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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336025/how-children-invented-humanity
#1
REVIEW
David F Bjorklund
I use the commentaries of Legare, Clegg, and Wen and of Frankenhuis and Tiokhin as jumping-off points to discuss an issue hinted at both in my essay and their commentaries: How a developmental perspective can help us achieve a better understanding of evolution. I examine briefly how neoteny may have contributed to human morphology; how developmental plasticity in great apes, and presumably our common ancestor with them, may have led the way to advances in social cognition; and how the "invention" of childhood contributed to unique human cognitive abilities...
January 16, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329910/the-effects-of-exercise-intensity-and-post-exercise-recovery-time-on-cortical-activation-as-revealed-by-eeg-alpha-peak-frequency
#2
B Gutmann, P Zimmer, T Hülsdünker, J Lefebvre, S Binnebößel, M Oberste, W Bloch, H K Strüder, A Mierau
Acute physical exercise (APE) induces an increase in the individual alpha peak frequency (iAPF), a cortical parameter associated with neural information processing speed. The aim of this study was to further scrutinize the influence of different APE intensities on post-exercise iAPF as well as its time course after exercise cessation. 95 healthy young (18-35 years) subjects participated in two randomized controlled experiments (EX1 and EX2). In EX1, all participants completed a graded exercise test (GXT) until exhaustion and were randomly allocated into different delay groups (immediately 0, 30, 60 and 90 minutes after GXT)...
January 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328448/association-between-ace2-ace-balance-and-pneumocyte-apoptosis-in-a-porcine-model-of-acute-pulmonary-thromboembolism-with-cardiac-arrest
#3
Hong-Li Xiao, Lian-Xing Zhao, Jun Yang, Nan Tong, Le An, Qi-Tong Liu, Miao-Rong Xie, Chun-Sheng Li
Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is frequently reported in patients with cardiac arrest (CA) in emergency care. Pneumocyte apoptosis is commonly observed in the lungs following an APE. An important pathological mechanism evoking apoptosis during a lipopolysaccharide‑induced acute lung injury is the angiotensin‑converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/ACE imbalance. The present study uses a porcine model to examine the anti‑apoptotic effects of captopril on APE‑CA and the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Pigs were randomly assigned into four groups: Control, APE‑CA, ROSC‑saline, and ROSC‑captopril...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327389/multivariate-analysis-of-variations-in-intrinsic-foot-musculature-among-hominoids
#4
Motoharu Oishi, Naomichi Ogihara, Daisuke Shimizu, Yasuhiro Kikuchi, Hideki Endo, Yumi Une, Satoshi Soeta, Hajime Amasaki, Nobutsune Ichihara
Comparative analysis of the foot muscle architecture among extant great apes is important for understanding the evolution of the human foot and, hence, human habitual bipedal walking. However, to our knowledge, there is no previous report of a quantitative comparison of hominoid intrinsic foot muscle dimensions. In the present study, we quantitatively compared muscle dimensions of the hominoid foot by means of multivariate analysis. The foot muscle mass and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of five chimpanzees, one bonobo, two gorillas, and six orangutans were obtained by our own dissections, and those of humans were taken from published accounts...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321271/incremental-distribution-of-strontium-and-zinc-in-great-ape-and-fossil-hominin-cementum-using-synchrotron-x-ray-fluorescence-mapping
#5
Christopher Dean, Adeline Le Cabec, Kathryn Spiers, Yi Zhang, Jan Garrevoet
Cementum and the incremental markings it contains have been widely studied as a means of ageing animals and retrieving information about diet and nutrition. The distribution of trace elements in great ape and fossil hominin cementum has not been studied previously. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) enables rapid scanning of large tissue areas with high resolution of elemental distributions. First, we used SXRF to map calcium, phosphorus, strontium and zinc distributions in great ape dentine and cementum...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320802/effect-of-maternal-body-mass-index-and-amniotic-fluid-index-on-the-accuracy-of-sonographic-estimation-of-fetal-weight-in-late-gestation
#6
Matthew J Blitz, Burton Rochelson, Leah B Stork, Stephanie Augustine, Meir Greenberg, Cristina P Sison, Nidhi Vohra
OBJECTIVE:  The objective of this study was to determine the effect, if any, of maternal body mass index (BMI) and amniotic fluid index (AFI) on the accuracy of sonographic estimated fetal weight (EFW) at 40 to 42 weeks' gestation. METHODS:  This was a retrospective cohort study of singleton gestations with ultrasound performed at 40 to 42 weeks from 2010 to 2013. In this study, patients with documented BMI and sonographic EFW and AFI, concurrently, within 7 days of delivery were included...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320499/precocious-development-of-self-awareness-in-dolphins
#7
Rachel Morrison, Diana Reiss
Mirror-self recognition (MSR) is a behavioral indicator of self-awareness in young children and only a few other species, including the great apes, dolphins, elephants and magpies. The emergence of self-awareness in children typically occurs during the second year and has been correlated with sensorimotor development and growing social and self-awareness. Comparative studies of MSR in chimpanzees report that the onset of this ability occurs between 2 years 4 months and 3 years 9 months of age. Studies of wild and captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have reported precocious sensorimotor and social awareness during the first weeks of life, but no comparative MSR research has been conducted with this species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316927/global-sequence-diversity-of-the-lactate-dehydrogenase-gene-in-plasmodium-falciparum
#8
Phumin Simpalipan, Sittiporn Pattaradilokrat, Pongchai Harnyuttanakorn
BACKGROUND: Antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have been recommended by the World Health Organization for use in remote areas to improve malaria case management. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Plasmodium falciparum is one of the main parasite antigens employed by various commercial RDTs. It has been hypothesized that the poor detection of LDH-based RDTs is attributed in part to the sequence diversity of the gene. To test this, the present study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of the P...
January 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314775/the-relationship-between-digit-independence-and-digital-sesamoids-in-humans-and-a-proposal-of-a-new-digital-sesamoid-evolutionary-hypothesis
#9
Kaissar Yammine
Digital sesamoids are found in the metapodial-phalangeal joints of most mammals and quadrupedal tetrapods, yet their functional significance is still unclear. During primate evolution, a slight decline in their frequency has been associated with brachiation in gibbons, followed by a quasi-complete absence in orangutans then a slight resurgence occurred in gorillas and chimpanzees. Simultaneously, forearm muscles showed a progressive division in hominoid evolution towards a more "individualistic" musculature yielding more mobility and independence to some fingers...
January 3, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313896/great-ape-walking-kinematics-implications-for-hominoid-evolution
#10
Emma M Finestone, Mary H Brown, Stephen R Ross, Herman Pontzer
OBJECTIVES: Great apes provide a point of reference for understanding the evolution of locomotion in hominoids and early hominins. We assessed (1) the extent to which great apes use diagonal sequence, diagonal couplet gaits, like other primates, (2) the extent to which gait and posture vary across great apes, and (3) the role of body mass and limb proportions on ape quadrupedal kinematics. METHODS: High-speed digital video of zoo-housed bonobos (Pan paniscus, N = 8), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, N = 13), lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla, N = 13), and orangutans (Pongo spp...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311655/species-specific-posture-of-human-foetus-in-late-first-trimester
#11
Yoshiyuki Ohmura, Seiichi Morokuma, Kiyoko Kato, Yasuo Kuniyoshi
The ontogeny associated with the arm-hanging posture, which is considered ape-specific, remains unknown. To examine its ontogeny, we measured foetal movements of 62 human foetuses aged 10-20 gestation weeks using four-dimensional sonography. We observed that the first-trimester foetuses show this particular species-specific posture. After 11 weeks of gestation, all foetuses showed the arm-hanging posture, and the posture was most frequently observed at 14-16 weeks of gestation. Moreover, this posture often involved extension of both arms and both legs, indicating that it is not myogenic but neurogenic...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297793/colonic-diverticulosis-and-diverticular-hemorrhage-in-a-geriatric-female-orangutan-pongo-abelii
#12
Simone Vitali, Paul Eden, Karen Payne, Geoffrey Forbes
A 57-yr-old female Sumatran orangutan ( Pongo abelii) presented with signs of intermittent lethargy and inappetence, then subsequently developed profuse hemorrhagic diarrhea. Colonoscopy under anesthesia revealed diverticulosis of the descending colon, with multiple large diverticula containing fecoliths. There was no evidence of diverticulitis, but a regenerative anemia had developed following an acute diverticular bleed. The orangutan recovered with conservative therapy. Colonic diverticulosis has been reported in nonhuman primates and appears to have a similar clinical presentation to the condition as it occurs in humans...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283338/aqueous-extract-of-smokeless-tobacco-gutkha-deregulates-tumor-suppressor-and-dna-repair-response-in-a-murine-model-of-smokeless-tobacco-use
#13
Angom Ranjana Devi, Mahuya Sengupta, Yashmin Choudhury
The effect of smokeless tobacco (gutkha) was investigated by treating male and female Swiss Albino mice with an aqueous extract of smokeless tobacco (AEST). AEST was administered at a dose of 25 mg kg-1 body weight per day for different time periods (6, 12, 16, and 24 weeks), and control animals were provided only drinking water without AEST for the same period. Control and AEST-treated mice were observed for different oxidative stress parameters, nitric oxide (NO) release, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) release, and they were evaluated for alterations in tumor suppressor and DNA repair responses in the liver and spleen...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281860/subchondral-bone-radiodensity-patterns-in-the-glenoid-fossa-of-ape-and-human-scapulae
#14
Biren A Patel, Joshua T Romanu, Kristian J Carlson
Regions of denser subchondral bone deep to a joint's articular surface indicate locations where the joint experiences relatively higher or more frequent compressive trans-articular forces than less dense regions. Human clinically-focused studies have hypothesized that regional variation of highest radiodensity (HiRD), acquired with computed tomography osteoabsorptiomety (CT-OAM), in the human glenoid fossa (GF) is specifically related to forces arising from everyday rotator cuff muscle function. We test this hypothesis by investigating the relationship between rotator cuff function and GF HiRD subchondral bone patterns in a broader comparative context...
December 27, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278836/the-fibularis-digiti-quinti-tendon-a-cadaveric-study-with-anthropological-and-clinical-considerations
#15
Morgan E Chaney, Tung V Dao, Benjamin S Brechtel, Stephanie J Belovich, Kathy J Siesel, John R Fredieu
In addition to the fibularis longus and brevis muscles, a number of anomalous muscles or tendons can arise from the lateral compartment of the leg. The authors describe a bilateral and robust fibularis digiti quinti (FDQ) tendon present in the foot of a 99-year-old female cadaver, present the incidence of this tendon in a cohort of 26 cadavers dissected by podiatric-medical students for a lower-extremity anatomy course, and discuss the anthropological and clinical significance of the findings. In these specimen, the FDQ tendon arose from the fibularis brevis tendon proximal to the lateral malleolus, but did not separate completely from the fibularis brevis tendon until passing through the inferior fibular retinaculum...
December 5, 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275286/structural-identification-of-lipopeptide-biosurfactants-produced-by-bacillus-subtilis-strains-grown-on-the-media-obtained-from-renewable-natural-resources
#16
Katarzyna Paraszkiewicz, Przemysław Bernat, Anna Kuśmierska, Joanna Chojniak, Grażyna Płaza
The aim of the study was to identify and characterize lipopeptide (LP) biosurfactants produced by two Bacillus subtilis strains (KP7 and I'-1a) grown on various media prepared from renewable natural resources: two different brewery wastewaters (BW#4 and BW#6), 2% beet molasses (M), apple peels extract (APE) supplemented with 0.25% of yeast extract (YE) or 0.25% peptone (P), and similarly supplemented carrot peels extract (CPE). In all used media both strains retained their individual LP production signature characterized by surfactin and iturin overproduction exhibited by KP7 and I'-1a strain, respectively...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243559/multiplicity-and-mutuality-in-the-transition-of-patient-and-therapist-s-self-states-comparison-of-good-vs-poor-outcome-groups
#17
Nehama Hacohen, Dana Atzil-Slonim, Rivka Tuval-Mashiach, Eran Bar-Kalifa, Hadar Fisher
OBJECTIVE: According to the Assimilation Model, the self is consisted of multiple internal voices which are sometimes conflicted, or even dissociated, from one another. Thus, a key therapeutic goal is to create awareness and dialogue between a patient's various internal voices, in order to facilitate positive change. A recent development of this theoretical line suggests that clinically addressing both the patients' and therapists' internal voices, and their mutual influences, contributes significantly to the treatment outcome...
December 15, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239646/a-comparison-of-personality-in-the-common-and-bolivian-squirrel-monkey-saimiri-sciureus-and-saimiri-boliviensis
#18
Vanessa A D Wilson, Miho Inoue-Murayama, Alexander Weiss
Personality has been studied in all of the great apes, many Old World monkey species, but only a handful of New World monkey species. Because understanding the personalities of New World monkeys is crucial to understanding personality evolution in primates, we used the Hominoid Personality Questionnaire to assess personality in 55 common squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and 40 Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis). We found 4 personality components in each species, and labeled them Openness, Neuroticism, Assertiveness, and Agreeableness...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239263/percutaneous-mechanical-thrombectomy-combined-with-catheter-directed-thrombolysis-in-the-treatment-of-acute-pulmonary-embolism-and-lower-extremity-deep-venous-thrombosis-a-novel-one-stop-endovascular-strategy
#19
Bing Liu, MingYuan Liu, LiHong Yan, JunWei Yan, Jiang Wu, XueFei Jiao, MingJin Guo
Objective This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) combined with catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) and lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (LEDVT). Methods In total, 20 consecutive patients with APE and LEDVT were prospectively selected for PMT combined with CDT. Mechanical thrombus fragmentation and aspiration using a pigtail rotation catheter followed by CDT was performed in each patient...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237218/-cylindric-abdominoperineal-rectum-exstirpation-with-partial-vulvar-and-vaginal-resection-as-well-as-perineal-and-vaginal-defect-reconstruction-by-a-vertical-rectus-abdominis-myocutaneous-vram-flap
#20
Christian Krautz, Klaus Weber, Roland Croner, Axel Denz, Matthias Maak, Raymund E Horch, Robert Grützmann
Introduction Patients with low rectal cancer or anal cancer undergoing abdominoperineal excision (APE) benefit from extended surgery and the subsequent avoidance of surgical "waisting" at the level of the puborectalis muscle. The method of cylindrical APE was introduced by T. Holm and led to a reduction of intraoperative perforations and involvement of circumferential resection margins, and subsequently reduced the risk of local recurrence. The use of myocutaneous flaps reduces perineal wound complications, which occur in up to 60% of patients with primary closure of perineal defects, especially following neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy...
December 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
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