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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786470/direct-cortical-stimulation-of-inferior-frontal-cortex-disrupts-both-speech-and-music-production-in-highly-trained-musicians
#1
Matthew K Leonard, Maansi Desai, Dylan Hungate, Ruofan Cai, Nilika S Singhal, Robert C Knowlton, Edward F Chang
Music and speech are human-specific behaviours that share numerous properties, including the fine motor skills required to produce them. Given these similarities, previous work has suggested that music and speech may at least partially share neural substrates. To date, much of this work has focused on perception, and has not investigated the neural basis of production, particularly in trained musicians. Here, we report two rare cases of musicians undergoing neurosurgical procedures, where it was possible to directly stimulate the left hemisphere cortex during speech and piano/guitar music production tasks...
May 22, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776789/transdiagnostic-effects-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-cue-reactivity
#2
Tonisha E Kearney-Ramos, Logan T Dowdle, Daniel H Lench, Oliver J Mithoefer, William H Devries, Mark S George, Raymond F Anton, Colleen A Hanlon
BACKGROUND: Elevated frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues is a transdiagnostic hallmark of substance use disorders. The goal of these experiments was to determine if it is possible to decrease frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues in both cocaine users and heavy alcohol users through continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). METHODS: Two single-blinded, within-subject, active sham-controlled experiments were performed wherein neural reactivity to drug/alcohol cues versus neutral cues was evaluated immediately before and after receiving real or sham cTBS (110% resting motor threshold, 3600 pulses, Fp1 location; N = 49: 25 cocaine users [experiment 1], 24 alcohol users [experiment 2]; 196 total functional magnetic resonance imaging scans)...
April 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770439/increase-of-frontal-neuronal-activity-in-chronic-neglect-after-training-in-virtual-reality
#3
U Ekman, H Fordell, J Eriksson, N Lenfeldt, A Wåhlin, A Eklund, J Malm
OBJECTIVES: A third of patients with stroke acquire spatial neglect associated with poor rehabilitation outcome. New effective rehabilitation interventions are needed. Scanning training combined with multisensory stimulation to enhance the rehabilitation effect is suggested. In accordance, we have designed a virtual-reality based scanning training that combines visual, audio and sensori-motor stimulation called RehAtt® . Effects were shown in behavioural tests and activity of daily living...
May 16, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763448/modulation-of-functional-activity-and-connectivity-by-acupuncture-in-patients-with-alzheimer-disease-as-measured-by-resting-state-fmri
#4
Weimin Zheng, Zhuangzhi Su, Xingyun Liu, Hao Zhang, Ying Han, Haiqing Song, Jie Lu, Kuncheng Li, Zhiqun Wang
Acupuncture has been used in the therapy of Alzheimer disease (AD); however, its neural mechanisms are still unclear. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of acupuncture on the functional connectivity in AD by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Twenty-eight subjects (14 AD and 14 normal controls) participated in this study. The rs-fMRI data were acquired before and after acupuncture stimulation at the acupoints of Tai chong (Liv3) and Hegu (LI4). During the baseline resting state, by using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), we found a significantly decreased or increased ALFF in the AD patients relative to the controls...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754288/the-impact-of-hypoglycaemia-awareness-status-on-regional-brain-responses-to-acute-hypoglycaemia-in-men-with-type-1-diabetes
#5
Joel T Dunn, Pratik Choudhary, Ming Ming Teh, Ian Macdonald, Katharine F Hunt, Paul K Marsden, Stephanie A Amiel
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia (IAH) in type 1 diabetes increases the risk of severe hypoglycaemia sixfold and can be resistant to intervention. We explored the impact of IAH on central responses to hypoglycaemia to investigate the mechanisms underlying barriers to therapeutic intervention. METHODS: We conducted [15 O]water positron emission tomography studies of regional brain perfusion during euglycaemia (target 5 mmol/l), hypoglycaemia (achieved level, 2...
May 12, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746907/oscillatory-networks-of-high-level-mental-alignment-a-perspective-taking-meg-study
#6
R A Seymour, H Wang, G Rippon, K Kessler
Mentally imagining another's perspective is a high-level social process, reliant on manipulating internal representations of the self in an embodied manner. Recently Wang et al. (2016) showed that theta-band (3-7 Hz) brain oscillations within the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ) and brain regions coding for motor/body schema contribute to the process of perspective-taking. Using a similar paradigm, we set out to unravel the extended functional brain network in detail. Increasing the angle between self and other perspective was accompanied by longer reaction times and increases in theta power within rTPJ, right lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)...
May 7, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745864/modulation-of-the-expression-of-genes-related-to-the-system-of-amyloid-beta-metabolism-in-the-brain-as-a-novel-mechanism-of-ceftriaxone-neuroprotective-properties
#7
Maria A Tikhonova, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Victor M Belichenko, Larisa A Fedoseeva, Sergey P Kovalenko, Ekaterina E Pisareva, Alla S Avdeeva, Nataliya G Kolosova, Nikolai D Belyaev, Lyubomir I Aftanas
BACKGROUND: The dominant hypothesis about the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the "amyloid cascade" concept and modulating the expression of proteins involved in the metabolism of amyloid-beta (Aβ) is proposed as an effective strategy for the prevention and therapy of AD. Recently, we found that an antibiotic ceftriaxone (CEF), which possesses neuroprotective activity, reduced cognitive deficits and neurodegenerative changes in OXYS rats, a model of sporadic AD...
April 19, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724490/cortical-paired-associative-stimulation-influences-response-inhibition-cortico-cortical-and-cortico-subcortical-networks
#8
Sina Kohl, Ricci Hannah, Lorenzo Rocchi, Camilla L Nord, John Rothwell, Valerie Voon
BACKGROUND: The ability to stop a suboptimal response is integral to decision making and is commonly impaired across psychiatric disorders. Cortical paired associative stimulation (cPAS) is a form of transcranial magnetic stimulation in which paired pulses can induce plasticity at cortical synapses. Here we used cPAS protocols to target cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical networks by using different intervals between the paired pulses in an attempt to modify response inhibition. METHODS: A total of 25 healthy volunteers underwent four cPAS sessions in random order 1 week apart: right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) stimulation preceding right presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) stimulation by 10 or 4 ms and pre-SMA stimulation preceding IFC stimulation by 10 or 4 ms...
April 3, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706885/brain-transcriptomic-analysis-of-hereditary-cerebral-hemorrhage-with-amyloidosis-dutch-type
#9
Laure Grand Moursel, Willeke M C van Roon-Mom, Szymon M Kiełbasa, Hailiang Mei, Henk P J Buermans, Linda M van der Graaf, Kristina M Hettne, Emile J de Meijer, Sjoerd G van Duinen, Jeroen F J Laros, Mark A van Buchem, Peter A C 't Hoen, Silvère M van der Maarel, Louise van der Weerd
Hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type (HCHWA-D) is an early onset hereditary form of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) caused by a point mutation resulting in an amino acid change (NP_000475.1:p.Glu693Gln) in the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Post-mortem frontal and occipital cortical brain tissue from nine patients and nine age-related controls was used for RNA sequencing to identify biological pathways affected in HCHWA-D. Although previous studies indicated that pathology is more severe in the occipital lobe in HCHWA-D compared to the frontal lobe, the current study showed similar changes in gene expression in frontal and occipital cortex and the two brain regions were pooled for further analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704590/protective-influences-of-n-acetylcysteine-against-alcohol-abstinence-induced-depression-by-regulating-biochemical-and-grin2a-grin2b-gene-expression-of-nmda-receptor-signaling-pathway-in-rats
#10
Rutuja Yawalkar, Harish Changotra, Girdhari Lal Gupta
Evidences have indicated a high degree of comorbidity of alcoholism and depression. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has shown its clinical efficiency in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders and is identified as a multi-target acting drug. The ability of NAC to prevent alcohol abstinence-induced depression-like effects and underlying mechanism(s) have not been adequately addressed. This study was aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of NAC in the alcohol abstinence-induced depression developed following long-term voluntary alcohol intake...
April 25, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698637/a-mouse-model-of-pre-pregnancy-maternal-obesity-combined-with-offspring-exposure-to-a-high-fat-diet-resulted-in-cognitive-impairment-in-male-offspring
#11
Chen Zhu, Ting-Li Han, Yalan Zhao, Xiaobo Zhou, Xun Mao, Hongbo Qi, Philip N Baker, Hua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a brain dysfunction characterized by neuropsychological deficits in attention, working memory, and executive function. Maternal obesity and consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) in the offspring has been suggested to have detrimental consequences for offspring cognitive function through its effect on the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal obesity and offspring HFD exposure on the brain metabolome of the offspring...
April 23, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668904/a-whole-brain-longitudinal-study-in-the-yac128-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease-shows-distinct-trajectories-of-neurochemical-structural-connectivity-and-volumetric-changes
#12
Lorena I Petrella, João M Castelhano, Mario Ribeiro, José V Sereno, Sónia I Gonçalves, Mário N Laço, Michael R Hayden, Ana C Rego, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder causing cognitive and motor impairments, evolving to death within 15-20 years after symptom onset. We previously established a mouse model with the entire human HD gene containing 128 CAG repeats (YAC128) which accurately recapitulates the natural history of the human disease. Defined time points in this natural history enable the understanding of longitudinal trajectories from the neurochemical and structural points of view using non-invasive high-resolution multimodal imaging...
April 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653127/evaluation-of-early-chronic-functional-outcomes-and-their-relationship-to-pre-frontal-cortex-and-hippocampal-pathology-following-moderate-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Alina Arulsamy, Jason Teng, Holly Colton, Frances Corrigan, Lyndsey Collins-Praino
TBI is a significant risk factor for the development of dementia, with the interaction between structural damage from TBI and neuroinflammation potentially driving this relationship. This study investigated the early chronic post-TBI neuroinflammatory response and its relationship to both neurodegenerative pathology and functional impairment up to 3 months post-injury. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either sham surgery or the Marmarou model of diffuse moderate-severe TBI. At 1-month and 3-months post-injury, a functional battery encompassing motor function, depressive-like behaviour, anxiety and cognition was performed...
April 10, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642425/lutein-and-zeaxanthin-are-positively-associated-with-visual-spatial-functioning-in-older-adults-an-fmri-study
#14
Catherine M Mewborn, Cutter A Lindbergh, Talia L Robinson, Marissa A Gogniat, Douglas P Terry, Kharine R Jean, Billy Randy Hammond, Lisa M Renzi-Hammond, Lloyd Stephen Miller
Lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are two xanthophyll carotenoids that have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Previous work has demonstrated their importance for eye health and preventing diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. An emerging literature base has also demonstrated the importance of L and Z in cognition, neural structure, and neural efficiency. The present study aimed to better understand the mechanisms by which L and Z relate to cognition, in particular, visual-spatial processing and decision-making in older adults...
April 7, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628218/effects-of-sex-hormones-and-age-on-brain-volume-in-post-menopausal-women
#15
Gwang-Won Kim, Kwangsung Park, Gwang-Woo Jeong
BACKGROUND: Investigation of the effect of sex hormones on the brain volume in women provides a unique opportunity to examine menopause-related morphometric alterations. AIM: To evaluate brain morphological alterations in post-menopausal women using voxel-based morphometry and its correlations with sex hormone levels. METHODS: 20 Pre-menopausal women and 20 post-menopausal women underwent structural MRI. OUTCOMES: T1-weighted magnetic resonance data were acquired and serum sex hormones including total estrogen, estriol, estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone, free testosterone, SHBG, and luteinizing hormone were measured...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605594/-neural-overlap-of-l1-and-l2-semantic-representations-across-visual-and-auditory-modalities-a-decoding-approach
#16
Eowyn Van de Putte, Wouter De Baene, Cathy J Price, Wouter Duyck
This study investigated whether brain activity in Dutch-French bilinguals during semantic access to concepts from one language could be used to predict neural activation during access to the same concepts from another language, in different language modalities/tasks. This was tested using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA), within and across language comprehension (word listening and word reading) and production (picture naming). It was possible to identify the picture or word named, read or heard in one language (e...
March 29, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605426/translation-relevant-eeg-phenotypes-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#17
Jonathan W Lovelace, Iryna M Ethell, Devin K Binder, Khaleel A Razak
Identification of comparable biomarkers in humans and validated animal models will facilitate pre-clinical to clinical therapeutic pipelines to treat neurodevelopmental disorders. Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a leading known genetic cause of intellectual disability with symptoms that include increased anxiety, social and sensory processing deficits. Recent EEG studies in humans with FXS have identified neural oscillation deficits that include enhanced resting state gamma power and reduced inter-trial coherence of sound evoked gamma oscillations...
March 29, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572062/better-imagined-neural-correlates-of-the-episodic-simulation-boost-to-prospective-memory-performance
#18
R Nathan Spreng, Kevin P Madore, Daniel L Schacter
Episodic simulation is an adaptive process that can support goal-directed activity and planning success. We investigated the neural architecture associated with the episodic simulation improvement to the likelihood of carrying out future actions by isolating the brain regions associated with this facilitation in a prospective memory paradigm. Participants performed a lexical decision task by making word/non-word judgments, with rarely occurring prospective memory target words requiring a pre-specified manual response...
March 20, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571716/mapping-working-memory-retrieval-in-space-and-in-time-a-combined-electroencephalography-and-electrocorticography-approach
#19
Qiong Zhang, Marieke van Vugt, Jelmer P Borst, John R Anderson
In this study, we investigated the time course and neural correlates of the retrieval process underlying visual working memory. We made use of a rare dataset in which the same task was recorded using both scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and Electrocorticography (ECoG), respectively. This allowed us to examine with great spatial and temporal detail how the retrieval process works, and in particular how the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is involved. In each trial, participants judged whether a probe face had been among a set of recently studied faces...
March 20, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567809/the-threshold-for-conscious-report-signal-loss-and-response-bias-in-visual-and-frontal-cortex
#20
Bram van Vugt, Bruno Dagnino, Devavrat Vartak, Houman Safaai, Stefano Panzeri, Stanislas Dehaene, Pieter R Roelfsema
Why are some visual stimuli consciously detected, while others remain subliminal? We investigated the fate of weak visual stimuli in the visual and frontal cortex of awake monkeys trained to report stimulus presence. Reported stimuli were associated with strong sustained activity in frontal cortex and frontal activity was weaker and quickly decayed for unreported stimuli. Information about weak stimuli could be lost at successive stages en route from visual to frontal cortex and these propagation failures were confirmed by microstimulation of area V1...
March 22, 2018: Science
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