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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813042/the-carotenoid-pathway-what-is-important-for-excitation-quenching-in-plant-antenna-complexes
#1
Kieran F Fox, Vytautas Balevičius, Jevgenij Chmeliov, Leonas Valkunas, Alexander V Ruban, Christopher D P Duffy
Plant light-harvesting is regulated by the Non-Photochemical Quenching (NPQ) mechanism involving the reversible formation of excitation quenching sites in the Photosystem II (PSII) antenna in response to high light. While the major antenna complex, LHCII, is known to be a site of NPQ, the precise mechanism of excitation quenching is not clearly understood. A preliminary model of the quenched crystal structure of LHCII implied that quenching arises from slow energy capture by Car pigments. It predicted a thoroughly quenched system but offered little insight into the defining aspects of this quenching...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813004/lactose-binding-induces-opposing-dynamics-changes-in-human-galectins-revealed-by-nmr-based-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange
#2
Chih-Ta Henry Chien, Meng-Ru Ho, Chung-Hung Lin, Shang-Te Danny Hsu
Galectins are β-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in a myriad of biological functions. Despite their highly conserved carbohydrate binding motifs with essentially identical structures, their affinities for lactose, a common galectin inhibitor, vary significantly. Here, we aimed to examine the molecular basis of differential lactose affinities amongst galectins using solution-based techniques. Consistent dissociation constants of lactose binding were derived from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, isothermal titration calorimetry and bio-layer interferometry for human galectin-1 (hGal1), galectin-7 (hGal7), and the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of galectin-8 (hGal8(NTD) and hGal8(CTD), respectively)...
August 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812685/scallop-genome-provides-insights-into-evolution-of-bilaterian-karyotype-and-development
#3
Shi Wang, Jinbo Zhang, Wenqian Jiao, Ji Li, Xiaogang Xun, Yan Sun, Ximing Guo, Pin Huan, Bo Dong, Lingling Zhang, Xiaoli Hu, Xiaoqing Sun, Jing Wang, Chengtian Zhao, Yangfan Wang, Dawei Wang, Xiaoting Huang, Ruijia Wang, Jia Lv, Yuli Li, Zhifeng Zhang, Baozhong Liu, Wei Lu, Yuanyuan Hui, Jun Liang, Zunchun Zhou, Rui Hou, Xue Li, Yunchao Liu, Hengde Li, Xianhui Ning, Yu Lin, Liang Zhao, Qiang Xing, Jinzhuang Dou, Yangping Li, Junxia Mao, Haobing Guo, Huaiqian Dou, Tianqi Li, Chuang Mu, Wenkai Jiang, Qiang Fu, Xiaoteng Fu, Yan Miao, Jian Liu, Qian Yu, Ruojiao Li, Huan Liao, Xuan Li, Yifan Kong, Zhi Jiang, Daniel Chourrout, Ruiqiang Li, Zhenmin Bao
Reconstructing the genomes of bilaterian ancestors is central to our understanding of animal evolution, where knowledge from ancient and/or slow-evolving bilaterian lineages is critical. Here we report a high-quality, chromosome-anchored reference genome for the scallop Patinopecten yessoensis, a bivalve mollusc that has a slow-evolving genome with many ancestral features. Chromosome-based macrosynteny analysis reveals a striking correspondence between the 19 scallop chromosomes and the 17 presumed ancestral bilaterian linkage groups at a level of conservation previously unseen, suggesting that the scallop may have a karyotype close to that of the bilaterian ancestor...
April 3, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812672/rapid-and-direct-recoveries-of-predators-and-prey-through-synchronized-ecosystem-management
#4
Jameal F Samhouri, Adrian C Stier, Shannon M Hennessey, Mark Novak, Benjamin S Halpern, Phillip S Levin
One of the twenty-first century's greatest environmental challenges is to recover and restore species, habitats and ecosystems. The decision about how to initiate restoration is best-informed by an understanding of the linkages between ecosystem components and, given these linkages, an appreciation of the consequences of choosing to recover one ecosystem component before another. However, it remains difficult to predict how the sequence of species' recoveries within food webs influences the speed and trajectory of restoration, and what that means for human well-being...
March 1, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812627/direct-observation-of-increasing-recovery-length-before-collapse-of-a-marine-benthic-ecosystem
#5
Luca Rindi, Martina Dal Bello, Lei Dai, Jeff Gore, Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi
Ecosystems can experience catastrophic transitions to alternative states, yet recent results have suggested that slowing down in rates of recovery after a perturbation may provide advance warning that a critical transition is approaching. Perturbation experiments with microbial populations have supported this hypothesis under controlled laboratory conditions, but evidence from natural ecosystems remains rare. Here, we manipulated rocky intertidal canopy algae to test the hypothesis that the spatial scale at which the system recovers from a perturbation in space should increase as the system approaches the tipping point, marking the transition from a canopy-dominated to a turf-dominated state...
May 8, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812552/competition-along-trajectories-governs-adaptation-rates-towards-antimicrobial-resistance
#6
C Brandon Ogbunugafor, Margaret J Eppstein
The increasing availability of genotype-phenotype maps for different combinations of mutations has empowered evolutionary biologists with the tools to interrogate the predictability of adaptive evolution, especially in the context of the evolution of antimicrobial resistance. Large microbial populations are known to generate competing beneficial mutations, but determining how these mutations contribute to the adaptive trajectories that are most likely to be followed remains a challenge. Despite a recognition that there may also be competition between successive alleles on the same trajectory, prior studies have not fully considered how this impacts adaptation rates along, or likelihood of following, individual trajectories...
November 21, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812050/caveats-in-the-established-understanding-of-cmt1a
#7
Jun Li
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type-1A (CMT1A) is one of the most common types of inherited peripheral nerve diseases. It is caused by the trisomy of chromosome 17p12 (c17p12), a large DNA segment of 1.4 Mb containing PMP22 plus eight other genes. The size of c17p12 is formidable for any cloning technique to manipulate, and thus precludes production of models in vitro and in vivo that can precisely recapitulate the genetic alterations in humans with CMT1A. This limitation and other factors have led to several assumptions, which have yet been carefully scrutinized, serving as key principles in our understanding of the disease...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811918/shared-decision-making-in-medication-management-development-of-a-training-intervention
#8
Ute Stead, Nicola Morant, Shulamit Ramon
Shared decision-making is a collaborative process in which clinicians and patients make treatment decisions together. Although it is considered essential to patient-centred care, the adoption of shared decision-making into routine clinical practice has been slow, and there is a need to increase implementation. This paper describes the development and delivery of a training intervention to promote shared decision-making in medication management in mental health as part of the Shared Involvement in Medication Management Education (ShIMME) project...
August 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811732/exposure-to-and-use-of-electronic-cigarettes-does-language-matter
#9
Paul Wada, Chun Nok Lam, Elizabeth Burner, Sophie Terp, Michael Menchine, Sanjay Arora
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether patients who are English proficient become aware of e-cigarettes through different marketing tactics and have dissimilar patterns of use than patients who are non-English speaking. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study surveying adult English- and Spanish-speaking patients. ANOVA and chi-squared tests were used to examine differences between groups. SETTING: A large public, safety-net hospital in Los Angeles County, California...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811697/role-of-iron-and-copper-in-the-pathogenesis-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Mohit Kumar Gangania, Jyoti Batra, Suman Kushwaha, Rachna Agarwal
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an old age disorder of basal ganglia which involves oligomerization of α-synuclein protein and formation of intercellular inclusions known as "Lewy bodies" in substantia nigra and caudate nuclei in brain which is progressive in nature. It is second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor at rest, muscle rigidity, slowness of movement (bradykinesia, akinesia), and changes in posture (instability). Both excess and deficiency in levels of transition metals (especially iron, copper) can be detrimental to the central nervous system...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811646/pafah1b1-haploinsufficiency-disrupts-gaba-neurons-and-synaptic-e-i-balance-in-the-dentate-gyrus
#11
Matthew T Dinday, Kelly M Girskis, Sunyoung Lee, Scott C Baraban, Robert F Hunt
Hemizygous mutations in the human gene encoding platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase IB subunit alpha (Pafah1b1), also called Lissencephaly-1, can cause classical lissencephaly, a severe malformation of cortical development. Children with this disorder suffer from deficits in neuronal migration, severe intellectual disability, intractable epilepsy and early death. While many of these features can be reproduced in Pafah1b1(+/-) mice, the impact of Pafah1b1(+/-) on the function of individual subpopulations of neurons and ultimately brain circuits is largely unknown...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811638/the-cpg-dinucleotide-content-of-the-hiv-1-envelope-gene-may-predict-disease-progression
#12
Mishi Kaushal Wasson, Jayanta Borkakoti, Amit Kumar, Banhi Biswas, Perumal Vivekanandan
The clinical course of HIV-1 varies greatly among infected individuals. Despite extensive research, virus factors associated with slow-progression remain poorly understood. Identification of unique HIV-1 genomic signatures linked to slow-progression remains elusive. We investigated CpG dinucleotide content in HIV-1 envelope gene as a potential virus factor in disease progression. We analysed 1808 HIV-1 envelope gene sequences from three independent longitudinal studies; this included 1280 sequences from twelve typical-progressors and 528 sequences from six slow-progressors...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811612/coenzyme-q10-improves-lipid-metabolism-and-ameliorates-obesity-by-regulating-camkii-mediated-pde4-inhibition
#13
Zhe Xu, Jia Huo, Xin Ding, Mu Yang, Lin Li, Jian Dai, Kazunori Hosoe, Hiroshi Kubo, Masayuki Mori, Keiichi Higuchi, Jinko Sawashita
Our recent studies revealed that supplementation with the reduced form of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10H2) inhibits oxidative stress and slows the process of aging in senescence-accelerated mice. CoQ10H2 inhibits adipocyte differentiation and regulates lipid metabolism. In the present study, we show that dietary supplementation with CoQ10H2 significantly reduced white adipose tissue content and improved the function of brown adipose tissue by regulating expression of lipid metabolism-related factors in KKAy mice, a model of obesity and type 2 diabetes...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811598/effects-of-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-on-megaselia-scalaris-lowe-diptera-phoridae-and-its-microbial-community
#14
Marcus J Pennington, Jason A Rothman, Michael B Jones, Quinn S McFrederick, Jay Gan, John T Trumble
Drought, rising temperatures, and expanding human populations are increasing water demands. Many countries are extending potable water supplies by irrigating crops with wastewater. Unfortunately, wastewater contains biologically active, long-lived pharmaceuticals, even after treatment. Run-off from farms and wastewater treatment plant overflows contribute high concentrations of pharmaceuticals to the environment. This study assessed the effects of common pharmaceuticals on a cosmopolitan saprophagous insect, Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811571/identification-of-a-gene-encoding-slow-skeletal-muscle-troponin-t-as-a-novel-marker-for-immortalization-of-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#15
Takuya Kuroda, Satoshi Yasuda, Hiroyuki Nakashima, Nozomi Takada, Satoko Matsuyama, Shinji Kusakawa, Akihiro Umezawa, Akifumi Matsuyama, Shin Kawamata, Yoji Sato
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are leading candidate raw materials for cell-based therapeutic products (CTPs). In the development of hPSC-derived CTPs, it is imperative to ensure that they do not form tumors after transplantation for safety reasons. Because cellular immortalization is a landmark of malignant transformation and a common feature of cancer cells, we aimed to develop an in vitro assay for detecting immortalized cells in CTPs. We employed retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells as a model of hPSC-derived products and identified a gene encoding slow skeletal muscle troponin T (TNNT1) as a novel marker of immortalized RPE cells by comprehensive microarray analysis...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811475/microsecond-pulse-i-v-approach-to-understanding-defects-in-high-mobility-bi-layer-oxide-semiconductor-transistor
#16
Hyunsuk Woo, Sanghun Jeon
The carrier transport and device instability of amorphous oxide semiconductor devices are influenced by defects that are exponentially distributed in energy, because of amorphous phase channels and front/back interfaces with a large number of sub-gap states. Thus, understanding defects and charge trapping in oxide semiconductor transistors is required for being core device element in reliable production lines. In this paper, we present the transient charging effect, the charge trapping mechanism, and the dynamic charge transport of high-mobility bilayer oxide semiconductor transistors...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811304/selectin-catch-bonds-mechanotransduce-integrin-activation-and-neutrophil-arrest-on-inflamed-endothelium-under-shear-flow
#17
Vasilios A Morikis, Shannon Chase, Ted Wun, Elliot L Chaikof, John L Magnani, Scott I Simon
E-selectin extends from the plasma membrane of inflamed endothelium and serves to capture leukocytes from flowing blood via long-lived catch-bonds that support slow leukocyte rolling under shear stress. Its ligands are glycosylated with the tetrasaccharide sialyl Lewis(x) (sLe(x)), which contributes to bond affinity and specificity. E-selectin mediated rolling transmits signals into neutrophils that triggers activation of high-affinity β2-integrins necessary for transition to shear resistant adhesion and transendothelial migration...
August 15, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811292/dapagliflozin-slows-the-progression-of-the-renal-and-liver-fibrosis-associated-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Li Tang, Yuanyuan Wu, Mi Tian, C David Sjostrom, Ulrika Johansson, Xiao-Rong Peng, David M Smith, Yufeng Huang
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic oral agents indicating promising effects on cardiovascular and renal end points. However, the renoprotective effects of SGLT2 inhibitors are not fully understood. Also, metabolic effects of SGLT2 inhibition on other organ systems such as effects on hepatic steatosis are not fully understood. This study sought to address these questions by treating 18week-old uninephrectomized db/db mice with a selective SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811195/epileptic-interictal-discharges-are-more-frequent-during-nrem-slow-wave-downstates
#19
Péter Przemyslaw Ujma, Péter Halász, Anna Kelemen, Dániel Fabó, Loránd Erőss
Epileptiform activity in various but not all epilepsy and recording types and cerebral areas is more frequent in NREM sleep, and especially during sleep periods with high-amplitude EEG slow waves. Slow waves synchronize high-frequency oscillations: physiological activity from the theta through the gamma band usually appears during scalp-positive upstates while epileptiform activity occurs at transitory phases and the scalp-negative downstate. It has been proposed that interictal discharges (IIDs) are facilitated by the high degree of neuronal firing synchrony during slow wave transitory and downstates...
August 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811139/metabonomics-approach-to-assessing-the-metabolism-variation-and-gender-gap-of-drosophila-melanogaster-in-aging-process
#20
Yu-Zhi Zhou, Ming-Liang Yan, Li Gao, Jian-Qin Zhang, Xue-Mei Qin, Xiang Zhang, Guan-Hua Du
Drosophila melanogaster is increasingly used for study aging mechanism and evaluating anti-aging drugs, but the changes of metabolites and differences of metabolites change between male and female during the aging process are not well known. Metabolomics technology, a massive information provider, has promoted the understanding of metabolic profile and overall changes of metabolites in organism. In this study, (1)H NMR based metabonomics was employed to investigate the dynamic changes of metabolites in whole bodies of male and female Drosophila melanogaster at 3, 15, 30, 45days and to research the gender gap of metabolites changes in aging process...
August 12, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
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