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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821187/genetic-dissection-of-seedling-stage-salinity-tolerance-in-rice-using-introgression-lines-of-a-salt-tolerant-landrace-nona-bokra
#1
Venkata Ramana Rao Puram, John Ontoy, Steven Linscombe, Prasanta K Subudhi
Salinity is an important abiotic stress affecting rice production worldwide. Development of salt tolerant varieties is the most feasible approach for improving rice productivity in salt affected soils. In rice, seedling stage salinity tolerance is crucial for better crop establishment. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping using introgression lines (ILs) is useful for identification and simultaneous transfer of desirable alleles into elite genetic background. In the present study, 138 ILs derived from the cross between a high yielding elite salt susceptible japonica rice cultivar Jupiter and a salt tolerant indica landrace Nona Bokra were evaluated for salt tolerance at seedling stage in a hydroponics experiment and were genotyped using 126 simple sequence repeat markers...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821163/metformin-maintains-mucosal-integrity-in-experimental-model-of-colitis-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-and-pro-inflammatory-signaling
#2
Abhimanu Pandey, Sneh Verma, Vijay L Kumar
Metformin, an antidiabetic drug, is well known for its multifarious properties and its ability to modulate inflammatory cascade. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory condition of the colon where drugs exhibiting anti-inflammatory property have been shown to induce and maintain remission. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of metformin against acetic-acid induced colitis in rat. The study included five groups of rats namely normal control, experimental control, drug treated groups (50 and 500mg/kg of metformin, MET50, MET500 and 300mg/kg of mesalazine, MSZ300)...
August 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821159/inhibition-of-dna-pk-enhances-chemosensitivity-of-b-cell-precursor-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cells-to-doxorubicin
#3
Fatemeh Alikarami, Majid Safa, Mohammad Faranoush, Parisa Hayat, Ahmad Kazemi
DNA damage repair pathways greatly affect the response to genotoxic drugs in cancer cells, so inhibition of such pathways could be a potentially useful strategy to enhance chemosensitivity. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) plays a crucial role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that are probably one of the most detrimental types of DNA damage. It has been shown that DNA-PK is highly expressed in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) cells. Less well appreciated was the effect of DNA-PK inhibition on sensitivity of BCP-ALL cells to DNA-damaging agents...
August 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821136/discovery-of-enzymatically-depolymerized-heparins-capable-of-treating-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-injury-and-fibrosis-in-mice
#4
Yishu Yan, Shanshan Du, Yang Ji, Nan Su, Yi Wang, Xiang Mei, Wenming Zhu, Dong He, Yuan Lu, Chong Zhang, Xin-Hui Xing
Heparin has recently been shown to slow down idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) process and improve survival of patients in some cases. To improve the anti-IPF function while minimizing their side effects, we developed heparin libraries with different structures depolymerized by single or combined heparinases, and systematically screened the efficacy of the different heparins for treatment of Bleomycin-induced pulmonary injury and fibrosis using mice model. Then we characterized the structural properties of the components capable of treating pulmonary injury and fibrosis by use of chip-based amide hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC)-fourier transform (FT)-ESI-MS, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821126/anticoagulant-and-antithrombotic-effects-of-chemically-sulfated-fucogalactan-and-citrus-pectin
#5
Yony Román, Helyn P de Oliveira Barddal, Marcello Iacomini, Guilherme L Sassaki, Thales R Cipriani
Citrus pectin (CP14) from Citrus sinensis, and a fucogalactan (E) and a glucan (G16) from Agaricus bisporus were isolated and structurally characterized. CP14 was constituted by (1→4)-linked α-d-GalpA units, E was composed by a (1→6)-linked α-d-Galp main-chain, partially substituted at O-2 by non-reducing end-units of α-l-Fucp or α-d-Galp, and partially methylated at O-3, whereas G16 was composed of (1→6)-linked β-d-Glcp units. The polysaccharides were sulfated giving rise to CP14S, ESL and G16S...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821080/investigation-of-chitosan-s-antibacterial-activity-against-vancomycin-resistant-microorganisms-and-their-biofilms
#6
Eduardo M Costa, Sara Silva, Mariana Veiga, Sandra Vicente, Freni K Tavaria, Manuela E Pintado
Vancomycin-resistant microorganisms are a hurdle that traditional antibiotics struggle to overcome. These difficulties have led to search for new solutions based on natural products. Chitosan has been recognized as an effective antibacterial agent against a vast array of microorganisms including antibiotic resistant ones. As such, this work aimed to evaluate chitosan as an alternative to traditional antibiotics in the management/control of two vancomycin-resistant microorganisms, VRSA and VREF, in planktonic and sessile settings...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821038/the-inhibition-of-lps-induced-inflammation-in-raw264-7-macrophages-via-the-pi3k-akt-pathway-by-highly-n-acetylated-chitooligosaccharide
#7
Qingsong Xu, Meisi Liu, Qishun Liu, Wenxia Wang, Yuguang Du, Heng Yin
Chitooligosaccharide (COS) has been shown to regulate many biological functions, such as antimicrobial effect and antitumor activity. In the present study, highly N-acetylated chitooligosaccharide (NACOS) was prepared by N-acetylation of COS, and the anti-inflammatory activity of NACOS in macrophages were evaluated. The results indicated NACOS significantly suppressed the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression. Furthermore, the increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) were repressed by NACOS in a dose dependent manner...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821035/barley-and-yeast-%C3%AE-glucans-as-new-emulsifier-agents-for-the-development-of-aqueous-natural-antifungal-formulations
#8
Marta Salgado, Soraya Rodríguez-Rojo, María José Cocero
Barley and yeast β-glucans were selected, together with lecithin, to encapsulate resveratrol by emulsification-evaporation method to develop new and safer antifungal formulations. Different emulsification techniques were used: high-shear, high pressure and high pressure and temperature emulsification. Morphology, crystallinity, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea of the different formulations were evaluated. No significant differences between each emulsification procedure in particle size (below 90nm) and in encapsulation efficiency (70-100%) were observed; only barley β-glucan emulsions showed lower efficiency due to the formation of a gel that retained most of the active compound...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821021/structural-characterization-and-inhibition-on-%C3%AE-glucosidase-activity-of-acidic-polysaccharide-from-annona-squamosa
#9
Yuan-Yuan Ren, Zhen-Yuan Zhu, Hui-Qing Sun, Li-Jing Chen
The crude polysaccharide (TASP3) was extracted from the fruit pulp of Annona squamosa and then isolated and purified by the combination of grading-alcoholic precipitation and Sephadex G-200. The structure of purified polysaccharide (GASP3-3-I) was determined based on the physicochemical and instrumental analyses. The results indicated that GASP3-3-I was an acidic heteropolysaccharide and its average molecular weight was 2.28×10(6)Da. The monosaccharide composition was analysed by GC-MS and ion chromatography, respectively...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821013/rictor-positively-regulates-b-cell-receptor-signaling-by-modulating-actin-reorganization-via-ezrin
#10
Lu Huang, Yongjie Zhang, Chenguang Xu, Xiaomei Gu, Linlin Niu, Jinzhi Wang, Xiaoyu Sun, Xiaoming Bai, Xingtian Xuan, Qubei Li, Chunwei Shi, Bing Yu, Heather Miller, Gangyi Yang, Lisa S Westerberg, Wanli Liu, Wenxia Song, Xiaodong Zhao, Chaohong Liu
As the central hub of the metabolism machinery, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) has been well studied in lymphocytes. As an obligatory component of mTORC2, the role of Rictor in T cells is well established. However, the role of Rictor in B cells still remains elusive. Rictor is involved in B cell development, especially the peripheral development. However, the role of Rictor on B cell receptor (BCR) signaling as well as the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism is still unknown. This study used B cell-specfic Rictor knockout (KO) mice to investigate how Rictor regulates BCR signaling...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821008/trans-caryophyllene-inhibits-amyloid-%C3%AE-a%C3%AE-oligomer-induced-neuroinflammation-in-bv-2-microglial-cells
#11
Yawei Hu, Ziling Zeng, Baojie Wang, Shougang Guo
Amyloid β (Aβ) is the major component of senile plaques (SP) in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and serves as an inflammatory stimulus for microglia. Trans-caryophyllene (TC), a major component in the essential oils derived from various species of medicinal plants, has displayed its neuro-protective effects in previous studies. However, whether TC has a protective role in AD remains unknown. In this study, the effects of TC on Aβ1-42-induced neuro-inflammation were investigated. We found that TC reduced the release of LDH in BV-2 microglial cells treated with Aβ1-42...
August 15, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821005/anticonvulsant-effect-of-cannabidiol-in-the-pentylenetetrazole-model-pharmacological-mechanisms-electroencephalographic-profile-and-brain-cytokine-levels
#12
Luciano R Vilela, Isabel V Lima, Érica B Kunsch, Hyorrana Priscila P Pinto, Aline S de Miranda, Érica Leandro M Vieira, Antônio Carlos P de Oliveira, Marcio Flávio D Moraes, Antônio L Teixeira, Fabricio A Moreira
Cannabidiol (CBD), the main nonpsychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa, inhibits experimental seizures in animal models and alleviates certain types of intractable epilepsies in patients. Its pharmacological profile, however, is still uncertain. Here we tested the hypothesis that CBD anticonvulsant mechanisms are prevented by cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) and vanilloid (TRPV1) receptor blockers. We also investigated its effects on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity and hippocampal cytokines in the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model...
August 15, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821003/-111-in-dtpa-d-phe-1-asp-0-d-phe-1-octreotide-exhibits-higher-tumor-accumulation-and-lower-renal-radioactivity-than-111-in-dtpa-d-phe-1-octreotide
#13
Nobuhiro Oshima, Hiromichi Akizawa, Hirotake Kitaura, Hidekazu Kawashima, Songji Zhao, Yan Zhao, Ken-Ichi Nishijima, Yoji Kitamura, Yasushi Arano, Yuji Kuge, Kazue Ohkura
INTRODUCTION: (111)In-DTPA-d-Phe(1)-octreotide scintigraphy is an important method of detecting neuroendocrine tumors. We previously reported that a new derivative of (111)In-DTPA-d-Phe(1)-octreotide, (111)In-DTPA-d-Phe(-1)-Asp(0)-d-Phe(1)-octreotide, accomplished the reduction of prolonged renal accumulation of radioactivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tumor accumulation of (111)In-DTPA-d-Phe(-1)-Asp(0)-d-Phe(1)-octreotide in vitro and in vivo by comparing it with (111)In-DTPA-d-Phe(1)-octreotide...
July 12, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820998/photosynthesis-of-alfalfa-medicago-sativa-in-response-to-landfill-leachate-contamination
#14
Lie Yang, Tiantian Sun, Yanli Liu, Houqing Guo, Lixin Lv, Jie Zhang, Chang Liu
Thousands of unlined landfills and open dumpsites have put great threat on the security of soil and ground water due to leachate leakage. Alfalfa is believed potential as a phytoremediation plant for leachate contamination based on strong root system and the excellent capacity of removing various kinds of pollutants. A lab-scale investigation was conducted to figure out the sensitiveness of alfalfa photosynthesis in response to leachate contamination. The results demonstrated that both of the maximum photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) were slightly inhibited in the high-dosage group...
August 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820990/relative-importance-of-humic-and-fulvic-acid-on-ros-generation-dissolution-and-toxicity-of-sulfide-nanoparticles
#15
Enxiang Shang, Yang Li, Junfeng Niu, Yijing Zhou, Tianyu Wang, John Charles Crittenden
In this study, the effect of natural organic matter (NOM) composition (humic acid (HA) or fulvic acid (FA)) on dissolution, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and toxicity of sulfide nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated under UV irradiation. NOM acted as a UV filter or antioxidant, decreasing ROS (O2(-), OH, and (1)O2) generation by WS2 and MoS2 NPs. The higher light-absorbing fractions of HA in NP/HA mixtures and the faster reaction rate of HA with ROS resulted in higher inhibition effect of HA than FA on O2(-) and OH generation by WS2 and MoS2 NPs...
August 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820959/takinib-a-selective-tak1-inhibitor-broadens-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-tnf-%C3%AE-inhibition-for-cancer-and-autoimmune-disease
#16
Juliane Totzke, Deepak Gurbani, Rene Raphemot, Philip F Hughes, Khaldon Bodoor, David A Carlson, David R Loiselle, Asim K Bera, Liesl S Eibschutz, Marisha M Perkins, Amber L Eubanks, Phillip L Campbell, David A Fox, Kenneth D Westover, Timothy A J Haystead, Emily R Derbyshire
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) has both positive and negative roles in human disease. In certain cancers, TNF-α is infused locally to promote tumor regression, but dose-limiting inflammatory effects limit broader utility. In autoimmune disease, anti-TNF-α antibodies control inflammation in most patients, but these benefits are offset during chronic treatment. TAK1 acts as a key mediator between survival and cell death in TNF-α-mediated signaling. Here, we describe Takinib, a potent and selective TAK1 inhibitor that induces apoptosis following TNF-α stimulation in cell models of rheumatoid arthritis and metastatic breast cancer...
August 17, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820953/a-fluorescence-based-high-throughput-assay-for-the-identification-of-anticancer-reagents-targeting-fructose-1-6-bisphosphate-aldolase
#17
Eun Jeong Cho, Ashwini K Devkota, Gabriel Stancu, Ramakrishna Edupunganti, Garth Powis, Kevin N Dalby
A high rate of glycolysis, which supplies energy and materials for anabolism, is observed in a wide range of tumor cells, making it a potential pathway to control cancer growth. ALDOA is a multifunctional enzyme in the glycolytic pathway and also promotes HIF-1α, which is of importance in hypoxic solid tumors. The current method for assaying ALDOA activity involves monitoring the consumption of NADH in vitro using absorbance or intrinsic fluorescence via a coupled enzymatic reaction. Here, we report the development of a homogeneous biochemical assay that can overcome limitations of current methods, in particular for the application of high-throughput drug screening...
August 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820778/src-kinase-inhibition-attenuates-morphine-tolerance-without-affecting-reinforcement-or-psychomotor-stimulation
#18
Fiona A Bull, Daniel T Baptista-Hon, Claire Sneddon, Lisa Wright, Wendy Walwyn, Tim G Hales
BACKGROUND: Prolonged opioid administration leads to tolerance characterized by reduced analgesic potency. Pain management is additionally compromised by the hedonic effects of opioids, the cause of their misuse. The multifunctional protein β-arrestin2 regulates the hedonic effects of morphine and participates in tolerance. These actions might reflect µ opioid receptor up-regulation through reduced endocytosis. β-Arrestin2 also recruits kinases to µ receptors. We explored the role of Src kinase in morphine analgesic tolerance, locomotor stimulation, and reinforcement in C57BL/6 mice...
August 18, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820738/the-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-short-interval-intracortical-inhibition-and-intracortical-facilitation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Mana Biabani, Maryam Aminitehrani, Maryam Zoghi, Michael Farrell, Gary Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is increasingly being used to affect the neurological conditions with deficient intracortical synaptic activities (i.e. Parkinson's disease and epilepsy). In addition, it is suggested that the lasting effects of tDCS on corticospinal excitability (CSE) have intracortical origin. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine whether tDCS has any effect on intracortical circuits. Eleven electronic databases were searched for the studies investigating intracortical changes induced by anodal (a) and cathodal (c) tDCS, in healthy individuals, using two paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigms: short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF)...
August 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820699/in-vitro-testing-of-potential-entamoeba-histolytica-pyruvate-phosphate-dikinase-inhibitors
#20
Syazwan Saidin, Nurulhasanah Othman, Rahmah Noordin
Adverse effects and resistance to metronidazole have motivated the search for new antiamoebic agents against Entamoeba histolytica. Control of amoeba growth may be achieved by inhibiting the function of the glycolytic enzyme and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK). In this study, we screened 10 compounds using an in vitro PPDK enzyme assay. These compounds were selected from a virtual screening of compounds in the National Cancer Institute database. The antiamoebic activity of the selected compounds was also evaluated by determining minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and IC50 values using the nitro-blue tetrazolium reduction assay...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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