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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637307/sparing-carbapenem-usage
#1
A Peter R Wilson
Background: Carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is increasing in many countries and use of carbapenems and antibiotics to which resistance is linked should be reduced to slow its emergence. There are no directly equivalent antibiotics and the alternatives are less well supported by clinical trials. The few new agents are expensive. Objectives: To provide guidance on strategies to reduce carbapenem usage. Methods: A literature review was performed as described in the BSAC/HIS/BIA/IPS Joint Working Party on Multiresistant Gram-negative Infection Report...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637223/millions-of-years-behind-slow-adaptation-of-ruminants-to-grasslands
#2
Olja Toljagic, Kjetil L Voje, Michael Matschiner, Lee Hsiang Liow, Thomas F Hansen
The Late-Cretaceous appearance of grasses, followed by the Cenozoic advancement of grasslands as dominant biomes, has contributed to the evolution of a range of specialized herbivores adapted to new diets, as well as to increasingly open and arid habitats. Many mammals including ruminants, the most diversified ungulate suborder, evolved high-crowned (hypsodont) teeth as an adaptation to tooth-wearing diets and habitats. The impact of different causes of tooth wear is still a matter of debate, and the temporal pattern of hypsodonty evolution in relation to the evolution of grasslands remains unclear...
June 20, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637129/patient-reported-outcomes-in-gne-myopathy-incorporating-a-valid-assessment-of-physical-function-in-a-rare-disease
#3
Christina Slota, Margaret Bevans, Li Yang, Joseph Shrader, Galen Joe, Nuria Carrillo
BACKGROUND: The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the psychometric properties of three patient reported outcome (PRO) measures characterizing physical function in GNE myopathy: the Human Activity Profile, the Inclusion Body Myositis Functional Rating Scale, and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. METHODS: This analysis used data from 35 GNE myopathy subjects participating in a natural history study. For construct validity, correlational and known-group analyses were between the PROs and physical assessments...
February 7, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637044/depressed-patients-hospitalized-in-southeast-facing-rooms-are-discharged-earlier-than-patients-in-northwest-facing-rooms
#4
Krzysztof Gbyl, Helle Østergaard Madsen, Signe Dunker Svendsen, Paul Michael Petersen, Ida Hageman, Carlo Volf, Klaus Martiny
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Improvement in patients admitted to inpatient wards with severe depression is slow, and such patients are often discharged with residual symptoms which put them at risk for relapse. New treatments that can speed up recovery are highly desired. This naturalistic follow-up study in a specialized affective disorders unit investigated the impact of daylight on the length of hospital stay and improvement of depression. METHODS: For a period of 1 year, we collected data on sociodemographics, length of stay, vitamin D, and depression severity for patients in an inpatient affective disorders unit...
June 22, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636917/kinesin-processivity-is-determined-by-a-kinetic-race-from-a-vulnerable-one-head-bound-state
#5
Keith J Mickolajczyk, William O Hancock
Kinesin processivity, defined as the average number of steps that occur per interaction with a microtubule, is an important biophysical determinant of the motor's intracellular capabilities. Despite its fundamental importance to the diversity of tasks that kinesins carry out in cells, no existing quantitative model fully explains how structural differences between kinesins alter kinetic rates in the ATPase cycle to produce functional changes in processivity. Here we use high-resolution single-molecule microscopy to directly observe the stepping behavior of kinesin-1 and -2 family motors with different length neck-linker domains...
June 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636908/schiff-base-proton-acceptor-assists-photoisomerization-of-retinal-chromophores-in-bacteriorhodopsin
#6
Chih-Chang Hung, Xiao-Ru Chen, Ying-Kuan Ko, Takayoshi Kobayashi, Chii-Shen Yang, Atsushi Yabushita
In this study, we investigated the ultrafast dynamics of bacteriorhodopsins (BRs) from Haloquadratum walsbyi (HwBR) and Haloarcula marismortui (HmBRI and HmBRII). First, the ultrafast dynamics were studied for three HwBR samples: wild-type, D93N mutation, and D104N mutation. The residues of the D93 and D104 mutants correspond to the control by the Schiff base proton acceptor and donor of the proton translocation subchannels. Measurements indicated that the negative charge from the Schiff base proton acceptor residue D93 interacts with the ultrafast and substantial change of the electrostatic potential associated with chromophore isomerization...
June 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636665/monitoring-obesity-prevalence-in-the-united-states-through-bookmarking-activities-in-online-food-portals
#7
Christoph Trattner, Denis Parra, David Elsweiler
Studying the impact of food consumption on people's health is a serious matter for its implications on public policy, but it has traditionally been a slow process since it requires information gathered through expensive collection processes such as surveys, census and systematic reviews of research articles. We argue that this process could be supported and hastened using data collected via online social networks. In this work we investigate the relationships between the online traces left behind by users of a large US online food community and the prevalence of obesity in 47 states and 311 counties in the US...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636528/three-dimensional-reconstruction-of-energy-stores-for-jumping-in-planthoppers-and-froghoppers-from-confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy
#8
Igor Siwanowicz, Malcolm Burrows
Jumping in planthopper and froghopper insects is propelled by a catapult-like mechanism requiring mechanical storage of energy and its quick release to accelerate the hind legs rapidly. To understand the functional biomechanics involved in these challenging movements, the internal skeleton, tendons and muscles involved were reconstructed in 3-D from confocal scans in unprecedented detail. Energy to power jumping was generated by slow contractions of hind leg depressor muscles and then stored by bending specialised elements of the thoracic skeleton that are composites of the rubbery protein resilin sandwiched between layers of harder cuticle with air-filled tunnels reducing mass...
June 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636384/role-of-crystal-structure-and-chalcogenide-redox-properties-on-the-oxidative-assembly-of-cadmium-chalcogenide-nanocrystals
#9
Jessica Davis, Aaron M Chalifoux, Stephanie L Brock
Oxidative assembly of metal chalcogenide nanocrystals (NCs) enables formation of 2-D (dense) and 3-D porous structures without the presence of intervening ligands between particles that can moderate transport properties. This route has been demonstrated successful for a range of single component structures including CdQ, PbQ and ZnQ (Q = S, Se, Te). En route to controllable assembly of multicomponent nanostructures, the roles of Q redox properties (2Q2-  Q22- + 2e), responsible for particle crosslinking, and the native structure (cubic zinc blende vs...
June 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636343/a-six-coordinate-dysprosium-single-ion-magnet-with-trigonal-prismatic-geometry
#10
Shan-Shan Liu, Yin-Shan Meng, Yi-Quan Zhang, Zhao-Sha Meng, Ke Lang, Zhen-Liang Zhu, Chang-Fang Shang, Bing-Wu Wang, Song Gao
A mononuclar six-coordinate dysprosium complex was synthesized and structurally and magnetically characterized. X-ray structural analyses show trigonal-prismatic coordination geometry of the Dy(III) center. Slow relaxation of magnetization in the absence of a direct-current field and magnetic hysteresis up to 3.0 K could be observed, indicating its single-ion-magnet behavior. Arrhenius fitting and ab initio calculations suggest that the magnetic relaxation process may not occur through the Orbach process at high temperatures under the experimental conditions...
June 21, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636327/maldi-ms-guided-liquid-microjunction-extraction-for-ce-esi-ms-analysis-of-single-pancreatic-islet-cells
#11
Troy J Comi, Monika A Makurath, Marina C Philip, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Jonathan V Sweedler
The ability to characterize chemical heterogeneity in biological structures is essential to understanding cellular level function in both healthy and diseased states, but these variations remain difficult to assess using a single analytical technique. While mass spectrometry (MS) provides sufficient sensitivity to measure many analytes from volume-limited samples, each type of mass spectrometric analysis uncovers only a portion of the complete chemical profile of a single cell. Matrix-assisted laser desorp-tion/ionization (MALDI) MS and capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization (CE-ESI)-MS are complementary analytical platforms frequently utilized for single cell analysis...
June 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636208/a-phase-i-trial-of-prn1008-a-novel-reversible-covalent-inhibitor-of-bruton-s-tyrosine-kinase-in-healthy-volunteers
#12
Patrick F Smith, Janakan Krishnarajah, Philip A Nunn, Ron J Hill, Dane Karr, D Tam, Mohammad Masjedizadeh, Jens O Funk, Steve G Gourlay
AIM: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and PK/PD of PRN1008, a novel BTK inhibitor, in healthy volunteers, and thus determine the dose range for future clinical studies. METHODS: This was a two-part randomized, placebo controlled study in healthy volunteers using a liquid formulation. Part I was a single ascending dose design with dose levels of 50 to 1200 mg (n=6 active, 2 placebo per cohort); Part II was a multiple ascending dose design, with dose regimens ranging from 300 mg to 900 mg daily, either qd or bd for 10 days...
June 21, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635985/experiences-of-women-with-gestational-trophoblastic-neoplasia-treated-with-high-dose-chemotherapy-and-stem-cell-transplantation-a-qualitative-study
#13
Kam Singh, Clare Warnock, Jane Ireson, Sarah Strickland, Delia Short, Michael J Seckl, Barry W Hancock
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To explore the experiences of women with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia during and after treatment to understand their perspectives, priorities, and concerns.
. RESEARCH APPROACH: A descriptive, exploratory study using in-depth semistructured interviews.
. SETTING: All interviews were conducted in a quiet, designated room at Weston Park Hospital in Sheffield, South Yorkshire.
. PARTICIPANTS: Women with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia who had received stem cell transplantation from 2003 to 2013...
May 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635633/new-insights-in-thyroid-cancer-and-p53-family-proteins
#14
REVIEW
Livia Manzella, Stefania Stella, Maria Stella Pennisi, Elena Tirrò, Michele Massimino, Chiara Romano, Adriana Puma, Martina Tavarelli, Paolo Vigneri
Thyroid cancers are common endocrine malignancies that comprise tumors with different clinical and histological features. Indeed, papillary and follicular thyroid cancers are slow-growing, well-differentiated tumors, whereas anaplastic thyroid cancers are undifferentiated neoplasias that behave much more aggressively. Well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas are efficiently cured by surgery and radioiodine, unlike undifferentiated tumors that fail to uptake radioactive iodine and are usually resistant to chemotherapy...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634800/impact-of-chemical-leaching-on-permeability-and-cadmium-removal-from-fine-grained-soils
#15
Zhongbing Lin, Renduo Zhang, Shuang Huang, Kang Wang
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chemical leaching on permeability and Cd removal from fine-grained polluted soils. Column leaching experiments were conducted using two types of soils (i.e., artificially Cd-polluted loam and historically polluted silty loam). Chemical agents of CaCl2, FeCl3, citric acid, EDTA, rhamnolipid, and deionized water were used to leach Cd from the soils. Results showed that organic agents reduced permeability of both soils, and FeCl3 reduced permeability of loam soil, compared with inorganic agents and deionized water...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634681/microtubule-affinity-regulating-kinases-are-potential-druggable-targets-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Narendran Annadurai, Khushboo Agrawal, Petr Džubák, Marián Hajdúch, Viswanath Das
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects normal functions of the brain. Currently, AD is one of the leading causes of death in developed countries and the only one of the top ten diseases without a means to prevent, cure, or significantly slow down its progression. Therefore, newer therapeutic concepts are urgently needed to improve survival and the quality of life of AD patients. Microtubule affinity-regulating kinases (MARKs) regulate tau-microtubule binding and play a crucial role in neurons...
June 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634455/fertilizing-a-patient-engagement-ecosystem-to-innovate-healthcare-toward-the-first-italian-consensus-conference-on-patient-engagement
#17
Guendalina Graffigna, Serena Barello, Giuseppe Riva, Mariarosaria Savarese, Julia Menichetti, Gianluca Castelnuovo, Massimo Corbo, Alessandra Tzannis, Antonio Aglione, Donato Bettega, Anna Bertoni, Sarah Bigi, Daniela Bruttomesso, Claudia Carzaniga, Laura Del Campo, Silvia Donato, Silvia Gilardi, Chiara Guglielmetti, Michele Gulizia, Mara Lastretti, Valeria Mastrilli, Antonino Mazzone, Giovanni Muttillo, Silvia Ostuzzi, Gianluca Perseghin, Natalia Piana, Giuliana Pitacco, Gianluca Polvani, Massimo Pozzi, Livio Provenzi, Giulia Quaglini, Mariagrazia Rossi, Paola Varese, Natalia Visalli, Elena Vegni, Walter Ricciardi, A Claudio Bosio
Currently we observe a gap between theory and practices of patient engagement. If both scholars and health practitioners do agree on the urgency to realize patient engagement, no shared guidelines exist so far to orient clinical practice. Despite a supportive policy context, progress to achieve greater patient engagement is patchy and slow and often concentrated at the level of policy regulation without dialoguing with practitioners from the clinical field as well as patients and families. Though individual clinicians, care teams and health organizations may be interested and deeply committed to engage patients and family members in the medical course, they may lack clarity about how to achieve this goal...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634436/dual-coding-theory-explains-biphasic-collective-computation-in-neural-decision-making
#18
Bryan C Daniels, Jessica C Flack, David C Krakauer
A central question in cognitive neuroscience is how unitary, coherent decisions at the whole organism level can arise from the distributed behavior of a large population of neurons with only partially overlapping information. We address this issue by studying neural spiking behavior recorded from a multielectrode array with 169 channels during a visual motion direction discrimination task. It is well known that in this task there are two distinct phases in neural spiking behavior. Here we show Phase I is a distributed or incompressible phase in which uncertainty about the decision is substantially reduced by pooling information from many cells...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634369/forecasting-effusive-dynamics-and-decompression-rates-by-magmastatic-model-at-open-vent-volcanoes
#19
Maurizio Ripepe, Marco Pistolesi, Diego Coppola, Dario Delle Donne, Riccardo Genco, Giorgio Lacanna, Marco Laiolo, Emanuele Marchetti, Giacomo Ulivieri, Sébastien Valade
Effusive eruptions at open-conduit volcanoes are interpreted as reactions to a disequilibrium induced by the increase in magma supply. By comparing four of the most recent effusive eruptions at Stromboli volcano (Italy), we show how the volumes of lava discharged during each eruption are linearly correlated to the topographic positions of the effusive vents. This correlation cannot be explained by an excess of pressure within a deep magma chamber and raises questions about the actual contributions of deep magma dynamics...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634280/surgical-clipping-or-endovascular-coiling-for-unruptured-intracranial-aneurysms-a-pragmatic-randomised-trial
#20
Tim E Darsaut, J Max Findlay, Elsa Magro, Marc Kotowski, Daniel Roy, Alain Weill, Michel W Bojanowski, Chiraz Chaalala, Daniela Iancu, Howard Lesiuk, John Sinclair, Felix Scholtes, Didier Martin, Michael M Chow, Cian J O'Kelly, John H Wong, Ken Butcher, Allan J Fox, Adam S Arthur, Francois Guilbert, Lu Tian, Miguel Chagnon, Suzanne Nolet, Guylaine Gevry, Jean Raymond
BACKGROUND: Unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) are increasingly diagnosed and are commonly treated using endovascular treatment or microsurgical clipping. The safety and efficacy of treatments have not been compared in a randomised trial. How to treat patients with UIAs suitable for both options remains unknown. METHODS: We randomly allocated clipping or coiling to patients with one or more 3-25 mm UIAs judged treatable both ways. The primary outcome was treatment failure, defined as: initial failure of aneurysm treatment, intracranial haemorrhage or residual aneurysm on 1-year imaging...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
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