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Alex C Stabell, Nicholas R Meyerson, Rebekah C Gullberg, Alison R Gilchrist, Kristofor J Webb, William M Old, Rushika Perera, Sara L Sawyer
Human dengue viruses emerged from primate reservoirs, yet paradoxically dengue does not reach high titers in primate models. This presents a unique opportunity to examine the genetics of spillover versus reservoir hosts. The dengue virus 2 (DENV2) - encoded protease cleaves human STING, reducing type I interferon production and boosting viral titers in humans. We find that both human and sylvatic (reservoir) dengue viruses universally cleave human STING, but not the STING of primates implicated as reservoir species...
March 20, 2018: ELife
Guadalupe Miró, Amelia Troyano, Ana Montoya, Fernando Fariñas, Ma Luisa Fermín, Luís Flores, Carlos Rojo, Rocío Checa, Rosa Gálvez, Valentina Marino, Cristina Fragío, Eva Martínez-Nevado
BACKGROUND: Some wild animals have been recognized as potential reservoirs of Leishmania infantum infection (e.g. carnivores, lagomorphs, rodents, etc.). Leishmania infantum was also identified infecting humans and lagomorphs (i.e. hares and rabbits) over the period of 2009-2016, with the latter acting as the main reservoirs involved in the human leishmaniosis outbreak in Madrid. RESULTS: Two cases of clinical leishmaniosis are reported in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) housed at two different centres in Madrid...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Marten N Basta, John E Fiadjoe, Albert S Woo, Kenneth N Peeples, Oksana A Jackson
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify risk factors for adverse perioperative events (APEs) after cleft palatoplasty to develop an individualized risk assessment tool. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Tertiary institutional. PATIENTS: Patients younger than 2 years with cleft palate. INTERVENTIONS: Primary Furlow palatoplasty between 2008 and 2011. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Adverse perioperative event, defined as laryngo- or bronchospasm, accidental extubation, reintubation, obstruction, hypoxia, or unplanned intensive care unit admission...
April 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Ava Yuan Xue, Antonella Di Pizio, Anat Levit, Tali Yarnitzky, Osnat Penn, Tal Pupko, Masha Y Niv
The 25 human bitter taste receptors (hT2Rs) recognize thousands of structurally and chemically diverse bitter substances. The binding modes of human bitter taste receptors hT2R10 and hT2R46, which are responsible for strychnine recognition, were previously established using site-directed mutagenesis, functional assays, and molecular modeling. Here we construct a phylogenetic tree and reconstruct ancestral sequences of the T2R10 and T2R46 clades. We next analyze the binding sites in view of experimental data to predict their ability to recognize strychnine...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Patrycja Klimek, Tom Hildebrandt
OBJECTIVE: Theoretically, legal supplement use precedes and increases the risk for illicit appearance and performance enhancing drug (APED) use-also referred to as the gateway hypothesis. Little is known about associations between the speed of progression, or gap time, from legal to illicit APED use, and psychological risk factors, such as sociocultural influence, eating disorders, body image disturbance, and impulsivity. METHOD: The sample taken from two studies included 172 active steroid users (n = 143) and intense-exercising healthy controls (n = 29) between the ages of 18 and 60 (M = 34...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Dean Falk, Christoph P E Zollikofer, Marcia Ponce de León, Katerina Semendeferi, José Luis Alatorre Warren, William D Hopkins
The only direct source of information about hominin brain evolution comes from the fossil record of endocranial casts (endocasts) that reproduce details of the external morphology of the brain imprinted on the walls of the braincase during life. Surface traces of sulci that separate the brain's convolutions (gyri) are reproduced sporadically on early hominin endocasts. Paleoneurologists rely heavily on published descriptions of sulci on brains of great apes, especially chimpanzees (humans' phylogenetically closest living relatives), to guide their identifications of sulci on ape-sized hominin endocasts...
March 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Klára Vlčková, Jakub Kreisinger, Barbora Pafčo, Dagmar Čížková, Nikki Tagg, Adrian B Hehl, David Modrý
Understanding the complex Entamoeba communities in the mammalian intestine has been, to date, complicated by the lack of a suitable approach for molecular detection of multiple variants co-occurring in mixed infections. Here, we report on the application of a high throughput sequencing approach based on partial 18S rDNA using the Illumina MiSeq platform. We describe, to our knowledge for the first time, the Entamoeba communities in humans, free-ranging western lowland gorillas and central chimpanzees living in at the Dja Faunal Reserve in Cameroon...
March 9, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Alban Lemasson, Hugo Pereira, Florence Levréro
Authors have raised the possibility of identifying primitive forms of conversational rules in monkeys: temporally ruled vocal interactions, call overlap avoidance, and socially based calling partner preferences. The question as to how these abilities have evolved in the primate lineage remains open to debate, particularly because studies based on apes are scarce and controversial. We studied a captive group of western lowland gorillas and tested the influence of caller characteristics and the type of bond between calling partners on vocal behavior based on the following: age, dominance, spatial proximity, sociopositive contact, and gaze...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Jon H Kaas, Hui-Xin Qi, Iwona Stepniewska
Many of the adaptive changes in the functional organization of parietal cortex of humans emerged in past in the early primates as they depended on visually guided forelimb use to grasp branches and food. Currently, human, apes and some monkeys have four well-defined subdivisions of anterior parietal cortex, areas 3a, 3b, 1 and 2 of Brodmann. In some of the smaller monkeys, and in stepsirrine primates (galagos, lemurs, and lorises), especially areas 1 and 2 are less developed, and the existence of an area 2 is questionable...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Nicholas R Meyerson, Cody J Warren, Daniel A S A Vieira, Felipe Diaz-Griferro, Sara L Sawyer
HIV-1 arose as the result of spillover of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) from great apes in Africa, namely from chimpanzees and gorillas. Chimpanzees and gorillas were, themselves, infected with SIV after virus spillover from African monkeys. During spillover events, SIV is thought to require adaptation to the new host species. The host barriers that drive viral adaptation have predominantly been attributed to restriction factors, rather than cofactors (host proteins exploited to promote viral replication)...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Lauren H Howard, Cassandra Festa, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf
The ability to learn socially is of critical importance across a wide variety of species, as it allows knowledge to be passed quickly among individuals without the need of time-consuming trial-and-error learning. Among primates, social learning research has been particularly focused on foraging tasks, including transmission dynamics and the demonstration characteristics that appear to support social learning. Less work has focused on the attentional salience of the information being viewed, especially in New World monkeys...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Danny Epstein, Gidon Berger, Noam Barda, Erez Marcusohn, Yuval Barak-Corren, Khitam Muhsen, Ran D Balicer, Zaher S Azzam
BACKGROUND: A recently published, large prospective study showed unexpectedly high prevalence of acute pulmonary embolism (APE) among patients hospitalized for syncope. In such a case, a high incidence of recurrent pulmonary embolism is expected among patients who were discharged without APE workup. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of symptomatic APE among patients hospitalized for a first episode of syncope and discharged without APE workup or anticoagulation...
2018: PloS One
Giada Cordoni, Ivan Norscia, Maria Bobbio, Elisabetta Palagi
Play behaviour reinforces social affiliation in several primate species, including humans. Via a comparative approach, we tested the hypothesis that play dynamics in a group of lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) are different from those in a group of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as a reflection of their difference in social affiliation and agonistic support. We selected one group of lowland gorillas and one of chimpanzees, hosted at the ZooParc de Beauval (France), managed in a similar way and living in similar enclosures...
2018: PloS One
Marissa H Petrou
In this paper, I discuss the development and use of images employed by the Dresden Royal Museum for Zoology, Anthropology and Ethnography to resolve debates about how to use visual representation as a means of making ethnographic knowledge. Through experimentation with techniques of visual representation, the founding director, A.B. Meyer (1840-1911), proposed a historical, non-essentialist approach to understanding racial and cultural difference. Director Meyer's approach was inspired by the new knowledge he had gained through field research in Asia-Pacific as well as new forms of imaging that made highly detailed representations of objects possible...
March 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
Matthew R McLennan
With data accumulating from a growing pool of chimpanzee field studies, new behaviors as well as novel variants on common behaviors continue to be described. Nest construction is a universal behavior in wild great apes. Among chimpanzee populations, reported variation in nest building behavior mostly reflects environmental constraints. Despite the ubiquity of nest making by chimpanzees, only ground nesting has been recognized as a behavioral variant, potentially determined by both environmental and social factors...
March 6, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Thomas A Terleph, S Malaivijitnond, U H Reichard
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to document song phrases of the white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar), an Asian ape that produces elaborate songs, often in well-coordinated male/female duets. We focused on the male coda, which is produced during vocal turn-taking with one's mate, and particularly its phrases containing rapid spectral and temporal variation, to investigate if modulation rates resemble those of lip-smacking in other nonhuman primates and human speech rhythm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We produced recordings from a large population of wild gibbons...
March 6, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Wei Zhang, Feng Wang, Klaus Hubacek, Yu Liu, Jinnan Wang, Kuishuang Feng, Ling Jiang, Hongqiang Jiang, Bing Zhang, Jun Bi
As the world's factory, China has enjoyed huge economic benefits from international export but also suffered severe environmental consequences. Most studies investigating unequal environmental exchange associated with trade took China as a homogenous entity ignoring considerable inequality and outsourcing of pollution within China. This paper traces the regional mismatch of export-induced economic benefits and environmental costs along national supply chains by using the latest multi-regional input-output model and emission inventory for 2012...
March 2, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Maria Blanco, Denise Fernandes, Juliane Rizzi, David Huertas, Nuno Caiola, Pilar Fernández, Cinta Porte
The lower course of the Ebro River is polluted with high concentrations of organochlorine compounds dumped by a chloro-alkali plant during the last century. A remediation plan, including building of a protective wall, removal and disposal of polluted sediments started in 2012. With the aim of assessing the effects of dredging of contaminated sediments and potential alterations of water quality, areas located upstream (RR) and downstream (BE, A) the chemical plant (FL) were monitored prior (October 2012) and during dredging (June 2013) using roach (Rutilus rutilus) as sentinel organisms...
February 26, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Laura M Kleinschmidt, Matthew E Kinney, Christopher S Hanley
Strongyloides nematodes have been reported in all species of great apes with orangutans ≤5 years old most susceptible to severe clinical disease. This brief communication describes the first published case of antemortem diagnosis and treatment of disseminated strongyloidiasis in a clinically affected 5-month-old Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii).
March 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Marc R Meyer, Charles Woodward, Amy Tims, Markus Bastir
OBJECTIVES: Uncinate processes are protuberances on the cranial surface of subaxial cervical vertebrae that assist in stabilizing and guiding spinal motion. Shallow uncinate processes reduce cervical stability but confer an increased range of motion in clinical studies. Here we assess uncinate processes among extant primates and model cervical kinematics in early fossil hominins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compare six fossil hominin vertebrae with 48 Homo sapiens and 99 nonhuman primates across 20 genera...
February 28, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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