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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131622/perinatal-nicotine-treatment-induces-transient-increases-in-nacho-protein-levels-in-the-rat-frontal-cortex
#1
Franziska Wichern, Majbrit M Jensen, Ditte Z Christensen, Jens D Mikkelsen, Marjorie C Gondré-Lewis, Morten S Thomsen
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) regulator chaperone (NACHO) was recently identified as an important regulator of nAChR maturation and surface expression. Here we show that NACHO levels decrease during early postnatal development in rats. This decrease occurs earlier and to a greater degree in the frontal cortex (FC) compared with the hippocampus (HIP). We further show that rats exposed to nicotine during pre- and postnatal development exhibit significantly higher NACHO levels in the FC at postnatal day (PND) 21, but not at PND60...
January 25, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126372/emotion-regulation-related-neural-predictors-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-response-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#2
Heide Klumpp, Julia Roberts, Amy E Kennedy, Stewart A Shankman, Scott A Langenecker, James J Gross, Luan K Phan
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by aberrant prefrontal activity during reappraisal, an adaptive cognitive approach aimed at downregulating the automatic response evoked by a negative event. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is first-line psychotherapy for SAD, however, many remain symptomatic after treatment indicating baseline individual differences in neurofunctional activity may factor into CBT outcome. An emotion regulation strategy practiced in CBT is cognitive restructuring, a proxy for reappraisal...
January 24, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122876/multidimensional-prediction-of-treatment-response-to-antidepressants-with-cognitive-control-and-functional-mri
#3
Natania A Crane, Lisanne M Jenkins, Runa Bhaumik, Catherine Dion, Jennifer R Gowins, Brian J Mickey, Jon-Kar Zubieta, Scott A Langenecker
Predicting treatment response for major depressive disorder can provide a tremendous benefit for our overstretched health care system by reducing number of treatments and time to remission, thereby decreasing morbidity. The present study used neural and performance predictors during a cognitive control task to predict treatment response (% change in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale pre- to post-treatment). Forty-nine individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder were enrolled with intent to treat in the open-label study; 36 completed treatment, had useable data, and were included in most data analyses...
February 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122025/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-alterations-of-the-primary-visual-cortex-in-primary-angle-closure-glaucoma-patients-before-and-after-surgery-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#4
Shenghong Li, Ping Li, Honghan Gong, Fei Jiang, Dan Liu, Fengqin Cai, Chonggang Pei, Fuqing Zhou, Xianjun Zeng
PURPOSE: To investigate the altered intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of the primary visual cortex (V1) in primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) patients before and after surgery using resting-state functional MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five preoperative PACG (pre-PACG) patients and 25 well-matched healthy controls (HCs) were included in this study, and 9 PACG patients were assessed again at least 3 months after treatment (post-PACG). We generated the iFC maps of the seed regions in the centers of the left and right V1 and conducted group comparisons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113105/reorganization-of-brain-function-after-a-short-term-behavioral-intervention-for-stuttering
#5
Chunming Lu, Lifen Zheng, Yuhang Long, Qian Yan, Guosheng Ding, Li Liu, Danling Peng, Peter Howell
This study investigated changes in brain function that occurred over a 7-day behavioral intervention for adults who stutter (AWS). Thirteen AWS received the intervention (AWS+), and 13 AWS did not receive the intervention (AWS-). There were 13 fluent controls (FC-). All participants were scanned before and after the intervention. Whole-brain analysis pre-intervention showed significant differences in task-related brain activation between AWS and FC- in the right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and left middle temporal cortex, but there were no differences between the two AWS groups...
January 20, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101340/pseudo-continuous-arterial-spin-labeling-imaging-of-cerebral-blood-perfusion-asymmetry-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-first-episode-major-depression
#6
Guangdong Chen, Haiman Bian, Deguo Jiang, Mingwei Cui, Shengzhang Ji, Mei Liu, Xu Lang, Chuanjun Zhuo
Many previous studies have reported that regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) aberrations may be one of the pathological characteristics of depression and rCBF has demonstrated a certain degree of asymmetry. However, studies investigating the cerebral blood perfusion asymmetry changes of drug-naïve patients experiencing their first episode of major depression using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) are rare. Ten drug-naïve patients experiencing their first major depression episode and 15 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the current study...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035184/prefrontal-cortical-thickness-deficit-in-detoxified-alcohol-dependent-patients
#7
Sujin Bae, Ilhyang Kang, Boung Chul Lee, Yujin Jeon, Han Byul Cho, Sujung Yoon, Soo Mee Lim, Jungyoon Kim, In Kyoon Lyoo, Jieun E Kim, Ihn-Geun Choi
Alcohol dependence is a serious disorder that can be related with a number of potential health-related and social consequences. Cortical thickness measurements would provide important information on the cortical structural alterations in patients with alcohol dependence. Twenty-one patients with alcohol dependence and 22 healthy comparison subjects have been recruited and underwent high-resolution brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and clinical assessments. T1-weighted MR images were analyzed using the cortical thickness analysis program...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028863/stress-and-gender-effects-on-prefrontal-cortex-oxygenation-levels-assessed-during-single-and-dual-task-walking-conditions
#8
Roee Holtzer, Chelsea Schoen, Eleni Demetriou, Jeannette R Mahoney, Meltem Izzetoglu, Cuiling Wang, Joe Verghese
The ability to walk is critical for functional independence and wellbeing. The pre-frontal cortex (PFC) plays a key role in cognitive control of locomotion, notably under attention-demanding conditions. Factors that influence brain responses to cognitive demands of locomotion, however, are poorly understood. Herein, we evaluated the individual and combined effects of gender and perceived stress on stride velocity and PFC Oxygenated Hemoglobin (HbO2 ) assessed during single and dual-task walking conditions. The experimental paradigm included Normal Walk (NW); Cognitive Interference (Alpha); and Walk-While-Talk (WWT) tasks...
December 28, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018199/near-infrared-spectroscopy-based-neurofeedback-of-prefrontal-cortex-activity-a-proof-of-concept-study
#9
Beatrix Barth, Ute Strehl, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
Neurofeedback is a promising tool for treatment and rehabilitation of several patient groups. In this proof of principle study, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) based neurofeedback of frontal cortical areas was investigated in healthy adults. Main aims were the assessment of learning, the effects on performance in a working memory (n-back) task and the impact of applied strategies on regulation. 13 healthy participants underwent eight sessions of NIRS based neurofeedback within 2 weeks to learn to voluntarily up-regulate hemodynamic activity in prefrontal areas...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992533/grey-matter-microstructural-integrity-alterations-in-blepharospasm-are-partially-reversed-by-botulinum-neurotoxin-therapy
#10
Hanganu Alexandru, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Venkata Chaitanya Chirumamilla, Nabin Koirala, Burcu Paktas, Günther Deuschl, Kirsten E Zeuner, Sergiu Groppa
OBJECTIVE: Benign Essential Blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS) are the most common hyperkinetic movement disorders of facial muscles. Although similar in clinical presentation different pathophysiological mechanisms are assumed. Botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) is a standard evidence-based treatment for both conditions. In this study we aimed to assess grey matter microstructural differences between these two groups of patients and compared them with healthy controls. In patients we furthermore tracked the longitudinal morphometric changes associated with BoNT therapy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929075/long-latency-modulation-of-motor-cortex-excitability-by-ipsilateral-posterior-inferior-frontal-gyrus-and-pre-supplementary-motor-area
#11
Francesca Fiori, Emilio Chiappini, Marco Soriano, Riccardo Paracampo, Vincenzo Romei, Sara Borgomaneri, Alessio Avenanti
The primary motor cortex (M1) is strongly influenced by several frontal regions. Dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (dsTMS) has highlighted the timing of early (<40 ms) prefrontal/premotor influences over M1. Here we used dsTMS to investigate, for the first time, longer-latency causal interactions of the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) and pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) with M1 at rest. A suprathreshold test stimulus (TS) was applied over M1 producing a motor-evoked potential (MEP) in the relaxed hand...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923733/cognitive-control-of-vocalizations-in-the-primate-ventrolateral-dorsomedial-frontal-vlf-dmf-brain-network
#12
REVIEW
Kep Kee Loh, Michael Petrides, William D Hopkins, Emmanuel Procyk, Céline Amiez
This review centers on the neural mechanisms underlying the primate cognitive control of vocalizations, i.e. the capacity to regulate vocal productions in a goal-directed manner. In both human and non-human primates (NHPs), two main frontal brain regions are associated with top-down vocal control: a ventrolateral frontal region (VLF), comprising the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral premotor region; and a dorsomedial frontal region (DMF), comprising the mid-cingulate cortex, pre-supplementary and supplementary motor areas...
December 5, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921079/data-file-of-a-deep-proteome-analysis-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-aged-mice-with-progranulin-deficiency-or-neuronal-overexpression-of-progranulin
#13
Juliana Heidler, Stefanie Hardt, Ilka Wittig, Irmgard Tegeder
Progranulin deficiency is associated with neurodegeneration in humans and in mice. The mechanisms likely involve progranulin-promoted removal of protein waste via autophagy. We performed a deep proteomic screen of the pre-frontal cortex in aged (13-15 months) female progranulin-deficient mice (GRN(-/-)) and mice with inducible neuron-specific overexpression of progranulin (SLICK-GRN-OE) versus the respective control mice. Proteins were extracted and analyzed per liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) on a Thermo Scientific™ Q Exactive Plus equipped with an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography unit and a Nanospray Flex Ion-Source...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919661/a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study-of-the-effects-of-configural-properties-on-sustained-attention
#14
Neil R de Joux, Kyle M Wilson, Paul N Russell, Kristin M Finkbeiner, William S Helton
Forty-five participants performed a vigilance task during which they were required to respond to a critical signal at a local feature level, while the global display was altered between groups (either a circle, a circle broken apart and reversed, or a reconnected figure). The shape in two of the groups formed a configurative whole (the circle and reconnected conditions), while the remaining shape had no complete global element (broken circle). Performance matched the results found in the previous experiments using this stimulus set, where a configural superiority effect was found to influence accuracy over time...
January 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895564/neural-systems-underlying-emotional-and-non-emotional-interference-processing-an-ale-meta-analysis-of-functional-neuroimaging-studies
#15
Min Xu, Guiping Xu, Yang Yang
Understanding how the nature of interference might influence the recruitments of the neural systems is considered as the key to understanding cognitive control. Although, interference processing in the emotional domain has recently attracted great interest, the question of whether there are separable neural patterns for emotional and non-emotional interference processing remains open. Here, we performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of 78 neuroimaging experiments, and examined common and distinct neural systems for emotional and non-emotional interference processing...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890323/ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-generates-pre-stimulus-theta-coherence-desynchronization-a-schema-instantiation-hypothesis
#16
Asaf Gilboa, Morris Moscovitch
The ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has long been implicated in monitoring of memory veracity, and more recently also in memory schema functions. In our model of strategic retrieval the two are related. We have proposed that the vmPFC has two schema-dependent functions: (i) to establish context-relevant templates against which the output of memory systems can be compared; (ii) to mediate automatic decision monitoring processes to ensure that only those responses that meet the criterion are enacted...
October 31, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881393/food-portion-size-and-energy-density-evoke-different-patterns-of-brain-activation-in-children
#17
Laural K English, S Nicole Fearnbach, Stephen J Wilson, Jennifer O Fisher, Jennifer S Savage, Barbara J Rolls, Kathleen L Keller
BACKGROUND: Large portions of food promote intake, but the mechanisms that drive this effect are unclear. Previous neuroimaging studies have identified the brain-reward and decision-making systems that are involved in the response to the energy density (ED) (kilocalories per gram) of foods, but few studies have examined the brain response to the food portion size (PS). OBJECTIVE: We used functional MRI (fMRI) to determine the brain response to food images that differed in PSs (large and small) and ED (high and low)...
February 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880789/targeting-ruminative-thinking-in-adolescents-at-risk-for-depressive-relapse-rumination-focused-cognitive-behavior-therapy-in-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-with-resting-state-fmri
#18
Rachel H Jacobs, Edward R Watkins, Amy T Peters, Claudia G Feldhaus, Alyssa Barba, Julie Carbray, Scott A Langenecker
: This pilot randomized control trial was designed to examine whether Rumination-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy (RFCBT) reduces rumination and residual depressive symptoms among adolescents with a history of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) who are at risk for relapse. We also examined whether these changes in symptoms were associated with changes in functional connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a key node in the default mode network (DMN). Thirty-three adolescents (ages 12-18) were randomized to eight weeks of RFCBT or an assessment only (AO) control...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861879/neural-correlates-of-explicit-and-implicit-emotion-processing-in-relation-to-treatment-response-in-pediatric-anxiety
#19
Katie L Burkhouse, Autumn Kujawa, Heide Klumpp, Kate D Fitzgerald, Christopher S Monk, K Luan Phan
BACKGROUND: Approximately 40%-45% of youth with anxiety disorders do not achieve remission (or a substantial reduction in symptoms) following treatment, highlighting the need to identify predictors of treatment response. Given the well-established link between attentional biases and anxiety disorders in youth and adults, this study examined the neural correlates of directing attention toward and away from emotional faces in relation to pediatric anxiety treatment response. METHOD: Prior to beginning treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) sertraline or cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), 37 youth (age 7-19 years) with generalized and/or social anxiety disorder completed a task with conditions that manipulated whether participants were instructed to match emotional faces (explicit emotion processing) or match shapes in the context of emotional face distractors (implicit emotion processing) during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858963/resting-state-functional-connectivity-and-cognition-after-major-cardiac-surgery-in-older-adults-without-preoperative-cognitive-impairment-preliminary-findings
#20
Jeffrey N Browndyke, Miles Berger, Todd B Harshbarger, Patrick J Smith, William White, Tiffany L Bisanar, John H Alexander, Jeffrey G Gaca, Kathleen Welsh-Bohmer, Mark F Newman, Joseph P Mathew
OBJECTIVES: To look for changes in intrinsic functional brain connectivity associated with postoperative changes in cognition, a common complication in seniors undergoing major surgery, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. DESIGN: Objective cognitive testing and functional brain imaging were prospectively performed at preoperative baseline and 6 weeks after surgery and at the same time intervals in nonsurgical controls. SETTING: Academic medical center...
January 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
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