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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431000/left-brain-asymmetry-of-the-planum-temporale-in-a-nonhominid-primate-redefining-the-origin-of-brain-specialization-for-language
#1
Damien Marie, Muriel Roth, Romain Lacoste, Bruno Nazarian, Alice Bertello, Jean-Luc Anton, William D Hopkins, Konstantina Margiotoudi, Scott A Love, Adrien Meguerditchian
The planum temporale (PT) is a critical region of the language functional network in the human brain showing a striking size asymmetry toward the left hemisphere. Historically considered as a structural landmark of the left-brain specialization for language, a similar anatomical bias has been described in great apes but never in monkeys-indicating that this brain landmark might be unique to Hominidae evolution. In the present in vivo magnetic resonance imaging study, we show clearly for the first time in a nonhominid primate species, an Old World monkey, a left size predominance of the PT among 96 olive baboons (Papio anubis), using manual delineation of this region in each individual hemisphere...
April 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418109/sagittal-crest-formation-in-great-apes-and-gibbons
#2
Katharine L Balolia, Christophe Soligo, Bernard Wood
The frequency of sagittal crest expression and patterns of sagittal crest growth and development have been documented in hominoids, including some extinct hominin taxa, and the more frequent expression of the sagittal crest in males has been traditionally linked with the need for larger-bodied individuals to have enough attachment area for the temporalis muscle. In the present study, we investigate sagittal cresting in a dentally mature sample of four hominoid taxa (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, Gorilla gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus and Hylobates lar)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407328/distinctiveness-enhances-long-term-event-memory-in-non-human-primates-irrespective-of-reinforcement
#3
Amy Lewis, Josep Call, Dorthe Berntsen
Non-human primates are capable of recalling events that occurred as long as 3 years ago, and are able to distinguish between similar events; akin to human memory. In humans, distinctiveness enhances memory for events, however, it is unknown whether the same occurs in non-human primates. As such, we tested three great ape species on their ability to remember an event that varied in distinctiveness. Across three experiments, apes witnessed a baiting event in which one of three identical containers was baited with food...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407267/orangutans-enamel-defects-and-developmental-health-a-comparison-of-borneo-and-sumatra
#4
Mark F Skinner, Matthew M Skinner
Orangutans (Pongo sp.) show among the highest occurrence of three types of developmental enamel defect. Two are attributed to nutritional factors that reduce bone growth in the infant's face early in development. Their timing and prevalence indicate that Sumatra provides a better habitat than does Borneo. The third type, repetitive linear enamel hypoplasia (rLEH) is very common but its etiology is not understood. Our objective is to draw attention to this enigmatic, episodic stressor in the lives of orangutans...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406569/ischial-form-as-an-indicator-of-bipedal-kinematics-in-early-hominins-a-test-using-extant-anthropoids
#5
Kristi L Lewton, Jeremiah E Scott
Human ischia contrast with those of great apes in being craniocaudally short and dorsally projecting. This configuration is thought to facilitate greater hip extension in humans during bipedal locomotion. This link has been used to infer kinematics in early hominins, but the consequences of variation in ischial configuration for gait remain uncertain. Kinematic data for a limited sample of extant nonhuman primates demonstrate that there is variation in hip extension in these taxa during bipedal behaviors-specifically, Hylobates and Ateles are capable of greater extension than Pan and Macaca...
May 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406563/evolution-of-the-human-pelvis
#6
Karen R Rosenberg, Jeremy M DeSilva
No bone in the human postcranial skeleton differs more dramatically from its match in an ape skeleton than the pelvis. Humans have evolved a specialized pelvis, well-adapted for the rigors of bipedal locomotion. Precisely how this happened has been the subject of great interest and contention in the paleoanthropological literature. In part, this is because of the fragility of the pelvis and its resulting rarity in the human fossil record. However, new discoveries from Miocene hominoids and Plio-Pleistocene hominins have reenergized debates about human pelvic evolution and shed new light on the competing roles of bipedal locomotion and obstetrics in shaping pelvic anatomy...
May 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406561/lower-ilium-evolution-in-apes-and-hominins
#7
Ashley S Hammond, Sergio Almécija
Elucidating the pelvic morphology of the Pan-Homo last common ancestor (LCA) is crucial for understanding ape and human evolution. The pelvis of Ardipithecus ramidus has been the basis of controversial interpretations of the LCA pelvis. In particular, it was proposed that the lower ilium became elongate independently in the orangutan and chimpanzee clades, making these taxa poor analogues for the pelvis of the LCA. This study examines the variation in relative lower ilium height between and within living and fossil hominoid species (and other anthropoids), and models its evolution using available fossil hominoids as calibration points...
May 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406557/determinants-of-iliac-blade-orientation-in-anthropoid-primates
#8
Emily R Middleton, Zachariah J Winkler, Ashley S Hammond, J Michael Plavcan, Carol V Ward
Orientation of the iliac blades is a key feature that appears to distinguish extant apes from monkeys. Iliac morphology is hypothesized to reflect variation in thoracic shape that, in turn, reflects adaptations for shoulder and forearm function in anthropoids. Iliac orientation is traditionally measured relative to the acetabulum, whereas functional explanations pertain to its orientation relative to the cardinal anatomical planes. We investigated iliac orientation relative to a median plane using digital models of hipbones registered to landmark data from articulated pelves...
May 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400988/the-%C3%AE-133p53-isoform-reduces-wtp53-induced-stimulation-of-dna-pol-%C3%AE-activity-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-d4t
#9
Kai Liu, Yunjin Zang, Xianghua Guo, Feili Wei, Jiming Yin, Lijun Pang, Dexi Chen
The mitochondrial toxicity of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) is due to the inhibition of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase γ (pol γ). Previous studies have shown that wild type p53 (wtp53) can interact with pol γ and mtDNA to enhance mitochondrial DNA base excision repair (mtBER) activity and increase the accuracy of DNA synthesis. The N-terminal transactivation domain and central specific DNA-binding domain of p53 play critical roles in the stimulation of BER. In this study, we identified the possible roles of wtp53, Δ40p53 and Δ133p53 in regulating mtDNA pol γ activity in cells with d4T treatment...
April 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400951/contribution-of-community-health-workers-to-improving-access-to-timely-and-appropriate-case-management-of-childhood-fever-in-mozambique
#10
Tanya Guenther, Salim Sadruddin, Karen Finnegan, Erica Wetzler, Fatima Ibo, Paulo Rapaz, Jeanne Koepsell, Ibad Ul Haque Khan, Agbessi Amouzou
BACKGROUND: Large scale evaluations in several settings have demonstrated that lay community health workers can be trained to provide quality case management of childhood illnesses. In 2010, Mozambique introduced the integrated community case management (iCCM) strategy to reach children in remote areas with care provided through Agentes Polivalentes Elementares (APEs). We assessed the contribution of the program to improved care-seeking and appropriate treatment of childhood febrile illness in Nampula Province...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393042/utilization-of-eye-care-services-among-those-with-unilateral-visual-impairment-in-rural-south-india-andhra-pradesh-eye-disease-study-apeds
#11
Srinivas Marmamula, Pyda Giridhar, Rohit C Khanna
AIM: To report on the utilization of eye care services and its associated factors among those with unilateral visual impairment (VI) in a rural South Indian population. METHODS: A population based cross-sectional study was conducted in three districts (Adilabad, Mahbubnagar and West Godavari) in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. A detailed interview and a comprehensive eye examination were conducted. Those with unilateral VI were asked questions about noticing any change in vision and on utilization of eye care services...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389978/apes-perform-like-infants-in-false-belief-tasks
#12
Thomas Bugnyar
Although the extent to which some nonhuman animals understand mental states is currently under debate, attributing false beliefs has been considered to be beyond their limits. A recent study by Krupenye, Kano, Hirata, Call, and Tomasello (Science, 354, 110-114, 2016) shows that great apes pass a false-belief task when they are tested with an anticipatory-looking paradigm developed for nonverbal human infants.
April 7, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389720/superoxide-dismutase-1-is-positively-selected-to-minimize-protein-aggregation-in-great-apes
#13
Pouria Dasmeh, Kasper P Kepp
Positive (adaptive) selection has recently been implied in human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a highly abundant antioxidant protein with energy signaling and antiaging functions, one of very few examples of direct selection on a human protein product (exon); the molecular drivers of this selection are unknown. We mapped 30 extant SOD1 sequences to the recently established mammalian species tree and inferred ancestors, key substitutions, and signatures of selection during the protein's evolution. We detected elevated substitution rates leading to great apes (Hominidae) at ~1 per 2 million years, significantly higher than in other primates and rodents, although these paradoxically generally evolve much faster...
April 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384300/prelinguistic-human-infants-and-great-apes-show-different-communicative-strategies-in-a-triadic-request-situation
#14
Heinz Gretscher, Sebastian Tempelmann, Daniel B M Haun, Katja Liebal, Juliane Kaminski
In the present research, we investigate the communicative strategies of 20 month old human infants and great apes when requesting rewards from a human experimenter. Infants and apes both adapted their signals to the attentional state of the experimenter as well as to the location of the reward. Yet, while infants frequently positioned themselves in front of the experimenter and pointed towards a distant reward, apes either remained in the experimenter's line of sight and pointed towards him or moved out of sight and pointed towards the reward...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380040/an-ape1-inhibitor-reveals-critical-roles-of-the-redox-function-of-ape1-in-kshv-replication-and-pathogenic-phenotypes
#15
Canrong Zhong, Mengyang Xu, Yan Wang, Jun Xu, Yan Yuan
APE1 is a multifunctional protein with a DNA base excision repair function in its C-terminal domain and a redox activity in its N-terminal domain. The redox function of APE1 converts certain transcription factors from inactive oxidized to active reduced forms. Given that among the APE1-regulated transcription factors many are critical for KSHV replication and pathogenesis, we investigated whether inhibition of APE1 redox function blocks KSHV replication and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) phenotypes. With an shRNA-mediated silencing approach and a known APE-1 redox inhibitor, we demonstrated that APE1 redox function is indeed required for KSHV replication as well as KSHV-induced angiogenesis, validating APE1 as a therapeutic target for KSHV-associated diseases...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379987/great-apes-distinguish-true-from-false-beliefs-in-an-interactive-helping-task
#16
David Buttelmann, Frances Buttelmann, Malinda Carpenter, Josep Call, Michael Tomasello
Understanding the behavior of others in a wide variety of circumstances requires an understanding of their psychological states. Humans' nearest primate relatives, the great apes, understand many psychological states of others, for example, perceptions, goals, and desires. However, so far there is little evidence that they possess the key marker of advanced human social cognition: an understanding of false beliefs. Here we demonstrate that in a nonverbal (implicit) false-belief test which is passed by human 1-year-old infants, great apes as a group, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and orangutans (Pongo abelii), distinguish between true and false beliefs in their helping behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378197/non-dietary-analytical-features-of-chimpanzee-scats
#17
Caroline A Phillips, Richard W Wrangham, William C McGrew
Non-dietary aspects of ape scats such as scat weight and diameter are correlated with age and sex of defaecator for gorillas and orangutans. Defaecation rates of primates, including apes, illuminate their role as primary seed dispersers. We assess if non-dietary features of scats for East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) reveal such insights for members of the Kanyawara community in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Our objective is to see if such data yield useful perspectives for future census work on unhabituated chimpanzees, that is, what can scats tell us about a wild study population, beyond diet? We followed ten adults from this community, as well as travelling parties, comparing observed vs...
April 4, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369733/feeding-in-fear-how-adult-male-western-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-verus-adjust-to-predation-and-savanna-habitat-pressures
#18
Stacy Lindshield, Brent J Danielson, Jessica M Rothman, Jill D Pruetz
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated risk-sensitive foraging in adult male western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) occupying a savanna environment at Fongoli, Senegal. The aim of this study was to determine how the risks of predation and heat stress influenced their behavior while feeding on a key food, fruit of the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Proximity of fruiting baobab trees to anthropogenic landmarks were compared to food intake, feeding rate, and behavioral indicators of fear in adult males (N = 11) at Fongoli...
March 28, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365756/node-dating-dating-ancestors-in-phylogenetic-trees-in-r
#19
Bradley R Jones, Art F Y Poon
Summary: Phylogenetic trees encode the evolutionary distances between species or populations. With sufficient information, these evolutionary distances can be rescaled over time to provide estimates of the dates of the most recent ancestors of the species. Here we present the R program node.dating, divergence-time analysis software, which uses a maximum-likelihood method to estimate the dates of the internal nodes of a phylogenetic tree. Availability and Implementation: node...
March 15, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364107/-advantage-of-extralevator-abdominoperineal-excision-comparing-to-the-conventional-abdominoperineal-excision-for-low-rectal-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#20
Qi Wang, Chengwen Xu, Jiajia Wang, Quan Ren, Jiaqing Cao
Whether extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) improves survival and safety remains controversial. Systematic review of all comparative studies to define the superiority of ELAPE to conventional abdominoperineal excision (APE).
 Methods: Corresponding data, with case-control studies or cohorts regarding intraoperative perforation rate, the local recurrence rate and postoperative complications in the ELAPE group and the APE group, were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Literature (CMB), VIP, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Database...
March 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
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