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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929247/are-parrots-poor-at-motor-self-regulation-or-is-the-cylinder-task-poor-at-measuring-it
#1
Can Kabadayi, Anastasia Krasheninnikova, Laurie O'Neill, Joost van de Weijer, Mathias Osvath, Auguste M P von Bayern
The ability to inhibit unproductive motor responses triggered by salient stimuli is a fundamental inhibitory skill. Such motor self-regulation is thought to underlie more complex cognitive mechanisms, like self-control. Recently, a large-scale study, comparing 36 species, found that absolute brain size best predicted competence in motor inhibition, with great apes as the best performers. This was challenged when three Corvus species (corvids) were found to parallel great apes despite having much smaller absolute brain sizes...
September 19, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919941/a-test-of-the-submentalizing-hypothesis-apes-performance-in-a-false-belief-task-inanimate-control
#2
Christopher Krupenye, Fumihiro Kano, Satoshi Hirata, Josep Call, Michael Tomasello
Much debate concerns whether any nonhuman animals share with humans the ability to infer others' mental states, such as desires and beliefs. In a recent eye-tracking false-belief task, we showed that great apes correctly anticipated that a human actor would search for a goal object where he had last seen it, even though the apes themselves knew that it was no longer there. In response, Heyes proposed that apes' looking behavior was guided not by social cognitive mechanisms but rather domain-general cueing effects, and suggested the use of inanimate controls to test this alternative submentalizing hypothesis...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919002/x-linked-adrenoleukodystrophy-in-a-chimpanzee-due-to-an-abcd1-mutation-reported-in-multiple-unrelated-humans
#3
Julian Curiel, Steven Jeffrey Steinberg, Sarah Bright, Ann Snowden, Ann B Moser, Florian Eichler, Holly A Dubbs, Joseph G Hacia, John J Ely, Jocelyn Bezner, Alisa Gean, Adeline Vanderver
BACKGROUND: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a genetic disorder leading to the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) due to a mutation in the ABCD1 gene. ABCD1 mutations lead to a variety of phenotypes, including cerebral X-ALD and adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) in affected males and 80% of carrier females. There is no definite genotype-phenotype correlation with intrafamilial variability. Cerebral X-ALD typically presents in childhood, but can also present in juveniles and adults...
September 1, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903794/effect-of-dietary-nutrients-on-ileal-endogenous-losses-of-threonine-cysteine-methionine-lysine-leucine-and-protein-in-broiler-chicks
#4
S Cerrate, S K Vignale, R Ekmay, J England, C Coon
An isotope dose technique was utilized (i) to determine endogenous amino acid (AA) and protein losses and (ii) to propose adjusted values for AA requirements. The endogenous flow rate was calculated from the pool of enrichment in plasma AA, assuming similitude to enrichment of endogenous AA. In experiment 1, chicks were orally administered D4-lysine at 2% of estimated lysine intake from 16 to 24 days to find the isotopic steady state of the atom percent excess (APE) of lysine for plasma and jejunal and ileal digesta...
September 14, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903517/association-of-vancomycin-trough-concentration-with-response-to-treatment-for-acute-pulmonary-exacerbation-of-cystic-fibrosis
#5
Nicholas M Fusco, Richard Francisconi, Calvin J Meaney, Desiree Duman, Carla A Frederick, William A Prescott
Background: Our goal was to determine the relationship between serum vancomycin trough concentrations (VTCs) and changes in pulmonary function among individuals with an acute pulmonary exacerbation (APE) of cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: We included subjects who were ≥6 years of age, were hospitalized for an APE of CF between May 1, 2012, and April 30, 2014, were administered vancomycin for ≥48 hours, and had a history of airway infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902892/neanderthal-and-denisova-tooth-protein-variants-in-present-day-humans
#6
Clément Zanolli, Mathilde Hourset, Rémi Esclassan, Catherine Mollereau
Environment parameters, diet and genetic factors interact to shape tooth morphostructure. In the human lineage, archaic and modern hominins show differences in dental traits, including enamel thickness, but variability also exists among living populations. Several polymorphisms, in particular in the non-collagenous extracellular matrix proteins of the tooth hard tissues, like enamelin, are involved in dental structure variation and defects and may be associated with dental disorders or susceptibility to caries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895136/the-evolution-of-hominoid-cranial-diversity-a-quantitative-genetic-approach
#7
Lauren Schroeder, Noreen von Cramon-Taubadel
Hominoid cranial evolution is characterized by substantial phenotypic diversity, yet the cause of this variability has rarely been explored. Quantitative genetic techniques for investigating evolutionary processes underlying morphological divergence are dependent on the availability of good ancestral models, a problem in hominoids where the fossil record is fragmentary and poorly understood. Here, we use a maximum likelihood approach based on a Brownian motion model of evolutionary change to estimate nested hypothetical ancestral forms from 15 extant hominoid taxa...
September 12, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893001/pulmonary-artery-obstruction-index-and-right-ventricular-dysfunction-signs-in-initial-and-follow-up-pulmonary-computed-tomography-angiography-in-acute-pulmonary-embolism
#8
Mehmet Burak Çildag, Mustafa Gok, Can Zafer Karaman
INTODUCTION: Acute Pulmonary Embolism (APE) increases the pressure of the pulmonary arterial system with resulting Right Ventricle Dysfunction (RVD). AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between Pulmonary Artery Obstruction Index (PAOI) and signs of right heart dysfunction with computed tomography angiography in APE patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 72 consecutive patients (mean age 64.1±16.9 years; 59.7% female) with APE who had initial echocardiography with computed tomography angiography...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892018/antioxidant-artemisia-princeps-extract-enhances-the-expression-of-filaggrin-and-loricrin-via-the-ahr-ovol1-pathway
#9
Akiko Hirano, Masashi Goto, Tsukasa Mitsui, Akiko Hashimoto-Hachiya, Gaku Tsuji, Masutaka Furue
The Japanese mugwort, Artemisia princeps (yomogi in Japanese), has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Skin care products containing Artemisia princeps extract (APE) are known to improve dry skin symptoms in atopic dermatitis. Atopic dry skin is associated with a marked reduction of skin barrier proteins, such as filaggrin (FLG) and loricrin (LOR). Recently, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and its downstream transcription factor OVO-like 1 (OVOL1), have been shown to regulate the gene expression of FLG and LOR...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887811/great-ape-gestures-intentional-communication-with-a-rich-set-of-innate-signals
#10
EDITORIAL
R W Byrne, E Cartmill, E Genty, K E Graham, C Hobaiter, J Tanner
Great apes give gestures deliberately and voluntarily, in order to influence particular target audiences, whose direction of attention they take into account when choosing which type of gesture to use. These facts make the study of ape gesture directly relevant to understanding the evolutionary precursors of human language; here we present an assessment of ape gesture from that perspective, focusing on the work of the "St Andrews Group" of researchers. Intended meanings of ape gestures are relatively few and simple...
September 8, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887120/increased-expression-of-interleukin-21-along-colorectal-adenoma-carcinoma-sequence-and-its-predicating-significance-in-patients-with-sporadic-colorectal-cancer
#11
Guanglin Cui, Aping Yuan, Li Zhu, Jon Florholmen, Rasmus Goll
The role and significance of interleukin (IL)-21 in the development of sporadic CRC have not been well defined. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the dynamics of the IL-21 along colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence and to evaluate the impact of IL-21 on clinicopathological parameters and CRC prognosis. The real-time PCR results showed that the level of IL-21 in adenomas (n=50) and sporadic CRC (n=50) were significantly higher than that in normal controls (n=18), which were predominately observed in the adenoma/CRC stroma...
September 5, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883523/information-seeking-about-tool-properties-in-great-apes
#12
Manuel Bohn, Matthias Allritz, Josep Call, Christoph J Völter
Evidence suggests that great apes engage in metacognitive information seeking for food items. To support the claim that a domain-general cognitive process underlies ape metacognition one needs to show that selective information seeking extends to non-food items. In this study, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and orangutans (Pongo abelii) either had to determine the location of a desired food item or a property of a non-food item (length of a tool). We manipulated whether subjects received prior information about the item's location or property...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882580/lotus-birth-a-holistic-approach-on-physiological-cord-clamping
#13
Laura A Zinsser
BACKGROUND: The positive effects of delayed cord clamping (DCC) has been extensively researched. DCC means: waiting at least one minute after birth before clamping and cutting the cord or till the pulsation has stopped. With physiological clamping and cutting (PCC) the clamping and cutting can happen at the earliest after the pulsation has stopped. With a Lotus birth, no clamping and cutting of the cord is done. A woman called Clair Lotus Day imitated the holistic approach of PCC from an anthropoid ape in 1974...
September 4, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877364/are-great-apes-able-to-reason-from-multi-item-samples-to-populations-of-food-items
#14
Johanna Eckert, Hannes Rakoczy, Josep Call
Inductive learning from limited observations is a cognitive capacity of fundamental importance. In humans, it is underwritten by our intuitive statistics, the ability to draw systematic inferences from populations to randomly drawn samples and vice versa. According to recent research in cognitive development, human intuitive statistics develops early in infancy. Recent work in comparative psychology has produced first evidence for analogous cognitive capacities in great apes who flexibly drew inferences from populations to samples...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876999/how-children-solve-the-two-challenges-of-cooperation
#15
Felix Warneken
In this review, I propose a new framework for the psychological origins of human cooperation that harnesses evolutionary theories about the two major problems posed by cooperation: generating and distributing benefits. Children develop skills foundational for identifying and creating opportunities for cooperation with others early: Infants and toddlers already possess basic skills to help others and share resources. Yet mechanisms that solve the free-rider problem-critical for sustaining cooperation as a viable strategy-emerge later in development and are more sensitive to the influence of social norms...
September 6, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874268/do-juveniles-help-or-hinder-influence-of-juvenile-offspring-on-maternal-behavior-and-reproductive-outcomes-in-wild-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#16
Margaret A Stanton, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf, Anne E Pusey, Carson M Murray
Compared to great apes, humans maintain a relatively rapid reproductive pace despite long periods of dependency. This seemingly contradictory set of traits is made possible by weaning offspring before nutritional independence and alloparents who help provide care. In traditional societies, this help may be provided to mothers in part by their juvenile offspring who carry, supervise, or provision younger siblings. In contrast to humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are nutritionally independent after weaning, yet juveniles continue to travel with their mother and younger sibling for an additional 4-5 years...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872656/comparison-of-hand-use-and-forelimb-posture-during-vertical-climbing-in-mountain-gorillas-gorilla-beringei-beringei-and-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#17
Johanna Neufuss, Martha M Robbins, Jana Baeumer, Tatyana Humle, Tracy L Kivell
OBJECTIVES: Studies on grasping and limb posture during arboreal locomotion in great apes in their natural environment are scarce and thus, attempts to correlate behavioral and habitat differences with variation in morphology are limited. The aim of this study is to compare hand use and forelimb posture during vertical climbing in wild, habituated mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) and semi-free-ranging chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to assess differences in the climbing styles that may relate to variation in hand or forelimb morphology and body size...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871099/vocal-greeting-during-mother-infant-reunions-in-a-nocturnal-primate-the-gray-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#18
Marina Scheumann, Sabrina Linn, Elke Zimmermann
In human societies, ritualized greeting behavior includes gestural and vocal displays to signal the social acceptance of an encountering person. These displays are universal across cultures suggesting a pre-human origin. Vocal greeting displays are only reported for monkeys and apes with complex social systems, but none of these studies confirmed that greeting signals fulfill all criteria characterizing human greeting behavior. In this study, we analyzed for the first time whether vocal exchanges between mother and infants in a non-human primate fulfill the criteria of human greeting behavior and whether vocal greeting behavior is present in a basal primate with a less complex social system, the gray mouse lemur...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868098/does-right-ventricular-dysfunction-predict-mortality-in-hemodynamically-stable-patients-with-acute-pulmonary-embolism
#19
Ahmad Chaudhary, Umair Iqbal, Ayesha Jameel, Hafsa Anwar, Edward Bischof
BACKGROUND: Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is directly responsible for 100,000 deaths annually. Right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) on admission is considered a poor prognostic factor in these patients, though existing evidence of its significance in predicting mortality in hemodynamically stable patients is still unclear. We attempted to clarify this association by doing a retrospective review. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records of hemodynamically stable patients older than 18 years of age with APE who were admitted to a tertiary care hospital in rural Upstate New York from July 2014 to July 2016...
August 2017: Cardiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864551/corrigendum-the-evolution-of-african-great-ape-subtelomeric-heterochromatin-and-the-fusion-of-human-chromosome-2
#20
Mario Ventura, Claudia R Catacchio, Saba Sajjadian, Laura Vives, Peter H Sudmant, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Tina A Graves, Richard K Wilson, Evan E Eichler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Genome Research
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