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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542704/trabecular-and-cortical-bone-structure-of-the-talus-and-distal-tibia-in-pan-and-homo
#1
Zewdi J Tsegai, Matthew M Skinner, Andrew H Gee, Dieter H Pahr, Graham M Treece, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Tracy L Kivell
OBJECTIVES: Internal bone structure, both cortical and trabecular bone, remodels in response to loading and may provide important information regarding behavior. The foot is well suited to analysis of internal bone structure because it experiences the initial substrate reaction forces, due to its proximity to the substrate. Moreover, as humans and apes differ in loading of the foot, this region is relevant to questions concerning arboreal locomotion and bipedality in the hominoid fossil record...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540264/analysis-of-risk-factors-of-peripherally-inserted-central-catheter-induced-catheter-related-infection-in-patients-with-leukemia
#2
Lanlan Zhou, Mingjun Wang, Aping Li
BACKGROUND: Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) is commonly used in nursing for patients with leukemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors of Catheter-related infection (CRI) in patients with leukemia and to provide some nursing strategies based on the results. METHODS: Clinical data from 140 patients with leukemia between May 2014 and July 2016 in Haiyang People's Hospital, China were retrospectively analyzed. We employed univariate analysis to explore the relationship of various factors, including leukemia types, puncture times, underlying diseases, Catheter indwelling time, hormones use, chemotherapy use, immune functions and seasons, with the incidence of CRI...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535772/rural-urban-difference-in-the-use-of-annual-physical-examination-among-seniors-in-shandong-china-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Dandan Ge, Jie Chu, Chengchao Zhou, Yangyang Qian, Li Zhang, Long Sun
BACKGROUND: Regular physical examination contributes to early detection and timely treatment, which is helpful in promoting healthy behaviors and preventing diseases. The objective of this study is to compare the annual physical examination (APE) use between rural and urban elderly in China. METHODS: A total of 3,922 participants (60+) were randomly selected from three urban districts and three rural counties in Shandong Province, China, and were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire...
May 23, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535382/exceptional-evolutionary-expansion-of-prefrontal-cortex-in-great-apes-and-humans
#4
Jeroen B Smaers, Aida Gómez-Robles, Ashley N Parks, Chet C Sherwood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533391/thoracic-vertebral-count-and-thoracolumbar-transition-in-australopithecus-afarensis
#5
Carol V Ward, Thierra K Nalley, Fred Spoor, Paul Tafforeau, Zeresenay Alemseged
The evolution of the human pattern of axial segmentation has been the focus of considerable discussion in paleoanthropology. Although several complete lumbar vertebral columns are known for early hominins, to date, no complete cervical or thoracic series has been recovered. Several partial skeletons have revealed that the thoracolumbar transition in early hominins differed from that of most extant apes and humans. Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus sediba, and Homo erectus all had zygapophyseal facets that shift from thoracic-like to lumbar-like at the penultimate rib-bearing level, rather than the ultimate rib-bearing level, as in most humans and extant African apes...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528334/hormones-and-human-and-nonhuman-primate-growth
#6
Robin Miriam Bernstein
The aim of this paper was to review information pertaining to the hormonal regulation of nonhuman primate growth, with specific focus on the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis and adrenal androgens. Hormones of the GH-IGF axis are consistently associated with measures of growth - linear, weight, or both - during the growth period; in adulthood, concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3, and GH-binding protein are not associated with any measures of size. Comparing patterns of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) may be especially relevant for understanding whether the childhood stage of growth and development is unique to humans and perhaps other apes...
May 19, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526290/hominoid-arcade-shape-pattern-and-magnitude-of-covariation
#7
Stefanie Stelzer, Philipp Gunz, Simon Neubauer, Fred Spoor
The shape of the dental arcade and canine size distinguish extant humans from all apes. Humans are characterized by a parabolic arcade with short postcanine tooth rows and small canines, whereas apes have long, U-shaped arcades with large canines. The evolutionary and biomechanical mechanisms underlying arcade shape differences between and within groups are not well understood. It is unclear, for example, whether evolutionary changes in the covariation among modules comprising the upper and lower jaws are the cause and/or consequence of different arcade shapes...
June 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28519898/evaluating-the-effect-of-a-year-long-film-focused-environmental-education-program-on-ugandan-student-knowledge-of-and-attitudes-toward-great-apes
#8
Austin Leeds, Kristen E Lukas, Corinne J Kendall, Michelle A Slavin, Elizabeth A Ross, Martha M Robbins, Dagmar van Weeghel, Richard A Bergl
Films, as part of a larger environmental education program, have the potential to influence the knowledge and attitudes of viewers. However, to date, no evaluations have been published reporting the effectiveness of films, when used within primate range countries as part of a conservation themed program. The Great Ape Education Project was a year-long environmental education program implemented in Uganda for primary school students living adjacent to Kibale National Park (KNP) and Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP)...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510577/are-horses-capable-of-mirror-self-recognition-a-pilot-study
#9
Paolo Baragli, Elisa Demuru, Chiara Scopa, Elisabetta Palagi
Mirror Self-Recognition (MSR) unveils complex cognitive, social and emotional skills and it has been found only in humans and few other species, such as great apes, dolphins, elephants and magpies. In this pilot study, we tested if horses show the capacity of MSR. Four subjects living socially under naturalistic conditions were selected for the experiment. We adopted the classical mark test, which consists in placing a coloured mark on an out-of-view body part, visible only through mirror inspection. If the animal considers the image as its own, it will use its reflection to detect the mark and will try to explore it...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503367/etiology-of-triarchic-psychopathy-dimensions-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#10
Robert D Latzman, Christopher J Patrick, Hani J Freeman, Steven J Schapiro, William D Hopkins
The current study undertook analyses of genealogical data from a sample of 178 socially-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with well-documented pedigrees, to clarify the etiologic bases of triarchic psychopathy dimensions and the influence of early social rearing experiences. Whereas biometric analyses for the full sample indicated significant heritability for the boldness dimension of psychopathy only, heritability estimates varied by early rearing, with all three triarchic dimensions showing significant heritabilities among mother-reared but not nursery-reared apes...
March 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502063/great-ape-gestures-intentional-communication-with-a-rich-set-of-innate-signals
#11
R W Byrne, E Cartmill, E Genty, K E Graham, C Hobaiter, J Tanner
Great apes give gestures deliberately and voluntarily, in order to influence particular target audiences, whose direction of attention they take into account when choosing which type of gesture to use. These facts make the study of ape gesture directly relevant to understanding the evolutionary precursors of human language; here we present an assessment of ape gesture from that perspective, focusing on the work of the "St Andrews Group" of researchers. Intended meanings of ape gestures are relatively few and simple...
May 13, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501552/taking-turns-across-channels-conversation-analytic-tools-in-animal-communication
#12
REVIEW
Marlen Fröhlich
To advance bridging the gulf between the fields of linguistics and animal communication, interest has recently been drawn to turn-taking behaviour in social interaction. While vocal turn-taking is the major form of conservational language usage in humans, recent studies on great apes has shown that they engage in a bodily form, gestural turn-taking, to achieve mutual communicative goals. However, most studies on turn-taking behaviour neglected the fact that signals are perceived and produced in a multimodal format...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496553/does-syncope-predict-mortality-in-patients-with-acute-pulmonary-embolism-a-retrospective-review
#13
Umair Iqbal, Ayesha Jameel, Hafsa Anwar, Melissa B Scribani, Edward Bischof, Ahmad Chaudhary
BACKGROUND: Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is a potentially fatal disease with high mortality. Prior studies have shown an increased frequency of central localization of the clot, right ventricular dysfunction and elevated troponin in patients who present with syncope and APE. Existing evidence regarding mortality and length of hospital stay in these patients is unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records of patients who were admitted in a tertiary care hospital in rural Upstate New York and diagnosed with APE from July 2014 to July 2016...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487961/influence-of-aspirin-on-the-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-signaling-pathway-in-acute-pulmonary-embolism
#14
Zhirong Zhang, Weiji Yang, Rongbiao Ying, Ying Shi, Huifang Jiang, Danli Cai, Jing Kuang, Ruhui Yang, Lingcong Wang
The present study aimed to explore the influence of aspirin on the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling pathway in acute pulmonary embolism (APE) in rats. Our previous study found that CX3CL1/CX3CR1 was increased in APE. However, the effect of this signaling pathway on APE remains unclear. CX3CL1-shRNA adenovirus and CX3CL1-overexpression vector were constructed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 9 groups (n=10): normal group (group N), sham operation group (group Sham), sham operation + aspirin group (group ASP), model group (group M), model + ASP group (group M+A), model + shRNA group (group M+SH), sham operation + CX3CL1-overexpression vector group (group Sham+Cx3), model + ASP + shRNA group (group M+A+SH), and model + ASP + CX3CL1-overexpression vector group (group M+A+CX3)...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484082/temporal-and-spatial-changes-of-cells-positive-for-stem-like-markers-in-different-compartments-and-stages-of-human-colorectal-adenoma-carcinoma-sequence
#15
Guanglin Cui, Gang Xu, Li Zhu, Zhigang Pang, Wei Zheng, Zhenfeng Li, Aping Yuan
Considerable evidence supports the idea that stem-like cells may play an essential role during the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). To accomplish this aim, we use immunohistochemistry (IHC) and double IHC with different potential stem-like markers, anti-musashi (Msi), anti-CD133, anti- LGR5 and anti-ALDH1 to examine the presentation of stem-like cells in different compartments including adenoma/CRC epithelium, transitional crypts and tumor stroma in colorectal adenoma and CRC. The results showed that cells positive for stem-like markers were remarkably increased in number and frequently observed in the adenoma/CRC epithelium, transitional crypts and tumor stroma...
April 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473258/representational-specializations-of-the-hippocampus-in-phylogenetic-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Elisabeth A Murray, Steven P Wise, Kim S Graham
In a major evolutionary transition that occurred more than 520 million years ago, the earliest vertebrates adapted to a life of mobile, predatory foraging guided by distance receptors concentrated on their heads. Vision and olfaction served as the principal sensory systems for guiding their search for nutrients and safe haven. Among their neural innovations, these animals had a telencephalon that included a homologue of the hippocampus. Experiments on goldfish, turtles, lizards, rodents, macaque monkeys and humans have provided insight into the initial adaptive advantages provided by the hippocampus homologue...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470572/tumor-associated-fibroblasts-and-microvessels-contribute-to-the-expression-of-immunosuppressive-factor-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-in-human-esophageal-cancers
#17
Guanglin Cui, Can Li, Gang Xu, Zhenglu Sun, Li Zhu, Zhengfen Li, Wei Zheng, Junling Li, Aping Yuan
Recent studies have provided considerable evidence to support the hypothesis that tumor stroma plays a crucial role in the induction of immune tolerance to human cancers. Here, we investigated the contribution of reactive stromal tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) and microvessels to the immunosuppressive factor indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expression in the ESCC microenvironment. The immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses demonstrated a significant increased densities of TAFs and microvessels in the ESCC stroma, double IHCs showed that these increased TAFs and microvessels were with a high proliferation activity...
May 3, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464269/the-postcranial-skeletal-maturation-of-australopithecus-sediba
#18
Noel Cameron, Barry Bogin, Debra Bolter, Lee R Berger
OBJECTIVES: In 2008, an immature hominin defined as the holotype of the new species Australopithecus sediba was discovered at the 1.9 million year old Malapa site in South Africa. The specimen (MH1) includes substantial post-cranial skeletal material, and provides a unique opportunity to assess its skeletal maturation. METHODS: Skeletal maturity indicators observed on the proximal and distal humerus, proximal ulna, distal radius, third metacarpal, ilium and ischium, proximal femur and calcaneus were used to assess the maturity of each bone in comparison to references for modern humans and for wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)...
May 2, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464240/body-growth-and-life-history-in-wild-mountain-gorillas-gorilla-beringei-beringei-from-volcanoes-national-park-rwanda
#19
Jordi Galbany, Didier Abavandimwe, Meagan Vakiener, Winnie Eckardt, Antoine Mudakikwa, Felix Ndagijimana, Tara S Stoinski, Shannon C McFarlin
OBJECTIVES: Great apes show considerable diversity in socioecology and life history, but knowledge of their physical growth in natural settings is scarce. We characterized linear body size growth in wild mountain gorillas from Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda, a population distinguished by its extreme folivory and accelerated life histories. METHODS: In 131 individuals (0.09-35.26 years), we used non-invasive parallel laser photogrammetry to measure body length, back width, arm length and two head dimensions...
May 2, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460762/acute-pulmonary-thromboembolism-epidemiology-predictors-and-long-term-outcome-a-single-center-experience
#20
U M Nagamalesh, V S Prakash, K C Karthik Naidu, S Sarthak, Anupama V Hegde, T Abhinay
INTRODUCTION: Acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is a life-threatening disease. Mortality in PTE still remains very high in spite of progress in diagnostic tools. Mortality rate is about 30% in patients with unrecognized acute PTE. METHODS: It is a single center observational study of 31 consecutive patients who were hospitalized in the Department of Cardiology at MS Ramaiah Memorial hospital between January 1, 2010 and June 2015. All the patients confirmed with diagnosis of acute PTE by CT scan (either HRCT or CTPA) were included in the study...
March 2017: Indian Heart Journal
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