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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633494/silencing-effect-of-hominoid-highly-conserved-non-coding-sequences-on-embryonic-brain-development
#1
Morteza Mahmoudi Saber, Naruya Saitou
Superfamily Hominoidea, which consists of Hominidae (humans and great apes) and Hylobatidae (gibbons), is well-known for sharing human-like characteristics, however, the genomic origins of these shared unique phenotypes have mainly remained elusive. To decipher the underlying genomic basis of Hominoidea-restricted phenotypes, we identified and characterized Hominoidea-restricted highly conserved noncoding sequences (HCNSs) that are a class of potential regulatory elements which may be involved in evolution of lineage-specific phenotypes...
June 19, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633035/economy-and-endurance-in-human-evolution
#2
REVIEW
Herman Pontzer
The evolutionary pressures shaping humans' unique bipedal locomotion have been a focus of research since Darwin, but the origins of humans' economical walking gait and endurance running capabilities remain unclear. Here, I review the anatomical and physiological determinants of locomotor economy (e.g., limb length and posture) and endurance (e.g., muscle volume and fiber type) and investigate their development in the hominin fossil record. The earliest hominins were bipedal but retained ape-like features in the hind limb that would have limited their walking economy compared to living humans...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631280/age-and-sex-associated-morphological-variations-of-metatarsal-torsional-patterns-in-humans
#3
Masateru Kitashiro, Naomichi Ogihara, Tetsuro Kokubo, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura, Takeo Nagura
It has been demonstrated that the torsional patterns of the metatarsal heads are associated with the presence or absence of the medial longitudinal arch in hominoid feet. The relatively untwisted second metatarsal is unique in humans, but that of the African apes is much more inverted, suggesting that the torsion of the second metatarsal might represent the overall shape and flatness of the foot. Some clinical studies have recently argued that the onset of foot pathologies such as hallux valgus might be related to the torsional pattern of the metatarsals...
June 20, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630326/reconstruction-and-evolutionary-history-of-eutherian-chromosomes
#4
Jaebum Kim, Marta Farré, Loretta Auvil, Boris Capitanu, Denis M Larkin, Jian Ma, Harris A Lewin
Whole-genome assemblies of 19 placental mammals and two outgroup species were used to reconstruct the order and orientation of syntenic fragments in chromosomes of the eutherian ancestor and six other descendant ancestors leading to human. For ancestral chromosome reconstructions, we developed an algorithm (DESCHRAMBLER) that probabilistically determines the adjacencies of syntenic fragments using chromosome-scale and fragmented genome assemblies. The reconstructed chromosomes of the eutherian, boreoeutherian, and euarchontoglires ancestor each included >80% of the entire length of the human genome, whereas reconstructed chromosomes of the most recent common ancestor of simians, catarrhini, great apes, and humans and chimpanzees included >90% of human genome sequence...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628189/-a-statement-the-polish-cardiac-society-working-group-on-pulmonary-circulation-on-screening-for-cteph-patients-after-acute-pulmonary-embolism
#5
Michał Ciurzyński, Marcin Kurzyna, Grzegorz Kopeć, Piotr Błaszczak, Łukasz Chrzanowski, Karol Kamiński, Katarzyna Mizia-Stec, Tatiana Mularek-Kubzdela, Ewa Mroczek, Andrzej Biederman, Piotr Pruszczyk, Adam Torbicki
Both pharmacological and invasive treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is now available in Poland and the awareness of the disease among physicians is growing. Thus, the Polish Cardiac Society's Working Group on Pulmonary Circulation in cooperation with independent experts in this field, have launched the statement on algorithm to guide a CTEPH diagnosis in patients with previous acute pulmonary embolism (APE). In Poland, every year this disease affects about 250 patients. CTEPH should be suspected in individuals after APE with dyspnea, despite at least 3 months period of effective anticoagulation, particularly when specified risk factors are present...
2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622932/an-evolutionary-medicine-perspective-on-neandertal-extinction
#6
Alexis P Sullivan, Marc de Manuel, Tomas Marques-Bonet, George H Perry
The Eurasian sympatry of Neandertals and anatomically modern humans - beginning at least 45,000 years ago and possibly lasting for more than 5000 years - has sparked immense anthropological interest into the factors that potentially contributed to Neandertal extinction. Among many different hypotheses, the "differential pathogen resistance" extinction model posits that Neandertals were disproportionately affected by exposure to novel infectious diseases that were transmitted during the period of spatiotemporal sympatry with modern humans...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622929/catarrhine-hallucal-metatarsals-from-the-early-miocene-site-of-songhor-kenya
#7
Biren A Patel, Gabriel S Yapuncich, Cassandra Tran, Isaiah O Nengo
Songhor is an early Miocene fossil locality in Kenya known for its diverse primate assemblage that includes catarrhine species belonging to the genera Kalepithecus, Limnopithecus, Dendropithecus, Rangwapithecus, and Proconsul. Expeditions to Songhor since the 1930s have recovered unassociated catarrhine postcranial remains from both the fore- and hindlimbs, including multiple elements from the feet. In this study, we describe KNM-SO 31233, a complete left hallucal metatarsal (Mt1), along with several other fragmentary Mt1 specimens (KNM-SO 1080, 5129, 5141, 22235)...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622927/evolution-of-the-hominin-knee-and-ankle
#8
Mélanie A Frelat, Colin N Shaw, Simone Sukhdeo, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Stefano Benazzi, Timothy M Ryan
The dispersal of the genus Homo out of Africa approximately 1.8 million years ago (Ma) has been understood within the context of changes in diet, behavior, and bipedal locomotor efficiency. While various morphological characteristics of the knee and ankle joints are considered part of a suite of traits indicative of, and functionally related to, habitual bipedal walking, the timing and phylogenetic details of these morphological changes remain unclear. To evaluate the timing of knee and ankle joint evolution, we apply geometric morphometric methods to three-dimensional digital models of the proximal and distal tibiae of fossil hominins, Holocene Homo sapiens, and extant great apes...
July 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615352/preparatory-responses-to-socially-determined-mutually-exclusive-possibilities-in-chimpanzees-and-children
#9
Thomas Suddendorf, Jessica Crimston, Jonathan Redshaw
The capacity to imagine and prepare for alternative future possibilities is central to human cognition. Recent research suggests that between age 2 and 4 children gradually begin to demonstrate a capacity to prepare for two simple, mutually exclusive alternatives of an immediate future event. When children were given the opportunity to catch a target an experimenter dropped into an inverted Y-shaped tube, 2-year olds-as well as great apes-tended to cover only one of the exits, whereas 4-year-olds spontaneously and consistently prepared for both possible outcomes...
June 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612939/using-soundscapes-to-detect-variable-degrees-of-human-influence-on-tropical-forests-in-papua-new-guinea
#10
Zuzana Burivalova, Michael Towsey, Tim Boucher, Anthony Truskinger, Cosmas Apelis, Paul Roe, Edward T Game
There is global concern about tropical forest degradation, in part, because of the associated loss of biodiversity. Communities and indigenous people play a fundamental role in tropical forest management and they are often efficient at preventing forest degradation. However, monitoring changes in biodiversity due to degradation, especially at a scale appropriate to local tropical forest management, is marred with difficulties including the need for expert training, inconsistency across observers, and the lack of baseline or reference data...
June 14, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596965/the-fibularis-peroneus-tertius-muscle-in-humans-a-meta-analysis-of-anatomical-studies-with-clinical-and-evolutionary-implications
#11
REVIEW
Kaissar Yammine, Mirela Erić
Being considered an exclusive human structure for a long time, fibularis tertius (FT) is believed to have a secondary function of foot dorsiflexion and eversion. This study is an attempt to approach the issue from an anatomical perspective. A systematic literature search identified 35 studies (7601 legs) which met the inclusion criteria. The weighted results of FT presence were as follows: an "adult cadaveric" frequency of 93.2% and a clinical frequency of 80%. The most common FT origin and insertion sites were the distal half of fibula and the base of the 5th metatarsal, respectively...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596637/wild-chimpanzees-use-of-single-and-combined-vocal-and-gestural-signals
#12
C Hobaiter, R W Byrne, K Zuberbühler
ABSTRACT: We describe the individual and combined use of vocalizations and gestures in wild chimpanzees. The rate of gesturing peaked in infancy and, with the exception of the alpha male, decreased again in older age groups, while vocal signals showed the opposite pattern. Although gesture-vocal combinations were relatively rare, they were consistently found in all age groups, especially during affiliative and agonistic interactions. Within behavioural contexts rank (excluding alpha-rank) had no effect on the rate of male chimpanzees' use of vocal or gestural signals and only a small effect on their use of combination signals...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592680/chimpanzees-bonobos-and-children-successfully-coordinate-in-conflict-situations
#13
Alejandro Sánchez-Amaro, Shona Duguid, Josep Call, Michael Tomasello
Social animals need to coordinate with others to reap the benefits of group-living even when individuals' interests are misaligned. We compare how chimpanzees, bonobos and children coordinate their actions with a conspecific in a Snowdrift game, which provides a model for understanding how organisms coordinate and make decisions under conflict. In study 1, we presented pairs of chimpanzees, bonobos and children with an unequal reward distribution. In the critical condition, the preferred reward could only be obtained by waiting for the partner to act, with the risk that if no one acted, both would lose the rewards...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587316/bacteria-from-animals-as-a-pool-of-antimicrobial-resistance-genes
#14
REVIEW
Maria Angeles Argudín, Ariane Deplano, Alaeddine Meghraoui, Magali Dodémont, Amelie Heinrichs, Olivier Denis, Claire Nonhoff, Sandrine Roisin
Antimicrobial agents are used in both veterinary and human medicine. The intensive use of antimicrobials in animals may promote the fixation of antimicrobial resistance genes in bacteria, which may be zoonotic or capable to transfer these genes to human-adapted pathogens or to human gut microbiota via direct contact, food or the environment. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the use of antimicrobial agents in animal health and explores the role of bacteria from animals as a pool of antimicrobial resistance genes for human bacteria...
June 6, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583091/reconciliation-feasibility-in-the-presence-of-gene-duplication-loss-and-coalescence-with-multiple-individuals-per-species
#15
Jennifer Rogers, Andrew Fishberg, Nora Youngs, Yi-Chieh Wu
BACKGROUND: In phylogenetics, we often seek to reconcile gene trees with species trees within the framework of an evolutionary model. While the most popular models for eukaryotic species allow for only gene duplication and gene loss or only multispecies coalescence, recent work has combined these phenomena through a reconciliation structure, the labeled coalescent tree (LCT), that simultaneously describes the duplication-loss and coalescent history of a gene family. However, the LCT makes the simplifying assumption that only one individual is sampled per species whereas, with advances in gene sequencing, we now have access to multiple samples per species...
June 5, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580430/the-evolution-and-population-diversity-of-human-specific-segmental-duplications
#16
Megan Y Dennis, Lana Harshman, Bradley J Nelson, Osnat Penn, Stuart Cantsilieris, John Huddleston, Francesca Antonacci, Kelsi Penewit, Laura Denman, Archana Raja, Carl Baker, Kenneth Mark, Maika Malig, Nicolette Janke, Claudia Espinoza, Holly A F Stessman, Xander Nuttle, Kendra Hoekzema, Tina A Lindsay-Graves, Richard K Wilson, Evan E Eichler
Segmental duplications contribute to human evolution, adaptation and genomic instability but are often poorly characterized. We investigate the evolution, genetic variation and coding potential of human-specific segmental duplications (HSDs). We identify 218 HSDs based on analysis of 322 deeply sequenced archaic and contemporary hominid genomes. We sequence 550 human and nonhuman primate genomic clones to reconstruct the evolution of the largest, most complex regions with protein-coding potential (n=80 genes/33 gene families)...
2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580152/brugada-phenocopy-in-a-patient-with-acute-pulmonary-embolism-presenting-with-recurrent-syncope
#17
Nixiao Zhang, Tong Liu, Gary Tse, Shuyu Yu, Huaying Fu, Gang Xu, Changyu Zhou, Chengzong Zhang, Guangping Li
Brugada phenocopy (BrP) refers to a group of clinical conditions that have etiologies distinct from Brugada syndrome (BrS). Although both demonstrate features of ST-segment elevation in the right precordial leads on the electrocardiogram (ECG), one must be distinguished from the other as their treatment options are different. We report a male patient who presented with recurrent syncope with a Brugada and a S1Q3T3 pattern on the ECG. Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) complicated by BrS was suspected. Twenty-four hours Holter monitoring did not demonstrate any evidence of ventricular arrhythmias...
May 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579892/the-effects-of-low-molecular-weight-heparin-on-lung-and-pulmonary-artery-injuries-in-acute-pulmonary-embolism-rat-model-via-platelet-derived-growth-factor-%C3%AE
#18
Bing Zhou, Gaozhong Sun, Fuyang Mei, Heyun Xu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of anticoagulant agent (low-molecular-weight heparin, LMWH) on the pulmonary artery intima hyperplasia of rats with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) by assaying platelet-derived growth factor-β (PDGF-β). METHODS: A total of 90 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into the sham, APE, and LMWH groups with 30 rats in each group. The APE rat models were established by injecting autologous blood clots via external jugular veins...
May 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576126/effective-treatment-of-sivcpz-induced-immunodeficiency-in-a-captive-western-chimpanzee
#19
Hannah J Barbian, Raven Jackson-Jewett, Corrine S Brown, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Gerald H Learn, Timothy Decker, Edward F Kreider, Yingying Li, Thomas N Denny, Paul M Sharp, George M Shaw, Jeffrey Lifson, Edward P Acosta, Michael S Saag, Katharine J Bar, Beatrice H Hahn
BACKGROUND: Simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz), the progenitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), is associated with increased mortality and AIDS-like immunopathology in wild-living chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Surprisingly, however, similar findings have not been reported for chimpanzees experimentally infected with SIVcpz in captivity, raising questions about the intrinsic pathogenicity of this lentivirus. FINDINGS: Here, we report progressive immunodeficiency and clinical disease in a captive western chimpanzee (P...
June 2, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560481/fluorescence-to-highlight-the-urethra-a-human-cadaveric-study
#20
T G Barnes, M Penna, R Hompes, C Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Urethral injury is a complication feared by surgeons performing transanal TME (TaTME) or abdominoperineal excision (APE) procedures. Injury during TaTME occurs when the prostate is inadvertently mobilised or as a direct injury similar to the direct injury during the perineal dissection of APE procedures. We performed a proof of principle study to assess the feasibility of using indocyanine green (ICG) to fluoresce the urethra in human cadavers. METHODS: Indocyanine green at varying doses was mixed with Instillagel and infiltrated into the urethra of male human cadavers...
May 30, 2017: Techniques in Coloproctology
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