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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717793/altered-passive-eruption-ape-%C3%A2-and-active-secondary-eruption-ase-differential-diagnosis-and-management
#1
Irfan Ahmad
The process of tooth eruption consists of two phases, active and passive. While the distinction is unequivocal, the mechanism is ambiguous. This article compares and contrasts altered passive eruption (APE) and active secondary eruption (ASE). Although these phases present with similar clinical manifestations, each has its own etiology, physiogenesis, and pathogenesis. Furthermore, the differential diagnosis between the two, and that between other mirroring conditions, is essential for arriving at a definite diagnosis and correct treatment strategies, which may be similar but have different consequences...
2017: International Journal of Esthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706209/mountain-gorilla-lymphocryptovirus-has-epstein-barr-virus-like-epidemiology-and-pathology-in-infants
#2
Tierra Smiley Evans, Linda J Lowenstine, Kirsten V Gilardi, Peter A Barry, Benard J Ssebide, Jean Felix Kinani, Fred Nizeyimana, Jean Bosco Noheri, Michael R Cranfield, Antoine Mudakikwa, Tracey Goldstein, Jonna A K Mazet, Christine Kreuder Johnson
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects greater than 90% of humans, is recognized as a significant comorbidity with HIV/AIDS, and is an etiologic agent for some human cancers. The critically endangered mountain gorilla population was suspected of infection with an EBV-like virus based on serology and infant histopathology similar to pulmonary reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (PRLH), a condition associated with EBV in HIV-infected children. To further examine the presence of EBV or an EBV-like virus in mountain gorillas, we conducted the first population-wide survey of oral samples for an EBV-like virus in a nonhuman great ape...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706072/ravens-parallel-great-apes-in-flexible-planning-for-tool-use-and-bartering
#3
Can Kabadayi, Mathias Osvath
The ability to flexibly plan for events outside of the current sensory scope is at the core of being human and is crucial to our everyday lives and society. Studies on apes have shaped a belief that this ability evolved within the hominid lineage. Corvids, however, have shown evidence of planning their food hoarding, although this has been suggested to reflect a specific caching adaptation rather than domain-general planning. Here, we show that ravens plan for events unrelated to caching-tool-use and bartering-with delays of up to 17 hours, exert self-control, and consider temporal distance to future events...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702491/data-on-the-time-of-integration-of-the-human-mitochondrial-pseudogenes-numts-into-the-nuclear-genome
#4
Konstantin Gunbin, Leonid Peshkin, Konstantin Popadin, Sofia Annis, Rebecca R Ackermann, Konstantin Khrapko
The data and methods presented in this article are supplementing the research article "Integration of mtDNA pseudogenes into the nuclear genome coincides with speciation of the human genus. A hypothesis", DOI: 10.1016/j.mito.2016.12.001 (Gunbin et al., 2017) [1]. Mitochondrial DNA is known to get inserted into nuclear DNA to form NUMTs, i.e. nuclear DNA pseudogenes of the mtDNA. We present here the sequences of selected NUMTs, in which time of integration can be determined with sufficient precision. We report their chromosomal positions , their position within the great ape mtDNA phylogeny, and their times of integration into the nuclear genome...
August 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701556/non-goal-directed-recall-of-specific-events-in-apes-after-long-delays
#5
Amy Lewis, Josep Call, Dorthe Berntsen
We examined if apes spontaneously remember one-time, distinctive events across long delays when probed by discriminant cues. Apes witnessed an experimenter hide a cache of food, which they could then retrieve. They retrieved one of two food types; one more distinctive than the other. Two, 10 or 50 weeks later, the apes returned to the same enclosure and found a piece of the previously hidden food on the ground. An experimenter who had not hidden the food was also present. Apes immediately searched the location where the food was previously hidden (no food was here), showing recall of the event...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692673/gastrointestinal-parasite-infections-and-self-medication-in-wild-chimpanzees-surviving-in-degraded-forest-fragments-within-an-agricultural-landscape-mosaic-in-uganda
#6
Matthew R McLennan, Hideo Hasegawa, Massimo Bardi, Michael A Huffman
Monitoring health in wild great apes is integral to their conservation and is especially important where they share habitats with humans, given the potential for zoonotic pathogen exchange. We studied the intestinal parasites of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) inhabiting degraded forest fragments amid farmland and villages in Bulindi, Uganda. We first identified protozoan and helminth parasites infecting this population. Sixteen taxa were demonstrated microscopically (9 protozoa, 5 nematodes, 1 cestode, and 1 trematode)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688126/coaxial-triple-layered-versus-helical-be6b11-cluster-dual-structural-fluxionality-and-multifold-aromaticity
#7
Hua-Jin Zhai, Jin-Chang Guo, Lin-Yan Feng, Ying-Jin Wang, Said Jalife, Alejandro Vasquez-Espinal, Jose Luis Cabellos, Sudip Pan, Gabriel Merino
Two novel low-lying structures are unveiled for the Be6B11- nanocluster system: a triple-layered isomer versus a boron helix-type one, which are virtually isoenergetic and the former apes the motions of the earth-moon system. For the triple-layered cluster the B11 ring revolves like a flexible chain at room temperature, gliding freely around the Be6 prism. At elevated temperatures (1000 K), the Be6 core itself also rotates. The rotational movement has a higher energy barrier than revolution: 4.70 versus 0.22 kcal mol-1 at single-point CCSD(T)...
July 7, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687788/first-integrative-trend-analysis-for-a-great-ape-species-in-borneo
#8
Truly Santika, Marc Ancrenaz, Kerrie A Wilson, Stephanie Spehar, Nicola Abram, Graham L Banes, Gail Campbell-Smith, Lisa Curran, Laura d'Arcy, Roberto A Delgado, Andi Erman, Benoit Goossens, Herlina Hartanto, Max Houghton, Simon J Husson, Hjalmar S Kühl, Isabelle Lackman, Ashley Leiman, Karmele Llano Sanchez, Niel Makinuddin, Andrew J Marshall, Ari Meididit, Kerrie Mengersen, Musnanda, Nardiyono, Anton Nurcahyo, Kisar Odom, Adventus Panda, Didik Prasetyo, Purnomo, Andjar Rafiastanto, Slamet Raharjo, Dessy Ratnasari, Anne E Russon, Adi H Santana, Eddy Santoso, Iman Sapari, Jamartin Sihite, Ahmat Suyoko, Albertus Tjiu, Sri Suci Utami-Atmoko, Carel P van Schaik, Maria Voigt, Jessie Wells, Serge A Wich, Erik P Willems, Erik Meijaard
For many threatened species the rate and drivers of population decline are difficult to assess accurately: species' surveys are typically restricted to small geographic areas, are conducted over short time periods, and employ a wide range of survey protocols. We addressed methodological challenges for assessing change in the abundance of an endangered species. We applied novel methods for integrating field and interview survey data for the critically endangered Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), allowing a deeper understanding of the species' persistence through time...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683440/genetics-of-cerebellar-and-neocortical-expansion-in-anthropoid-primates-a-comparative-approach
#9
Peter W Harrison, Stephen H Montgomery
What adaptive changes in brain structure and function underpin the evolution of increased cognitive performance in humans and our close relatives? Identifying the genetic basis of brain evolution has become a major tool in answering this question. Numerous cases of positive selection, altered gene expression or gene duplication have been identified that may contribute to the evolution of the neocortex, which is widely assumed to play a predominant role in cognitive evolution. However, the components of the neocortex co-evolve with other functionally interdependent regions of the brain, most notably in the cerebellum...
July 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675688/whole-mitochondrial-genome-capture-from-fecal-samples-and-museum-preserved-specimens
#10
Tom van der Valk, Frida Lona Durazo, Love Dalén, Katerina Guschanski
Population-scale molecular studies of endangered and cryptic species are often limited by access to high-quality samples. The use of non-invasively collected samples or museum-preserved specimens reduces the pressure on modern populations by removing the need to capture and handle live animals. However, endogenous DNA content in such samples is low, making shotgun sequencing a financially prohibitive approach. Here, we apply a target enrichment method to retrieve mitochondrial genomes from 65 museum specimens and 56 non-invasively collected fecal samples of two endangered great ape species, Grauer's gorilla and the eastern chimpanzee...
July 4, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671715/the-critically-endangered-western-chimpanzee-declines-by-80
#11
Hjalmar S Kühl, Tenekwetche Sop, Elizabeth A Williamson, Roger Mundry, David Brugière, Genevieve Campbell, Heather Cohen, Emmanuel Danquah, Laura Ginn, Ilka Herbinger, Sorrel Jones, Jessica Junker, Rebecca Kormos, Celestin Y Kouakou, Paul K N'Goran, Emma Normand, Kathryn Shutt-Phillips, Alexander Tickle, Elleni Vendras, Adam Welsh, Erin G Wessling, Christophe Boesch
African large mammals are under extreme pressure from unsustainable hunting and habitat loss. Certain traits make large mammals particularly vulnerable. These include late age at first reproduction, long inter-birth intervals, and low population density. Great apes are a prime example of such vulnerability, exhibiting all of these traits. Here we assess the rate of population change for the western chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes verus, over a 24-year period. As a proxy for change in abundance, we used transect nest count data from 20 different sites archived in the IUCN SSC A...
July 3, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664881/very-efficient-spin-polarization-analysis-vespa-new-exchange-scattering-based-setup-for-spin-resolved-arpes-at-ape-nffa-beamline-at-elettra
#12
Chiara Bigi, Pranab K Das, Davide Benedetti, Federico Salvador, Damjan Krizmancic, Rudi Sergo, Andrea Martin, Giancarlo Panaccione, Giorgio Rossi, Jun Fujii, Ivana Vobornik
Complete photoemission experiments, enabling measurement of the full quantum set of the photoelectron final state, are in high demand for studying materials and nanostructures whose properties are determined by strong electron and spin correlations. Here the implementation of the new spin polarimeter VESPA (Very Efficient Spin Polarization Analysis) at the APE-NFFA beamline at Elettra is reported, which is based on the exchange coupling between the photoelectron spin and a ferromagnetic surface in a reflectometry setup...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664555/hepatic-expression-of-cytochrome-p450-enzymes-in-non-human-primate-species
#13
Shotaro Uehara, Yasuhiro Uno, Hiroshi Yamazaki
Cytochromes P450 (P450) largely remain to be characterized in great apes. Comparative immunochemical detection of drug metabolizing forms of P450s 1A, 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2J, 3A, 4A, and 4F in liver microsomes from chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, gibbons, cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, and common marmosets were carried out.
June 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661006/using-demographic-characteristics-of-populations-to-detect-spatial-fragmentation-following-suspected-ebola-outbreaks-in-great-apes
#14
Céline Genton, Romane Cristescu, Sylvain Gatti, Florence Levréro, Elodie Bigot, Peggy Motsch, Pascaline Le Gouar, Jean-Sébastien Pierre, Nelly Ménard
OBJECTIVES: Demographic crashes due to emerging diseases can contribute to population fragmentation and increase extinction risk of small populations. Ebola outbreaks in 2002-2004 are suspected to have caused a decline of more than 80% in some Western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) populations. We investigated whether demographic indicators of this event allowed for the detection of spatial fragmentation in gorilla populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected demographic data from two neighbouring populations: the Lokoué population, suspected to have been affected by an Ebola outbreak (followed from 2001 to 2014), and the Romani population, of unknown demographic status before Ebola outbreaks (followed from 2005 to 2014)...
June 29, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659838/the-robust-running-ape-unraveling-the-deep-underpinnings-of-coordinated-human-running-proficiency
#15
REVIEW
John Kiely
In comparison to other mammals, humans are not especially strong, swift or supple. Nevertheless, despite these apparent physical limitations, we are among Natures most superbly well-adapted endurance runners. Paradoxically, however, notwithstanding this evolutionary-bestowed proficiency, running-related injuries, and Overuse syndromes in particular, are widely pervasive. The term 'coordination' is similarly ubiquitous within contemporary coaching, conditioning, and rehabilitation cultures. Various theoretical models of coordination exist within the academic literature...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653779/adrenal-maturation-nutritional-status-and-mucosal-immunity-in-bolivian-youth
#16
Carolyn R Hodges-Simeon, Sean P Prall, Aaron D Blackwell, Michael Gurven, Steven J C Gaulin
OBJECTIVES: Humans-and several other apes-exhibit a unique pattern of post-natal adrenal maturation; however, the causes and consequences of variation in adrenal development are not well understood. In this study, we examine developmental and age-related maturation of the adrenal gland (measured via dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate [DHEA-S]) for potential life-history associations with growth and mucosal immunity in a rural population of immune-challenged Bolivian juveniles and adolescents...
June 27, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650183/spatial-transposition-tasks-in-indian-sloth-bears-melursus-ursinus-and-bornean-sun-bears-helarctos-malayanus-euryspilus
#17
Daniela Hartmann, Marina Davila-Ross, Siew Te Wong, Josep Call, Marina Scheumann
Spatial transposition tasks assess individuals' ability to represent nonvisible spatial object displacements. Several nonhuman mammal species have been tested on this task including primates, cats, and dogs, but to date, great apes seem the only taxon that has repeatedly and consistently solved spatial transposition tasks. The authors investigated the ability of captive sloth and sun bears to solve spatial transposition tasks. Both species belong to the same taxonomic group as cats and dogs, but unlike them and similar to apes, they have an omnivorous diet that requires them to keep track of fruit sources in space and time...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633494/silencing-effect-of-hominoid-highly-conserved-non-coding-sequences-on-embryonic-brain-development
#18
Morteza Mahmoudi Saber, Naruya Saitou
Superfamily Hominoidea, which consists of Hominidae (humans and great apes) and Hylobatidae (gibbons), is well-known for sharing human-like characteristics, however, the genomic origins of these shared unique phenotypes have mainly remained elusive. To decipher the underlying genomic basis of Hominoidea-restricted phenotypes, we identified and characterized Hominoidea-restricted highly conserved noncoding sequences (HCNSs) that are a class of potential regulatory elements which may be involved in evolution of lineage-specific phenotypes...
June 19, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633035/economy-and-endurance-in-human-evolution
#19
REVIEW
Herman Pontzer
The evolutionary pressures shaping humans' unique bipedal locomotion have been a focus of research since Darwin, but the origins of humans' economical walking gait and endurance running capabilities remain unclear. Here, I review the anatomical and physiological determinants of locomotor economy (e.g., limb length and posture) and endurance (e.g., muscle volume and fiber type) and investigate their development in the hominin fossil record. The earliest hominins were bipedal but retained ape-like features in the hind limb that would have limited their walking economy compared to living humans...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631280/age-and-sex-associated-morphological-variations-of-metatarsal-torsional-patterns-in-humans
#20
Masateru Kitashiro, Naomichi Ogihara, Tetsuro Kokubo, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura, Takeo Nagura
It has been demonstrated that the torsional patterns of the metatarsal heads are associated with the presence or absence of the medial longitudinal arch in hominoid feet. The relatively untwisted second metatarsal is unique in humans, but that of the African apes is much more inverted, suggesting that the torsion of the second metatarsal might represent the overall shape and flatness of the foot. Some clinical studies have recently argued that the onset of foot pathologies such as hallux valgus might be related to the torsional pattern of the metatarsals...
June 20, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
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