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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550778/construction-of-efficient-xylose-fermenting-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-through-a-synthetic-isozyme-system-of-xylose-reductase-from-scheffersomyces-stipitis
#1
Jung-Hyun Jo, Yong-Cheol Park, Yong-Su Jin, Jin-Ho Seo
Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used for ethanol production from xylose, the abundant sugar in lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. Development of engineered S. cerevisiae able to utilize xylose effectively is crucial for economical and sustainable production of fuels. To this end, the xylose-metabolic genes (XYL1, XYL2 and XYL3) from Scheffersomyces stipitis have been introduced into S. cerevisiae. The resulting engineered S. cerevisiae strains, however, often exhibit undesirable phenotypes such as slow xylose assimilation and xylitol accumulation...
May 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550608/shifting-paradigms-in-the-medical-management-of-type-2-diabetes-reflections-on-recent-cardiovascular-outcome-trials
#2
Faramarz Ismail-Beigi, Etie Moghissi, Mikhail Kosiborod, Silvio E Inzucchi
An important challenge in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes is cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. While it is well established that intensive glycemic control prevents the onset and slows the progression of certain microvascular complications, such a strategy utilized in multiple clinical trials over the past few decades has failed to show a similar benefit with regard to cardiovascular events, including mortality. Despite this, a major hope has been the discovery of glucose-lowering medications that simultaneously improve cardiovascular outcomes...
May 26, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550471/blood-lactate-accumulation-decreases-during-the-slow-component-of-oxygen-uptake-without-a-decrease-in-muscular-efficiency
#3
J M O'Connell, J M Weir, B R MacIntosh
Pulmonary oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) slowly increases during exercise above the anaerobic threshold, and this increase is called the slow component of [Formula: see text]. The mechanism of the increase in [Formula: see text] is assumed to be due to increasing energy cost associated with increasingly inefficient muscle contraction. We hypothesized that the increase in [Formula: see text] would be accompanied by a constant or increasing rate of accumulation of blood lactate, indicating sustained anaerobic metabolism while [Formula: see text] increased...
May 26, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550272/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-chronic-disease-of-the-21-st-century
#4
Metrakos Peter, Nilsson Tommy
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a spectrum of metabolic states ranging from simple steatosis to inflammation with associated fibrosis to cirrhosis. Though accumulation of hepatic fat is not associated with a significant increase in mortality rates, hepatic inflammation is, as this augments the risk of terminal liver disease, i.e., cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation (liver failure) and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. Disease progression is usually slow, over a decade or more and, for the most part, remains asymptomatic...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550250/frequency-dependent-changes-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-with-mild-depression
#5
Yuxia Li, Bin Jing, Han Liu, Yifan Li, Xuan Gao, Yongqiu Li, Bin Mu, Haikuo Yu, Jinbo Cheng, Peter B Barker, Hongxing Wang, Ying Han
BACKGROUND: Depression is a potential marker of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about the abnormal characteristics revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects with depressive symptoms (MCI-d). OBJECTIVE: The study was to examine whether abnormalities in amplitudes of low-frequency oscillation occurred in MCI-d and tried to find the possible spectrum showed higher recognition ability to the diagnosis by utilizing functional MRI (fMRI)...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549997/deep-sequencing-of-atrial-fibrillation-patients-with-mitral-valve-regurgitation-shows-no-evidence-of-mosaicism-but-reveals-novel-rare-germline-variants
#6
Emilie Gregers, Gustav Ahlberg, Thea Christensen, Javad Jabbari, Kirstine O Larsen, Cecilie B Herfelt, Kristoffer M Henningsen, Laura Andreasen, Jens J Thiis, Jens Lund, Susanne Holme, Stig Haunsø, Bo H Bentzen, Nicole Schmitt, Jesper H Svendsen, Morten S Olesen
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Valvular heart disease is a strong predictor, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the prevalence of somatic variants in AF candidate genes in an AF patient population undergoing surgery for mitral valve regurgitation (MVR) to determine whether these patients are genetically predisposed to AF. METHODS: DNA was extracted from blood and left atrial tissue from 44 AF patients with MVR...
May 23, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549894/diagnosis-and-management-of-dermatofibrosarcoma-protuberans-in-a%C3%A2-3-year-old-patient
#7
Rajiv Iyengar, Elizabeth Kiwanuka, Shamlal Mangray, Antonio P Cruz, Julia Katarincic, Reena Bhatt
In this case report, we present a 3-year-old boy with a diagnosis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) on the dorsum of his right hand. Although rarely metastatic, DFSP is highly locally invasive and can cause considerable local morbidity. In the hand, DFSP is uncommon in the young pediatric patient. In our patient, the tumor extended down to the second and third metacarpal heads and was treated with a multistaged excision of his tumor to achieve negative margins under slow Mohs micrographic surgery.
May 24, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549745/-anti-ageing-therapies-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Gara S Alonso Abreu, José M Brito Armas, Rafael Castro Fuentes
Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly population. Currently, there are no effective treatments to prevent or delay the natural course of the disease. Numerous studies have provided information about the molecular processes underlying biological ageing and, perhaps more importantly, potential interventions to slow ageing and promote healthy longevity in laboratory model systems. The main issue addressed in this review is whether an intervention that has anti-ageing properties can alter the appearance and/or progression of Alzheimer's disease, a disease in which age is the biggest risk factor...
May 23, 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549725/understanding-the-hydrologic-control-of-n-cycle-effect-of-water-filled-pore-space-on-heterotrophic-nitrification-denitrification-and-dissimilatory-nitrate-reduction-to-ammonium-mechanisms-in-unsaturated-soils
#9
C Mekala, Indumathi M Nambi
Irrigation practice will be effective if it supplies optimal water and nutrients to crops and act as a filter for contaminants leaching to ground water. There is always a scope for improving the fertilizer use efficiency and scheduling of wastewater irrigation if the fate and transport of nutrients particularly nitrogenous compounds in the soil are well understood. In the present study, nitrogen transport experiments for two different agricultural soils are performed under varying saturation 33, 57, 78% water filled pore space for sandy soil 1 and 52, 81 and 96% for loam soil 2...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549516/visual-acuity-change-over-12-months-in-the-prospective-progression-of-atrophy-secondary-to-stargardt-disease-progstar-study-progstar-report-number-6
#10
Xiangrong Kong, Rupert W Strauss, Artur V Cideciyan, Michel Michaelides, José-Alain Sahel, Beatriz Munoz, Mohamed Ahmed, Ann M Ervin, Sheila K West, Janet K Cheetham, Hendrik P N Scholl
PURPOSE: To estimate the yearly rate of change of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the risk of loss 1 line or more over 1 year and to identify risk factors for BCVA loss in patients with Stargardt disease (STGD1). DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-nine patients (489 eyes) with molecularly confirmed STGD1 enrolled at 9 centers in the United States and Europe. METHODS: Participants were followed up every 6 months, and data at the baseline and 6- and 12-month visits were analyzed...
May 23, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549473/attitudes-of-consumers-and-live-poultry-workers-to-central-slaughtering-in-controlling-h7n9-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Xiao Lin, Dingmei Zhang, Xinwei Wang, Yun Huang, Zhicheng Du, Yaming Zou, Jiahai Lu, Yuantao Hao
BACKGROUND: Guangdong Province in the Pearl River Delta of Southeast China is among the areas in the country with the highest rates of avian flu cases. In order to control the outbreak of human-infected H7N9 cases, Guangdong launched a new policy on the central slaughtering of live poultry in 2015. This study aims to evaluate attitudes of consumers and live-poultry workers toward the policy. The live-poultry workers consisted of two sub-groups: live-poultry traders and poultry farm workers...
May 26, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549379/dynamically-tunable-plasmon-induced-transparency-in-on-chip-graphene-based-asymmetrical-nanocavity-coupled-waveguide-system
#12
Pingping Qiu, Weibin Qiu, Zhili Lin, Houbo Chen, Junbo Ren, Jia-Xian Wang, Qiang Kan, Jiao-Qing Pan
A graphene-based on-chip plasmonic nanostructure composed of a plasmonic bus waveguide side-coupled with a U-shaped and a rectangular nanocavities has been proposed and modeled by using the finite element method in this paper. The dynamic tunability of the plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) windows has been investigated. The results reveal that the PIT effects can be tuned via modifying the chemical potential of the nanocavities and plasmonic bus waveguide or by varying the geometrical parameters including the location and width of the rectangular nanocavity...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549276/different-seizure-onset-patterns-in-mesiotemporal-lobe-epilepsy-have-a-distinct-interictal-signature
#13
Birgit Frauscher, Nicolás von Ellenrieder, François Dubeau, Jean Gotman
OBJECTIVE: Experimental research demonstrated that distinct underlying mechanisms go along with different seizure-onset patterns on EEG. These different mechanisms may reflect different tissue abnormalities which, we hypothesize, could also be reflected in morphological differences in the interictal epileptic and background EEG activity. METHODS: We searched our database of intracranial EEG recordings for mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy patients with either predominant low-voltage fast activity (LVF) or periodic spiking (PS)...
May 9, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549178/rhoa-rock-inhibition-improves-the-beneficial-effects-of-glucocorticoid-treatment-in-dystrophic-muscle-implications-for-stem-cell-depletion
#14
Xiaodong Mu, Ying Tang, Koji Takayama, Wanqun Chen, Aiping Lu, Bing Wang, Kurt Weiss, Johnny Huard
Glucocorticoid treatment represents a standard palliative treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, but various adverse effects have limited this treatment. In an effort to understand the mechanism(s) by which glucocorticoids impart their effects on the dystrophic muscle, and potentially reduce the adverse effects, we have studied the effect of prednisolone treatment in dystrophin/utrophin double knockout (dKO) mice, which exhibit a severe dystrophic phenotype due to rapid muscle stem cell depletion...
May 26, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549097/cluster-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates-with-high-level-azithromycin-resistance-and-decreased-ceftriaxone-susceptibility-hawaii-2016
#15
Alan R Katz, Alan Y Komeya, Robert D Kirkcaldy, A Christian Whelen, Olusegun O Soge, John R Papp, Ellen N Kersh, Glenn M Wasserman, Norman P O'Connor, Pamela S O'Brien, Douglas T Sato, Eloisa V Maningas, Gail Y Kunimoto, Juval E Tomas
Background.: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) currently recommends dual therapy with ceftriaxone and azithromycin for gonorrhea to ensure effective treatment and slow emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Since 2013, the prevalence of reduced azithromycin susceptibility increased in the United States; however, these strains were highly susceptible to cephalosporins. We report on a cluster of N. gonorrhoeae isolates demonstrating high-level azithromycin resistance, several of which also demonstrated decreased ceftriaxone susceptibility...
May 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549043/traumatic-facial-myopericytoma-a-differential-to-consider
#16
Rachel E Aliotta, Patrick Veerkamp, Paul Durand, Melissa Piliang, Raymond Isakov
Myopericytoma is a slow-growing, benign soft tissue neoplasm that arises from perivascular smooth muscle cells. This tumor is a rare entity itself, but it is only scarcely mentioned in the literature occurring secondary to trauma. The authors report a 21-year-old male patient who presented with a pulsatile mass in the medial canthal area where he had experienced previous trauma from a car accident 1-year prior. The mass was excised and histopathology revealed myopericytoma. This clinical report adds to the limited body of evidence supporting trauma as an etiology for this rare tumor...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548953/from-rapalogs-to-anti-aging-formula
#17
Mikhail V Blagosklonny
Inhibitors of mTOR, including clinically available rapalogs such as rapamycin (Sirolimus) and Everolimus, are gerosuppressants, which suppress cellular senescence. Rapamycin slows aging and extends life span in a variety of species from worm to mammals. Rapalogs can prevent age-related diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, obesity, neurodegeneration and retinopathy and potentially rejuvenate stem cells, immunity and metabolism. Here, I further suggest how rapamycin can be combined with metformin, inhibitors of angiotensin II signaling (Losartan, Lisinopril), statins (simvastatin, atorvastatin), propranolol, aspirin and a PDE5 inhibitor...
May 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548836/inter-granular-cracking-as-a-major-cause-of-long-term-capacity-fading-of-layered-cathodes
#18
Hao Liu, Mark Wolf, Khim Karki, Young-Sang Yu, Eric A Stach, Jordi Cabana, Karena W Chapman, Peter J Chupas
Capacity fading has limited commercial layered Li-ion battery electrodes to <70% of their theoretical capacity. Higher capacities can be achieved initially by charging to higher voltages, however, these gains are eroded by a faster fade in capacity. Increasing lifetimes and reversible capacity are contingent on identifying the origin of this capacity fade to inform electrode design and synthesis. We used operando X-ray diffraction, to observe how the lithiation-delithiation reactions within a LiNi0.8Co0...
May 26, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548625/acute-procedural-outcomes-of-orbital-atherectomy-for-the-treatment-of-common-femoral-artery-disease-sub-analysis-of-the-confirm-registries
#19
Michael S Lee, Daniel Heikali, Jihad Mustapha, George Adams, Ehtisham Mahmud
This analysis compared the angiographic outcomes of patients treated with orbital atherectomy for calcified common femoral artery (CFA) and superficial femoral artery (SFA) disease. The ideal revascularization strategy for CFA disease is unknown. Endarterectomy has been considered the standard of care for CFA disease for over 50 years. Endovascular intervention is becoming more commonly used to revascularize the CFA given the advances in technology and the less invasive nature of the procedure. Patient demographics, lesion characteristics, and procedure data for all CONFIRM patients with at least one CFA lesion location ( n=147 patients; n=200 lesions) were compared to patients with at least one SFA lesion location ( n=1508 patients; n=2367 lesions)...
May 1, 2017: Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548484/controlled-release-of-naringin-in-metal-organic-frameworks-mofs-loaded-mineralized-collagen-coating-to-simultaneously-enhance-osseointegration-and-antibacterial-activity
#20
Mengfei Yu, Dongqi You, Junjun Zhuang, Suya Lin, Lingqing Dong, Shengtao Weng, Bin Zhang, Kui Cheng, Wen-Jian Weng, Huiming Wang
Two important goals in orthopedic implants research are to promote osseointegration and prevent infection. However, much of previous efforts have been paid on the design of coatings either to enhance osseointegration while ignoring antibacterial activity or vice versa, to prevent infection while ignoring bone integration. Here, we designed a multifunctional mineralized collagen coating on titanium with the aid of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) nanocrystals to control the release of naringin, a Chinese herbal medicine which could promote osseointegration and prevent bacterial infection...
May 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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