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Pre-frontal cortex

Vicki Bitsika, Christopher F Sharpley
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that higher cognitive functioning based in the pre-frontal cortex is implicated in the ability of people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to understand and communicate in social situations. Low motivation to engage in social interaction may also be influential in this process. Although both of these factors have been argued to influence the levels of comorbid anxiety in young people with ASD, no detailed examination of those relationships has been reported to date...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Robin J Tyacke, Jim F M Myers, Ashwin Venkataraman, Inge Mick, Samuel Turton, Jan Passchier, Stephen M Husbands, Eugenii Ilan A Rabiner, Roger N Gunn, Philip S Murphy, Christine A Parker, David J Nutt
The imidazoline2 binding site (I2 BS), are thought to be expressed in glia, and implicated in the regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein. A PET ligand for this target would be important for the investigation of neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases.11 C-BU99008 has previously been identified as a putative PET radioligand. Here we present the first in vivo characterisation of this PET radioligand in humans and assess its test-retest reproducibility. Methods 14 healthy male volunteers underwent dynamic PET imaging with11 C-BU99008 and arterial sampling...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Svenja Caspers, Karl Zilles
This chapter summarizes current knowledge on the structural segregation of the parietal lobe based on cyto-, myelo-, and receptorarchitectonic studies, as well as the connectivity of this brain region with other cortical and subcortical structures. The anterior part of the human parietal cortex comprises the somatosensory areas 3a, 3b, 1, and 2, whereas the posterior part contains seven multimodal areas in both the superior and inferior parietal lobules. Available cytoarchitectonic maps of the human intraparietal sulcus do not provide a complete picture yet...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Yu-Hsuan A Chang, Sogol S Javadi, Naeim Bahrami, Vedang S Uttarwar, Anny Reyes, Carrie R McDonald
Blocked and event-related fMRI designs are both commonly used to localize language networks and determine hemispheric dominance in research and clinical settings. We compared activation profiles on a semantic monitoring task using one of the two designs in a total of 43 healthy individual to determine whether task design or subject-specific factors (i.e., age, sex, or language performance) influence activation patterns. We found high concordance between the two designs within core language regions, including the inferior frontal, posterior temporal, and basal temporal region...
March 5, 2018: Brain and Language
Christopher Allen, Krish D Singh, Frederick Verbruggen, Christopher D Chambers
This pre-registered experiment sought to uncover the temporal relationship between the inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) during stopping of an ongoing action. Both regions have previously been highlighted as being central to cognitive control of actions, particularly response inhibition. Here we tested which area is activated first during the stopping process using magnetoencephalography, before assessing the relative chronometry of each region using functionally localized transcranial magnetic stimulation...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Emanuele Felice Osimo, Katherine Beck, Tiago Reis Marques, Oliver D Howes
Although synaptic loss is thought to be core to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, the nature, consistency and magnitude of synaptic protein and mRNA changes has not been systematically appraised. Our objective was thus to systematically review and meta-analyse findings. The entire PubMed database was searched for studies from inception date to the 1st of July 2017. We selected case-control postmortem studies in schizophrenia quantifying synaptic protein or mRNA levels in brain tissue. The difference in protein and mRNA levels between cases and controls was extracted and meta-analysis conducted...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Z-W Wen, D-S Liang, X-H Cai, J Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of AMPK-mTOR signal pathway in brain injury induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in young rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (3-4 weeks old, weighing 80-100 g) were randomly assigned to four groups: 2-week-CIH group (2IH), 4-week-CIH group (4IH), 2-week-simulated air control group (2AC) and 4-week-simulated air control group (4AC). TUNEL staining was used to detect the cell apoptosis in the hippocampus and pre-frontal cortexes, respectively...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Jennica M Young, Michael R Hoane
After sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI), a person's ability to make daily decisions can be affected. Simple tasks such as, deciding what to wear are no longer effortless choices, but are instead difficult decisions. This study explored the use of a discrimination task with a magnesium treatment in order to examine how decision-making skills are affected after TBI and if the treatment helped to attenuate cognitive and motor impairments. Thirty-one male rats were separated into MAG/TBI, VEH/TBI, or VEH/Sham groups...
March 1, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Sara Pizzamiglio, Hassan Abdalla, Usman Naeem, Duncan L Turner
BACKGROUND: Gait impairments during real-world locomotion are common in neurological diseases. However, very little is currently known about the neural correlates of walking in the real world and on which regions of the brain are involved in regulating gait stability and performance. As a first step to understanding how neural control of gait may be impaired in neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease, we investigated how regional brain activation might predict walking performance in the urban environment and whilst engaging with secondary tasks in healthy subjects...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Panchanan Maiti, Leela Paladugu, Gary L Dunbar
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation and the presence of amyloid beta protein (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles are key pathologies in Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a potent anti-amyloid and anti-inflammatory natural polyphenol, curcumin (Cur) could be potential therapies for AD. Unfortunately, poor solubility, instability in physiological fluids, and low bioavailability limit its clinical utility. Recently, different lipid modifications in the formulae of Cur have been developed that would enhance its therapeutic potential...
February 23, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Gavin Buzza, Geoff P Lovell, Christopher D Askew, Colin Solomon
This study aimed to determine if systemic O2 utilization (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) and tissue oxygen extraction (deoxyhemoglobin [HHb]) in the vastus lateralis (VL), gastrocnemius (GAST) and pre-frontal cortex (PFC) were different during exercise between short-term trained (STT 6 - 24 months) and long-term trained (LTT > 5 yr) young women while controlling for current training load. Thirteen STT and 13 LTT participants completed ramp incremental (RI) and square-wave constant load (SWCL) tests on a cycle ergometer...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
María José Rodrigo, Iván Padrón, Manuel de Vega, Evelyn Ferstl
Adolescents' neural substrates of emotional reactions to the consequences of risky decisions are poorly understood. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 30 late adolescents and 30 young adults made risky and neutral decisions in social scenarios and received valenced outcomes. Negative outcomes in risky decisions eliciting regret, as compared with negative outcomes in neutral decisions eliciting disappointment, activated executive control (orbitofrontal cortex) and self-relevance regions (middle temporal gyrus [MTG], posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus) for both age groups...
March 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
Emanuele Claudio Latagliata, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Rossella Ventura, Simona Cabib
Previous findings from this laboratory demonstrate: (1) that different classes of addictive drugs require intact norepinephrine (NE) transmission in the medial pre Frontal Cortex (mpFC) to promote conditioned place preference and to increase dopamine (DA) tone in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc Shell); (2) that only food-restricted mice require intact NE transmission in the mpFC to develop conditioned preference for a context associated with milk chocolate; and (3) that food-restricted mice show a significantly larger increase of mpFC NE outflow then free fed mice when experiencing the palatable food for the first time...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Chanaka Nadeeshan Kahathuduwa, Tyler Davis, Michael O'Boyle, Martin Binks
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether subscales of Food Craving Inventory (FCI) and Three-factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) correlate with brain functional magnetic resonance imaging food-cue reactivity (fMRI-FCR) in the brain. METHODS: Thirty-two male and female adults with obesity (19-60years; 30-39.9kg/m2) participated in a 3-week dietary intervention (1120kcal/day from either 1) total meal replacement shakes, 2) portion-controlled typical food. FCI, TFEQ and fMRI-FCR were measured pre- and post-intervention...
January 27, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Gregor Lichtner, Ryszard Auksztulewicz, Evgeniya Kirilina, Helena Velten, Dionysios Mavrodis, Michael Scheel, Felix Blankenburg, Falk von Dincklage
Drug-induced unconsciousness is an essential component of general anesthesia, commonly attributed to attenuation of higher-order processing of external stimuli and a resulting loss of information integration capabilities of the brain. In this study, we investigated how the hypnotic drug propofol at doses comparable to those in clinical practice influences the processing of somatosensory stimuli in the spinal cord and in primary and higher-order cortices. Using nociceptive reflexes, somatosensory evoked potentials and functional magnet resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that propofol abolishes the processing of innocuous and moderate noxious stimuli at low to medium concentration levels, but that intense noxious stimuli evoked spinal and cerebral responses even during deep propofol anesthesia that caused profound electroencephalogram (EEG) burst suppression...
February 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Josiah R Boivin, David J Piekarski, A Wren Thomas, Linda Wilbrecht
Pyramidal neurons in the neocortex receive a majority of their synapses on dendritic spines, whose growth, gain, and loss regulate the strength and identity of neural connections. Juvenile brains typically show higher spine density and turnover compared to adult brains, potentially enabling greater capacity for experience-dependent circuit 'rewiring'. Although spine pruning and stabilization in frontal cortex overlap with pubertal milestones, it is unclear if gonadal hormones drive these processes. To address this question, we used hormone manipulations and in vivo 2-photon microscopy to test for a causal relationship between pubertal hormones and spine pruning and stabilization in layer 5 neurons in the frontal cortex of female mice...
January 30, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Laura Poddighe, Gianfranca Carta, Maria Pina Serra, Tiziana Melis, Marianna Boi, Sara Lisai, Elisabetta Murru, Laura Muredda, Maria Collu, Sebastiano Banni, Marina Quartu
BACKGROUND: The transient global cerebral hypoperfusion/reperfusion achieved by induction of Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion followed by Reperfusion (BCCAO/R) has been shown to stimulate early molecular changes that can be easily traced in brain tissue and plasma, and that are indicative of the tissue physiological response to the reperfusion-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of the present study is to probe the possibility to prevent the molecular changes induced by the BCCAO/R with dietary natural compounds known to possess anti-inflammatory activity, such as the phytocannabinoid beta-caryophyllene (BCP)...
February 5, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Erin M Miller, Jorge E Quintero, Francois Pomerleau, Peter Huettl, Greg A Gerhardt, Paul E A Glaser
Glutamate dysfunction has been implicated in a number of substance of abuse studies, including cocaine and methamphetamine. Moreover, in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it has been discovered that when the initiation of stimulant treatment occurs during adolescence, there is an increased risk of developing a substance use disorder later in life. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) serves as a phenotype for ADHD and studies have found increased cocaine self-administration in adult SHRs when treated with the stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) during adolescence...
February 3, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Sattar Khoshkhoo, Matthew K Leonard, Nima Mesgarani, Edward F Chang
Auditory speech comprehension is the result of neural computations that occur in a broad network that includes the temporal lobe auditory cortex and the left inferior frontal cortex. It remains unclear how representations in this network differentially contribute to speech comprehension. Here, we recorded high-density direct cortical activity during a sine-wave speech (SWS) listening task to examine detailed neural speech representations when the exact same acoustic input is comprehended versus not comprehended...
January 31, 2018: Brain and Language
Alok Sharma, Hemangi Sane, Nandini Gokulchandran, Suhasini Pai, Pooja Kulkarni, Vaishali Ganwir, Maitree Maheshwari, Ridhima Sharma, Meenakshi Raichur, Samson Nivins, Prerna Badhe
BACKGROUND: The underlying pathophysiology in intellectual disability (ID) involves abnormalities in dendritic branching and connectivity of the neuronal network. This limits the ability of the brain to process information. Conceptually, cellular therapy through its neurorestorative and neuroregenerative properties can counteract these pathogenetic mechanisms and improve neuronal connectivity. This improved networking should exhibit as clinical efficacy in patients with ID. METHODS: To assess the safety and efficacy of cellular therapy in patients with ID, we conducted an open-label proof-of-concept study from October 2011 to December 2015...
January 31, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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