck resection. Current trends in MIP use can be inferred only by reference to preoperative localization studies. Noninvasive imaging studies (typically preoperative localization studies) show good detection rates of hyperfunctioning glands; however, there have also been cases of nonlocalization or discordant results...
June 21, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597402/metastatic-bone-disease-from-breast-cancer-a-review-of-minimally-invasive-techniques-for-diagnosis-and-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Dimitrios Filippiadis, Andreas F Mavrogenis, Argyro Mazioti, Konstantinos Palialexis, Panayiotis D Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis J Papagelopoulos, Alexis Kelekis
Skeletal-related events in patients with metastatic bone disease include intractable severe pain, pathologic fracture, spinal cord and nerve compression, hypercalcemia and bone marrow aplasia. In patients with breast cancer, the skeleton is the most frequent site for metastases. Treatment options for metastatic bone disease in these patients include bisphosphonates, chemotherapeutic agents, opioids, hormonal therapy, minimally invasive/interventional and surgical techniques. Interventional oncology techniques for breast cancer patients with bone metastases include diagnostic (biopsy) and therapeutic (palliative and curative) approaches...
August 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591703/vitamin-d-receptor-activation-reduces-vcap-xenograft-tumor-growth-and-counteracts-erg-activity-despite-induction-of-tmprss2-erg
#15
Justin M Roberts, Rebeca San Martin, D Badrajee Piyarathna, James G MacKrell, Guilherme V Rocha, Jeffery A Dodge, Cristian Coarfa, Venkatesh Krishnan, David R Rowley, Nancy L Weigel
Whether vitamin D is chemopreventive and/or has potential therapeutically in prostate cancer is unresolved. One confounding factor is that many prostate cancers express a TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene whose expression is increased both by androgens and by vitamin D receptor (VDR) activation. Two challenges that limit VDR agonist use clinically are hypercalcemia and the cooperation of VDR with ERG to hyper-induce the 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 metabolizing enzyme, CYP24A1, thus reducing VDR activity. Using the VCaP TMPRSS2:ERG positive cell line as a model, we found that a nonsecosteroidal CYP24A1 resistant VDR agonist, VDRM2, substantially reduces growth of xenograft tumors without inducing hypercalcemia...
July 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591104/myeloma-bone-disease-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#16
Elizabeth K O'Donnell, Noopur S Raje
Bone involvement manifesting as osteolytic bone disease (OBD) or osteopenia is one of the defining features of multiple myeloma (MM). Osteolytic lesions develop in nearly 90% of patients with MM, and these are frequently complicated by skeleton-related events (SREs) such as severe bone pain, pathologic fractures, vertebral collapse, hypercalcemia, and spinal cord compression. SREs have a negative effect on patients' quality of life and affect their long-term outcomes, including survival. In MM, the delicate balance between bone formation and bone destruction is perturbed...
April 2017: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585620/-treatment-of-bone-metastases-bisphosphonates-and-denosumab
#17
László Landherr, Tamás Nagykálnai
Some disseminated tumor cells (as "seeds") feel well in the skeletal tissue, as a "soil", but the humoral crosstalk between tumor cells and bone cells disrupts the normal bone homeostasis (remodeling), which leads to a vicious circle, the multiple bone metastatic disease. The tumor cells could stimulate bone resorption, bone neo-formation or both, characteristic of the primary tumor. This usually incurable condition involves serious consequences, as fractures, pain, surgeries, irradiations, plegias, hypercalcemia, etc...
June 6, 2017: Magyar Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584909/a-review-of-phosphate-binders-in-chronic-kidney-disease-incremental-progress-or-just-higher-costs
#18
REVIEW
Wendy L St Peter, Lori D Wazny, Eric Weinhandl, Katie E Cardone, Joanna Q Hudson
As kidney disease progresses, phosphorus retention also increases, and phosphate binders are used to treat hyperphosphatemia. Clinicians prescribe phosphate binders thinking that reducing total body burden of phosphorus may decrease risks of mineral and bone disorder, fractures, cardiovascular disease, progression of kidney disease, and mortality. Recent meta-analyses suggest that sevelamer use results in lower mortality than use of calcium-containing phosphate binders. However, studies included in meta-analyses show significant heterogeneity, and exclusion or inclusion of specific studies alters results...
July 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573053/humoral-hypercalcemia-of-malignancy-with-a-parathyroid-hormone-related-peptide-secreting-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma-accompanied-by-a-gastric-cancer
#19
Katsushi Takeda, Ryosuke Kimura, Nobuhiro Nishigaki, Shinya Sato, Asami Okamoto, Kumiko Watanabe, Sachie Yasui
Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) is caused by the oversecretion of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) from malignant tumors. Although any tumor may cause HHM, that induced by intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) or gastric cancer (GC) is rare. We report here a 74-year-old male who displayed HHM with both ICC and GC and showed an elevated serum PTHrP level. Treatment of the hypercalcemia with saline, furosemide, elcatonin, and zoledronic acid corrected his serum calcium level and improved symptoms...
2017: Case Reports in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571792/papillary-carcinoma-of-the-thyroid-in-patients-with-primary-hyperparathyroidism-is-there-a-link
#20
M Beebeejaun, E Chinnasamy, P Wilson, A Sharma, N Beharry, G Bano
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is present in up to 0.1% of the general population. The incidence is higher in women and increases with age. The majority of the cases is asymptomatic and up to 85% are due to single gland adenoma. Parathyroidectomy is the treatment of choice after localization of the hyperactive gland. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC) is the most common cancer of the thyroid and constitutes more than 70% of thyroid malignancies. PTC can present as a single nodule or can be Multifocal. The incidence is higher in women...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
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