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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812736/the-evolution-and-population-diversity-of-human-specific-segmental-duplications
#1
Megan Y Dennis, Lana Harshman, Bradley J Nelson, Osnat Penn, Stuart Cantsilieris, John Huddleston, Francesca Antonacci, Kelsi Penewit, Laura Denman, Archana Raja, Carl Baker, Kenneth Mark, Maika Malig, Nicolette Janke, Claudia Espinoza, Holly A F Stessman, Xander Nuttle, Kendra Hoekzema, Tina A Lindsay-Graves, Richard K Wilson, Evan E Eichler
Segmental duplications contribute to human evolution, adaptation and genomic instability but are often poorly characterized. We investigate the evolution, genetic variation and coding potential of human-specific segmental duplications (HSDs). We identify 218 HSDs based on analysis of 322 deeply sequenced archaic and contemporary hominid genomes. We sequence 550 human and nonhuman primate genomic clones to reconstruct the evolution of the largest, most complex regions with protein-coding potential (N = 80 genes from 33 gene families)...
February 17, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812615/lateralization-of-mother-infant-interactions-in-a-diverse-range-of-mammal-species
#2
Karina Karenina, Andrey Giljov, Janeane Ingram, Victoria J Rowntree, Yegor Malashichev
Left-cradling bias is a distinctive feature of maternal behaviour in humans and great apes, but its evolutionary origin remains unknown. In 11 species of marine and terrestrial mammal, we demonstrate consistent patterns of lateralization in mother-infant interactions, indicating right hemisphere dominance for social processing. In providing clear evidence that lateralized positioning is beneficial in mother-infant interactions, our results illustrate a significant impact of lateralization on individual fitness...
January 9, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812318/the-development-and-flexibility-of-gaze-alternations-in-bonobos-and-chimpanzees
#3
Kelsey Lucca, Evan L MacLean, Brian Hare
Infants' early gaze alternations are one of their first steps towards a sophisticated understanding of the social world. This ability, to gaze alternate between an object of interest and another individual also attending to that object, has been considered foundational to the development of many complex social-cognitive abilities, such as theory of mind and language. However, to understand the evolution of these abilities, it is important to identify whether and how gaze alternations are used and develop in our closest living relatives, bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)...
August 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810713/co-opted-megasatellite-dna-drives-evolution-of-secondary-night-vision-in-azara-s-owl-monkey
#4
Akihiko Koga, Hideyuki Tanabe, Yuriko Hirai, Hiroo Imai, Masanori Imamura, Takao Oishi, Roscoe Stanyon, Hirohisa Hirai
Owl monkeys (genus Aotus) are the only taxon in simian primates that consists of nocturnal or otherwise cathemeral species. Their night vision is superior to that of other monkeys, apes, and humans but not as good as that of typical nocturnal mammals. This incomplete night vision has been used to conclude that these monkeys only secondarily adapted to a nocturnal lifestyle, or to their cathemeral lifestyle that involves high night-time activity. It is known that the rod cells of many nocturnal mammals possess a unique nuclear architecture in which heterochromatin is centrally located...
July 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810237/tooth-wear-inclination-in-great-ape-molars
#5
Jordan Knight-Sadler, Luca Fiorenza
Primate dietary diversity is reflected in their dental morphology, with differences in size and shape of teeth. In particular, the tooth wear angle can provide insight into a species' ability to break down certain foods. To examine dietary and masticatory information, digitized polygon models of dental casts provide a basis for quantitative analysis of wear associated with tooth attrition. In this study, we analyze and compare the wear patterns of Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorillagorilla and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii lower molars, focusing on the degree of inclination of specific wear facets...
August 16, 2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800425/implementing-the-adapted-physical-education-e-learning-program-into-physical-education-teacher-education-program
#6
Eun Hye Kwon, Martin E Block
According to the Ministry of Education Korea (2014), the approximately 70.4% of all students with disabilities are included in general schools in Korea. However, studies show that Korean GPE teachers do not feel comforatble or prepared to include students with disabilities (Oh & Lee, 1999; Roh, 2002; Roh & Oh, 2005). The purpose of this study was to explore whether an APE e-learning supplement would have an impact on the level of self-efficacy and content knowledge of pre-service teachers related to including students with intellectual disabilities...
August 8, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796218/evolution-skull-secrets-of-an-ancient-ape
#7
Brenda R Benefit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796200/new-infant-cranium-from-the-african-miocene-sheds-light-on-ape-evolution
#8
Isaiah Nengo, Paul Tafforeau, Christopher C Gilbert, John G Fleagle, Ellen R Miller, Craig Feibel, David L Fox, Josh Feinberg, Kelsey D Pugh, Camille Berruyer, Sara Mana, Zachary Engle, Fred Spoor
The evolutionary history of extant hominoids (humans and apes) remains poorly understood. The African fossil record during the crucial time period, the Miocene epoch, largely comprises isolated jaws and teeth, and little is known about ape cranial evolution. Here we report on the, to our knowledge, most complete fossil ape cranium yet described, recovered from the 13 million-year-old Middle Miocene site of Napudet, Kenya. The infant specimen, KNM-NP 59050, is assigned to a new species of Nyanzapithecus on the basis of its unerupted permanent teeth, visualized by synchrotron imaging...
August 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780342/e-selectin-and-sicam-1-biomarkers-of-endothelial-function-predict-recurrence-of-venous-thromboembolism
#9
Olga Dzikowska-Diduch, Justyna Domienik-Karłowicz, Elżbieta Górska, Urszula Demkow, Piotr Pruszczyk, Maciej Kostrubiec
BACKGROUND: Risk factors for atherosclerosis and venous thromboembolism (VTE) overlap and are mostly associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED). We hypothesized that ED is present in patients after the first episode of acute pulmonary embolism (APE) and predicts the risk of VTE recurrence. DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients, at least 6months after the first episode of symptomatic, confirmed APE were included in this case-control study. The exclusion criteria were risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and other conditions associated with endothelial dysfunction...
July 26, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772188/spatial-representation-of-magnitude-in-gorillas-and-orangutans
#10
Regina Paxton Gazes, Rachel F L Diamond, Jasmine M Hope, Damien Caillaud, Tara S Stoinski, Robert R Hampton
Humans mentally represent magnitudes spatially; we respond faster to one side of space when processing small quantities and to the other side of space when processing large quantities. We determined whether spatial representation of magnitude is a fundamental feature of primate cognition by testing for such space-magnitude correspondence in gorillas and orangutans. Subjects picked the larger quantity in a pair of dot arrays in one condition, and the smaller in another. Response latencies to the left and right sides of the screen were compared across the magnitude range...
July 31, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771525/the-role-of-physique-strength-and-endurance-in-the-achievements-of-elite-climbers
#11
Mariusz Ozimek, Robert Rokowski, Paweł Draga, Vladimir Ljakh, Tadeusz Ambroży, Marcin Krawczyk, Tomasz Ręgwelski, Arkadiusz Stanula, Karol Görner, Adam Jurczak, Dariusz Mucha
PURPOSE: The primary aim of this study is to determine the principal somatic and motor determinants for elite climbers. METHODS: Twenty climbers were examined [age: 28.5±6.1 years].The runners were divided into two groups based on their climbing level, according to the International Rock Climbing Research Association (IRCRA). Elite climbers represented a 8b-8c Rotpunkt (RP) climbing level (n = 6), and advanced climbers represented an 7c+-8a RP level (n = 14). The following measurements were assessed: height, weight, lean body mass, upper limb length, arm span, and forearm, arm, thigh and calf circumference...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770454/acute-pulmonary-edema-in-patients-with-reduced-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-is-associated-with-concentric-left-ventricular-geometry
#12
Junichi Imanishi, Kenji Kaihotsu, Sachiko Yoshikawa, Makoto Nishimori, Naohiko Sone, Tomoyuki Honjo, Masanori Iwahashi
Although acute pulmonary edema (APE) is common in patients with heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (EF), its pathogenesis in patients with HF with reduced EF (HFrEF) is not completely understood. The purpose of our study was to explore the contributions of left ventricular (LV) geometry to understand the difference between HFrEF patients with or without APE. We studied 122 consecutive acute decompensated HF patients with HFrEF (≤40%). APE was defined as acute-onset dyspnea and radiographic alveolar edema requiring immediate airway intervention...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766835/the-expression-profile-and-prognostic-value-of-ape-ref-1-and-npm1-in-high-grade-serous-ovarian-adenocarcinoma
#13
Xiaomei Fan, Lixuan Wen, Yuehong Li, Lei Lou, Weina Liu, Jun Zhang
To analyze the expression trends and clinical significance of Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endodeoxyribonuclease 1 (APE1/Ref-1) and Nucleophosmin (NPM1) proteins in high-grade serous ovarian adenocarcinoma (HGSC). The expressions of APE1/Ref-1 and NPM1 proteins in 94 patients with HGSC were determined using the immunohistochemical (IHC) method, and their relationships with clinicopathological features were analyzed by the χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test. The follow-up data, Cox proportional hazards univariate and multivariate survival analyses were integrated to evaluate the prognostic factors affecting patients with HGSC...
August 2, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766690/pro-oxidant-and-pro-apoptotic-activity-of-polyphenol-extract-from-annurca-apple-and-its-underlying-mechanisms-in-human-breast-cancer-cells
#14
Stefania D'Angelo, Elisa Martino, Concetta Paola Ilisso, Maria Libera Bagarolo, Marina Porcelli, Giovanna Cacciapuoti
Among nutraceuticals, polyphenols represent the most intriguing and studied class of compounds that can be therapeutics for a large spectrum of the most common diseases, including cancer. Although polyphenols are well known as potent antioxidants, a pro-oxidant effect has been associated with a pro-apoptotic function of these compounds in various types of tumor cells. Annurca apple, a southern Italian variety, is characterized by an extremely high content of polyphenols and displays a stronger antioxidant activity compared with other varieties...
September 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762493/mass-tag-labeling-using-acyl-peg-exchange-for-the-determination-of-endogenous-protein-s-fatty-acylation
#15
Avital Percher, Emmanuelle Thinon, Howard Hang
The covalent coupling of fatty acids to proteins provides an important mechanism of regulation in cells. In eukaryotes, cysteine fatty acylation (S-fatty acylation) has been shown to be critical for protein function in a variety of cellular pathways as well as microbial pathogenesis. While methods developed over the past decade have improved the detection and profiling of S-fatty acylation, these are hampered in their ability to characterize endogenous protein S-fatty acylation levels under physiological conditions...
August 1, 2017: Current Protocols in Protein Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762195/no-evidence-for-self-recognition-in-a-small-passerine-the-great-tit-parus-major-judged-from-the-mark-mirror-test
#16
Fanny-Linn Kraft, Tereza Forštová, A Utku Urhan, Alice Exnerová, Anders Brodin
Self-recognition is a trait presumed to be associated with high levels of cognition and something previously considered to be exclusive to humans and possibly apes. The most common test of self-recognition is the mark/mirror test of whether an animal can understand that it sees its own reflection in a mirror. The usual design is that an animal is marked with a colour spot somewhere on the body where the spot can only be seen by the animal by using a mirror. Very few species have passed this test, and among birds, only magpies have been affirmatively demonstrated to pass it...
July 31, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760768/evolution-of-male-strategies-with-sex-ratio-dependent-pay-offs-connecting-pair-bonds-with-grandmothering
#17
Sara L Loo, Kristen Hawkes, Peter S Kim
Men's provisioning of mates and offspring has been central to ideas about human evolution because paternal provisioning is absent in our closest evolutionary cousins, the great apes, and is widely assumed to result in pair bonding, which distinguishes us from them. Yet mathematical modelling has shown that paternal care does not readily spread in populations where competition for multiple mates is the common male strategy. Here we add to models that point to the mating sex ratio as an explanation for pairing as pay-offs to mate guarding rise with a male-biased sex ratio...
September 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749288/blood-product-transfusions-in-great-apes-a-retrospective-review-of-12-cases
#18
Alicia Hahn, Ginger Sturgeon, Joseph Rossi
Although the administration of blood and blood products can be lifesaving, transfusions in exotic species are less common because of the lack of knowledge of a species' blood groups, the availability of species-specific donors, and possible adverse effects. Recently, blood groups were elucidated in great apes; however, few reports have been published regarding actual transfusion situations in these species. This information is critical because poorly executed transfusions can compromise already weakened patients or result in the death of the recipient...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748114/uric-acid-in-plants-and-microorganisms-biological-applications-and-genetics-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Rehab M Hafez, Tahany M Abdel-Rahman, Rasha M Naguib
Uric acid increased accumulation and/or reduced excretion in human bodies is closely related to pathogenesis of gout and hyperuricemia. It is highly affected by the high intake of food rich in purine. Uric acid is present in both higher plants and microorganisms with species dependent concentration. Urate-degrading enzymes are found both in plants and microorganisms but the mechanisms by which plant degrade uric acid was found to be different among them. Higher plants produce various metabolites which could inhibit xanthine oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase, so prohibit the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine then to uric acid in the purine metabolism...
September 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741660/is-overimitation-a-uniquely-human-phenomenon-insights-from-human-children-as-compared-to-bonobos
#20
Zanna Clay, Claudio Tennie
Imitation is a key mechanism of human culture and underlies many of the intricacies of human social life, including rituals and social norms. Compared to other animals, humans appear to be special in their readiness to copy novel actions as well as those that are visibly causally irrelevant. This study directly compared the imitative behavior of human children to that of bonobos, our understudied great ape relatives. During an action-copying task involving visibly causally irrelevant actions, only 3- to 5-year-old children (N = 77) readily copied, whereas no bonobo from a large sample did (N = 46)...
July 24, 2017: Child Development
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