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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938751/new-permeable-cryoprotectant-free-vitrification-method-for-native-human-sperm
#1
J Aizpurua, L Medrano, M Enciso, J Sarasa, A Romero, M A Fernández, M J Gómez-Torres
STUDY QUESTION: Is permeable cryoprotectant-free vitrification of native sperm samples a good alternative to conventional slow freezing? SUMMARY ANSWER: The permeable cryoprotectant-free sperm vitrification protocol tested in this study renders considerably better recovery rates of good quality sperm compared to slow freezing. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Slow freezing is currently the most commonly used technique for sperm cryopreservation, though this method has been repeatedly shown to have negative effects on both structural and functional sperm features...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938468/long-term-natural-course-of-small-non-functional-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-in-men1-results-from-the-dmsg
#2
Carolina R C Pieterman, Joanne M de Laat, Jos W R Twisk, Rachel S van Leeuwaarde, Wouter W de Herder, Koen M A Dreijerink, Ad R M M Hermus, Olaf M Dekkers, Anouk N A van der Horst-Schrivers, Madeleine L Drent, Peter H Bisschop, Bastiaan Havekes, Inne H M Borel Rinkes, Menno R Vriens, Gerlof D Valk
Background: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are highly prevalent in patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and metastatic disease is an important cause of MEN1-related mortality. Especially small non-functional (NF) pNETs pose a challenge to the treating physician and more information is needed regarding their natural course. We assessed long-term natural history of small NF-pNETs and its modifiers in the Dutch MEN1 population. Patients and Methods: Retrospective longitudinal observational cohort study of patients with small (<2cm) NF-pNETs from the Dutch national MEN1 database which includes >90% of the Dutch MEN1 population...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938466/optogenetic-analysis-of-depolarization-dependent-glucagon-like-peptide-1-release
#3
Catalin Chimerel, Cristian Riccio, Keir Murison, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann
Incretin hormones play an important role in the regulation of food intake and glucose homeostasis. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreting cells have been demonstrated to be electrically excitable and to fire action potentials (APs) with increased frequency in response to nutrient exposure. However, nutrients can also be metabolised or activate G-protein-coupled receptors, thus potentially stimulate GLP-1 secretion independent of their effects on the plasma membrane potential. Here we used channelrhodopsins to manipulate the membrane potential of GLUTag cells, a well established model of GLP-1 secreting enteroendocrine L-cells...
July 28, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938333/pediatric-glial-heterotopia-in-the-medial-canthus
#4
Soung Min Kim, Emmanuel Kofi Amponsah, Mi Young Eo, Yun Ju Cho, Suk Keun Lee
Glial heterotopias are rare, benign, congenital, midline, and nonteratomatous extracranial glial tissue. They may be confused as encephalocele or dermoid cysts and are mostly present in the nose.An 8-month-old African female child presented with a slow growing paranasal mass. The mass had been present at the left upper medial canthus since birth and had slowly and progressively enlarged. There was no communication between the mass and the cranial cavity during the operational procedure. The mass was immunohistochemically positive for S-100 protein as well as for glial fibrillary acidic protein, but negative for proliferating cell nuclear antigen...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938320/giant-peripheral-temporomandibular-osteoma-with-immediate-reconstruction-of-mandible
#5
Cláiton Heitz, Ricardo Augusto Conci, Flávio Henrique Silveira Tomazi, Guilherme Pivatto Louzada, Michel Martins Guarenti, Guilherme Genehr Fritscher
Osteoma is a benign osteogenic tumor, which is characterized the slow-growing proliferation of compact or cancellous bone. The etiology of the lesion is not well established. Among the hypotheses, the following are related: a traumatic factor, infectious processes, or true neoplasm due to the origin of cartilaginous cells. It can present at any age, usually in young adult individuals, with equal prevalence in both sexes. The clinical characteristics of the peripheral osteoma are represented by slow asymptomatic growth, which leads to swelling and, thus, facial asymmetry...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938178/fabrication-of-mesoporous-magnesium-oxide-nanosheets-using-magnesium-powder-and-their-excellent-adsorption-of-ni-ii
#6
Jing Feng, Mingming Gao, Zhiqiang Zhang, Shengna Liu, Xinyu Zhao, Yueming Ren, Yanzhuo Lv, Zhuangjun Fan
Mesoporous MgO nanosheets with a high adsorption rate and excellent adsorption capacity for removing Ni (II) were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal and annealing method. The Mg(OH)2 was first synthesized by a hydrothermal process using magnesium powder as the starting material. MgO was then obtained by annealing the as-prepared Mg(OH)2 at 450°C. The advantage of the magnesium powder as the starting material is it slowly generated Mg(2+). Thus, the low centration of Mg(2+) guaranteed a slow rate of forming Mg(OH)2, which benefited with a mesoporous structure...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938073/transfer-learning-from-markov-models-leads-to-efficient-sampling-of-related-systems
#7
Mohammad Muneeb Sultan, Vijay S Pande
We recently showed that the time-structure based independent component analysis method from Markov state model literature provided a set of variationally optimal slow collective variables for Metadynamics (tICA-Metadynamics). In this paper, we extend the methodology towards efficient sampling of related mutants by borrowing ideas from transfer learning methods in machine learning. Our method explicitly assumes that a similar set of slow modes and metastable states are found in both the wild type (base line) and its mutants...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938070/dynamics-of-water-monolayers-confined-by-chemically-heterogeneous-surfaces-observation-of-surface-induced-anisotropic-diffusion
#8
Mehdi Karzar Jeddi, Santiago Romero-Vargas Castrillón
Water present in confining geometries plays key roles in many systems of scientific and technological relevance. Prominent examples are living cells and nanofluidic devices. Despite its importance, a complete understanding of the dynamics of water in nanoscale confinement remains elusive. In this work, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to investigate the diffusive dynamics of water monolayers confined in chemically heterogeneous silica slit pores. The effect of chemical heterogeneity is systematically investigated through the fraction f_SiOH of randomly distributed surface sites that possess hydroxyl functional groups...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938009/altering-neuronal-excitability-to-preserve-network-connectivity-in-a-computational-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Willem de Haan, Elisabeth C W van Straaten, Alida A Gouw, Cornelis J Stam
Neuronal hyperactivity and hyperexcitability of the cerebral cortex and hippocampal region is an increasingly observed phenomenon in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). In later stages, oscillatory slowing and loss of functional connectivity are ubiquitous. Recent evidence suggests that neuronal dynamics have a prominent role in AD pathophysiology, making it a potentially interesting therapeutic target. However, although neuronal activity can be manipulated by various (non-)pharmacological means, intervening in a highly integrated system that depends on complex dynamics can produce counterintuitive and adverse effects...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937989/limited-synapse-overproduction-can-speed-development-but-sometimes-with-long-term-energy-and-discrimination-penalties
#10
Harang Ju, Costa M Colbert, William B Levy
Neural circuit development requires that synapses be formed between appropriate neurons. In addition, for a hierarchical network, successful development involves a sequencing of developmental events. It has been suggested that one mechanism that helps speed up development of proper connections is an early overproduction of synapses. Using a computational model of synapse development, such as adaptive synaptogenesis, it is possible to study such overproduction and its role in speeding up development; it is also possible to study other outcomes of synapse overproduction that are seemingly new to the literature...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937981/cognitive-function-in-patients-with-stable-coronary-heart-disease-related-cerebrovascular-and-cardiovascular-responses
#11
Mathieu Gayda, Vincent Gremeaux, Louis Bherer, Martin Juneau, Joffrey Drigny, Olivier Dupuy, Gabriel Lapierre, Véronique Labelle, Annik Fortier, Anil Nigam
Chronic exercise has been shown to prevent or slow age-related decline in cognitive functions in otherwise healthy, asymptomatic individuals. We sought to assess cognitive function in a stable coronary heart disease (CHD) sample and its relationship to cerebral oxygenation-perfusion, cardiac hemodynamic responses, and [Formula: see text] peak compared to age-matched and young healthy control subjects. Twenty-two young healthy controls (YHC), 20 age-matched old healthy controls (OHC) and 25 patients with stable CHD were recruited...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937886/effectiveness-of-biology-based-methods-for-inhibiting-orthodontic-tooth-movement-a-systematic-review
#12
M Cadenas de Llano-Pérula, R M Yañez-Vico, E Solano-Reina, J C Palma-Fernandez, A Iglesias-Linares
INTRODUCTION: Several experimental studies in the literature have tested different biology-based methods for inhibiting or decreasing orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in humans. This systematic review investigated the effects of these interventions on the rate of tooth movement. STUDY DESIGN: Electronic [MedLine; SCOPUS; Cochrane Library; OpenGrey;Web of Science] and manual searches were conducted up to January 26th, 2016 in order to identify publications of clinical trials that compared the decreasing or inhibiting effects of different biology-based methods over OTM in humans...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937809/effects-of-clonal-reproduction-on-evolutionary-lag-and-evolutionary-rescue
#13
Maria E Orive, Michael Barfield, Carlos Fernandez, Robert D Holt
Evolutionary lag-the difference between mean and optimal phenotype in the current environment-is of keen interest in light of rapid environmental change. Many ecologically important organisms have life histories that include stage structure and both sexual and clonal reproduction, yet how stage structure and clonality interplay to govern a population's rate of evolution and evolutionary lag is unknown. Effects of clonal reproduction on mean phenotype partition into two portions: one that is phenotype dependent, and another that is genotype dependent...
October 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937807/use-of-virtual-reality-in-improving-poststroke-neglect-promising-neuropsychological-and-neurophysiological-findings-from-a-case-study
#14
Rosaria De Luca, Viviana Lo Buono, Antonino Leo, Margherita Russo, Bianca Aragona, Simona Leonardi, Antonio Buda, Antonino Naro, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
After experiencing a stroke in the right hemisphere, almost 50% of patients show unilateral spatial neglect (USN). Virtual Reality technologies offer impressive opportunities for both the rehabilitation and assessment of different cognitive deficits, including USN. A 57-year-old woman, affected by subarachnoid hemorrhage presented a severe left hemiparesis with severe cognitive and behavioral alterations, including temporal and spatial disorientation, reduction of attention and memory process, slowing ideation, USN, and depression of mood...
September 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937775/operando-phonon-studies-of-the-protonation-mechanism-in-highly-active-hydrogen-evolution-reaction-pentlandite-catalysts
#15
Ioannis Zegkinoglou, Ali Zendegani, Ilya Sinev, Sebastian Kunze, Hemma Mistry, Hyo Sang Jeon, Jiyong Zhao, Michael Y Hu, E Ercan Alp, Stefan Piontek, Mathias Smialkowski, Ulf-Peter Apfel, Fritz Körmann, Jorg Neugebauer, Tilmann Hickel, Beatriz Roldan Cuenya
Synthetic pentlandite (Fe4.5Ni4.5S8) is a promising electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution, demonstrating high current densities, low overpotential and remarkable stability in bulk form. The depletion of sulfur from the surface of this catalyst during the electrochemical reaction has been proposed to be beneficial for its catalytic performance, but the role of sulfur vacancies and the mechanism determining the reaction kinetics are still unknown. We have performed electrochemical operando studies of the vibrational dynamics of pentlandite under hydrogen evolution reaction conditions using 57Fe nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering...
September 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937670/feshbach-resonances-in-the-exit-channel-of-the-f%C3%A2-%C3%A2-ch3oh%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-hf%C3%A2-%C3%A2-ch3o-reaction-observed-using-transition-state-spectroscopy
#16
Marissa L Weichman, Jessalyn A DeVine, Mark C Babin, Jun Li, Lifen Guo, Jianyi Ma, Hua Guo, Daniel M Neumark
The transition state governs how chemical bonds form and cleave during a chemical reaction and its direct characterization is a long-standing challenge in physical chemistry. Transition state spectroscopy experiments based on negative-ion photodetachment provide a direct probe of the vibrational structure and metastable resonances that are characteristic of the reactive surface. Dynamical resonances are extremely sensitive to the topography of the reactive surface and provide an exceptional point of comparison with theory...
October 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937298/probing-the-toxicity-of-nanoparticles-a-unified-in-silico-machine-learning-model-based-on-perturbation-theory
#17
Riccardo Concu, Valeria V Kleandrova, Alejandro Speck-Planche, M Natália D S Cordeiro
Nanoparticles (NPs) are part of our daily life, having a wide range of applications in engineering, physics, chemistry, and biomedicine. However, there are serious concerns regarding the harmful effects that NPs can cause to the different biological systems and their ecosystems. Toxicity testing is an essential step for assessing the potential risks of the NPs, but the experimental assays are often very expensive and usually too slow to flag the number of NPs that may cause adverse effects. In silico models centered on quantitative structure-activity/toxicity relationships (QSAR/QSTR) are alternative tools that have become valuable supports to risk assessment, rationalizing the search for safer NPs...
September 22, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937293/enhancing-tumor-specific-immune-responses-by-transcutaneous-vaccination
#18
Hanadi Saliba, Béatrice Heurtault, Hasnaa Bouharoun-Tayoun, Vincent Flacher, Benoît Frisch, Sylvie Fournel, Soulaima Chamat
Introduction Our understanding of the involvement of the immune system in cancer control has increased over recent years. However, the development of cancer vaccines intended to reverse tumor-induced immune tolerance remains slow as most current vaccine candidates exhibit limited clinical efficacy. The skin is particularly rich with multiple subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) that are involved to varying degrees in the induction of robust immune responses. Transcutaneous administration of cancer vaccines may therefore harness the immune potential of these DCs, however, this approach is hampered by the impermeability of the stratum corneum...
September 22, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937247/amino-acid-concentrations-and-protein-metabolism-of-two-types-of-rat-skeletal-muscle-in-postprandial-state-and-after-brief-starvation
#19
M Holeček, S Mičuda
We have investigated amino acid concentrations and protein metabolism in musculus extensor digitorum longus (EDL, fast-twitch, white muscle) and musculus soleus (SOL, slow-twitch, red muscle) of rats sacrificed in the fed state or after one day of starvation. Fractional protein synthesis rates (FRPS) were measured using the flooding dose method (L-[3,4,5-3H]phenylalanine). Activities of two major proteolytic systems in muscle (the ubiquitin-proteasome and lysosomal) were examined by measurement of chymotrypsin like activity of proteasome (CTLA), expression of ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and muscle-ring-finger-1 (MuRF-1), and cathepsin B and L activities...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937221/in-vivo-dissolution-and-systemic-absorption-of-immediate-release-ibuprofen-in-human-gastrointestinal-tract-under-fed-and-fasted-conditions
#20
Duxin Sun, Jason R Baker, Bo Wen, Ann Frances, Huixia Zhang, Alex Yu, Ting Zhao, Yasuhiro Tsume, Manjunath Pai, Barry Bleske, Xinyuan Zhang, R Lionberger, Allen Lee, Gordon Amidon, William L Hasler, Mark Koenigsknecht
PURPOSE: In vivo drug dissolution in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is largely unmeasured. The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the in vivo drug dissolution and systemic absorption of the BCS Class IIa drug ibuprofen under fed and fasted conditions by direct sampling of stomach and small intestinal luminal content. Expanding current knowledge of drug dissolution in vivo will help to establish physiologically relevant in vitro models predictive of drug dissolution. METHODS: A multi-lumen GI catheter was orally inserted into the GI tract of healthy human subjects...
September 22, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
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