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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786505/can-pallars-i-llobateres-a-new-hominoid-bearing-locality-from-the-late-miocene-of-the-vall%C3%A3-s-pened%C3%A3-s-basin-ne-iberian-peninsula
#1
David M Alba, Isaac Casanovas-Vilar, Marc Furió, Israel García-Paredes, Chiara Angelone, Sílvia Jovells-Vaqué, Àngel H Luján, Sergio Almécija, Salvador Moyà-Solà
In the Iberian Peninsula, Miocene apes (Hominoidea) are generally rare and mostly restricted to the Vallès-Penedès Basin. Here we report a new hominoid maxillary fragment with M2 from this basin. It was surface-collected in March 2017 from the site of Can Pallars i Llobateres (CPL, Sant Quirze del Vallès), where fossil apes had not been previously recorded. The locality of provenance (CPL-M), which has delivered no further fossil remains, is located very close (ca. 50 m) to previously known CPL outcrops, and not very far (ca...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786037/preliminary-outcome-of-individualized-abdominoperineal-excision-for-locally-advanced-low-rectal-cancer
#2
Yi Zheng, Jia-Gang Han, Zhen-Jun Wang, Zhi-Gang Gao, Guang-Hui Wei, Zhi-Wei Zhai, Bao-Cheng Zhao
Background: The introduction of individualized abdominoperineal excision (APE) may minimize operative trauma and reduce the rate of complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of individualized APE for low rectal cancer. Methods: Fifty-six patients who underwent individualized APE from June 2011 to June 2015 were evaluated retrospectively in Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University. The main outcome measures were circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement, intraoperative perforation, postoperative complications, and local recurrence...
June 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776991/inversion-variants-in-human-and-primate-genomes
#3
Claudia Rita Catacchio, Flavia Angela Maria Maggiolini, Pietro D'Addabbo, Miriana Bitonto, Oronzo Capozzi, Martina Lepore Signorile, Mattia Miroballo, Nicoletta Archidiacono, Evan E Eichler, Mario Ventura, Francesca Antonacci
For many years, inversions have been proposed to be a direct driving force in speciation since they suppress recombination when heterozygous. Inversions are the most common large-scale differences among humans and great apes. Nevertheless, they represent large events easily distinguishable by classical cytogenetics, whose resolution, however, is limited. Here, we performed a genome-wide comparison between human, great ape, and macaque genomes using the net alignments for the most recent releases of genome assemblies...
May 18, 2018: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771806/supine-bottom-up-extralevator-abdominoperineal-excision-with-primary-perineal-approach
#4
Cécile de Chaisemartin, Diane Mège, Jean Michel Durey, Hélène Meillat, Jean Robert Delpero, Bernard Lelong
To improve poor oncological outcomes of conventional abdominoperineal excision (APE), an extralevator abdominoperineal excision has been developed. This technique is associated with a larger pelvic floor defect and needs position changing and flap reconstruction, which increase operating time and morbidity without proof of best oncological results. Based on the recent development of transanal approaches for retrograde transanal mesorectal excision, we describe a novel approach for APE by a primary perineal dissection...
May 15, 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765701/subjects-with-cardiovascular-disease-or-high-disease-risk-are-more-sedentary-and-less-active-than-their-healthy-peers
#5
Ville Vasankari, Pauliina Husu, Henri Vähä-Ypyä, Jaana Helena Suni, Kari Tokola, Katja Borodulin, Heini Wennman, Jari Halonen, Juha Hartikainen, Harri Sievänen, Tommi Vasankari
Objectives: We investigated differences in objectively measured sedentary behaviour (SB) and physical activity (PA) levels in subjects with cardiovascular disease (CVD) diagnosis or high CVD risk compared with healthy controls. Methods: The present study includes a subsample (n=1398, Health 2011 Study) of participants, who attended health examinations and wore a triaxial accelerometer (≥4 days). Patients with CVD were identified and CVD risk was calculated for others using Framingham Risk Score (FRS)...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764690/inter-ray-variation-in-metatarsal-strength-properties-in-humans-and-african-apes-implications-for-inferring-bipedal-biomechanics-in-the-olduvai-hominid-8-foot
#6
Biren A Patel, Tea Jashashvili, Stephanie H Bui, Kristian J Carlson, Nicole L Griffin, Ian J Wallace, Caley M Orr, Randall L Susman
When measured as a ratio of mean midshaft diameter to bone length, the OH 8 fossil hominin foot exhibits a metatarsal (Mt) robusticity pattern of 1 > 5 > 3 > 4 > 2, which differs from the widely perceived "common" modern human pattern (1 > 5 > 4 > 3 > 2); African apes generally exhibit a third pattern (1 > 2 > 3 > 4 > 5). Largely because of the relative ranking of Mt2 and Mt5, OH 8 metatarsals structurally resemble the pattern exhibited by bipedal humans more than the pattern of quadrupedal and climbing African apes...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761052/asymmetries-in-mother-infant-behaviour-in-barbary-macaques-macaca-sylvanus
#7
Barbara Regaiolli, Caterina Spiezio, William Donald Hopkins
Asymmetries in the maternal behaviour and anatomy might play an important role in the development of primate manual lateralization. In particular, early life asymmetries in mother's and infant's behaviour have been suggested to be associated with the development of the hand preference of the offspring. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of behavioural asymmetries in different behavioural categories of mother-infant dyads of zoo-living Barbary macaques ( Macaca sylvanus ). The study subjects were 14 Barbary macaques involved in seven mother-infant dyads housed in Parco Natura Viva, Italy...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760335/phosphine-induced-dimerization-of-propargyl-alcohols-leading-to-allyl-propargyl-ethers
#8
Kento Iwai, Soichi Yokoyama, Haruyasu Asahara, Nagatoshi Nishiwaki
A facile method for synthesizing allyl propargyl ethers (APEs) was developed based on the dimerization of propargyl alcohols. The reaction proceeded via an oxaphosphetane intermediate, which was generated without the use of a strong base, thus making this process a pseudo-Wittig reaction under mild reaction conditions. A wide variety of functional groups, including formyl and pyridyl groups were tolerated, thus yielding the corresponding functionalized APEs, which are otherwise not readily prepared via conventional methods...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760068/endocast-morphology-of-homo-naledi-from-the-dinaledi-chamber-south-africa
#9
Ralph L Holloway, Shawn D Hurst, Heather M Garvin, P Thomas Schoenemann, William B Vanti, Lee R Berger, John Hawks
Hominin cranial remains from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa, represent multiple individuals of the species Homo naledi This species exhibits a small endocranial volume comparable to Australopithecus , combined with several aspects of external cranial anatomy similar to larger-brained species of Homo such as Homo habilis and Homo erectus Here, we describe the endocast anatomy of this recently discovered species. Despite the small size of the H. naledi endocasts, they share several aspects of structure in common with other species of Homo , not found in other hominins or great apes, notably in the organization of the inferior frontal and lateral orbital gyri...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756687/comparing-the-sniffing-behavior-of-great-apes
#10
Susann Jänig, Brigitte M Weiß, Anja Widdig
The importance of smell in humans is well established but we know little about it in regard to our closest relatives, the great apes, as systematic studies on their olfactory behavior are still lacking. Olfaction has long been considered to be of lesser importance in hominids given their relatively smaller olfactory bulbs, fewer functional olfactory receptor genes than other species and absence of a functional vomeronasal organ. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of olfaction in hominids...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756650/stillbirth-rates-across-three-ape-species-in-accredited-american-zoos
#11
Sana T Saiyed, Rebecca C Liubicich, Mason Fidino, Stephen R Ross
Stillbirths, or births of infants that died in the womb, represent a failure of the materno-feto-placental unit to maintain a suitable fetal environment. Typical studies of nonhuman primate (NHP) stillbirth patterns are primarily descriptive and focus on macaques (genus Macaca). Thus, less is known about other NHP species and rarer still are studies that examine possible biological factors that influence stillbirth rates across taxa. To examine possible contributors to stillbirths in great apes, we analyzed 36 years (1980-2016) of historical data documenting births of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, N = 391), western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla, N = 491), and orangutans (Pongo spp, N = 307) in accredited zoological parks in the United States...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753443/was-the-last-common-ancestor-aping-a-chimp-or-just-monkeying-around
#12
Scott A Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746855/the-first-multi-zoo-application-of-an-allostatic-load-index-to-western-lowland-gorillas-gorilla-gorilla-gorilla
#13
Ashley N Edes, Barbara A Wolfe, Douglas E Crews
Vertebrate stress responses are highly adaptive biological functions, maximizing survival probability in life-threatening situations. However, experiencing repeated and/or chronic stressors can generate physiological dysregulation and lead to disease. Because stress responses are multi-systemic and involve a wide range of physiological functions, identifying responses to stressors is best accomplished using integrated biomarker models. Allostatic load, defined as the physiological dysregulation that accumulates over the lifespan due to stressful experiences, is one such model...
May 7, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743673/ancient-hepatitis-b-viruses-from-the-bronze-age-to-the-medieval-period
#14
Barbara Mühlemann, Terry C Jones, Peter de Barros Damgaard, Morten E Allentoft, Irina Shevnina, Andrey Logvin, Emma Usmanova, Irina P Panyushkina, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Tsevel Bazartseren, Kadicha Tashbaeva, Victor Merz, Nina Lau, Václav Smrčka, Dmitry Voyakin, Egor Kitov, Andrey Epimakhov, Dalia Pokutta, Magdolna Vicze, T Douglas Price, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Anders J Hansen, Ludovic Orlando, Simon Rasmussen, Martin Sikora, Lasse Vinner, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Derek J Smith, Dieter Glebe, Ron A M Fouchier, Christian Drosten, Karl-Göran Sjögren, Kristian Kristiansen, Eske Willerslev
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of human hepatitis. There is considerable uncertainty about the timescale of its evolution and its association with humans. Here we present 12 full or partial ancient HBV genomes that are between approximately 0.8 and 4.5 thousand years old. The ancient sequences group either within or in a sister relationship with extant human or other ape HBV clades. Generally, the genome properties follow those of modern HBV. The root of the HBV tree is projected to between 8.6 and 20...
May 9, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743608/unexpectedly-rapid-evolution-of-mandibular-shape-in-hominins
#15
P Raia, M Boggioni, F Carotenuto, S Castiglione, M Di Febbraro, F Di Vincenzo, M Melchionna, A Mondanaro, A Papini, A Profico, C Serio, A Veneziano, V A Vero, L Rook, C Meloro, G Manzi
Members of the hominins - namely the so-called 'australopiths' and the species of the genus Homo - are known to possess short and deep mandibles and relatively small incisors and canines. It is commonly assumed that this suite of traits evolved in early members of the clade in response to changing environmental conditions and increased consumption of though food items. With the emergence of Homo, the functional meaning of mandible shape variation is thought to have been weakened by technological advancements and (later) by the control over fire...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737640/acute-pulmonary-embolism-focus-on-the-clinical-picture
#16
REVIEW
Doralisa Morrone, Vincenzo Morrone
Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is characterized by numerous clinical manifestations which are the result of a complex interplay between different organs; the symptoms are therefore various and part of a complex clinical picture. For this reason, it may not be easy to make an immediate diagnosis. This is a comprehensive review of the literature on all the various clinical pictures in order to help physicians to promptly recognize this clinical condition, remembering that our leading role as cardiologists depends on and is influenced by our knowledge and working methods...
May 2018: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733666/do-infants-and-nonhuman-animals-attribute-mental-states
#17
Tyler Burge
Among psychologists, it is widely thought that infants well under age 3, monkeys, apes, birds, and dogs have been shown to have rudimentary capacities for representing and attributing mental states or relations. I believe this view to be mistaken. It rests on overinterpreting experiments. It also often rests on assuming that one must choose between taking these individuals to be mentalists and taking them to be behaviorists. This assumption underestimates a powerful nonmentalistic, nonbehavioristic explanatory scheme that centers on attributing action with targets and on causation of action by interlocking, internal conative, and sensory states...
April 2018: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727052/bacteria-in-the-ageing-gut-did-the-taming-of-fire-promote-a-long-human-lifespan
#18
EDITORIAL
Antoine Danchin
Unique among animals as they evolved towards Homo sapiens, hominins progressively cooked their food on a routine basis. Cooked products are characterised by singular chemical compounds, derived from the pervasive Maillard reaction. This same reaction is omnipresent in normal metabolism involving carbonyls and amines, and its products accumulate with age. The gut microbiota acts as a first line of defence against the toxicity of cooked Maillard compounds, that also selectively shape the microbial flora, letting specific metabolites to reach the blood stream...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725011/gut-microbiomes-of-wild-great-apes-fluctuate-seasonally-in-response-to-diet
#19
Allison L Hicks, Kerry Jo Lee, Mara Couto-Rodriguez, Juber Patel, Rohini Sinha, Cheng Guo, Sarah H Olson, Anton Seimon, Tracie A Seimon, Alain U Ondzie, William B Karesh, Patricia Reed, Kenneth N Cameron, W Ian Lipkin, Brent L Williams
The microbiome is essential for extraction of energy and nutrition from plant-based diets and may have facilitated primate adaptation to new dietary niches in response to rapid environmental shifts. Here we use 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbiota of wild western lowland gorillas and sympatric central chimpanzees and demonstrate compositional divergence between the microbiotas of gorillas, chimpanzees, Old World monkeys, and modern humans. We show that gorilla and chimpanzee microbiomes fluctuate with seasonal rainfall patterns and frugivory...
May 3, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721698/intuitive-optics-what-great-apes-infer-from-mirrors-and-shadows
#20
Christoph J Völter, Josep Call
There is ongoing debate about the extent to which nonhuman animals, like humans, can go beyond first-order perceptual information to abstract structural information from their environment. To provide more empirical evidence regarding this question, we examined what type of information great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, and orangutans) gain from optical effects such as shadows and mirror images. In an initial experiment, we investigated whether apes would use mirror images and shadows to locate hidden food. We found that all examined ape species used these cues to find the food...
May 2, 2018: Animal Cognition
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