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W Breitbart, B Rosenfeld, M Kaim, J Funesti-Esch
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a commonly encountered symptom of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, associated with significant psychological and functional morbidity and poor quality of life. Preliminary studies on the treatment of fatigue from the cancer and multiple sclerosis literature suggest that psychostimulants may be effective in reducing fatigue. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of 2 psychostimulant medications, methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin) and pemoline (Cylert), with a placebo intervention for the treatment of fatigue in patients with HIV disease...
February 12, 2001: Archives of Internal Medicine
E Tahir, Y Yazgan, B Cirakoglu, F Ozbay, I Waldman, P J Asherson
The search for genetic factors predisposing to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has focused on genes that regulate dopaminergic pathways such as dopamine receptors and enzymes that regulate levels of dopamine in the synapse. There have been several reports of association between ADHD and polymorphic variants within or near DRD4, DRD5, DAT1, DBH and COMT. In this study we set out to investigate specific alleles of DRD4 and DRD5, previously reported to be associated with ADHD, in a sample of Turkish children with DSM-IV ADHD children, as well as their relation to methylphenidate response and dimensional measures of symptom domains...
July 2000: Molecular Psychiatry
A Husain, J Chapel, P Malek-Ahmadi
Methlyphenidate is one of two stimulant drugs used in the management of the Hyperkinetic Reaction in children. It has been known to have side effects such as dyskinesia, but this case details the emergence of dystonia and dyskinesia when the simultaneous use of methylphenidate and a phenothiazine was followed by withdrawal of the phenothiazine. It is postulated that the use of phenothiazine resulted in a post-synaptic supersensitivity which precipitated dystonia and dyskinesia when phenothiazine was withdrawn and methylphenidate reinstituted...
April 1980: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
M Sansone
Various central stimulant drugs were tested in mice subjected to five daily 100-trial avoidance sessions in the shuttle-box. Facilitation of avoidance responding was observed following i.p. administration of metamphetamine and cocaine, but not following methlyphenidate, caffeine, pentetrazole and strychnine. Some favourable effects were obtained by combining the above stimulant drugs with cholrdiazepoxide. Advantages in the combination with chlordiazepoxide were particularly evident in the case of methamphetamine...
June 1975: Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie
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