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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109124/domestication-and-human-demographic-history-in-south-america
#1
S Ivan Perez, María Bárbara Postillone, Diego Rindel
OBJECTIVES: The early groups of hunter-gatherers who peopled South America faced significant ecological changes in their trophic niche for a relatively short period after the initial peopling. In particular, the incorporation of cultigens during the Holocene led to a wider trophic niche and probably to an increased carrying capacity of the environment. Here, we study the relationship between the incorporation of domestic resources during the Holocene and the demographic dynamics of human populations at a regional scale in South America...
January 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108878/stigma-and-conspiracy-beliefs-related-to-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-and-interest-in-using-prep-among-black-and-white-men-and-transgender-women-who-have-sex-with-men
#2
Lisa A Eaton, Seth C Kalichman, Devon Price, Stephanie Finneran, Aerielle Allen, Jessica Maksut
The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the US continues to persist, in particular, among race, sexual orientation, and gender minority populations. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), or using antiretroviral medications for HIV prevention, is an effective option, but uptake of PrEP has been slow. Sociocultural barriers to using PrEP have been largely underemphasized, yet have the potential to stall uptake and, therefore, warrant further understanding. In order to assess the relationships between potential barriers to PrEP (i...
January 20, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108670/retinal-temporal-resolution-and-contrast-sensitivity-in-the-parasitic-lamprey-mordacia-mordax-and-its-non-parasitic-derivative-m-praecox
#3
Rachael E Warrington, Nathan S Hart, Ian C Potter, Shaun P Collin, Jan M Hemmi
Lampreys and hagfishes are the sole extant representatives of the early agnathan (jawless) vertebrates. We compared retinal function of fully-metamorphosed, immature Mordacia mordax (which are about to commence parasitic feeding) with those of sexually-mature individuals of its non-parasitic derivative M praecox We focused on elucidating the retinal adaptations to dim-light environments in these nocturnally-active lampreys, using electroretinography to determine the temporal resolution (flicker fusion frequency, FFF) and temporal contrast sensitivity (CS) of enucleated eyecups at different temperatures and light intensities...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108445/multi-rate-poisson-tree-processes-for-single-locus-species-delimitation-under-maximum-likelihood-and-markov-chain-monte-carlo
#4
P Kapli, S Lutteropp, J Zhang, K Kobert, P Pavlidis, A Stamatakis, T Flouri
MOTIVATION: In recent years, molecular species delimitation has become a routine approach for quantifying and classifying biodiversity. Barcoding methods are of particular importance in large-scale surveys as they promote fast species discovery and biodiversity estimates. Among those, distance-based methods are the most common choice as they scale well with large datasets; however, they are sensitive to similarity threshold parameters and they ignore evolutionary relationships. The recently introduced "Poisson Tree Processes" (PTP) method is a phylogeny-aware approach that does not rely on such thresholds...
January 19, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108205/modifying-the-phenotypic-frailty-model-in-predicting-risk-of-major-osteoporotic-fracture-in-the-elderly
#5
Guowei Li, Alexandra Papaioannou, Lehana Thabane, Mitchell A H Levine, George Ioannidis, Andy K O Wong, Arthur Lau, Jonathan D Adachi
INTRODUCTION: The phenotypic frailty (PF) model (including slow walking, low physical activity, exhaustion, weakness, and unintentional weight loss) has been widely used to quantify the degree of frailty and predict risks of adverse health outcomes for the elderly. However, evidence has shown that not all the components included in the PF model contribute equally, and low predictive accuracy of the PF model has been reported in predicting risks of outcomes. We aimed to improve predictive accuracy of the PF model in risk of major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) in the elderly by modifying its weighting of individual components...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108175/characterization-of-the-synergistic-interaction-between-beauveria-bassiana-strain-gha-and-bacillus-thuringiensis-morrisoni-strain-tenebrionis-applied-against-colorado-potato-beetle-larvae
#6
S P Wraight, M E Ramos
Studies were undertaken to further characterize the previously identified synergistic activity of Bacillus thuringiensis- and Beauveria bassiana-based biopesticides against Colorado potato beetle (CPB). A flowable concentrate of B. thuringiensis morrisoni strain tenebrionis (Bt) (Novodor® FC) and a wettable powder of B. bassiana strain GHA (Bb) (Mycotrol® 22WP) were applied against CPB larval populations infesting potato in field plots. Novodor FC and an oil-dispersion formulation of Bb (Mycotrol ES) were applied against second-instar CPB larvae on potted potato plants in greenhouse tests under low relative humidity (RH), variable-temperature conditions...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108075/catalytic-potential-of-selected-metal-ions-for-bioleaching-and-potential-techno-economic-and-environmental-issues-a-critical-review
#7
REVIEW
Ashish Pathak, Liam Morrison, Mark Gerard Healy
Bioleaching is considered to be a low-cost, eco-friendly technique for leaching valuable metals from a variety of matrixes. However, the inherent slow dissolution kinetics and low metal leaching yields have restricted its wider commercial applicability. Recent advancements in bio-hydrometallurgy have suggested that these critical issues can be successfully alleviated through the addition of a catalyst. The catalyzing properties of a variety of metals ions (Ag(+), Hg(++), Bi(+++), Cu(++), Co(++) etc.) during bioleaching have been successfully demonstrated...
January 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107759/multiple-primary-pulmonary-meningiomas-20-year-follow-up-findings-for-a-first-reported-case-confirming-a-benign-biological-nature
#8
Yukitoshi Satoh, Yuichi Ishikawa
INTRODUCTION: Primary pulmonary meningiomas (PPMs) are very rare neoplasms, and we reported the first multiple case of PPMs in 1998. Usually, PPMs are slow-growing tumors with a good prognosis. Herein, we reported a rare multiple case of PPMs with an extremely long clinical course. PRESENTATION OF THE CASE: An 84-year-old Japanese woman with a history of multiple PPMs histologically confirmed as having a right-sided slowly growing lung nodule for 20 years. In 2010, we also reported the additional clinical course in the initial case 10 years after surgery implying a benign biological nature...
January 7, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107661/targeting-nf-kb-signaling-with-polymeric-hybrid-micelles-that-co-deliver-sirna-and-dexamethasone-for-arthritis-therapy
#9
Qin Wang, Hao Jiang, Yan Li, Wenfei Chen, Hanmei Li, Ke Peng, Zhirong Zhang, Xun Sun
The transcription factor NF-kB plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Here we attempt to slow arthritis progression by co-delivering the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) and small-interfering RNA targeting NF-kB p65 using our previously developed polymeric hybrid micelle system. These micelles contain two similar amphiphilic copolymers: polycaprolactone-polyethylenimine (PCL-PEI) and polycaprolactone-polyethyleneglycol (PCL-PEG). The hybrid micelles loaded with Dex and siRNA effectively inhibited NF-kB signaling in murine macrophages more efficiently than micelles containing either Dex or siRNA on their own...
January 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107660/guided-growth-of-auditory-neurons-bioactive-particles-towards-gapless-neural-electrode-interface
#10
Hao Li, Fredrik Edin, Hisamitsu Hayashi, Olafur Gudjonsson, Niklas Danckwardt-Lillieström, Håkan Engqvist, Helge Rask-Andersen, Wei Xia
Cochlear implant (CI) is a successful device to restore hearing. Despite continuous development, frequency discrimination is poor in CI users due to an anatomical gap between the auditory neurons and CI electrode causing current spread and unspecific neural stimulation. One strategy to close this anatomical gap is guiding the growth of neuron dendrites closer to CI electrodes through targeted slow release of neurotrophins. Biodegradable calcium phosphate hollow nanospheres (CPHSs) were produced and their capacity for uptake and release of neurotrophins investigated using (125)I-conjugated glia cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)...
December 23, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107359/sustained-cortical-and-subcortical-measures-of-auditory-and-visual-plasticity-following-short-term-perceptual-learning
#11
Bonnie K Lau, Dorea R Ruggles, Sucharit Katyal, Stephen A Engel, Andrew J Oxenham
Short-term training can lead to improvements in behavioral discrimination of auditory and visual stimuli, as well as enhanced EEG responses to those stimuli. In the auditory domain, fluency with tonal languages and musical training has been associated with long-term cortical and subcortical plasticity, but less is known about the effects of shorter-term training. This study combined electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral measures to investigate short-term learning and neural plasticity in both auditory and visual domains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107247/plaque-burden-microstructures-and-compositions-underachieving-very-low-ldl-c-levels
#12
Yu Kataoka, Jordan Andrews, Rishi Puri, Peter J Psaltis, Stephen J Nicholls
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the impact of lowering LDL-C on plaque progression, microstructures and compositions. RECENT FINDINGS: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major therapeutic target to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Intravascular imaging has elucidated antiatherosclerotic effects of lowering LDL-C in vivo. Intensive control of LDL-C with a statin has been shown to slow plaque progression and induce its regression if very low LDL-C level is achieved...
January 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107215/metabolic-cardiac-and-renal-effects-of-the-slow-hydrogen-sulfide-releasing-molecule-gyy4137-during-resuscitated-septic-shock-in-swine-with-pre-existing-coronary-artery-disease
#13
Benedikt L Nubaum, Josef Vogt, Ulrich Wachter, Oscar McCook, Martin Wepler, José Matallo, Enrico Calzia, Michael Gröger, Michael Georgieff, Mark E Wood, Matthew Whiteman, Peter Radermacher, Sebastian Hafner
Decreased levels of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) contribute to atherosclerosis, whereas equivocal data are available on H2S effects during sepsis. Moreover, H2S improved glucose utilization in anaesthetized, ventilated, hypothermic mice, but normothermia and/or sepsis blunted this effect. The metabolic effects of H2S in large animals are controversial. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the H2S donor GYY4137 during resuscitated, fecal peritonitis-induced septic shock in swine with genetically and diet-induced coronary artery disease (CAD)...
January 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107073/choroidal-vasculopathy-and-retinal-detachment-in-a-bald-eagle-haliaeetus-leucocephalus-with-lead-toxicosis
#14
Ramzi Eid, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Krista A Keller, K Tomo Wiggans, Christopher J Murphy, Elise E B LaDouceur, M Kevin Keel, Christopher M Reilly
A subadult male bald eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) was presented for severe depression and weakness. Physical examination findings included depressed mentation, dehydration, sternal recumbency, poor body condition, and bilateral, whole-head, horizontal nystagmus. A heavy-metal panel was performed, and blood lead levels were 6.1 ppm. Treatment for lead poisoning was initiated, including subcutaneous fluids and parenteral calcium-disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ceftiofur, and meloxicam. Ophthalmic examination findings included absent menace response, absent dazzle reflex, slow and incomplete direct pupillary light reflex, mild anterior uveitis, incipient cataracts, multifocal retinal tears, and retinal separation in both eyes...
December 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106834/heat-stress-decreases-levels-of-nutrient-uptake-and-assimilation-proteins-in-tomato-roots
#15
Anju Giri, Scott Heckathorn, Sasmita Mishra, Charles Krause
Global warming will increase root heat stress, which is already common under certain conditions. Effects of heat stress on root nutrient uptake have rarely been examined in intact plants, but the limited results indicate that heat stress will decrease it; no studies have examined heat-stress effects on the concentration of nutrient-uptake proteins. We grew Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) at 25 °C/20 °C (day/night) and then transferred some plants for six days to 35 °C /30 °C (moderate heat) or 42 °C/37 °C (severe heat) (maximum root temperature = 32 °C or 39 °C, respectively); plants were then moved back to control conditions for seven days to monitor recovery...
January 19, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106831/ablation-of-protein-kinase-ck2%C3%AE-in-skeletal-muscle-fibers-interferes-with-their-oxidative-capacity
#16
Nane Eiber, Luca Simeone, Said Hashemolhosseini
The tetrameric protein kinase CK2 was identified playing a role at neuromuscular junctions by studying CK2β-deficient muscle fibers in mice, and in cultured immortalized C2C12 muscle cells after individual knockdown of CK2α and CK2β subunits. In muscle cells, CK2 activity appeared to be at least required for regular aggregation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which serves as a hallmark for the presence of a postsynaptic apparatus. Here, we set out to determine whether any other feature accompanies CK2β-deficient muscle fibers...
January 19, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106782/from-clinical-standards-to-translating-next-generation-sequencing-research-into-patient-care-improvement-for-hepatobiliary-and-pancreatic-cancers
#17
REVIEW
Ioannis D Kyrochristos, Georgios K Glantzounis, Demosthenes E Ziogas, Ioannis Gizas, Dimitrios Schizas, Efstathios G Lykoudis, Evangelos Felekouras, Anastasios Machairas, Christos Katsios, Theodoros Liakakos, William C Cho, Dimitrios H Roukos
Hepatobiliary and pancreatic (HBP) cancers are associated with high cancer-related death rates. Surgery aiming for complete tumor resection (R0) remains the cornerstone of the treatment for HBP cancers. The current progress in the adjuvant treatment is quite slow, with gemcitabine chemotherapy available only for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). In the advanced and metastatic setting, only two targeted drugs have been approved by the Food & Drug Administration (FDA), which are sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma and erlotinib for PDA...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106574/walking-ability-of-spinal-cord-injury-individuals-how-to-improve-it
#18
Morteza Sadeghi, Gholam Hussein Ghasemi, Mohammad Taghi Karimi
BACKGROUND: Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) should use various assistive devices to stand and walk. Unfortunately they suffer from slow walking speed, high energy consumption, and too much force applied on upper limb while walking. The aim of this study was to determine the gap between the gait performance of SCI and normal subjects to conclude how the performance of SCI can be improved. METHOD: Three groups of SCI walked with orthosis, SCI walked without orthosis, and normal subjects were recruited in this study...
January 13, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106556/an-improved-drugs-screening-system-reveals-that-baicalein-ameliorates-the-a%C3%AE-ampa-nmda-induced-depolarization-of-neurons
#19
Tian-Syuan Lin, Han-Jung Tsai, Chih-Han Lee, Yan-Qing Song, Rih-Sheng Huang, Hsiu-Mei Hsieh-Li, Mei-Chih Liang, Yenshou Lin
The presence of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque and tau protein hyperphosphorylation in brain tissue is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). At least some Aβ neurotoxicity is caused by the presence of excess glutamate that has been induced by Aβ accumulation. Memantine is currently the only NMDA receptor inhibitor approved for treating moderate-to-severe AD patients. We utilized primary cortical neurons and DiBAC4(3), a slow-response voltage sensitive fluorescence dye, to create a novel system for screening herbal medicines that allows the identification of pure compounds able to ameliorate Aβ-induced abnormal depolarization...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106552/meditation-and-music-improve-memory-and-cognitive-function-in-adults-with-subjective-cognitive-decline-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Kim E Innes, Terry Kit Selfe, Dharma Singh Khalsa, Sahiti Kandati
BACKGROUND: While effective therapies for preventing or slowing cognitive decline in at-risk populations remain elusive, evidence suggests mind-body interventions may hold promise. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we assessed the effects of Kirtan Kriya meditation (KK) and music listening (ML) on cognitive outcomes in adults experiencing subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a strong predictor of Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Sixty participants with SCD were randomized to a KK or ML program and asked to practice 12 minutes/day for 3 months, then at their discretion for the ensuing 3 months...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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